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Sample records for incident light intensity

  1. Light Intensity Physical Activity Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Diabetes Mellitus; Physical Exercise; Light Intensity Physical Activity; Arterial Stiffness; Aortic Stiffness; Pulse Wave Velocity; Type2 Diabetes; Sedentary Lifestyle; Artery Disease; Physical Activity

  2. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  3. Tiny incident light angle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrenga, D.; Schädel, M.; Winzer, A. T.; Völlmeke, S.; Preuß, K. D.; Freitag, J.; Brodersen, O.

    2017-05-01

    A novel device for detecting the intensity and the angles of incoming light is presented. The silicon chip with 1 mm edge length comprises a segmented photo diode with four active areas within the inclined surfaces of a deep etched cavity. Simple signal difference analysis of these signals allow for accurate azimuth and inclination measurement in the range of 0 to 360° and 0 to 55°, respectively. Using an artificial neural network (ANN) calibration strategy the operation range of inclination can be increased up to 85° with typical angle errors below 2°. In this report we present details on design, fabrication, signal analysis and calibration strategies.

  4. Intense beams of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiments performed in order to accelerate intense beams of light and heavier ions are presented. The accelerating diodes are driven by existing pulsed power generators. Optimization of the generator structure is described in chapter I. Nuclear diagnostics of the accelerated light ion beams are presented in chapter II. Chapter III deals with the physics of intense charged particle beams. The models developed are applied to the calculation of the performances of the ion diodes described in the previous chapters. Chapter IV reports preliminary results on a multiply ionized carbon source driven by a 0.1 TW pulsed power generator. (author) [fr

  5. Plasmas and intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present article begins with a description of the laser technology required to reach the high irradiances of interest and provides a brief outline of the more important diagnostic techniques used in investigating the plasmas. An introduction to plasma waves is given and the linear and nonlinear excitation of waves is discussed. The remainder of the article describes some of the experimental evidence supporting the interpretation of the plasma behaviour at high laser-light intensities in terms of the excitation of plasma waves and the subsequent heating of plasma by these waves. (author)

  6. Dynamics of triacylglycerol and EPA production in Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nitrogen starvation at different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse M Remmers

    Full Text Available Lipid production in microalgae is highly dependent on the applied light intensity. However, for the EPA producing model-diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, clear consensus on the impact of incident light intensity on lipid productivity is still lacking. This study quantifies the impact of different incident light intensities on the biomass, TAG and EPA yield on light in nitrogen starved batch cultures of P. tricornutum. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum TAG and EPA contents were found to be independent of the applied light intensity. The lipid yield on light was reduced at elevated light intensities (>100 μmol m-2 s-1. The highest TAG yield on light (112 mg TAG molph-1 was found at the lowest light intensity tested (60 μmol m-2 s-1, which is still relatively low to values reported in literature for other algae. Furthermore, mass balance analysis showed that the EPA fraction in TAG may originate from photosynthetic membrane lipids.

  7. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  8. Sensemaking in Military Critical Incidents: The Impact of Moral Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Miriam; Giebels, Ellen; Meijer, Dominique J.W.; Verweij, Desiree E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between moral intensity and the use of different sensemaking strategies in military critical incidents. First, narratives of military personnel were used to select prototypical high/low moral intensity critical incidents. In a follow-up, a scenario study was

  9. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... LEDs produced light of low intensity (2) which resulted in composites of inferior properties than. QTH lamps (9, 11). Newer generations of LEDs try to address these deficits through higher intensities and being of dual spectrum. This allows them to be used with non-CQ composites (7). However, the high.

  10. Pediatric safety incidents from an intensive care reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapik, Julia Lynn; Pronovost, Peter J; Miller, Marlene R; Thompson, David A; Wu, Albert W

    2009-06-01

    Adverse events impose a great burden on patients and the health care system, but not enough is known about how to address incidents involving pediatric patients. This study examined the demographic factors, types of events, contributing system factors, and harm associated with incidents that occur in pediatric intensive care units. Cross-sectional analysis of 2 years of data on all pediatric safety incidents and near misses reported to the voluntary provider-recorded Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System in regards to harm and contributing factors. In 464 incidents reported from 23 intensive care units to the Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System, patients were physically injured in one third of incidents and harmed in some way in two thirds of incidents. Medication errors were the most common incident type, but were associated with less harm than other event types. Line, tube, and airway events comprised one third of incidents and were associated with more harm than other types. Patient contributing factors were a strong predictor of harm; training and education factors were also commonly cited. In multivariate analysis, patient factors were the strongest predictor of harm adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pediatric patients are commonly harmed in intensive care units. There are several potential ways to improve safety including protocols for high-risk procedures involving lines and tubes, improved monitoring, and staffing, training and communication initiatives. Providers may be able to identify patients at increased risk for harm and intervene to protect patient safety.

  11. Specialty-based, voluntary incident reporting in neonatal intensive care: description of 4846 incident reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.; van Lingen, R. A.; Klip, H.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van der Schaaf, T. W.; Molendijk, H. A.; Kok, J. H.; te Pas, E.; Pas, H.; van der Starre, C.; Bloemendaal, E.; Lopes Cardozo, R. H.; Molenaar, A. M.; Giezen, A.; Maat, H. E.; Molendijk, A.; Lavrijssen, S.; Mulder, A. L. M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Koolen, A. M. P.; Schellekens, M.; Verlaan, W.; Vrancken, S.; Schotman, L.; van der Zwaan, A.; van der Tuijn, Y.; Tibboel, D.; Kollen, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of incidents reported after introduction of a voluntary, non-punitive incident reporting system for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Netherlands; and to investigate which types of reported incident pose the highest risk to patients in the NICU.

  12. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high inten- sity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  13. General theory of intensity correlation on light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaeys, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A general theory for spatio-temporal intensity correlations measurements for a scattered beam is developed. A completely quantum mechanical description for both excitation and detection set up is used. This description is essentially valid for weak incident light beams and single photon absorption processes. From a unified point of view both, stationary as well as, time resolved experiments are described. The interest for such experiments in the study of processes like resonance raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is emphasized. Also an observable coherent contribution associated to different final levels of the target-atoms or molecules is obtained a result which cannot be reached by intensity measurements

  14. Decreased daytime light intensity at nonwindow hospital beds: Comparisons with light intensity at window hospital beds and light exposure in nonhospitalized elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Junko; Obayashi, Kenji; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kotsuji, Toshimichi; Matsui, Rie; Ito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Osamu; Kurumatani, Norio; Saeki, Keigo

    2018-01-26

    Light is crucial for the synchronization of internal biological rhythms with environmental rhythms. Hospitalization causes a range of unfavorable medical conditions, including delirium, sleep disturbances, depressed mood, and increased fall, especially in elderly people. The hospital room environment contributes significantly to patients' circadian physiology and behavior; however, few studies have evaluated light intensity in hospital settings. In this study, bedside light intensity during the daytime (6:00-21:00) was measured at 1-min intervals using a light meter on 4869 bed-days at the Inabe General Hospital in Mie, Japan (latitude 35°N), for approximately 1 month in each season. Daytime light exposure in home settings was measured in nonhospitalized elderly individuals (n = 1113) for two consecutive days at 1-min intervals using a wrist light meter. Median daytime light intensities at window and nonwindow hospital beds were 327.9 lux [interquartile range (IQR), 261.5-378.4] and 118.4 lux (IQR, 100.6-142.9), respectively, and daytime light intensity measured in nonhospitalized elderly individuals was 337.3 lux (IQR, 165.5-722.7). Compared with data in nonhospitalized elderly individuals, nonwindow beds were exposed to significantly lower daytime light intensity (p < 0.001), whereas window beds were exposed to similar daytime light intensity to that of home settings (p = 1.00). These results were consistent regardless of seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter) or room directions (north vs. south facing). The lowest median daytime light intensity was observed at nonwindow beds in north-facing rooms during the winter (84.8 lux; IQR, 76.0-95.8). Further studies evaluating the incidence of in-hospital outcomes between patients hospitalized in window and nonwindow beds are needed.

  15. The effects of laser beam incident angle and intensity distribution on Fabry-Perot etalon spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Wenjuan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Mengling; Guo, Wenxin

    2017-11-01

    Fabry-Perot(F-P) etalon has important applications in laser detection, lidar and laser communication systems. In practical applications, the spectrum of the F-P etalon is affected by various factors, such as incident angle, divergence angle, spectral width, intensity distribution of the incident beam, absorption loss, surface defects of the plate and so on. The effects of the incident angle and the beam intensity distribution on F-P etalon spectrum are mainly analyzed. For the first time, taking into account both the beam incident angle and divergence angle, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. For the Gaussian light intensity distribution, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. The simulation analysis is carried out and the results are as follows. When the beam divergence angle is not zero, the incident angle increases, on the one hand, the center of the etalon spectrum is moved to the high frequency, and the frequency shift is linear with the square of the incident angle. The slope decreases with the increase of the divergence angle. On the other hand, resulting in peak reduction, spectral line broadening, and with the divergence angle increases, the more obvious the phenomenon. Considering the distribution of Gaussian light intensity, the spectrum of the etalon will be improved with the increase concentration of beam energy. On the one hand, the peak value is increased, the spectral line is narrowed and with the incidence angle increases, the degree of improvement is more obvious. On the one hand, the center of the spectrum moves toward the low frequency, but the larger the incident angle, the smaller the movement amount. The error of frequency discrimination or frequency locking by using the F-P etalon spectrum increases rapidly with the increase of the beam incident angle and beam divergence angle, and the Gaussian light intensity distribution beam can effectively

  16. Simulations of light intensity variation in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner-Nochta, Iris; Posten, Clemens

    2007-09-15

    In photobioreactors, turbulent flow conditions and light gradients frequently occur. Thus, algal cells cultivated in such reactors experience fluctuations in light intensity. This work presents a new method for the calculation of these light-dark patterns. The investigation is focused on temporal and spatial aspects of light patterns which may affect the photosynthetic reaction. The method combines computational fluid dynamics simulations of three-dimensional turbulent single-phase fluid flow with statistical particle tracking and signal analysis. In this way, light-dark phases are derived which affect singular (algal) cells. An example case is presented of a tubular photobioreactor in which static mixers are used for the efficient mixing of liquid and also of gases with liquid. Particle trajectories representing the path of algal cells were analysed to obtain light fluctuations on single cells. Particles were exposed to light-dark phases with frequencies between 3 and 25Hz in a helical mixer at a mean velocity of 0.5ms(-1), which contrasts to the case of a tube without static mixers, where only frequencies of 0.2-3.1Hz were obtained under the same conditions. The simulations show the potential of improving radial flow in a tubular photobioreactor by means of using a static mixer and the usefulness of CFD and trajectory analysis for scale-down/scale-up.

  17. Intense X-ray and EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Joshua; Ekdahl, Carl; Oertel, John

    2017-06-20

    An intense X-ray or EUV light source may be driven by the Smith-Purcell effect. The intense light source may utilize intense electron beams and Bragg crystals. This may allow the intense light source to range from the extreme UV range up to the hard X-ray range.

  18. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation...... exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase...

  19. The Incidence and Intensity of Formal Lifelong Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars

    We exploit a rich high quality register-based employer-employee panel data set to investigate the incidence and intensity of government co-sponsored training for the Danish adult population. We focus specifically on training over the working life cycle and find that the levels of participation va...

  20. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  1. Polarized light for horizontal incidence and reflection by plane-parallel atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Stam, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the intensity vector of light reflected by a plane-parallel atmosphere is discontinuous if the directions of incidence and reflection are both horizontal. An exact expression describing the discontinuity is presented. This expression shows that the discontinuity is only due to first

  2. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  3. Effect of light intensity on the cure characteristics of photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the light intensity emitted by light curing units (LCUs) and its effect on the cure characteristics of composites polymerised with it. Design: A laboratory based cross sectional study. Setting: Public and private dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Results: Thirty five (42.17%) LCUs produced light of intensity ...

  4. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piccolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne, due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases, port-wine stain (PWS (10 cases, disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases, pilonidal cyst (3 cases, seborrheic keratosis (10 cases, hypertrophic scar (5 cases and keloid scar (5 cases, Becker’s nevus (2 cases, hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases, and sarcoidosis (1 case. Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator’s experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre. Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  5. Time-dependent scattering of incident light of various wavelengths in ferrofluids under external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingyu; Song, Dongxing; Geng, Jiafeng; Jing, Dengwei

    2018-02-01

    Ferrofluids can exhibit the anisotropic thermodynamic properties under magnetic fields. The dynamic optical properties of ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields are of particular interest due to their potential application as various optical devices. Although time-dependent light scattering by ferrofluids have been extensively studied, the effect of wavelength of incident light have been rarely considered. Here, for the first time, we investigated both the time- and wavelength-dependent light scattering in water based ferrofluids containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The field-induced response behavior of the prepared ferrofluid samples was determined and verified first by thermal conductivity measurement and numerical simulation. Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to record the temporal evolution of transmitted intensity of incident light of various wavelengths passing through the ferrofluid sample and propagating parallel to the applied field. As expected, the light intensity decreases to a certain value right after the field is turned on due to the thermal fluctuation induced disorder inside the flexible particle chains. Then the light intensity further decreases with time until the appearance of a minimum at time τ0 followed by an inversed increase before finally reaches equilibrium at a particular time. More importantly, the characteristic inversion time τ0 was found to follow a power law increase with the wavelength of incident light (τ0 ∼ λα, where α = 2.07). A quantitative explanation for the wavelength dependence of characteristic time was proposed based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. The time-dependent light scattering in ferrofluids under different incident wavelengths was rationalized by considering both the coarsening process of the particle chains and the occurrence of resonance within the

  6. Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Santamaria, María; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Barrio-Lopez, María T; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008-2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Light Curing Unit Characteristics on Light Intensity Output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. Objective: To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect ...

  8. Intensity-dependent change in polarization state of light in normal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intensity-dependent change in polarization state of light in normal incidence on an isotropic nonlinear Kerr medium. Hari Prakash Devendra K ... Devendra K Singh2. Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India; Department of Physics, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi 221 002, India ...

  9. Abnormal environmental light exposure in the intensive care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Emily P; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    We sought to characterize ambient light exposure in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment to identify patterns of light exposure relevant to circadian regulation. A light monitor was affixed to subjects' bed at eye level in a modern intensive care unit and continuously recorded illuminescence for at least 24h per subject. Blood was sampled hourly and measured for plasma melatonin. Subjects underwent hourly vital sign and bedside neurologic assessments. Care protocols and the ICU environment were not modified for the study. A total of 67,324 30-second epochs of light data were collected from 17 subjects. Light intensity peaked in the late morning, median 64.1 (interquartile range 19.7-138.7) lux. The 75th percentile of light intensity exceeded 100lx only between 9AM and noon, and never exceeded 150lx. There was no correlation between melatonin amplitude and daytime, nighttime or total light exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficients all 0.5). Patients' environmental light exposure in the intensive care unit is consistently low and follows a diurnal pattern. No effect of nighttime light exposure was observed on melatonin secretion. Inadequate daytime light exposure in the ICU may contribute to abnormal circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Combining the molecular specificity of the infrared spectral region with high resolution microscopy has been pursued by researchers for decades. Here we demonstrate infrared supercontinuum radiated from an optical fiber as a promising new light source for infrared microspectroscopy. The supercont......Combining the molecular specificity of the infrared spectral region with high resolution microscopy has been pursued by researchers for decades. Here we demonstrate infrared supercontinuum radiated from an optical fiber as a promising new light source for infrared microspectroscopy....... The supercontinuum light source has a high brightness and spans the infrared region from 1400 nm to 4000 nm. This combination allows contact free high resolution hyper spectral infrared microscopy. The microscope is demonstrated by imaging an oil/water sample with 20 μm resolution....

  11. Light intensity dependent optical rotation in azobenzene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M.; Ilieva, D.; Petrova, T.; Dragostinova, V.; Todorov, T.; Nikolova, L.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the self-induced rotation of the azimuth of light polarization ellipse in azobenzene polymers. It is initiated by the photoreorientation and ordering of the azobenzenes on illumination with elliptically polarized light resulting in the appearance of an optical axis whose direction is gradually rotated along the depth of the film. A macroscopic chiral structure is created with a pitch depending on light ellipticity and the photobirefringence ▵n in the successive layers of the film. In this work we make use of the fact that at elevated temperatures ▵n is very sensitive to light intensity. In our acrylic amorphous azobenzene polymer at temperatures 50-65°C the saturated values of ▵n are much higher for low intensity of the exciting light than for higher intensity. In this temperature range the polarization azimuth of monochromatic blue light with different intensity is rotated to a different angle after passing through the polymer film. This effect can be used for passive elements rotating the polarization azimuth depending on light intensity and for the formation of light beams with a space-variant polarization state.

  12. Critical incidents connected to nurses' leadership in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine Cantarella; Bernardes, Andrea; Baldo, Priscila Lapaz; Maziero, Vanessa Gomes; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze nurses' leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses' behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses' activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses' knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization's results. Analisar a liderança do enfermeiro em Centros de Terapia Intensiva de hospitais localizados no interior do estado de São Paulo, diante de incidentes críticos positivos e negativos. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, realizado com 24 enfermeiros, que utilizou a Técnica do Incidente Crítico como referencial metodológico. Os resultados foram agrupados em 61 incidentes críticos distribuídos em categorias. Identificou-se que situações relacionadas à liderança interferem no comportamento do enfermeiro de Terapia Intensiva, dentre elas: dificuldade no processo de comunicação, conflitos existentes no dia a dia do exercício profissional, gerenciamento de pessoas e estabelecimento de metas para o alcance da assistência qualificada. Encontrou-se um modelo misto de liderança, o que permite concluir que o conhecimento e a prática dos enfermeiros acerca de teorias/estilos contemporâneos de liderança tornam-se fundamentais, pois

  13. LIGHT INTENSITY INFLUENCE ON STRONTIUM TITANATE BASED PHOTO- ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hertkorn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of light intensity on photo-electrochemical cells (PECs consisting of an n-type strontium titanate (SrTiO₃ photoanode and nickel cathode in potassium hydroxide electrolyte is studied. The band levels of an electrolyte-metal-semiconductor-electrolyte system are presented and the effect of different light intensities on the energy levels is investigated. Photocurrent density, quantum efficiency, and open circuit potential measurements are performed on the processed PECs under different light intensities (375 nm. It is demonstrated that a threshold value of the light intensity has to be reached in order to obtain positive photo activity and that beyond this value the performance remains nearly constant.

  14. Resonance broadening in an intense light field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    Collisions of identical atoms in a strong resonance radiation field E 0 cosωt, for which the atomic oscillation period is comparable to the collision time of the atoms, are considered. The problem is treated in terms of the simplest two-level atomic model. The problem of light absorption in such collisions is reduced to the problem of inelastic transitions in a three-level compound system of two atoms and an electromagnetic field. Corresponding probabilities and inelastic scattering integral cross sections for transitions between energy levels in such a system are calculated for two extreme cases- the impact (rapid collisions) and the static one (slow collisions). In the general case the cross sections depend nonlinearly on Esub(0). For small Esub(0) as compared to a certain critical Esub(0)* the results are similar to those of the well-known linear theory of resonance broadening. For Esub(0)>>Esub(0)* the absorption in the line wing is found to decrease (with increase of Esub(0)-the medium becomes more ''transparent''). The kinetics of light absorption in the medium of identical atoms with constant absorption capacity is analysed

  15. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  16. Laser and intense pulsed light hair removal technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F

    2011-01-01

    Light-based hair removal (LHR) is one of the fastest growing, nonsurgical aesthetic cosmetic procedures in the United States and Europe. A variety of light sources including lasers, e.g. alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and broad-spectrum intense...

  17. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...

  18. Performance of Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) in various light intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktafani, M. B.; Supriyono; Budiastuti, MTh S.; Purnomo, D.

    2018-03-01

    Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) is one of the potential food crops to support food security programs. Light intensity is one of the important factors for plant growth. Arrowroot cultivation technology still need further development. Traditionally, arrowroot grows wild under canopy without intentisification of cultivating which have low productivity. The purpose of research was to investigate the suitable light intensity for arrowroot. The experiment was conducted at Jumantono as Experimental Field of Faculty of Agricultural, University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta located in Karanganyar, from March to September 2016. The experiment used a complete randomized block design (CRBD) of light intensity level there are 27400 lux (full sun light), 18900 lux (shaded 31%), 13500 lux (shaded 51%) and 7400 lux (shaded 72%). Each treatment was replicated six times so there were 24 experimental units. The results showed that arrowroot is a low light adaptive plant. Arrowroot under the light intensity 7400 lux (27% full light), the number of leaves and tillers is not significantly different than under full light, although the plant is higher. The highest tuber diameter and length were 1.91 and 25.06 cm, respectively, and tuber weight reached 607.5-651.67 g per plant.

  19. Growing lettuce under multispectral light-emitting diodes lamps with adjustable light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diodes (LEDs technology offers vast possibilities in plant lighting due to its ability to mix different light frequencies, high energy use efficiency and low heat production combined to long lifespan. In particular, the combined effect of the Blue:Red (B:R ratio and other frequencies in the central part of the PAR spectrum (CGA, i.e. cyan, green and amber may be very important, though literature information is scarce. In this paper, the effects of six light spectra from LED technology were tested, i.e.: i B:R=0.82 (i.e. similar to sunlight with CGA (treatment T0; ii B:R=0.82 without CGA (T1; iii red prevalence (B:R=0.25 without CGA (T2; iv blue prevalence (B:R=4 without CGA (T3; v red prevalence with CGA (T4; and vi blue prevalence with CGA (T5. The experiment was carried out in a walk-in climatic chamber with controlled temperature and relative humidity and an incident PAR photon flux density (PFD of 300 μmol m–2 s–1 (14/10 light/dark photoperiod, generated by multispectral LED lamps with adjustable light intensity. Smooth leaved lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Gentilina was used as the test plant and biomass yield (DW, g m–2, LAI, soil coverage proportion (SC%, energy-biomass conversion efficiency (E-BCE, kWh g–1 and radiation use efficiency (RUE, g mol–1 photons were determined. Treatments with red predominance (T2 and T4 showed the highest SC% rates, while those with blue predominance (T3 and T5 showed the lowest. Light spectrum also affected leaf size (i.e. mean leaf area. The highest DW and RUE were observed in T2 and T4, followed by T0, while biomass in T3 and T5 was significantly lower (similar to T1. LAI values were generally high, but treatments with blue predominance showed the lowest LAI values (both with or without CGA. The introduction of intermediate wavelengths (green, cyan and amber did not bring about significant improvement in DW or RUE, but resulted in reduced energy-biomass conversion efficiency

  20. Radial stability of density profiles for obliquely incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Montry, G.R.; Tanner, D.J.; Berger, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Self-consistent steady-state plasma density profiles including the effects of the ponderomotive force for obliquely incident light have been obtained for the case of supersonic upstream flow velocity. The radial stability of these density profiles is studied in one-dimensional spherical geometry. Above a modest threshold laser field, these density profiles are found to be unstable and exhibit unsteady flow. The absorption for unstable profiles is found to vary markedly in time. Radiation and plasma waves can be trapped in density troughs which may be unstable to kink or sausage instabilities in two dimensions. (author)

  1. Behavioral and physiological photoresponses to light intensity by intertidal microphytobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoying; Yan, Hongmei; Liu, Chunrong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses to light are the two major mechanisms by which natural microphytobenthic assemblages adapt to the intertidal environment and protect themselves from light stress. The present study investigated these photoresponses with different light intensities over 8 h of illumination, and used a specific inhibitor (Latrunculin A, Lat A) for migration to compare migratory and non-migratory microphytobenthos (MPB). Photosynthetic activity was detected using rapid light curves and induction curves by chlorophyll fluorescence. It showed distinct variation in migratory responses to different light intensities; high light induced downward migration to avoid photoinhibition, and low and medium light (50-250 μmol/(m2·s)) promoted upward migration followed by downward migration after certain period of light exposure. No significant difference in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) or PSII maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was detected between low and medium light irradiance, possibly indicating that only high light influences the photosynthetic capability of MPB. Decreased photosynthetic activity, indicated by three parameters, the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), minimum saturating irradiance (E k) and light utilization coefficient (α), was observed in MPB after exposure to prolonged illumination under low and medium light. Lat A effectively inhibited the migration of MPB in all light treatments and induced lower Fv/Fmunder high light (500 and 100 μmol/(m2·s)) and prolonged illumination at 250 μmol/(m2·s), but did not significantly influence Fv/Fmunder low light (0-100 μmol/(m2·s)) or NPQ. The increase of NPQ in Lat A treatments with time implied that the MPB assemblages can recover their physiological photoprotection capacity to adapt to light stress. Non-migratory MPB exhibited lower light use efficiency (lower α) and lower maximum photosynthetic capacity (lower rETRmax) than migratory MPB under light intensities above

  2. Spatial light modulator using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal: Dependence of resolution on reading light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kuniharu; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Kodama, Kenichi; Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1994-03-01

    A spatial light modulator consisting of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film, a dielectric mirror, and a Bi12SiO20 photoconductor is useful for projection-type displays, optical image processing, and optical computing. However, a portion of the reading light scattered by the PDLC film passes through the dielectric mirror and illuminates the photoconductor, thus causing deterioration of display-image quality. This article reports on the results of a detailed study on the influence of reading light on the resolution and amplification factor, which is the ratio of reading light intensity to the maximum intensity of writing light. Angular distributions of light scattered by a PDLC cell were measured and the results were used to calculate the intensity of scattered light absorbed by the photoconductor. We then analyzed the optical input/output characteristics of the spatial light modulator with regard to the optical feedback effect caused by the reading light in order to discover the parameter for evaluating image quality. The relation between amplification and resolution is derived from this parameter. We have also considered a light absorption layer for preventing the deterioration of image quality and obtained the relation between the amplification factor and the transmittance of the light absorption layer for high definition images of high brightness. Finally, these theoretical results were confirmed by an experiment using a spatial light modulator with no dielectric mirror.

  3. Battery Charge Affects the Stability of Light Intensity from Light-emitting Diode Light-curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtaksin, A; Leevailoj, C

    This study investigated the influence of battery charge levels on the stability of light-emitting diode (LED) curing-light intensity by measuring the intensity from fully charged through fully discharged batteries. The microhardness of resin composites polymerized by the light-curing units at various battery charge levels was measured. The light intensities of seven fully charged battery LED light-curing units-1) LY-A180, 2) Bluephase, 3) Woodpecker, 4) Demi Plus, 5) Saab II, 6) Elipar S10, and 7) MiniLED-were measured with a radiometer (Kerr) after every 10 uses (20 seconds per use) until the battery was discharged. Ten 2-mm-thick cylindrical specimens of A3 shade nanofilled resin composite (PREMISE, Kerr) were prepared per LED light-curing unit group. Each specimen was irradiated by the fully charged light-curing unit for 20 seconds. The LED light-curing units were then used until the battery charge fell to 50%. Specimens were prepared again as described above. This was repeated again when the light-curing units' battery charge fell to 25% and when the light intensity had decreased to 400 mW/cm 2 . The top/bottom surface Knoop hardness ratios of the specimens were determined. The microhardness data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between surface hardness and light intensity. We found that the light intensities of the Bluephase, Demi Plus, and Elipar S10 units were stable. The intensity of the MiniLED unit decreased slightly; however, it remained above 400 mW/cm 2 . In contrast, the intensities of the LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II units decreased below 400 mW/cm 2 . There was also a significant decrease in the surface microhardnesses of the resin composite specimens treated with MiniLED, LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II. In conclusion, the light intensity of several LED light-curing units decreased as the battery was

  4. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  5. Light-Intensity Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Few studies have examined the effects of light-intensity physical activity on mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality risk. Longitudinal. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Five thousand five hundred seventy-five U.S. adults. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess sociodemographics and chronic disease information, with blood samples taken to assess biological markers. Follow-up mortality status was assessed via death certificate data from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard model. After adjusting for accelerometer-determined MVPA, age, gender, race-ethnicity, cotinine, weight status, poverty level, C-reactive protein, and comorbid illness, for every 60-minute increase in accelerometer-determined light-intensity physical activity, participants had a 16% reduced hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = .84; 95% confidence interval: .78-.91; p physical activity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk, independent of age, MVPA, and other potential confounders. In addition to MVPA, promotion of light-intensity physical activity is warranted.

  6. Crystalline silicon cell performance at low light intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Lof, R.W.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Sinke, W.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Measured and modelled JV characteristics of crystalline silicon cells below one sun intensity have been investigated. First, the JV characteristics were measured between 3 and 1000 W/m2 at 6 light levels for 41 industrially produced mono- and multi-crystalline cells from 8 manufacturers, and at 29

  7. Self-organization of intense light within erosive gas discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchigin, V.P. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36/1, 119278 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: v_torchigin@mail.ru; Torchigin, A.V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky prospect 36/1, 119278 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-22

    Process of appearance of fire balls at gas discharges is considered. It is shown that the intense white light radiated by atoms excited at gas discharge is subject to self-organization in such a way that miniature ball lightnings appear.

  8. Effect of temperature, light intensity and growth regulators on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ansellia africana (Orchidaceae) is an important endangered medicinal plant species of South Africa which has been heavily exploited in recent years. Experiments were conducted in growth rooms at different temperatures (16, 26, 36°C) and in a nursery at different light intensities induced by shade cloth densities (200, 400, ...

  9. Effect of temperature, light intensity and growth regulators on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... Ansellia africana (Orchidaceae) is an important endangered medicinal plant species of South Africa which has been heavily exploited in recent years. Experiments were conducted in growth rooms at different temperatures (16, 26, 36°C) and in a nursery at different light intensities induced by shade.

  10. Effects of light intensity on cylindrospermopsin production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of light intensity on growth and the production of the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in the cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was investigated using cultured isolates grown in N-free media under a series of neutral density screens. Maximum growth as indicated by ...

  11. Continuous cultures of spirulina platensis under photoautotrophic conditions with change in light intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, S. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)532600; Taya, M.; Tone, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    In continuous cultures of Spirulina platensis under photoautotrophic conditions, the operation mode to maintain constant cell concentration is examined using culture apparatuses with light path lengths of 0.02 and 0.156 m. The values of dilution rates in the continuous cultures are determined by employing specific growth rates of the cells corresponding to light intensity distribution in liquid medium. When incident light intensity is fixed at 25, 50 or 400 W m{sup minus2}, it is found that the cell concentration in the continuous culture is kept almost constant, and agrees fairly well with the prescribed value of the cell concentration in the range of 0.09 to 2.43 kg m{sup minus3}. It is also demonstrated that the operation mode is valid to obtain stable cell concentrations in the continuous cultures associated with the change in incident light intensity ranging from 25 to 400 W m{sup minus2} during the cultures. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  12. Light Penetration and Light-Intensity in Sandy Marine-Sediments Measured with Irradiance and Scalar Irradiance Fiberoptic Microprobes Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    with increasing particle size, and infrared light penetrated deeper than visible light in all sediments. Attenuation spectra of scalar irradiance exhibited the strongest attenuation at 450 to 500 ran, and a continuous decrease in attenuation coefficent towards the longer wavelengths was observed. Measurements......Fiber-optic microprobes for determining irradiance and scalar irradiance were used for light measurements in sandy sediments of different particle size. Intense scattering caused a maximum integral light intensity [photon scalar irradiance, E0(400 to 700 rim) and E0(700 to 880 nm)] at the sediment...... surface ranging from 180 % of incident collimated light in the coarsest sediment (250 to 500 mum grain size) up to 280 % in the finest sediment ( 1 mm in the coarsest sediments. Below 1 mm, light was attenuated exponentially with depth in all sediments. Light attenuation coefficients decreased...

  13. Intensities of incident and transmitted ultraviolet-a rays through gafchromic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshizo Katsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gafchromic films have been applied to X-ray dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. To correct nonuniformity errors in Gafchromic films, X-rays in the double-exposure technique can be replaced with ultraviolet (UV-A rays. Intensities of the incident and transmitted UV-A rays were measured. However, it is unclear whether the chemical color change of Gafchromic films affects the UV-A transmission intensity. Gafchromic EBT3 films were suitable to be used in this study because non-UV protection layers are present on both sides of the film. The film is placed between UV-A ray light-emitting diodes and a probe of a UV meter. Gafchromic EBT3 films were irradiated by UV-A rays for up to 60 min. Data for analysis were obtained in the subsequent 60 min. Images from before and after UV-A irradiation were subtracted. When using 375 nm UV-A, the mean ± standard deviation (SD of the pixel values in the subtracted image was remarkably high (11,194.15 ± 586.63. However, the UV-A transmissivity remained constant throughout the 60 min irradiation period. The mean ± SD UV-A transmission intensity was 184.48 ± 0.50 μm/cm2. Our findings demonstrate that color density changes in Gafchromic EBT3 films do not affect their UV-A transmission. Therefore, Gafchromic films were irradiated by UV-A rays as a preexposure.

  14. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  15. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  16. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2013-12-17

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  17. Incidence of intravenous drug incompatibilities in intensive care units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machotka, O.; Maňák, J.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Vlček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 4 (2015), s. 652-656 ISSN 1213-8118 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : medical error * graph theory * graph coloring * drug administration * drug incompatibilities * applied combinatorics * decision theory * medical * medication safety * intensive care units Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kubena-0437509.pdf

  18. Experimental Study on Light Flash Radiant Intensity Generated by Strong Shock 2A12 Aluminum Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Enling; Zhang, Lijiao; Zhang, Qingming; Shi, Xiaohan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Di; Xiang, Shenghai; Xia, Jin; Han, Yafei; Xu, Mingyang; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Jianfei

    2015-07-01

    In order to study the light flash radiant intensity produced by strong shock on a 2A12 aluminum target at the same projectile incidence angles and different shock velocities, experimental measurements were conducted for light flash phenomena of a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacting a 2A12 aluminum target under the conditions of different impact velocity and the same projectile incidence angles of 45° by using an optical pyrometer measurement system and a two-stage light gas gun loading system. Experimental results show that the peak values of the light flash radiant intensity for the wavelength of 550 nm are largest in the wavelength ranges of 600 nm, 650 nm and 700 nm when a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacts a double-layer 2A12 aluminum plate in the present experimental conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10972145, 11272218, 11472178), State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (No. 11032003), Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University, China (No. LR2013008)

  19. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief Report: Incidence of and Risk Factors for Autistic Disorder in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)

  1. High-intensity light-emitting diode vs fluorescent tubes for intensive phototherapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbiny, Hanan S; Youssef, Doaa M; Sherbini, Ahmad S; El-Behedy, Rabab; Sherief, Laila M

    2016-05-01

    Special blue fluorescent tubes are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) as the most effective light source for lowering serum bilirubin. A high-intensity light-emitting diode ('super LED') could render intensive phototherapy more effective than the above conventional methods. This study compared the efficacy and safety of a high-intensity light-emitting diode bed vs conventional intensive phototherapy with triple fluorescent tube units as a rescue treatment for severe unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This was a randomised, prospective trial. Two hundred jaundiced neonates ≥ 35 weeks gestation who met the criteria for intensive phototherapy as per AAP guidelines were randomly assigned to be treated either with triple fluorescent tube units (group 1, n = 100) or a super LED bed (group 2, n = 100). The outcome was the avoidance of exchange transfusion by successful control of hyperbilirubinaemia. Statistically significant higher success rates of intensive phototherapy were achieved among neonates treated with super LED (group 2) than in those treated conventionally (group 1) (87% vs 64%, P = 0.003). Significantly higher 'bilirubin decline' rates were reported in both haemolytic and non-haemolytic subgroups treated with the super LED bed compared with a similar sub-population in the conventionally treated group. Comparable numbers of neonates in both groups developed rebound jaundice (8% vs 10% of groups 1 and 2, respectively). Side-effects were mild in both groups, but higher rates of hyperthermia (12% vs 0%, P = 0.03), dehydration (8% vs 2%, P = 0.26) and skin rash (39% vs 1%, P = 0.002) were reported in the fluorescent tubes-treated group compared with the LED group. Super LED is a safe rescue treatment for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and its implementation may reduce the need for exchange transfusion.

  2. Slow-light six-wave mixing at low light intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hoonsoo; Hernandez, Gessler; Zhu Yifu

    2004-01-01

    We report an experimental study of resonant six-wave mixing in coherently prepared Rb atoms. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level atomic system suppresses the linear susceptibility and enhances the nonlinear susceptibilities, which leads to the resonantly enhanced, slow-photon six-wave mixing at low light intensities. The light emission in the six-wave mixing process can be viewed as resulting from diffraction of slow light off a resonant nonlinear grating induced in the four-level system by a standing-wave pump field

  3. Quantifying the effects of light intensity on bioproduction and maintenance energy during photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Fitzgerald, Colin M; Cook, Emily M; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining a better understanding of the physiology and bioenergetics of photosynthetic microbes is an important step toward optimizing these systems for light energy capture or production of valuable commodities. In this work, we analyzed the effect of light intensity on bioproduction, biomass formation, and maintenance energy during photoheterotrophic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Using data obtained from steady-state bioreactors operated at varying dilution rates and light intensities, we found that irradiance had a significant impact on biomass yield and composition, with significant changes in photopigment, phospholipid, and biopolymer storage contents. We also observed a linear relationship between incident light intensity and H2 production rate between 3 and 10 W m(-2), with saturation observed at 100 W m(-2). The light conversion efficiency to H2 was also higher at lower light intensities. Photosynthetic maintenance energy requirements were also significantly affected by light intensity, with links to differences in biomass composition and the need to maintain redox homeostasis. Inclusion of the measured condition-dependent biomass and maintenance energy parameters and the measured photon uptake rate into a genome-scale metabolic model for R. sphaeroides (iRsp1140) significantly improved its predictive performance. We discuss how our analyses provide new insights into the light-dependent changes in bioenergetic requirements and physiology during photosynthetic growth of R. sphaeroides and potentially other photosynthetic organisms.

  4. Light Intensity Influence on the Effective Schottky Barrier Height in Extraordinary Optoconductance (EOC) Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F. M.; Tran, L. C.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Novel micro to nanoscale metal-semiconductor-hybrid (MSH) structures capable of room temperature light detection have been previously reported and classified as Extraordinary Optoconductance (EOC) devices. The devices are square stacked structures, with a Au-Ti shunt forming a Schottky-Interface with an n-doped Ga-As mesa. Resistance measurements were taken by a 4-point van-der Pauw method to remove contact and lead resistance and eliminate DC offsets. The device's resistance changes as light incident on the surface of the structure modifies the charge density within the body of the device. The change in charge density changes the effective Schottky Barrier height and shifts the measured 4 point resistance of the heterogeneous structure. We investigate the dependence of the effective Schottky Barrier height on the incident intensity of light by measuring the open circuit voltage under various intensities of optical perturbation at room temperature. The barrier height is negligible and the interface ohmic under HeNe laser 632.8 nm illumination at a power density of 636 mW/cm2, allowing the flow of current through the shunt. This device performance will be contrasted with that of an FET, where current does not propagate through the gate. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  5. Light point distance and the control of the light intensity of dynamic road marking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport is considering the application of dynamic road marking (DRM) on motorways. DRM consists of a row of light sources (usually LEDs) built in the road surface. TNO Human Factors performed a psychophysical experiment to determine the necessary DRM luminous intensity for

  6. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...... IPL treatments at 2-week intervals. Simulated solar radiation was administered preoperatively [six standard erythema doses (SED) four times weekly for 11 weeks] as well as pre- and postoperatively (six SED four times weekly up to 26 weeks). Skin tumors were assessed weekly during a 12-month...... observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks...

  7. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  8. Position Detection Based on Intensities of Reflected Infrared Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    measurements of reflected light intensities, and includes easy calibration. The method for reconstructing 3D positions has been implemented in a prototype of a “non-Touch Screen” for a computer, so that the user can control a cursor in three dimensions by moving his/hers hand in front of the computer screen....... The 2D position reconstruction method is mplemented in a prototype of a human-machine interface (HMI) for an electrically powered wheelchair, such that the wheelchair user can control the movement of the wheelchair by head movements. Both “non-Touch Screen” prototype and wheelchair HMI has been tested...

  9. Stolephorus sp Behavior in Different LED (Light Emitting Diode) Color and Light Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri Aristi, D. P.; Ramadanita, I. A.; Hapsari, T. D.; Susanto, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to observe anchovy (Stolephorus sp) behavior under different LED light intensities that affect eye physiology (cell cone structure). The materials used were Stolephorus sp taken from the waters off Jepara and 13 and 10 watt light emitting diode (LED). The research method was an experiment conducted from March through August 2015 in the waters off Jepara. Data analysis of visual histology and fish respond was carried out at the fishing gear material laboratory, anatomy and cultivate. Cone cell structure (mosaic cone) of Stolephorus sp forms a connected regular square pattern with every single cone surrounded by four double cones, which indicate that anchovies are sensitive to light. The 13 watt LED (628 lux) has faster response than the 10 watt LED (531 lux) as it has wider and higher emitting intensity, which also attracts fish to gather quicker.

  10. Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) association with cancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Caerwyn; Town, Godfrey; Whittall, Rebecca; Tooze, Louise; Phillips, Jaymie

    2017-11-01

    The development and use of light and lasers for medical and cosmetic procedures has increased exponentially over the past decade. This review article focuses on the incidence of reported cases of skin cancer post laser or IPL treatment. The existing evidence base of over 25 years of laser and IPL use to date has not raised any concerns regarding its long-term safety with only a few anecdotal cases of melanoma post treatment over two decades of use; therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that there is a credible cancer risk. Although laser and IPL technology has not been known to cause skin cancer, this does not mean that laser and IPL therapies are without long-term risks. Light therapies and lasers to treat existing lesions and CO 2 laser resurfacing can be a preventative measure against BCC and SCC tumour formation by removing photo-damaged keratinocytes and encouraged re-epithelisation from stem cells located deeper in the epidermis. A review of the relevant literature has been performed to address the issue of long-term IPL safety, focussing on DNA damage, oxidative stress induction and the impact of adverse events.

  11. The incidence of intensive care unit-acquired weakness syndromes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Richard Td; Kinsella, John; Quasim, Tara

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a literature review of the intensive care unit-acquired weakness syndromes (critical illness polyneuropathy, critical illness myopathy and critical illness neuromyopathy) with the primary objective of determining their incidence as a combined group. Studies were identified through MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database and article reference list searches and were included if they evaluated the incidence of one or more of these conditions in an adult intensive care unit population. The incidence of an intensive care unit-acquired weakness syndrome in the included studies was 40% (1080/2686 patients, 95% confidence interval 38-42%). The intensive care unit populations included were heterogeneous though largely included patients receiving mechanical ventilation for seven or more days. Additional prespecified outcomes identified that the incidence of intensive care unit-acquired weakness varied with the diagnostic technique used, being lower with clinical (413/1276, 32%, 95% CI 30-35%) compared to electrophysiological techniques (749/1591, 47%, 95% CI 45-50%). Approximately a quarter of patients were not able to comply with clinical evaluation and this may be responsible for potential underreporting of this condition.

  12. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-18

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in μ-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a μ-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in ε-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  13. Risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, V.A.; Romanchuk, K.G.

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excesive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A method of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  14. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hahn, H.T. [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Material Science and Engineering Department, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    An intense pulsed light (IPL) from a xenon flash lamp was used to sinter copper nanoink printed on low-temperature polymer substrates at room temperature in ambient condition. The IPL can sinter the copper nanoink without damaging the polymer substrates in extremely short time (2 ms). The microstructure of the sintered copper film was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray micro tomography, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sintered copper film has a grainy structure with neck-like junctions. The resulting resistivity was 5{mu}{omega} cm of electrical resistivity which is only 3 times as high as that of bulk copper. The IPL sintering technique allows copper nanoparticles to be used in inkjet printing on low-temperature substrates such as polymers in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  15. Fast Acting Optical Forces From Far Detuned, High Intensity Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Hua, Xiang; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-05-01

    We are exploring fast acting, strong optical forces from standing wave light fields with high intensity and large detuning δ >> γ , where γ is the transition linewidth. We observe these fast acting forces on a time scale of a few times the excited state lifetime τ ≡ 1 / γ thus an atom may experience at most one or two spontaneous emission events. The dipole force is typically considered when the Rabi frequency Ω transverse velocity distribution of a beam of 23S He after a chosen interaction time with a perpendicular standing wave detuned from the 23S -->33P transition near 389 nm. The distribution shows velocity resonance effects that persist over a large range of Ω. We also simulate the experiment numerically using the Optical Bloch Equations and the results are consistent with our measurements. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN

  16. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04)

  17. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  18. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence and aetiology of renal phosphate loss in patients with hypophosphatemia in the intensive care unit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.P.; Blans, M.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia is a common finding in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Its cause is often poorly understood. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to understand the incidence of renal phosphate loss in ICU-related hypophosphatemia, and to examine the role of phosphaturic

  20. Accuracy of Intensity and Inclinometer Output of Three Activity Monitors for Identification of Sedentary Behavior and Light-Intensity Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Carr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the accuracy of intensity and inclinometer output of three physical activity monitors during various sedentary and light-intensity activities. Methods. Thirty-six participants wore three physical activity monitors (ActiGraph GT1M, ActiGraph GT3X+, and StepWatch while completing sedentary (lying, sitting watching television, sitting using computer, and standing still light (walking 1.0 mph, pedaling 7.0 mph, pedaling 15.0 mph intensity activities under controlled settings. Accuracy for correctly categorizing intensity was assessed for each monitor and threshold. Accuracy of the GT3X+ inclinometer function (GT3X+Incl for correctly identifying anatomical position was also assessed. Percentage agreement between direct observation and the monitor recorded time spent in sedentary behavior and light intensity was examined. Results. All monitors using all thresholds accurately identified over 80% of sedentary behaviors and 60% of light-intensity walking time based on intensity output. The StepWatch was the most accurate in detecting pedaling time but unable to detect pedal workload. The GT3X+Incl accurately identified anatomical position during 70% of all activities but demonstrated limitations in discriminating between activities of differing intensity. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that all three monitors accurately measure most sedentary and light-intensity activities although choice of monitors should be based on study-specific needs.

  1. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  2. [Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in Intensive Care Units of Chilean hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, M Paz; Cifuentes, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; Rojas, Álvaro; Cerda, Jaime; Labarca, Jaime

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria is an indicator that permits better estimation of the magnitude of bacterial resistance in hospitals. To evaluate the incidence of relevant multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) of Chile. Participating hospitals submitted information about the number of isolates from infected or colonized patients with 7 epidemiologically relevant multi-resistant bacteria in adult and pediatric ICUs between January 1, 2014 and October 31, 2015 and the number of bed days occupied in these units in the same period was requested. With these data incidence was calculated per 1,000 patient days for each unit. Information from 20 adults and 9 pediatric ICUs was reviewed. In adult ICUs the bacteria with the highest incidence were K. pneumoniae ESBL [4.72 × 1,000 patient day (1.21-13.89)] and oxacillin -resistant S. aureus [3.85 (0.71-12.66)]. In the pediatric units the incidence was lower, highlighting K. pneumoniae ESBL [2.71 (0-7.11)] and carbapenem -resistant P. aeruginosa [1.61 (0.31-9.25)]. Important differences between hospitals in the incidence of these bacteria were observed. Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in adult ICU was significantly higher than in pediatric ICU for most of the studied bacterias.

  3. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants I. The influence of light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of herbacious sun and shade plants were grown at different light levels to investigate their adaptations in morphology and growth to light intensity. All species examined respond to low light intensity strongly, but very much the same. It is concluded that shade tolerance is not based on

  4. Human wavelength discrimination of monochromatic light explained by optimal wavelength decoding of light of unknown intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    Full Text Available We show that human ability to discriminate the wavelength of monochromatic light can be understood as maximum likelihood decoding of the cone absorptions, with a signal processing efficiency that is independent of the wavelength. This work is built on the framework of ideal observer analysis of visual discrimination used in many previous works. A distinctive aspect of our work is that we highlight a perceptual confound that observers should confuse a change in input light wavelength with a change in input intensity. Hence a simple ideal observer model which assumes that an observer has a full knowledge of input intensity should over-estimate human ability in discriminating wavelengths of two inputs of unequal intensity. This confound also makes it difficult to consistently measure human ability in wavelength discrimination by asking observers to distinguish two input colors while matching their brightness. We argue that the best experimental method for reliable measurement of discrimination thresholds is the one of Pokorny and Smith, in which observers only need to distinguish two inputs, regardless of whether they differ in hue or brightness. We mathematically formulate wavelength discrimination under this wavelength-intensity confound and show a good agreement between our theoretical prediction and the behavioral data. Our analysis explains why the discrimination threshold varies with the input wavelength, and shows how sensitively the threshold depends on the relative densities of the three types of cones in the retina (and in particular predict discriminations in dichromats. Our mathematical formulation and solution can be applied to general problems of sensory discrimination when there is a perceptual confound from other sensory feature dimensions.

  5. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Subcarrier intensity modulation for MIMO visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yasin; Akan, Aydin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) is investigated for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. A new modulation scheme called DC-aid SIM (DCA-SIM) is proposed for the spatial modulation (SM) transmission plan. Then, DCA-SIM is extended for multiple subcarrier case which is called DC-aid Multiple Subcarrier Modulation (DCA-MSM). Bit error rate (BER) performances of the considered system are analyzed for different MIMO schemes. The power efficiencies of DCA-SIM and DCA-MSM are shown in correlated MIMO VLC channels. The upper bound BER performances of the proposed models are obtained analytically for PSK and QAM modulation types in order to validate the simulation results. Additionally, the effect of power imbalance method on the performance of SIM is studied and remarkable power gains are obtained compared to the non-power imbalanced cases. In this work, Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and MSM-Index are used as benchmarks for single carrier and multiple carrier cases, respectively. And the results show that the proposed schemes outperform PAM and MSM-Index for considered single carrier and multiple carrier communication scenarios.

  7. Near-surface electron acceleration during intense laser-solid interaction in the grazing incidence regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    When a relativistically intense p-polarized laser pulse is grazingly incident onto a planar solid-state target, a slightly superluminal field structure is formed near the target surface due to the incident and reflected waves superposition. This field structure can both extract the electrons from the target and accelerate them. It is theoretically shown that the acceleration is possible and stable for a wide range of electron initial conditions. Particle-in-cell simulations confirm that this mechanism can actually take place for realistic parameters. As a result, the electron bunches with a charge of tens of nC and GeV-level energy can be produced using a laser intensity 1021-1022 W/cm2. It is also shown that the presence of a preplasma can improve acceleration, which becomes possible because of more efficient electron injection into the accelerating field structure.

  8. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-xia; Liu, Lan-ping; Li, Lei; Li, Xu; Cao, Xiu-juan; Dong, Wei; Yang, Xin-hua; Xu, Jin; Yu, Shui; Hao, Jun-fang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients before and after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze factors associated with the incidence of sinusitis following IMRT. We retrospectively analyzed 283 NPC patients who received IMRT in our hospital from March 2009 to May 2011. The diagnostic criteria for sinusitis are based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CT or MRI scans were performed before and after IMRT to evaluate the incidence of sinusitis. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis were analyzed by log-rank univariate and logistic multivariate analyses. Among the 283 NPC patients, 128 (45.2 %) suffered from sinusitis before radiotherapy. The incidence rates of sinusitis in patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC before radiotherapy were 22.6, 37.5, 46.8, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 14.548, p = 0.002). Among the 155 NPC patients without sinusitis before radiotherapy, the incidence rates of sinusitis at the end of radiotherapy and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy were 32.9, 43.2, 61.3, 68.4, 73.5, 69.7, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 86.461, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, nasal irrigation, and radiation dose to the nasopharynx were associated with the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.003, 0.006, 0.002, and 0.020). Multivariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were influential factors for the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.002, 0.002, and 0.000). There was a higher incidence of sinusitis with higher T stage among NPC patients before radiotherapy, and the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT was high (45.2 %). The incidence of sinusitis increased rapidly within the first 3 months after IMRT, and the number of sinusitis cases peaked at 6-9 months after

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Kotwicki: Relative light intensity collected during bottom trawl surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Assessing the effect of light intensity and light penetration on the distributionand behavior of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the eastern Bering Sea and...

  10. Theory and analysis of a large field polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaotian; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Su; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-05

    Polarization imaging technology provides information about not only the irradiance of a target but also the polarization degree and angle of polarization, which indicates extensive application potential. However, polarization imaging theory is based on paraxial optics. When a beam of obliquely incident light passes an analyser, the direction of light propagation is not perpendicular to the surface of the analyser and the applicability of the traditional paraxial optical polarization imaging theory is challenged. This paper investigates a theoretical model of a polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light and establishes a polarization imaging transmission model with a large field of obliquely incident light. In an imaging experiment with an integrating sphere light source and rotatable polarizer, the polarization imaging transmission model is verified and analysed for two cases of natural light and linearly polarized light incidence. Although the results indicate that the theoretical model is consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical model distinctly differs from the traditional paraxial approximation model. The results prove the accuracy and necessity of the theoretical model and the theoretical guiding significance for theoretical and systematic research of large field polarization imaging.

  11. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights. 84.21 Section 84.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights...

  12. Light-Irradiation Wavelength and Intensity Changes Influence Aflatoxin Synthesis in Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadahiro

    2018-01-05

    Fungi respond to light irradiation by forming conidia and occasionally synthesizing mycotoxins. Several light wavelengths, such as blue and red, affect the latter. However, the relationship between light irradiation and mycotoxin synthesis varies depending on the fungal species or strain. This study focused on aflatoxin (AF), which is a mycotoxin, and the types of light irradiation that increase AF synthesis. Light-irradiation tests using the visible region indicated that blue wavelengths in the lower 500 nm region promoted AF synthesis. In contrast, red wavelengths of 660 nm resulted in limited significant changes compared with dark conditions. Irradiation tests with different intensity levels indicated that a low light intensity increased AF synthesis. For one fungal strain, light irradiation decreased the AF synthesis under all wavelength conditions. However, the decrease was mitigated by 525 nm low intensity irradiation. Thus, blue-green low intensity irradiation may increase AF synthesis in fungi.

  13. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality: an analysis of mortality change by screening intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldman, Andrew J; Phillips, Norman; Pickles, Thomas A

    2003-01-07

    The rate of death from prostate cancer has recently declined in many areas of the world. Over the past 15 years prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has increased in popularity, which has resulted in increases in the incidence of prostate cancer. Over the same period there have been changes in the management of the disease and, in particular, the use of androgen ablation. We set out to examine the relation between changes in prostate cancer incidence (a surrogate for PSA screening) and subsequent changes in mortality in regions using common treatment recommendations. We used data from prostate cancer cases and deaths reported to the British Columbia Cancer Registry during 1985-1999 to examine trends in incidence and mortality in 88 small health areas (SHAs) among men aged 50-74 years. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first we classified the SHAs by intensity of PSA screening (low, medium or high) according to their ranked age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer in 1990-1994 and examined subsequent trends in prostate cancer mortality. In the second analysis we examined the SHA-specific relative change in prostate cancer incidence between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 and correlated it with the relative change in mortality for cases diagnosed after 1990. Between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 the incidence of prostate cancer increased by 53.2% and 14.6% among men aged 50-74 and those 75 and over respectively. Between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 prostate cancer mortality declined by 17.6% and 7.9% in the 2 age groups respectively. Among men aged 50-74 years SHAs with low, middle and high levels of screening had respective increases in prostate cancer incidence of 5.4%, 53.6% and 70.5% between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994. Corresponding decreases in mortality between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 were 28.9%, 18.0% and 13.5%. Mortality declines were greatest in SHAs with low screening levels (p = 0.032). Before 1990 prostate cancer mortality was similar in the 3 screening groups (p

  14. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of light intensity on the growth, development and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is an important cheap source of plant protein in Nigeria. Its production is constrained by low light intensity in the southern rainforest ecology due to cloud cover during the production season. Understanding the physiological basis of performance under low light intensity is therefore central ...

  16. Growth of shredders on leaf litter biofilms: the effect of light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.J.M.; Waluto, B.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Beijer, J.A.J.; Scheffer, M.

    2005-01-01

    1. The effect of light intensity on the decomposition of poplar (Populus nigra) leaves and growth of the shredders, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex, was studied in a laboratory experiment. The response was studied along a gradient of six light intensities of 0, 5, 23, 54, 97 and 156 ¿mol m -2

  17. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  18. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1, whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1. In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  19. Ultrafast dynamics driven by intense light pulses from atoms to solids, from lasers to intense X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Gräfe, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book documents the recent vivid developments in the research field of ultrashort intense light pulses for probing and controlling ultrafast dynamics. The recent fascinating results in studying and controlling ultrafast dynamics in ever more complicated systems such as (bio-)molecules and structures of meso- to macroscopic sizes on ever shorter time-scales are presented. The book is written by some of the most eminent experimental and theoretical experts in the field. It covers the new groundbreaking research directions that were opened by the availability of new light sources such as fully controlled intense laser fields with durations down to a single oscillation cycle, short-wavelength laser-driven attosecond pulses and intense X-ray pulses from the upcoming free electron lasers. These light sources allowed the investigation of dynamics in atoms, molecules, clusters, on surfaces and very recently also in nanostructures and solids in new regimes of parameters which, in turn, led to the identification of...

  20. Measuring incident light on grape clusters using photosensitive paper and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.F.; Schuette, M.L.; Tassie, E.

    1995-01-01

    Digital imaging and analysis was used to quantify and characterize the light exposure patterns of photosensitive paper tubes placed in representative cluster positions in two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) canopies: a minimally pruned and a vertically trained canopy. Blue pixel values of the captured images had a negative correlation with the log of irradiance from an integrating quantum sensor (r2 = 0.9308). The spectral response of the photosensitive paper was not measured. Histograms of incident light distribution on individual paper tubes were developed using imaging software. Histograms were able to quantify the distribution of incident light on individual tubes and were clearly related to the tube's exposure in the canopy. Average population curves of pixel light distribution of 20 tubes in each canopy were able to differentiate the typical cluster light environment in the two canopies. Tubes in the minimally pruned canopy had a larger proportion of their surface exposed to irradiances > 50 micromoles.s-1 m-2 and 65% higher average irradiance than the vertical canopy. Image analysis of photosensitive paper appears to be a workable method to record the distribution of incident light in plant canopies and may have utility in a range of ecological studies

  1. [Incidence of unplanned extubations in a neonatal intensive care unit. A before and after study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera Torres, M I; Moral Pumarega, M T; García Lara, N R; Melgar Bonís, A; Frías García, M E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2014-05-01

    Unplanned extubations (UE) of mechanically ventilated newborns involves an undesirable increase in morbidity and mortality. A 2-stage study compared the frequency of UE in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit before and after the implementation of a program of preventive measures to decrease UE. A before and after prospective study included all mechanically ventilated newborns participating in the 2 stage study from May-December 2011 and June-December 2012. In stage 1, the rate of UE per 100 intubated patient days was calculated and the characteristics of unplanned extubated newborns, circumstances of UE occurrence and need for re-intubation were studied. Consequently, a program of preventive measures for UE was designed and implemented, with the same variables being analysed in stage 2. No differences were found in patient characteristics during the two stages. Stage 1, incidence of UE was 5/100 intubated patient days; Stage 2, 4.5 UE/100 intubated patient days (P=.657). In both stages, most UE occurred during patient handling with re-intubation incidence at 77.4% and 67.7%, respectively. The combined rate of both stages during summer months of July, August and September was 6.2 UE/100 intubation days, in contrast with the remaining months of both stages: UE incidence rate, 3.4 UE/100 intubation days (p=.043). The implementation of a preventive measures program did not significantly reduce the incidence of UE. The summer period showed the highest incidence of UE. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Dana, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Ueberfuhr, Peter, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard R. [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany and Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department Printed Functionalities (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate.

  3. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, Dana; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Ueberfuhr, Peter; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate

  4. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  5. The Incidence And Risk Factors Nosocomial Pneumonia In A Neuromedical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devragudi TS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study examined the incidence and factors influencing the occurrence of nonsocomial pneumonia (NP in a neuromedical intensive care unit (NICU. Of the 57 patients admitted to the NICU over one year, 26% developed nosocomial pneumonia. It was observed that the infected patients were significantly older than the noninfected (43+15 vs 22+18 years; p<0.001, had a longer NICU stay (33+31 vs 18+18 days: p=0.05 and needed longer duration of mechanical ventilation (20+25 vs 9 + 12 days: P<0.05. Patients with neuromuscular diseases had a trend towards higher incidence of NP than those with encephalopathy and therapeutic interventions such as plasmapheresis, blood transfusion and inotropic therapy did not influence the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia. The NICU mortality was not significantly influenced by nosocomial pneumonia. Pseudomonas aerugenosa was the predominant organism responsible for pneumonia. Nine percent of the tracheobronchial isolates were resistant to the routinely-tested antibiotics. In conclusion, nosocornial pneumonia is a common complication in a NICU and while it increases the duration of NICU stay, mortality appears to be uninfluenced.

  6. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  7. The Effect of Incident Light Polarization on Vegetation Bidirectional Reflectance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Thome, Kurt; Ranson, Kurtis J.; King, Michael D.; Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) polarization study of vegetation is presented in this paper. The BRF was measured using a short-arc Xenon lamp/monochromator assembly producing an incoherent, tunable light source with a well-defined spectral bandpass at visible and near-infrared wavelengths of interest at 470 nm and 870 nm and coherent light source at 1.656 microns. All vegetation samples were measured using P and S linearly polarized incident light over a range of incident and scatter angles. By comparing these results, we quantitatively examine how the BRF of the samples depends on the polarization of the incident light. The differences are significant, depend strongly on the incident and scatter angles, and can be as high as 120% at 67 deg incident and 470nm. The global nature of Earth's processes requires consistent long-term calibration of all instruments involved in data retrieval. The BRF defines the reflection characteristics of Earth surface. It provides the reflectance of a target in a specific direction as a function of illumination and viewing geometry. The BRF is a function of wavelength and reflects the structural and optical properties of the surface. Various space and airborne radiometric and imaging remote sensing instruments are used in the remote sensing characterization of vegetation canopies and soils, oceans, or especially large pollution sources. The satellite data is validated through comparison with airborne, ground-based and laboratory-based data in an effort to fully understand the vegetation canopy reflectance, The Sun's light is assumed to be unpolarized at the top of the atmosphere; however it becomes polarized to some degree due to atmospheric effects by the time it reaches the vegetation canopy. Although there are numerous atmospheric correction models, laboratory data is needed for model verification and improvement.

  8. Effect of light intensities on the photosynthetic characteristics of Abies holophylla seedlings from different provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic characteristics of Abies holophylla seedlings from six provenances under four artificial light intensities in a greenhouse (full light, 75.08%, 55.42%, and 30.38% of full light were studied to explore the underlying genetic differences in foliar photosynthesis. Varying light intensities significantly affected the foliar photosynthetic parameters of A. holophylla seedlings from six provenances. As the light intensity dropped, the foliar CO2 assimilation capacity of A. holophylla seedlings sharply decreased, and the foliar light utilization capacity significantly increased. Analysis of genetic variation showed highly significant differences in terms of CO2 assimilation capacity, light utilization capacity, and respiration depletion of A. holophylla seedlings among different provenances under different light intensities. The variations were mainly controlled by the genetic factors of the provenance itself. The obtained results revealed that different sensitivities of A. holophylla seedlings from different provenances in response to changed light intensities elicited significant differences in foliar photosynthesis among different provenances. The relationships between sensitivities and annual temperature difference, mean temperature in January, and mean annual evaporation of provenance were found to be the most closely related, which indicated that temperature range and effective precipitation of provenance were the main factors that affected photosynthetic plasticity of A. holophylla seedlings. 

  9. effect of light intensity on the cure characteristics of photo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-05

    May 5, 2012 ... of material factors on the variables being measured. Light curing units in the sampled clinics were used to cure the composite specimens, which were all cylindrical. The one for micro-hardness evaluation measured eight millimetres in diameter and three millimetres in height while the other for depth of cure.

  10. The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often coincide with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from 4 rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48 h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) and low light (20 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of 2 herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2252-2260. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Influence of incident light wavelength on time jitter of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Vacher, J.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the single photoelectron time resolution as a function of the wavelength of the incident light was performed for a 56 CVP photomultiplier having an S-1 photocathode. The light flash from the XP22 light emitting diode generator was passed through passband filters and illuminated the 5 mm diameter central part of the photocathode. A significant increase of the time resolution above 30% was observed when the wavelength of the incident light was changed from 790 nm to 580 nm. This gives experimental evidence that the time jitter resulting from the spread of the initial velocity of photoelectrons is proportional to the square root of the maximal initial energy of photoelectrons. Based on this conclusion the measured time jitter of C31024, RCA8850 and XP2020 photomultipliers with the use of the XP22 light emitting diode at 560 nm light wavelength was recalculated to estimate the time jitter at 400 nm near the maximum of the photocathode sensitivity. It shows an almost twice larger time spread at 400 nm for the C31024 and RCA8850 with a high gain first dynode and an about 1.5 times larger time spread for the XP2020 photomultiplier, than those measured at 560 nm. (Auth.)

  12. Sound intensity probe for ultrasonic field in water using light-emitting diodes and piezoelectric elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    The sound intensity vector provides useful information on the state of an ultrasonic field in water, since sound intensity is a vector quantity expressing the direction and magnitude of the sound field. In the previous studies on sound intensity measurement in water, conventional piezoelectric sensors and metal cables were used, and the transmission distance was limited. A new configuration of a sound intensity probe suitable for ultrasonic measurement in water is proposed and constructed for trial in this study. The probe consists of light-emitting diodes and piezoelectric elements, and the output signals are transmitted through fiber optic cables as intensity-modulated light. Sound intensity measurements of a 26 kHz ultrasonic field in water are demonstrated. The difference in the intensity vector state between the water tank with and without sound-absorbing material on its walls was successfully observed.

  13. Light-emitting-diode Lambertian light sources as low-radiant-flux standards applicable to quantitative luminescence-intensity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshita, Masahiro; Kubota, Hidehiro; Shimogawara, Masahiro; Mori, Kaneo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2017-09-01

    Planar-type Lambertian light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a circular aperture of several tens of μ m to a few mm in diameter were developed for use as radiant-flux standard light sources, which have been in strong demand for applications such as quantitative or absolute intensity measurements of weak luminescence from solid-state materials and devices. Via pulse-width modulation, time-averaged emission intensity of the LED devices was controlled linearly to cover a wide dynamic range of about nine orders of magnitude, from 10 μ W down to 10 fW. The developed planar LED devices were applied as the radiant-flux standards to quantitative measurements and analyses of photoluminescence (PL) intensity and PL quantum efficiency of a GaAs quantum-well sample. The results demonstrated the utility and applicability of the LED standards in quantitative luminescence-intensity measurements in Lambertian-type low radiant-flux level sources.

  14. Photocathode fatigue of L-24 PM head due to high intensity light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.F.

    1980-01-08

    The sensitivity of radiation detectors which utilizes photomultipliers was determined after exposing the multiplier phototubes to high intensity light pulses. Test results found that generally less than a 5% change was found. (FS)

  15. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  16. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-04-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  17. Measurement of Light Intensity Based on a Flip-flop Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kollár

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new type of system for measuring light intensity with the use of a flip-flop sensor controlled by a so-called slow-rise voltage control pulse. A photodiode was used for quantification of the measured light intensity in the structure of the flip-flop. The theoretical considerations are compared with experimental results, and good agreement is reported.

  18. Incidence of drug interactions in intensive care units in tertiary care settings: Classification, facts and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Hina; Ali, Huma; Zafar, Farya; Sial, Ali Akbar; Alam, Shazia; Beg, Anwar Ejaz; Bushra, Rabia; Rizvi, Mehwish; Khan, Maqsood Ahmed; Shareef, Huma; Naqvi, Ghazala R; Tariq, Anum

    2018-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are extremely significant concern, particularly in sensitive population including pediatric and geriatric. Propensity for the development of DDIs is high in patients admitted at intensive care units (ICU). This study was conducted to evaluate the DDIs incidence, facts and measures in ICU. From a total of 150 cases studied for ICU patients, with the mean age of 56.37±12.45 years, 55.33% were male and the rest were female 44.66%. The demographic information like age, gender and main diagnosis details of study participants that were extracted from the patients' clinical record. A statistically significant association between the drug interaction and the number of drugs prescribed per prescription was observed (pICU attributed high risk of adverse reactions due to use of multiple interventions to treat severity of disease condition. Such studies may be used to develop an effective tool for the diagnosis and management of DDIs.

  19. Assessment of the light intensity of otoscopes utilized in teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Basso, Giovana Bittencourt; Cavalheiro, Mariana Nagata

    2015-01-01

    To attain an accurate otoscopic diagnosis, a functioning device with adequate capacity must be used. Evaluate the light intensity of otoscopes, comparing it utilizing the batteries present at the moment of calibration and after new batteries were supplied. Cross-sectional study of a historical cohort, which assessed 38 otoscopes, measuring the light intensity with the batteries present at the moment of assessment compared to the intensity with new batteries, as well as charge of the test batteries and the new batteries. The mean of the sum of new batteries' charge was 3.19V, and of the test batteries was 2.70V, representing a decrease of 18.02% in charge. The mean luminosity with the new batteries was 366.89lumens, whereas in the test batteries it was 188.32lumens, representing a decrease of 83.75% in the light intensity. Student's t-test was applied for data comparison, showing a statistical difference between the light intensity with the original batteries and the new batteries (p=0.0001; CI=0.95). There was a statistically significant difference between the proportions of light intensity in the otoscopes. A small variation in battery charge results in a great variation in light. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Mastoiditis after Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Jin Yao

    Full Text Available To report the incidence of and risk factors for mastoiditis after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC.Retrospective analysis of pretreatment and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data for 451 patients with NPC treated with IMRT at a single institution. The diagnosis of mastoiditis was based on MRI; otomastoid opacification was rated as Grade 0 (none, 1 (mild, 2 (moderate or 3 (severe by radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. This study mainly focused on severe mastoiditis; patients were divided into three groups: the G0M (Grade 0 mastoiditis before treatment group, G1-2M (Grade 1 to 2 mastoiditis before treatment group and G3M (Grade 3 mastoiditis before treatment group. The software SAS9.3 program was used to analyze the data.For the entire cohort, the incidence of Grade 3 mastoiditis was 20% before treatment and 31%, 19% and 17% at 3, 12 and 24 months after radiotherapy, respectively. In the G0M group, the incidence of severe mastoiditis was 0% before treatment and 23%, 15% and 13% at 3, 12 and 24 months after radiotherapy, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed T category (OR=0.68, 95% CI = 0.469 to 0.984, time (OR=0.668, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.757 and chemotherapy (OR=0.598, 95% CI = 0.343 to 0.934 were independent factors associated with severe mastoiditis in the G0M group after treatment.Mastoiditis, as diagnosed by MRI, occurs as a progressive process that regresses and resolves over time in patients with NPC treated using IMRT.

  1. High light intensity mediates a shift from allochthonous to autochthonous carbon use in phototrophic stream biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Bengtsson, Mia M.; Findlay, Robert H.; Battin, Tom J.; Ulseth, Amber J.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the riparian vegetation along stream channels, diurnal light availability, and longitudinal fluctuations in the local light regime in streams influence primary production and carbon (C) cycling in benthic stream biofilms. To investigate the influence of light availability on the uptake dynamics of autochthonous and allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in benthic biofilms, we experimentally added 13C-labeled allochthonous DOC to biofilms grown under light intensities ranging from 5 to 152 μmol photons m-2 s-1. We calculated the net C flux, which showed that benthic biofilms released autochthonous DOC across the entire light gradient. Light availability and diurnal light patterns influenced C uptake by benthic biofilms. More allochthonous DOC was respired under low light availability and at night, whereas under high light availability and during the day mainly autochthonous C was respired by the benthic biofilm community. Furthermore, phenol oxidase activity (indicative of allochthonous DOC uptake) was more elevated under low light availability, whereas beta-glucosidase activity (indicative of autochthonous DOC use) increased with light intensity. Collectively, our results suggest that biofilms exposed to high light inputs preferentially used autochthonous DOC, whereas biofilms incubated at attenuated levels showed greater use of allochthonous DOC. This has implications for the spatial dynamics of DOC uptake in streams and speaks against the occurrence of priming effects in algal-dominated stream biofilms.

  2. Light-intensity physical activity and cardiometabolic biomarkers in US adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The minimal physical activity intensity that would confer health benefits among adolescents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of accelerometer-derived light-intensity (split into low and high physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The study is based on 1,731 adolescents, aged 12-19 years from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low light-intensity activity (100-799 counts/min, high light-intensity activity (800 counts/min to <4 METs and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity (≥ 4 METs, Freedson age-specific equation were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were measured. Triglycerides, LDL- cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessments of β-cell function (HOMA-%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S were also measured in a fasting sub-sample (n=807. RESULTS: Adjusted for confounders, each additional hour/day of low light-intensity activity was associated with 0.59 (95% CI: 1.18-0.01 mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure. Each additional hour/day of high light-intensity activity was associated with 1.67 (2.94-0.39 mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure and 0.04 (0.001-0.07 mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol. Each additional hour/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity was associated with 3.54 (5.73-1.35 mmHG lower systolic blood pressure, 5.49 (1.11-9.77% lower waist circumference, 25.87 (6.08-49.34% lower insulin, and 16.18 (4.92-28.53% higher HOMA-%S. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent in low light-intensity physical activity and high light-intensity physical activity had some favorable associations with biomarkers. Consistent with current physical activity recommendations for adolescents, moderate- to

  3. Proposal of coherent Cherenkov radiation matched to circular plane wave for intense terahertz light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nakao, Keisuke; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new intense terahertz-wave source based on coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR). • A hollow conical dielectric is used to generate the CCR beam. • The wave front of the CCR beam can be matched to the basal plane. • The peak-power of the CCR beam is above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps. - Abstract: We propose a high-peak-power terahertz-wave source based on an electron accelerator. By passing an electron beam through a hollow conical dielectric with apex facing the incident electron beam, the wave front of coherent Cherenkov radiation generated on the inner surface of the hollow conical dielectric matches the basal plane. Using the electron beam generated at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application at Nihon University, the calculated power of coherent Cherenkov radiation that matched the circular plane (CCR-MCP) was above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps, for wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm. The electron beam is not lost for generating the CCR-MCP beam by using the hollow conical dielectric. It is possible to combine the CCR-MCP beams with other light sources based on an accelerator

  4. The relationship between light intensity and nutrient uptake kinetics in six freshwater diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengling; Shen, Hong; Wang, Wenjing; Chen, Wenjie; Xie, Ping

    2015-08-01

    In order to find effective measures to control diatom blooms, a better understanding of the physiological characteristics of nutrient uptake in diatoms is needed. A study of P and Si-uptake kinetics for diatom species from two light regimes was conducted at low (LL), moderate (ML) and high light intensities (HL) (2, 25 and 80 μmol photons/(m(2)·sec)), respectively. The results showed that P uptake of diatoms was heavily influenced by historic light regimes. P affinity changed with growth and photosynthetic activity. The lowest half saturation constant for P uptake (Km(P)) was under HL for high-light adapted diatoms while the lowest half-saturation constant for low-light adapted diatoms was observed under LL. The Si half-saturation constant (Km(Si)) increased with increasing light intensities for pennate diatoms but decreased for centric diatoms. Diatom volumes were correlated with the maximum Si uptake rates (Vm(Si)) at HL and Km(Si) at ML and HL for six diatom species. Our results imply that when we assess the development of diatom blooms we should consider light intensity and cell volume in addition to ambient Si or P concentration. The relationship between light intensity and P-uptake suggests that we can find suitable methods to control diatom blooms on the basis of reducing phytoplankton activity of P-uptake and photosynthesis simultaneously. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Role of Age in Moderating the Association Between Disability and Light-Intensity Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizer, Lindsay P; Gay, Jennifer L; Gerst-Emerson, Kerstin; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There's a lack of evidence on the association between light-intensity physical activity and disability. This study examines the relationships in activity by self-reported physical function in five domains (i.e., activities of daily living [ADL], instrumental ADL, leisure activities, lower extremity, and general activities), and whether this association varies by age. Cross-sectional. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 waves. Participants included 5700 men and women ages 20 to 85 years. Difficulty with various activities was measured with the Physical Functioning Questionnaire, accelerometer-measured physical activity, demographics, and self-rated health. Ordinary least squares regression models were run to examine the relationship between physical function in each domain, light-intensity activity, and the moderating effect of age. Analyses controlled for body mass index, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, self-reported health, accelerometer wear time, and gender. Little variation was seen in light-intensity physical activity among younger adults regardless of disability status. Older adults reporting difficulty with activities engaged in significantly less light-intensity physical activity compared to those with no disability (271.8 vs. 316.5 minutes). Age significantly moderated the association between light-intensity physical activity and leisure activities (p = .048), and lower extremity mobility (p = .039). Age did not moderate other domains of disability. Younger age may be protective regarding the influence of disability on light-intensity activity. In addition, disability may be more debilitating for some older individuals. Interventions to increase light-intensity activity should aim to address disability at all ages, with increased attention for older adults.

  6. Effect of light intensity and irradiation time on the polymerization process of a dental composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Discacciati José Augusto César

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization shrinkage is a critical factor affecting the longevity and acceptability of dental composite resins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of light intensity and irradiation time on the polymerization process of a photo cured dental composite resin by measuring the Vickers hardness number (VHN and the volumetric polymerization shrinkage. Samples were prepared using a dental manual light-curing unit. The samples were submitted to irradiation times of 5, 10, 20 and 40 s, using 200 and 400 mW.cm-2 light intensities. Vickers hardness number was obtained at four different moments after photoactivation (immediate, 1 h, 24 h and 168 h. After this, volumetric polymerization shrinkage values were obtained through a specific density method. The values were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's (p = 0.05. Results showed increase in hardness values from the immediate reading to 1 h and 24 h readings. After 24 h no changes were observed regardless the light intensities or activation times. The hardness values were always smaller for the 200 mW.cm-2 light intensity, except for the 40 s irradiation time. No significant differences were detected in volumetric polymerization shrinkage considering the light intensity (p = 0.539 and the activation time (p = 0.637 factors. In conclusion the polymerization of the material does not terminate immediately after photoactivation and the increase of irradiation time can compensate a lower light intensity. Different combinations between light intensity and irradiation time, i.e., different amounts of energy given to the system, have not affected the polymerization shrinkage.

  7. Incidence of anaerobic bacteria in patients with suspected pneumonia in surgical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, T; Gouin, P; Frebourg, N; Rey, N; Royon, V; Bergis, A; Hobeika, S; Dureuil, B; Veber, B

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the incidence of pulmonary anaerobes in a specific population in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The objective of this work was to determine the incidence of anaerobes in surgical ICU patients with suspected pneumonia. This was a prospective observational, single-center study. Analysis was based on data collected over 30 months from the surgical ICU of a tertiary care hospital (Rouen University Hospital), including data on risk factors for anaerobes in the lungs. Patients with suspected pneumonia (community-acquired or nosocomial) were included. Bacteriological sampling was performed by protected distal bronchial sampling (PDBS) with minilavage under bronchoscopy. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed for each sample. Clinicians were only aware of aerobic results. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis compared groups with and without anaerobes. A total of 134 samples were obtained from 117 patients. Surgery was performed on 74 patients (63.2%), within 24 hours of admission. Fifty-four patients (46.2%) had a chest trauma and 20 patients (17.1%) were admitted for a digestive pathology. Average age was 53.6±20.9 years and sex ratio was 5.9 (100 men/17 women). Average SAPS II was 41.6±15.1, median length of ICU stay was 23 days (25th percentile=13, 75th percentile=33), and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 21 days (25th percentile=11, 75th percentile=28). Mortality rate in ICU was 14.5%. After sampling, diagnosis of pneumonia was confirmed in 70 cases (52.2%). Anaerobe cultures were positive in 11 samples taken from 11 different patients (overall incidence 8.2%). Aerobic bacteria were also involved in 9 patients (81.8%). In univariate analysis, enteral feeding (P=0.02) and absence of catecholamines at time of sampling (P=0.003) were significantly associated with the presence of anaerobes in PDBS. Enteral nutrition was also found to be a risk factor in multivariate analysis (OR=11.8, 95% CI [1.36 to 102

  8. Photo acoustic study of plants exposed to varying light intensity growth conditions: Spectral and morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R. C.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we describe results of photo acoustic (PA) measurements carried out on various plants exposed to varying light intensity conditions. Depending on the species and light intensity conditions, the PA absorption spectra show differences in peaks associated with pigments and the cuticle. These differences are related to the spatial distribution of the pigments that differs from plant to plant. We have also performed systematic study of oxygen evolution at different wavelengths. The obtained oxygen spectra are equivalent to the action spectra usually acquired by determining the CO2 uptake and energy storage. The intensities of oxygen spectra exhibit differences depending on distinct morphology of plant.

  9. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  10. Experimental Effective Intensity of Steady and Flashing Light Emitting Diodes for Aircraft Anti-Collision Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    was conducted under the Flight Deck Program Directive / Level of Effort Agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration Headquarters and the...Administration, 2009). Effective intensity is defined by International Commission on Illumination ( CIE ) as “luminous intensity of a fixed (steady... mathematical operation denoted by 2 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Subjects Participants were recruited through email lists of enrolled students and with posters

  11. The role of lasers and intense pulsed light technology in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zain Husain,1 Tina S Alster1,2 1Department of Dermatology, Georgetown University Hospital, 2Washington Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: The role of light-based technologies in dermatology has expanded dramatically in recent years. Lasers and intense pulsed light have been used to safely and effectively treat a diverse array of cutaneous conditions, including vascular and pigmented lesions, tattoos, scars, and undesired hair, while also providing extensive therapeutic options for cosmetic rejuvenation and other dermatologic conditions. Dermatologic laser procedures are becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and demand for them has fueled new innovations and clinical applications. These systems continue to evolve and provide enhanced therapeutic outcomes with improved safety profiles. This review highlights the important roles and varied clinical applications that lasers and intense pulsed light play in the dermatologic practice. Keywords: laser, intense pulsed light, treatment, dermatology, technology

  12. Weakness acquired in the intensive care unit. Incidence, risk factors and their association with inspiratory weakness. Observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballve, Ladislao Pablo Diaz; Dargains, Nahuel; Inchaustegui, José García Urrutia; Bratos, Antonella; Percaz, Maria de Los Milagros; Ardariz, Cesar Bueno; Cagide, Sabrina; Balestrieri, Carolina; Gamarra, Claudio; Paz, Dario; Rotela, Eliana; Muller, Sebastian; Bustos, Fernando; Castro, Ricard Aranda; Settembrino, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the accumulated incidence and analyze the risk factors associated with the development of weakness acquired in the intensive care unit and its relationship to inspiratory weakness. We conducted a prospective cohort study at a single center, multipurpose medical-surgical intensive care unit. We included adult patients who required mechanical ventilation ≥ 24 hours between July 2014 and January 2016. No interventions were performed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, the factors related to the development of intensive care unit -acquired weakness, and maximal inspiratory pressure were recorded. Of the 111 patients included, 66 developed intensive care unit -acquired weakness, with a cumulative incidence of 40.5% over 18 months. The group with intensive care unit-acquired weakness were older (55.9 ± 17.6 versus 45.8 ± 16.7), required more mechanical ventilation (7 [4 - 10] days versus 4 [2 - 7.3] days), and spent more time in the intensive care unit (15.5 [9.2 - 22.8] days versus 9 [6 - 14] days). More patients presented with delirium (68% versus 39%), hyperglycemia > 3 days (84% versus 59%), and positive balance > 3 days (73.3% versus 37%). All comparisons were significant at p 5 days as independent predictors of intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Low maximal inspiratory pressure was associated with intensive care unit-acquired weakness (p intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The intensive care unit acquired weakness is a condition with a high incidence in our environment. The development of intensive care unit-acquired weakness was associated with age, delirium, hyperglycemia, and mechanical ventilation > 5 days. The maximum inspiratory pressure value of ≥ 36cmH2O was associated with a high diagnostic value to exclude the presence of intensive care unit -acquired weakness.

  13. Evaluation of light intensity output of QTH and LED curing devices in various governmental health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shaafi, Mm; Maawadh, Am; Al Qahtani, Mq

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the light intensity output of quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light emitting diode (LED) curing devices located at governmental health institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Eight governmental institutions were involved in the study. The total number of evaluated curing devices was 210 (120 were QTH and 90 were LED). The reading of the light intensity output for each curing unit was achieved using a digital spectrometer; (Model USB4000 Spectrometer, Ocean Optics Inc, Dunedin, FL, USA). The reading procedure was performed by a single investigator; any recording of light intensity below 300 mW/cm2 was considered unsatisfactory.The result found that the recorded mean values of light intensity output for QTH and LED devices were 260 mW/cm2 and 598 mW/cm2, respectively. The percentage of QTH devices and LED devices considered unsatisfactory was 67.5% and 15.6%, respectively. Overall, the regular assessment of light curing devices using light meters is recommended to assure adequate output for clinical use.

  14. Effect of different light intensities on performance, welfare and behavior of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lighting requirements of birds have to be considered for choosing the optimal light intensity. Therefore, the experiment was carried out to study the effects of the different light intensities on performance, welfare and behavior of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 turkey poults aging 3 weeks were randomly selected and divided into three equal groups. The birds were subjected for 3 different light intensities (5, 25 and 50 lux with 12 h photoperiod in 3 separate rooms. The growth performance parameters of the poults were measured; the parameters were body weight (BW, average feed intake (FI, average body weight gain (ABWG, relative growth rate (RGR, and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Besides, blood parameters and behavioral characters were observed. Results: Our results revealed that poults reared in low intensity (5 lux had better performance (body weight gain, relative growth rate and feed intake. Also, final body weight was significantly higher in 5 lux. The cortisol level was lower in 5 lux than other 25 and 50 lux. Behavior of poults is affected by light intensities in our study, where feather preening, feather pecking and aggressive behaviors were significantly higher in birds housed in the highest intensity (50 lux. In the same way, drinking time was significantly higher in 25 lux. The poults tended to lay and rest on perches more under the lowest intensity (5 lux. Conclusion: It was concluded that, it is better to use moderate light intensity to improve previous parameters with avoiding abnormal behavior. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 18-23

  15. Inherent visible light signature of an intense underwater ultraviolet light source due to combined Raman and fluorescence effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Charles H.; Kalata-Olson, Jody; Pham, Chuong N.

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the utility of a portable, intense source of ultraviolet light for diver use in support of Very Shallow Water operations. The working hypothesis was that the light would be of use to divers at short-to-medium ranges (up to several meters) while remaining invisible to surface observers due to the incoherent insensitivity of the human eye to ultraviolet light. The light source contained an arc discharge lamp rich in short wavelengths and was fitted with a filter that transmitted only the near ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. In-water tests were made in darkness using Navy divers both in a natural coastal environment and in a test tank. It was found that the light was of limited utility to the divers. In addition, the light was not covert because of a bluish-white glow associated with the ultraviolet beam. Subsequent measurements demonstrated that the visible glow was produced by a combination of fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the water and Raman scatter from the water itself. The relative importance of the two factors varied with water type. These two effects that transform light from the invisible to the visible impose inherent limitations on the use of ultraviolet light for covert operations.

  16. Effect of Gastric Acid Suppressant Prophylaxis on Incidence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Abdollahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress related mucosal injury. Reducing gastric acid by acid suppressant medication is the accepted prophylaxis treatment, but there is not any definitive guideline for using prophylaxis in PICU patients. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and H2 Blocker (H2B prophylaxis on gastrointestinal bleeding in admitted patients of PICU, Mashhad- Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients admitted in PICU divided into two equal groups on the first day of admission. They received ranitidine or pantoprazole as prophylaxis of stress ulcer. Those patients who had history of gastrointestinal bleeding or coagulation disorder were excluded. 100 PICU patients who had not received prophylaxis during last 6 months retrospectively evaluated as control of the study. Data were collected as demographic characteristics, admission reason, definitive diagnosis, receiving corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation in each patient. Gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground aspirate, and melena and clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding were daily monitored. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, t-test and using SPSS-16 software.Results: Among 204 patients (control group=105 and case group=99, incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GB was 13.2% in which 6.9% of cases presented with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding (CSGB. Loss of consciousness and respiratory distress were the main reason of admission. There was no significant differences between the incidence of (GB and (CSGB in experimental and control groups (P>0.05 as well as ranitidine and pantoprazole prophylaxis (P>0.05. Significant risk factors of (GB were mechanical ventilation and loss of consciousness and corticosteroid therapy

  17. Incidence, characteristics, and survival following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the quaternary neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Elizabeth E; Langeveld, Robert; Heimall, Lauren; Deveney, Alyson; Ades, Anne; Jensen, Erik A; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2017-01-01

    The contemporary characteristics and outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are poorly described. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, interventions, and outcomes of CPR in a quaternary referral NICU. Retrospective observational study of infants who received chest compressions for resuscitation in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia NICU between April 1, 2011 and June 30, 2015. Patient, event, and survival characteristics were abstracted from the medical record and the hospital-wide resuscitation database. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify patient and event factors associated with survival to discharge. There were 1.2 CPR events per 1000 patient days. CPR was performed in 113 of 5046 (2.2%) infants admitted to the NICU during the study period. The median duration of chest compressions was 2min (interquartile range 1, 6min). Adrenaline was administered in 34 (30%) CPR events. Of 113 infants with at least one CPR event, 69 (61%) survived to hospital discharge. Factors independently associated with decreased survival to hospital discharge were inotrope treatment prior to CPR (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.04, 0.54), and adrenaline administration during CPR (aOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04, 0.50). Although it was not uncommon, the incidence of CPR was low (CPR and adrenaline administration during CPR were less likely to survive to hospital discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of acute kidney injury in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Doaa; Abd-Elrahman, Hadeel; Shehab, Mohamed M; Abd-Elrheem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a six-month period from September 2011 to March 2012. This prospective study was performed on 250 neonates admitted to the NICU at the Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. All neonates were subjected to detailed history taking, including pre-natal, natal and post-natal history, with stress on symptoms suggestive of AKI. All neonates were examined thoroughly and the following investigations were performed: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, arterial blood gases, urine sodium and urine creatinine. AKI was diagnosed in 27 cases (10.8%), including 12 females and 15 males. 40.7% of the AKI cases were born after full-term pregnancy while 59.3% were pre-term babies. 29.6% of the AKI cases had oliguria, and there was male sex predominance, with a male-female ratio of 1.3:1. The cause of AKI was pre-renal in 96.3% and intrinsic renal in 3.7% of the cases. The predisposing factors for AKI were sepsis in 63% of the cases, respiratory distress syndrome in 55.6%, mechanical ventilation in 51.9%, peri-natal asphyxia in 18.5%, dehydration in 14.8%, surgical operation in 11.1%, congenital heart disease in 7.4%, sub-galeal hematoma in 3.7%, polycythemia in 3.7% and intra-ventricular hemorrhage in 3.7% of the cases. Our data suggest that pre-renal failure was the most common form of AKI in our patients. Early recognition of risk factors such as sepsis, peri-natal asphyxia or peri-operative problems and rapid effective treatment of contributing conditions will reduce the incidence of AKI in the neonatal period.

  19. Efficacy of intense pulse light therapy and tripple combination cream versus intense pulse light therapy and tripple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeeb, N.; Noor, S.M.; Paracha, M.M.; Ullah, G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of intense pulse light therapy (IPL) and triple combination cream (TCC) versus intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment, downgrading MASI score to more than 10. Study Design:Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study:Dermatology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients of 18-45 years were included in the study with Fitzpatrick skin type II-V. Sample of 96 patients was divided in to three groups of 32 each, through consecutive (non-probability) sampling method. Detailed history was taken, Woods Lamp Examination done, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was calculated. TCC had to be applied daily at night for two months by group A patients while group B was consigned for IPL therapy fortnightly, and those in group C were given both for two months. Efficacy was compared by recalculating MASI score at treatment end as well as at follow-up after 4 weeks, using Chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results:Male and female patients were 10 (31.2%) and 22 (68.8%) in group A, 7 (21.9%) and 25 (78.1%) in group B, while in group C were 12 (37.5%) and 20 (62.5%). The average age was 28.70 +8.70 years. MASI score reduction was achieved in 22 (68.8%) patients in group A; whereas, in 20 (62.5%) and 30(93.8%) patients in group B and C, respectively. Efficacy-wise distribution was significant (p=0.009). Conclusion:Intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream are more efficacious in epidermal melasma treatment than intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone. (author)

  20. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature and light intensity interaction on Cercospora coffeicola sporulation and conidia germination

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    Marília Goulart da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Difficulty in obtaining abundant sporulation in culture of many species of Cercospora may be the limiting factor for studies of biology, systematics, and inoculation of the genus. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nutritional and environmental requirements that influence mycelial growth, sporulation and germination. As it is difficult to obtain conidia of Cercospora coffeicola in vitro, different temperatures (17, 22, 27, and 32 °C and light intensities (80, 160, 240, and 320 μmol m-2 s-1 were evaluated to optimize pathogen sporulation and assess favorable conditions for spore germination, aiming for a strategy of disease control. The dark treatment (0 μmol m-2 s-1 was added for sporulation. A significant interaction was found between temperature and light intensity for both variables. The highest sporulation rate of C. coffeicola occurred at a light intensity of 240 μmol m-2 s-1 and air temperature of 22 °C, reaching 5.9x106 con mL-1. Germination was higher at temperature 17 °C and light intensity of 320 μmol m-2 s-1, reaching 52%. Interaction between light intensity and temperature proved to influence the processes of sporulation and germination of C. coffeicola.

  2. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczuk Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.

  3. Effect of light Intensity and photoperiod on growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and CO2 Biofixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Teuku Johar; Ikhwan, Yusni; Restuhadi, Fajar; Pato, Usman

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae have been viewed as one of potential solution for CO2 biofixation or CO2 sequestration. However, many factors need to be evaluated to support development of CO2 biofixation. One important environmental factor for the growth of micro algae is related with light requirement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light intensity and photoperiod on growth of Chlorellapyrenoidosa (C.pyrenoidosa) and CO2 biofixation. Experiments were carried out in 1000 mL semi batch photo bioreactors, purged continuously with air (0.034% CO2). An Experiment of Factorial Design was employed in which the light intensity was evaluated 4 level at 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 lux with 3 level of photo period at L/D (light /dark) 8 hours/16 hours; L/D 12 hours/12 hours and L/D 16 hours/8 hours. The result indicated that both light intensity and photo period had significant effect (previewed. The interaction between the two factors was indicative but statistically not significant. Best growth profile sustained at combination of L/D 16 hours/8 hours of photoperiod and light intensity of 8000 lux with the highest average biomass observed at 0.516 ± 0.069gr/L. An increase in CO2biofixation rate of around 2 times was also observed between highest setting (8000 lux; L/D 16/12 hours) relative to that of lowest setting (2000 lux; L/D 8/12 hours).

  4. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ∼95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ∼6.0%.

  5. Incidence and aetiology of renal phosphate loss in patients with hypophosphatemia in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Anneke; Blans, Michiel; Telting, Darryl; de Boer, Hans

    2013-10-01

    Hypophosphatemia is a common finding in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Its cause is often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the incidence of renal phosphate loss in ICU-related hypophosphatemia, and to examine the role of phosphaturic hormones in its etiology. Plasma phosphate levels were measured on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 in 290 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU. Renal phosphate handling and phosphaturic hormones were studied in a subset of patients with phosphate levels Renal phosphate loss was defined as a TmP/gfr patients. This mainly occurred within the first 3 days of stay and in patients with serum creatinine levels Renal phosphate loss was present in 80% of patients who developed hypophosphatemia, and was not related to serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rp), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), or calcitonin. Hypophosphatemia in the ICU is commonly associated with renal phosphate loss. It mainly occurs within the first 3 days of admission, in particular in patients with preserved renal function. Renal phosphate loss is not explained by elevated PTH, PTH-rp, FGF-23 or calcitonin levels.

  6. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ˜95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ˜6.0%.

  7. Effect of light intensities on reproductive performance, nursing behaviour and preference of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Matics

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive performance and nursing behaviour of rabbit does reared under 2 different light intensities and observe the preference of does among cages with different light intensities. Female rabbits were randomly housed in 2 identical rooms, under the same housing conditions in wire-net cages. The 2 rooms only differed in the light intensity; group L: 150-200 lux (n=54 does, 230 inseminations, group D: 10-20 lux (n=54 does, 232 inseminations. Reproduction data from the first 5 consecutive reproductive cycles were evaluated. Nursing behaviour of the does (n = 24 was observed at the 2nd or 4th lactation. The preference of does (n=8 among 4 cages with different light intensities (10, 35, 75 or 155 lux  as examined. There were 6-7% difference between the 2 groups in the number of kits born in total and those born alive (born total: 11.25 vs. 10.59 kits, P<0.1; liveborn: 10.75 vs. 10.00 kits, P<0.05; in groups L and D, respectively. Suckling mortality was nearly 2% higher in group D (L: 8.1, D: 10.0%; P<0.1, and in consequence the litter size of this group at 35 d of age was lower than that of the L rabbits (L: 8.75, D: 8.45 kits; P<0.05. The light intensity did not affect litter and individual weights at 35 d of age. The average numbers of daily nursing events (L: 1.23/d, D: 1.32/d, the length (L: 208±49, D: 213±43 s and the daily distribution of nursing events were not affected by high light intensity. During the light period of the day, the darkest cage (10 lux was the most preferred by the does (44.0, 18.6, 17.9 and 19.5% in 10, 35, 75 and 155 lux cages, respectively; P<0.001. The lower light intensity had no unambiguously unfavourable effect on the reproductive performance and nursing behaviour of the does. Based on the preference test, a lower light intensity may be advantageous from the point of view of animal welfare.

  8. Effects of a power and photon energy of incident light on near-field etching properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, T.; Saito, H.; Nishioka, K.; Leuschel, B.; Soppera, O.; Nobusada, K.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a near-field etching technique for realizing an ultra-flat surfaces of various materials and structures. To elucidate the near-field etching properties, we have investigated the effects of power and the photon energy of the incident light. First, we established theoretically that an optical near-field with photon energy lower than the absorption edge of the molecules can induce molecular vibrations. We used nanodiamonds to study the power dependence of the near-field etching properties. From the topological changes of the nanodiamonds, we confirmed the linear-dependence of the etching volume with the incident power. Furthermore, we studied the photon energy dependence using TiO2 nanostriped structures, which revealed that a lower photon energy results in a lower etching rate.

  9. [Effect of improving light intensity on physio-biochemistry of Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wu-lin; Song, Qi; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei; Sun, Hui

    2014-09-01

    To provide the basis for improving ginseng production by exploring the difference of physio-biochemistry of Panax ginseng after increasing light intensity. Activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD), hydrogen peroxidase (CAT), and peroxydase (POD), as well as contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll a and b under full-light condition were compared with those in the shade in spring and autumn. Activity of three kinds of enzymes in the anti-oxidation system (SOD,CAT and POD) were 27.52%, 41.96% and 37.7% higher than the shade group, respectively. The content of MDA was 11.23% lower. There had no obvious difference on the content of chlorophyll a, but chlorophyll b was decreased slightly. Increasing the light intensity properly can improve the activities of enzyme protection system, and lower the content of MDA, which indicates that the increasing of light will provide a theoretic guide for high-production technique of Panax ginseng.

  10. Risk factors for the incidence of delirium in cerebrovascular patients in a Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ning; Chen, Wenjin; Bao, Yuehong; Qin, Qinpu; Xiao, Qian; Li, Shulan

    2018-01-01

    To explore the incidence of delirium in cerebrovascular patients admitted in our Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit and analyse the risk factors leading to delirium. Delirium is one of the most common mental disorders in general hospitals, but the incidence of different kinds of diseases and studies varies. Cerebrovascular patients in our Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit are high-risk groups for delirium; identifying risk factors for delirium and taking early interventions are crucial for patient prognosis. A prospective study. A convenience sampling method was used to collect data from 128 patients in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, between May 2016-January 2017. Researchers used Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (Chinese version) to assess each patient's delirium statement twice a day at regular times. We also collected other independent data variables and followed up the short-term clinical outcomes daily. On the basis of Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit evaluation, patients were divided into a delirium group and a nondelirium group. The prevalence of delirium among the 128 patients was 42.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that severity of illness, fever, the use of physical restraints and sleep deprivation were independent predictors of delirium in cerebrovascular patients in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit. Cerebrovascular patients in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit with a critical condition, fever or use of physical restraints or experiencing sleep deprivation were more prone to delirium. Cerebrovascular patients in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit showed a high incidence of delirium. There are many risk factors leading to delirium, some of which are independent predictors of intensive care delirium. Patients with delirium will suffer various adverse effects upon their short-term clinical outcomes. Therefore, nurses should pay close

  11. Polarization resolved conoscopic patterns in nematic cells: effects induced by the incident light ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buinyi, Igor O.; Soskin, Marat S.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-05-01

    Topological structure of the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns, calculated theoretically and measured experimentally for nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells, is described in terms of polarization singularities, saddle points and bifurcation lines. The parametric dynamics of the topological network, induced by the variation of the incident light ellipticity, is analyzed for the nematic cells with uniform and non-uniform director configuration. Different stages of similar dynamics are observed for homeotropically oriented NLC cell. Non-uniform director configuration within the cell results in broken central symmentry in the arrangement of the topological network. Main features of the experimentally obtained polarization resolved conoscopic patterns are the same to the theoretically predicted ones.

  12. The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in Postoperative Recovery from Eyelid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Gary; Lam, Vincent B; Wulc, Allan E

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative intense pulsed light therapy on patients who undergo bilateral eyelid surgery. Patients presenting over a 3-month period for bilateral eyelid surgery were asked to participate in an institutional review board-approved study. Intense pulsed light therapy was administered three times to the same randomly assigned side on postoperative days 1 to 2, 5 to 7, and 10 to 12. Sham light therapy was administered to the contralateral side. Patient surveys and physician ratings were obtained based on photographic evaluation of ecchymosis, edema, and erythema. Three physicians, including the senior author (A.E.W.), submitted ratings, and these ratings were assessed for interobserver reliability. Twenty-eight patients who underwent bilateral eyelid surgery followed by intense pulsed light therapy were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (range, 44 to 81 years). Eighty-six percent of patients were female. The change in ratings between postoperative days 1 to 2 and 10 to 12, in the treatment and control groups, was statistically significant for severity of bruising by both patient and physician assessment and for color of bruising only by patient assessment. The interobserver reliability reached the greatest agreement in the ecchymosis category at each time point for the treatment group. In a series of patients who underwent eyelid surgery, intense pulsed light therapy decreased the degree of ecchymosis compared with sham treatment in postoperative eyelid surgery patients. Therapeutic, II.

  13. Selective detection of Escherichia coli by imaging of the light intensity transmitted through an optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Shima, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaomin; Fujimaki, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    We have developed an optical disk system for imaging transmitted light from Escherichia coli dispersed on an optical disk. When E. coli was stained using Bismarck brown, the transmittance was found to decrease in images obtained at λ = 405 nm. The results indicate that transmittance imaging is suitable for finding the difference in light intensity between stained and unstained E. coli, whereas the reflectance images were scarcely changed by staining. Therefore, E. coli can be selectively discriminated from abiotic contaminants using transmittance imaging.

  14. Comparison of intensive light-emitting diode and intensive compact fluorescent phototherapy in non-hemolytic jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takcı, Sahin; Yiğit, Sule; Bayram, Gülperi; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yurdakök, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In severe and rapidly increasing jaundice, the use of intensive phototherapy provides greater effectiveness and a faster decrement in bilirubin levels compared to conventional phototherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of intensive phototherapy: intensive compact fluorescent tube (CFT) and intensive light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy. Forty-three infants over 35 weeks of gestation with severe non-hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled in the prospective study. All infants received multidirectional (circular-shaped) intensive phototherapy. Of these, 20 infants received CFT while 23 infants received LED phototherapy. Bilirubin levels and body temperatures were measured periodically, and the rates of bilirubin decrement were calculated. Mean serum bilirubin level of the 43 infants was 20.5±1.5 mg/dl at the beginning of the therapy and mean duration of phototherapy was 20.6±1.1 hours. The rate of mean bilirubin decline was 47.2% and the decrease was more prominent in the first four hours (0.84 ± 0.41 mg/dl/h). The rates of bilirubin decrement were comparable between the LED and CFT groups. Slightly elevated mean body temperature (37.1ºC) was determined in the CFT group (pphototherapy units with both LED and CFT were effective, showing a decline of half the initial value of bilirubin during the study period in infants with non-hemolytic jaundice. This study shows that intensive phototherapy with either CFT or LED can provide rapid decrease in bilirubin levels in the first few hours. This rapid decline is important in cases that have high risk of bilirubin encephalopathy.

  15. Incidence of acute kidney injury in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU over a six-month period from September 2011 to March 2012. This prospective study was performed on 250 neonates admitted to the NICU at the Children′s Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. All neonates were subjected to detailed history taking, including pre-natal, natal and post-natal history, with stress on symptoms suggestive of AKI. All neonates were examined thoroughly and the following investigations were performed: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, arterial blood gases, urine sodium and urine creatinine. AKI was diagnosed in 27 cases (10.8%, including 12 females and 15 males. 40.7% of the AKI cases were born after full-term pregnancy while 59.3% were pre-term babies. 29.6% of the AKI cases had oliguria, and there was male sex predominance, with a male-female ratio of 1.3:1. The cause of AKI was pre-renal in 96.3% and intrinsic renal in 3.7% of the cases. The predisposing factors for AKI were sepsis in 63% of the cases, respiratory distress syndrome in 55.6%, mechanical ventilation in 51.9%, peri-natal asphyxia in 18.5%, dehydration in 14.8%, surgical operation in 11.1%, congenital heart disease in 7.4%, sub-galeal hematoma in 3.7%, polycythemia in 3.7% and intra-ventricular hemorrhage in 3.7% of the cases. Our data suggest that pre-renal failure was the most common form of AKI in our patients. Early recognition of risk factors such as sepsis, peri-natal asphyxia or peri-operative problems and rapid effective treatment of contributing conditions will reduce the incidence of AKI in the neonatal period.

  16. A light incident angle switchable ZnO nanorod memristor: reversible switching behavior between two non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Lee, Junghan; Yong, Kijung

    2013-11-26

    A light incident angle selectivity of a memory device is demonstrated. As a model system, the ZnO resistive switching device has been selected. Electrical signal is reversibly switched between memristor and resistor behaviors by modulating the light incident angle on the device. Moreover, a liquid passivation layer is introduced to achieve stable and reversible exchange between the memristor and WORM behaviors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red light (RL marked higher weight gain (WG and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux, T2 = medium intensity (20 lux; T3 = dim intensity (5 lux, T4 = control/white light at (20 lux provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05 highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99 was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56 and FCR (1.34 were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05 influence giving the highest (56.2 g and the lowest (12.6 g values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05 higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1% was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2% was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI (4.87%±4% was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05 affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05 affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  18. The effect of luminous intensity on the attraction of phlebotomine sand flies to light traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Neto, Abdias R; Costa-Neta, Benedita M; da Silva, Apoliana Araújo; Brito, Jefferson M; Aguiar, João V C; Ponte, Islana S; Silva, Francinaldo S

    2017-12-19

    To improve the efficiency of light traps in collecting phlebotomine sand flies, the potential effects of luminous intensity on the attraction of these insects to traps were evaluated. Sand flies were collected with Hooper Pugedo (HP) light traps fitted with 5-mm light-emitting diodes (LED) bulbs: green (520 nm wavelength-10,000, 15,000 and 20,000 millicandela (mcd) and blue (470 nm-4,000, 12,000 and 15,000 mcd). A total of 3,264 sand flies comprising 13 species were collected. The collected species were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (52.48%), Evandromyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes, 1939) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (32.90%) and Micropygomyia goiana (Martins, Falcão, & Silva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (9.76%). An increase in luminous intensity of the LEDs increased the size of the sand fly catch. The lower luminous intensity of green (10,000 mcd) attracted an average of 13.7 ± 2.8 sand flies/trap per night and the other luminous intensities accounted for a mean of 24.1 ± 4.0 (15,000 mcd) and 28.2 ± 5.0 (20,000 mcd) sand flies/trap per night. Regarding the blue wavelength, the lower luminous intensity (4,000 mcd) attracted an average of 27.4 ± 4.1 sand flies/trap per night, followed by 12,000 mcd (37.6 ± 8.7) and 15,000 mcd (40.5 ± 7.3). Based on our data, the luminous intensity of light traps should be considered when developing light traps for monitoring or controlling phlebotomine sand flies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRIŞ SANDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.

  20. Light intensity on growth, leaf micromorphology and essential oil production of Ocimum gratissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Ferreira Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Light conditions can promote the growth and development of plants and contribute to increase the essential oil production of commercially cultivated medicinal and aromatic species. In view of the great importance of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, as an aromatic plant, the objective of this work was to determine the effect of light intensities (approximately 4, 7, 11 and 20 mol m-2 d-1 on growth, foliar micromorphology, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of O. gratissimum. Biomass production of different organs, root:shoot ratio and leaf mass per area were found to linearly increase with increased light availability, whereas stem dry matter fraction, number of leaves, leaf area and plant height have increased up to 10 mol m-2 d-1 and decreased from this value. The tector trichomes density increased with increased light availability, but there was no effect of light treatments on the glandular trichomes density and essential oil content. Regardless of the light level, the major component of the essential oil was eugenol. The essential oil yield per plant increased linearly with light intensity as a direct effect of increased leaf biomass under similar conditions.

  1. Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage V-oc of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated as a function of light intensity for different temperatures. Devices consisted of a blend of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative as the hole conductor and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester

  2. Clinical User Experience Testing of Ambient Lighting for Neonatal Intensive Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, P.R.; Visser, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Believed to the first application of its kind in the UK, Philips hasinstalled dynamic and ambient LED lighting in the recently extendedNeonatal Intensive Care Unit, (NICU), at St Michael’s Hospital, Bristol. The neonatal facility was redeveloped in late 2011 with a newICU built next to an existing

  3. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C

    2013-01-01

    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  4. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  5. 3d study of bifacial silicon solar cell under intense light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This work presents a three-dimensional study of bifacial silicon solar cell under intense light concentration and under constant magnetic field. This approach is based on the resolution of the minority continuity equation, taking into account the distribution of the electric field in the bulk evaluated as a function of both majority ...

  6. The intense pulsed light systems : new treatment possibilities for vascular, pigmented lesions and hair removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Schroeter (Careen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGiven all of the differences in between laser and IPLS devices and the need for additional information in IPLS treatment applications, the aim of this study was to evaluate new treatment possibilities using Intense Pulsed Light Sources and to address the following questions: 1. What

  7. 3D study of bifacial silicon solar cell under intense light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a three-dimensional study of bifacial silicon solar cell under intense light concentration and under constant magnetic field. This approach is based on the resolution of the minority continuity equation, taking into account the distribution of the electric field in the bulk evaluated as a function of both majority ...

  8. 3d study of bifacial silicon solar cell under intense light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    δ. +Λ. -. ∇. =+ +=. (3). 3D STUDY OF BIFACIAL SILICON SOLAR CELL UNDER INTENSE LIGHT. 115 ..... SIMULATION. RESULTS. AND. DISCUSSIONS. We present in this part a 3-D study of magnetic field effects, on the excess minority carriers generation and recombination parameters in the bulk of the base of a bifacial ...

  9. Measuring acoustic energy density in microchannel acoustophoresis using a simple and rapid light-intensity method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Iranmanesh, Ida; Wiklund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and rapid method for measuring the acoustic energy density in microchannel acoustophoresis based on light-intensity measurements of a suspension of particles. The method relies on the assumption that each particle in the suspension undergoes single-particle acoustophoresis...

  10. effect of light intensity on the performance of silicon solar cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 31 January 2017; Revision Accepted 7 April 2017). ABSTRACT. This work, presents the intense light effect on electrical parameters of silicon solar such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, series and shunt ... level, which is a source of carrier photogeneration,. 123. Martial Zoungrana, Laboratory of ...

  11. Preferency of soil macrofauna to crops residue at different light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every species of soil macrofauna prefer specific food and environment to be establish in it's habitat. Their diversity depend on variation of food and environmental condition. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different crop residue and light intensity on population of several soil macrofauna specieses. Mycrocosmos experiment was arranged in split-plot design with two treatments factor, i.e.: (1 crop residue (albizia, papaya, elephant grass, maize, sweet potato and without crop residue input, and (2 light intensities (0, 5, 15 and 25 Watt/day. The soil macrofauna were earthworms, millipedes, scarabids larvae and cocroachs. Results of the study showed that: (1 crop residues apllication increased soil macrofauna population, especially maize residue ( by 113%, respectively, compare to control tretment, (2 on higher light intensity, population of earthworms, scarabids larvae and cocroach decreased, but population of millipedes increased, (3 the highest macrofauna population was on maize residue and 5 Watt/day light intensity treatment.

  12. Effect of light intensity on the performance of silicon solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work, presents the intense light effect on electrical parameters of silicon solar such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, series and shunt resistances, maximum power, conversion efficiency, fill factor. After the resolution of the continuity equation which leads to the solar cell photocurrent and photovoltage ...

  13. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  14. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Low- and High-Intensity Light Activity with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bethany; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Sethi, Parneet; Carson, Valerie; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, J O; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-10-01

    Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviors of low intensity (standing with little movement) to those of higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA (categorized as either low LIPA [LLPA] or high LIPA [HLPA]) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47 ± 17 yr) who participated in the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment per day) intensity categories (LLPA, 100-761 counts per minute; HLPA, 762-1951 counts per minute; moderate-intensity physical activity [MPA], 1952-5724 counts per minute; vigorous-intensity physical activity [VPA], ≥5725 counts per minute) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (P activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, and 2-h plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, and VPA). Generally, effect size increased with intensity of physical activity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than associations with LLPA and HLPA. The cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA. They further reinforce the

  16. Effects of Light Intensity and Color on the Biomass, Extracellular Red Pigment, and Citrinin Production of Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liling; Dai, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-12-21

    Light is a crucial environmental signal for fungi. In this work, the effects of different light intensities and colors on biomass, Monascus pigments (MPs) and citrinin production of Monascus ruber M7 were investigated. We have demonstrated that low intensity of blue light (500 lx) decreased Monascus biomass, increased MPs accumulation via upregulation of MpigA, MpigB, and MpigJ genes expression, but had no significant influence on citrinin production. High intensity of blue light (1500 lx) decreased citrinin accumulation but had no significant influence on biomass and MPs production after 14 days cultivation. Low intensity of green light (500 lx) stimulated citrinin production via upregulation of pksCT, mrl1, mrl2, and ctnA genes expression. One putative red light photoreceptor and two putative green light photoreceptors were identified in M. ruber M7. These observations will not only guide the practical production of Monascus but also contribute to our understanding light effects on Monascus.

  17. Light colour and intensity alters reproductive/seasonal responses in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-08-01

    An extensive literature is available on the photoperiodic responses of avian species but studies on light colour and wavelength from light emitting diode (LED) sources on reproduction are limited. Hence, an experiment was designed to study the effect of different colours and intensities of light on the reproductive responses of Japanese quail. Three-week old quail were exposed to five different light conditions with a long photoperiod (LD 16:8): WT (white fluorescent light 100 lux as control), W LED (white light emitting diode, 30 lux), B LED (blue LED, 30 lux), G LED (green LED, 30 lux) and R-LED (red LED, 30 lux). The cloacal gland size, an indicator of androgenic activity, was monitored weekly. The results indicated an early initiation of gonadal growth in WT quail which continued and maintained a plateau throughout the period of study. On the other hand, in general low intensity light, there was a decreased amplitude of the reproductive cycle and the quail exposed to different colour lights (green, red and blue lights) used different incubation times to initiate their gonadal growth and exhibited a gonadal cycle of a different duration up to 15.5 weeks. Thereafter, the gonad of quail of all the LED groups started developing again (including the blue LED exposed quail which remained undeveloped until this age) and attained the increased degree of growth until 26.5 weeks of age. During the second cycle, gonads of green and red light exposed quail continued to increase and maintained a plateau of development similar to WT exposed control while white and blue LED exposed quail exhibited spontaneous regression and attained complete sexual quiescence. Based on our study, it is suggested that long term exposure to blue LED light of low intensity may induce gonadal regression even under long-day conditions (LD 16:8), while exposure to green and red lights appears to maintain a constant photosensitivity after one complete gonadal cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  18. Adaptive illumination through spatial modulation of light intensity and image inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, P.; Cecchini, S.; Stroppa, L.; Paone, N.

    2013-05-01

    The paper introduces the concept of spatial modulation of light intensity in the context of vision-based quality control, with the aim to improve image quality, measurable by indices such as image contrast and Tenengrad, so as to enhance the level of confidence of the diagnosis performed by image processing. The proposed technique is based on the projection of spatially modulated light intensity distribution by a digital light projector that allows an arbitrary light distribution to be projected on the target. The projected spatial distribution of light is determined by implementing an algorithm based on image inversion: the image acquired by the camera under uniform illumination is inverted and it is then used to modulate the light spatial distribution for projection. The process is repeated iteratively with the purpose to enhance image quality until convergence. The technique proves particularly valuable to avoid saturation from reflecting surfaces, which are often found in industrial practice. The procedure is tested and validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental validation, referring to a significant problem for the washing machine manufacturing industry. The use of image quality estimators confirms the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Adaptive illumination through spatial modulation of light intensity and image inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, P; Cecchini, S; Stroppa, L; Paone, N

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of spatial modulation of light intensity in the context of vision-based quality control, with the aim to improve image quality, measurable by indices such as image contrast and Tenengrad, so as to enhance the level of confidence of the diagnosis performed by image processing. The proposed technique is based on the projection of spatially modulated light intensity distribution by a digital light projector that allows an arbitrary light distribution to be projected on the target. The projected spatial distribution of light is determined by implementing an algorithm based on image inversion: the image acquired by the camera under uniform illumination is inverted and it is then used to modulate the light spatial distribution for projection. The process is repeated iteratively with the purpose to enhance image quality until convergence. The technique proves particularly valuable to avoid saturation from reflecting surfaces, which are often found in industrial practice. The procedure is tested and validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental validation, referring to a significant problem for the washing machine manufacturing industry. The use of image quality estimators confirms the effectiveness of the method. (paper)

  20. Light intensity modulates the response of two Antarctic diatom species to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Pascale Heiden

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is largely unknown how rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and changes in the upper mixed layer depth, with its subsequent effects on light availability will affect phytoplankton physiology in the Southern Ocean. Linking seasonal variations in the availability of CO2 and light to abundances and physiological traits of key phytoplankton species could aid to understand their abilities to acclimate to predicted future climatic conditions. To investigate the combined effects of CO2 and light on two ecologically relevant Antarctic diatoms (Fragilariopsis curta and Odontella weisflogii a matrix of three light intensities (LL=20, ML=200, HL=500 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and three pCO2 levels (low=180, ambient=380, high=1000 µatm was applied assessing their effects on growth, particulate organic carbon (POC fixation and photophysiology. Under ambient pCO2, POC production rates were highest already at low light in Fragilariopsis, indicating saturation of photosynthesis, while in Odontella highest rates were only reached at medium irradiances. In both species ocean acidification did not stimulate, but rather inhibited, growth and POC production under low and medium light. This effect was, however, amended under high growth irradiances. Low pCO2 levels inhibited growth and POC production in both species at low and medium light, and further decreased absETRs under high light. Our results suggest that Southern Ocean diatoms were sensitive to changes in pCO2, showing species-specific responses, which were further modulated by light intensity. The two diatom species represent distinct ecotypes and revealed discrete physiological traits that matched their seasonal occurrence with the related physical conditions in Antarctic coastal waters.

  1. Incidence of MRI intensity changes in the knee meniscus. Comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic knees without meniscal lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Iso, Yoshinori; Furufu, Teruo; Suguro, Toru

    2004-01-01

    MRI has become the most frequently used imaging technique in diagnosing knee joint diseases. However, a number of factors may change the intensity of the meniscus on MR images, even in normal knees. The question remains when and to what degree the change in intensity appears with age, how aging is related to MR image grades, and how the development of symptoms is related to a change in intensity. To answer these questions, the present study investigated MR images of the menisci of asymptomatic volunteers and patients with knee diseases other than meniscal lesions to determine intrameniscal intensity changes. 163 knees in 133 subjects who underwent MRI for the knee joint (s) were examined. The coronal and the sagittal planes were imaged with T1 weighted imaging and GE slice thickness of 5 mm. MR images were classified as Grade 0 to 4. In knees of patients under 40 years of age, a change in intensity was only rarely observed in the menisci of normal knees, though it was frequently observed in those of symptomatic knees. By contrast, in the knees of patients 40 years or older, a change in intensity was frequently observed in the menisci of both normal and symptomatic knees. MRI is useful because of its convenience, low invasiveness, and high diagnostic ability. However, MR images of the meniscus should be read carefully, because the incidence of changes in intensity increases with aging or inflammation, and in symptomatic knees, the intensity change is occasionally exaggerated resulting in incorrect diagnosis. (author)

  2. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Twenty-three, elite professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age, 25.6 ± 4.6 years; stature, 181.8 ± 6.8 cm; and body mass, 79.3 ± 8.1 kg) were studied throughout the 2-years span of the investigation. The results showed a mean total injury incidence of 18.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7-22.9) injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. Significant correlations were found between training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.

  3. Photodynamic Therapy Activated by Intense Pulsed Light in the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Piccolo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL has proven to be a highly effective conservative method for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK, Bowen’s disease (BD, and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC. PDT is traditionally performed in association with broad-spectrum continuous-wave light sources, such as red or blue light. Recently, intense pulsed light (IPL devices have been investigated as an alternative light source for PDT in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC. We herein report our observational findings in a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of AK, sBCC, and BD that is treated with MAL-PDT using IPL, as well as we review published data on the use of IPL-PDT in NMSC.

  4. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  5. Antioxidant capacity reduced in scallions grown under elevated CO 2 independent of assayed light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Paré, Paul W.

    2009-10-01

    Long-duration manned space missions mandate the development of a sustainable life support system and effective countermeasures against damaging space radiation. To mitigate the risk of inevitable exposure to space radiation, cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is an attractive alternative to pharmacological agents. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties of crops can be preserved or enhanced in a space environment where environmental conditions differ from that which plants have acclimated to on earth. Scallion ( Allium fistulosum) rich in antioxidant vitamins C and A, and flavonoids was used as a model plant to study the impact of a range of CO 2 concentrations and light intensities that are likely encountered in a space habitat on food quality traits. Scallions were hydroponically grown in controlled environmental chambers under a combination of 3 CO 2 concentrations of 400, 1200 and 4000 μmol mol -1 and 3 light intensity levels of 150, 300, 450 μmol m -2 s -1. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of scallion extracts was determined using a radical cation scavenging assay. Both elevated CO 2 and increasing light intensity enhanced biomass accumulation, but effects on TAA (based on dry weight) differed. TAA was reduced for plants grown under elevated CO 2, but remained unchanged with increases in light intensity. Elevated CO 2 stimulated greater biomass production than antioxidants, while an increase in photosynthetic photo flux promoted the synthesis of antioxidant compounds at a rate similar to that of biomass. Consequently light is a more effective stimulus than CO 2 for antioxidant production.

  6. Dual gradients of light intensity and nutrient concentration for full-factorial mapping of photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Brian; Graham, Percival J; Sinton, David

    2016-08-07

    Optimizing bioproduct generation from microalgae is complicated by the myriad of coupled parameters affecting photosynthetic productivity. Quantifying the effect of multiple coupled parameters in full-factorial fashion requires a prohibitively high number of experiments. We present a simple hydrogel-based platform for the rapid, full-factorial mapping of light and nutrient availability on the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae. We accomplish this without microfabrication using thin sheets of cell-laden hydrogels. By immobilizing the algae in a hydrogel matrix we are able to take full advantage of the continuous spatial chemical gradient produced by a diffusion-based gradient generator while eliminating the need for chambers. We map the effect of light intensities between 0 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 130 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (∼28 W m(-2)) coupled with ammonium concentrations between 0 mM and 7 mM on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our data set, verified with bulk experiments, clarifies the role of ammonium availability on the photosynthetic productivity Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, demonstrating the dependence of ammonium inhibition on light intensity. Specifically, a sharp optimal growth peak emerges at approximately 2 mM only for light intensities between 80 and 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)- suggesting that ammonium inhibition is insignificant at lower light intensities. We speculate that this phenomenon is due to the regulation of the high affinity ammonium transport system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as free ammonia toxicity. The complexity of this photosynthetic biological response highlights the importance of full-factorial data sets as enabled here.

  7. The ultrastructure of rabbit sclera after scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and blue light of different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Anett; Makarov, Felix N; Koch, Christian; Körber, Nicole; Schuldt, Carsten; Krüger, Martin; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Iseli, Hans Peter; Francke, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to determine the ultrastructural changes of collagen fibrils and cells in the rabbit sclera after scleral crosslinking using riboflavin and blue light of different intensities. Scleral crosslinking is known to increase scleral stiffness and may inhibit the axial elongation of progressive myopic eyes. The equatorial parts of the sclera of one eye of six adult albino rabbits were treated with topical riboflavin solution (0.5 %) followed by irradiation with blue light (200, 400, 650 mW/cm(2)) for 20 min. After 3 weeks, the ultrastructure of scleral cells and the abundance of small- (10-100 nm) and large-diameter (>100 nm) collagen fibrils in fibril bundles of different scleral layers were examined with electron microscopy. In the scleral stroma of control eyes, the thickness of collagen fibrils showed a bimodal distribution. The abundance of small-diameter collagen fibrils decreased from the inner towards the outer sclera, while the amount of large-diameter fibrils and the scleral collagen content did not differ between different stroma layers. Treatment with riboflavin and blue light at 200 mW/cm(2) did not induce ultrastructural changes of cells and collagen fibrils in the scleral stroma. Treatment with blue light of higher intensities induced scleral cell activation in a scleral layer-dependent manner. In addition, outer scleral layers contained phagocytes that engulfed collagen fibrils and erythrocytes. Blue light of the highest intensity induced a reduction of the scleral collagen content, a decreased abundance of large-diameter collagen fibrils, and an increased amount of small-diameter fibrils in the whole scleral stroma. The data indicate that in rabbits, scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and blue light of 200 mW/cm(2) for 20 min is relatively safe and does not induce ultrastructural alterations of scleral cells and of the collagen composition of the scleral stroma. Irradiation with blue light of intensities between 200 and 400 mW/cm(2

  8. High-throughput estimation of incident light, light interception and radiation-use efficiency of thousands of plants in a phenotyping platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Fournier, Christian; Brichet, Nicolas; Welcker, Claude; Suard, Benoît; Tardieu, François

    2016-10-01

    Light interception and radiation-use efficiency (RUE) are essential components of plant performance. Their genetic dissections require novel high-throughput phenotyping methods. We have developed a suite of methods to evaluate the spatial distribution of incident light, as experienced by hundreds of plants in a glasshouse, by simulating sunbeam trajectories through glasshouse structures every day of the year; the amount of light intercepted by maize (Zea mays) plants via a functional-structural model using three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of each plant placed in a virtual scene reproducing the canopy in the glasshouse; and RUE, as the ratio of plant biomass to intercepted light. The spatial variation of direct and diffuse incident light in the glasshouse (up to 24%) was correctly predicted at the single-plant scale. Light interception largely varied between maize lines that differed in leaf angles (nearly stable between experiments) and area (highly variable between experiments). Estimated RUEs varied between maize lines, but were similar in two experiments with contrasting incident light. They closely correlated with measured gas exchanges. The methods proposed here identified reproducible traits that might be used in further field studies, thereby opening up the way for large-scale genetic analyses of the components of plant performance. © 2016 INRA New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Persistent postoperative pain after cardiac surgery: a systematic review with meta-analysis regarding incidence and pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Pereira, Luís; Reis, Pedro; Abelha, Fernando; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Persistent postoperative pain (PPP) has been described as a complication of cardiac surgery (CS). We aimed to study PPP after CS (PPPCS) by conducting a systematic review of the literature regarding its incidence, intensity, location, and the presence of neuropathic pain, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The review comprised 3 phases: a methodological assessment of 6 different databases identifying potential articles and screening for inclusion criteria by 2 independent reviewers; data extraction; and study quality assessment. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled incidence rates using a random effects model. We have identified 442 potentially relevant studies through database searching. A total of 23 studies (involving 11,057 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Persistent postoperative pain affects 37% patients in the first 6 months after CS, and it remains present more than 2 years after CS in 17%. The reported incidence of PPP during the first 6 months after CS increased in recent years. Globally, approximately half of the patients with PPPCS reported moderate to severe pain. Chest is the main location of PPPCS followed by the leg; neuropathic pain is present in the majority of the patients. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to provide estimates regarding incidence and intensity of PPPCS, which elucidates its relevance. There is an urgent need for adequate treatment and follow-up in patients with PPPCS.

  10. Electron Parametric Instabilities Driven by Relativistically Intense Laser Light in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, H. C.; Mason, P.; Parr, D. M.

    1999-08-01

    A unified treatment of electron parametric instabilities driven by ultraintense laser light in plasma is described. It is valid for any intensity, polarization, plasma density, and scattering geometry. The method is applied to linearly polarized light in both underdense plasma and overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. New options arise which are hybrids of stimulated Raman scattering, the two plasmon decay, the relativistic modulational and filamentation instabilities, and stimulated harmonic generation. There is vigorous growth over a wide range of wave numbers and harmonics.

  11. Synchronous Crepuscular Flight of Female Asian Gypsy Moths: Relationships of Light Intensity and Ambient and Body Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Charlton; Ring T. Carde; William E. Wallner; William E. Wallner

    1999-01-01

    Female gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) of Asian heritage studied in central Siberia and Germany exhibit a highly synchronous flight at dusk, after light intensity falls to about 2 lux. This critical light intensity sets the timing of flight behaviors independent of ambient temperature. Flight follows several minutes of preflight wing fanning during which females in...

  12. Excitation of random intense single-cycle light-pulse chains in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y C; Zhang, F L; Gao, J B; Chen, Z Y; Lin, C Y; Yu, M Y

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of intense periodic single-cycle light pulses in a stochastic background arising from continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a long optical fiber with weak optical feedback is found experimentally and modeled theoretically. Such intense light-pulse chains occur randomly and the optical feedback is a requirement for their excitation. The probability of these forms, among the large number of experimental output signals with identifiable waveforms, appearing is only about 3%, with the remainder exhibiting regular SBS characteristics. It is also found that pulses with low period numbers appear more frequently and the probability distribution for their occurrence in terms of the pulse power is roughly L-shaped, like that for rogue waves. The results from a three-wave-coupling model for SBS including feedback phase control agree well qualitatively with the observed phenomena. (paper)

  13. Effect of oxygen at low and high light intensities on the growth of Neochloris oleoabundans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, C.A.; Compadre, A.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of partial oxygen pressure on growth of Neochloris oleoabundans was studied at near-saturating light intensity in a fully-controlled photobioreactor. At the partial oxygen pressures tested (PO2=0.24; 0.42; 0.63; 0.84 bar), the specific growth rate was 1.36; 1.16; 0.93 and 0.68 day-1,

  14. Fabry-Perot fiber pressure sensor based on white light interferometry and intensity demodulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenwu; Li, Weixiang; Zhang, Dapeng; Pan, Yong; Meng, Qingbin; Liu, Guangwei; Ge, Fuwei; Zhang, Xian

    2009-05-01

    We have designed an intensity-demodulated sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometer and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for pressure measurement. The structure of the sensor probe is presented. It is an optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer(EFPI) composed of silica tube and optical fibers. The variable quantity of cavity length of the EFPI is equal to that of silica tube, which has direct proportion to external pressure. The sensing system is interrogated by broadband light. In order to compensate intensity fluctuation, we use an FBG as a narrow band filter to obtain the sensing signal and reference signal from white-light interference fringe returned from EFPI. The sensing signal is in the reflected beam from FBG, and the reference signal is contained in reflected beam and transmitted beam of FBG simultaneously. Then two output light signals are transformed into current signals by two photodiodes. Subsequently two current signals are processed at the same time. After the signals being treated with circuit, the inherent disadvantage of intensity-demodulated sensor is removed. It is also to say the sensing system has immunity from the drift of light source power and fluctuation in fiber attenuation by using only a FBG. Meanwhile, the system has advantages of fast response, simple circuitry, strong ability of intensity compensation and low cost. Experimental results show that the experimental data are consistent with theoretical analysis. The dynamic range of sensor is from 0 to 500KPa, and the resolution reaches to 0.5KPa. The sensing system can be used to measure pressure in inflammable and explosive circumstance such as oil height of super oil storage tanks.

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xun, Deng; Wang, Ya-Cong; Wang, Bin; Geng, Shao-Hui; Chen, Hui; Li, Yan-Tao; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China, respectively. Methods: We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA) ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW) ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts. The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population. Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP. The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed. Results: The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%, and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP, and the difference is statistically significant. ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77 [0.62–0.95], P = 0.015), BW (OR: 0.998 [0.996–0.999], P = 0.008), maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR: 4.27 [1.21–15.10], P = 0.024) and preeclampsia (OR: 6.07 [1.73–21.36] P = 0.005). The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals. In Zhujiang Hospital, BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA, BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions: Retinopathy of prematurity incidence is different based on area. Incidence of ROP is still high in China. More efforts need to prevent ROP. PMID:25836612

  16. Incidence and long-term outcomes of adult patients with diabetic ketoacidosis admitted to intensive care: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaesh, Aksha

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening but avoidable complication of diabetes mellitus often managed in intensive care units. The risk of emergency hospital readmission in patients surviving an intensive care unit episode of diabetic ketoacidosis is unknown. We aimed to report the cumulative incidence of emergency hospital readmission and costs in all patients surviving an intensive care unit episode of diabetic ketoacidosis in Scotland. We used a national six-year cohort of survivors of first diabetic ketoacidosis admissions to Scottish intensive care units (1 January 2005-31 December 2010) identified in the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group registry linked to acute hospital and death records (follow-up censored 31 December 2010). Diabetic ketoacidosis-related emergency readmissions were identified using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. During the study period, 386 patients were admitted to intensive care units in Scotland with diabetic ketoacidosis (admission rate 1.5/100,000 Scottish population). Median age was 44 (IQR 29-56); 51% male; 55% required no organ support on admission. Mortality after intensive care unit admission was 8% at 30 days, 18% at one year, and 35% at five years. A total of 349 patients survived their first intensive care unit diabetic ketoacidosis admission [mean (SD) age 42.5 (18.1) years; 50.4% women; 46.1% required ≥1 organ support]. Following hospital discharge, cumulative incidence of 90-day, one-year, and five-year diabetic ketoacidosis readmission (all-cause readmission) was 13.8% (31.8%), 29.7% (58.9%) and 46.4% (82.6%). Diabetic ketoacidosis in patients requiring intensive care unit admission is associated with high risk of long-term mortality and high hospital costs. An understanding of the precipitating causes of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients admitted to intensive care units may allow patients who are at high risk to be targeted, potentially reducing future morbidity and the substantial burden

  17. INDUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MACROMYCETES BY LOW-INTENSITY LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the induction of antimicrobial activity of macromycetes by low-intensity light of different wavelengths and coherence. The objects of investigation were the strains of Flammulina velutipes 3923, Pleurotus ostreatus 531, Ganoderma lucidum 1908 and G. applanatum 1552 from Mushrooms Collection of the Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the test-cultures from Cultural Collections of the Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, All-Union Research Institute of Antibiotics and the All-Russian Collection of Industrial microorganisms. Helium-neon laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and an argon ion laser with wavelengths of 488.0 nm and 514.5 nm were used as a source of coherent visible light lasers. For obtaining incoherent light LEDs with emission at a wavelength of 490.0, 520.0 and 634.0 nm were used. It was found that short-term exposure of sowing mycelium by low intensity light with the energy density of 230 MJ/cm2 in the red and blue wavelength ranges reduced the cultivation period before the appearance of antimicrobial activity and induced the increasing of the culture fluid inhibitory activity against different test-cultures from 20 to 238%. Selected modes of antimicrobial activity photostimulation could be used in biotechnology of submerged cultivation of macromycetes for intensification of technological stages and increasing the yield of the final product.

  18. Low light intensity and nitrogen starvation modulate the chlorophyll content of Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V S; Pinto, R F; Sant'Anna, C

    2016-03-01

    Chlorophyll is a photosynthetic pigment found in plants and algal organisms and is a bioproduct with human health benefits and a great potential for use in the food industry. The chlorophyll content in microalgae strains varies in response to environmental factors. In this work, we assessed the effect of nitrogen depletion and low light intensity on the chlorophyll content of the Scenedesmus dimorphus microalga. The growth of S. dimorphus under low light intensity led to a reduction in cell growth and volume as well as increased cellular chlorophyll content. Nitrogen starvation led to a reduction in cell growth and the chlorophyll content, changes in the yield and productivity of chlorophylls a and b. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the S. dimorphus exposed to nitrogen and light deficiency. In contrast to nitrogen depletion, low light availability was an effective mean for increasing the total chlorophyll content of green microalga S. dimorphus. The findings acquired in this work are of great biotechnological importance to extend knowledge of choosing the right culture condition to stimulate the effectiveness of microalgae strains for chlorophyll production purposes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Measurement of the intensity of the beam in the abort gap at the Tevatron utilizing synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Lorman, E.; Meyer, T.; Pordes, S.; De Santis, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of abort gap beam intensity monitoring at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. There are two somewhat independent monitors which measure the intensity of the synchrotron light emitted by particles in the abort gaps. One system uses a gated Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to measure the light intensity, and the other system uses a single lens telescope, gated image intensifier, and Charge Injection Device (CID) camera to image the beam

  20. Intraspecific variation in seed size and light intensity affect seed germination and initial seedling growth of a tropical shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele C. R. Veloso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed germination and seedling performance are affected by environmental factors and seed traits. In this study we investigated the effects of seed size and light intensity on germinability and seedling development of Copaifera oblongifolia. A total of 225 seeds were individually weighed and sown in three germination trays composed of 75 cells each. Each tray was placed in a different germination chamber with controlled photoperiod, temperature and light intensity. Seed size showed a positive relationship with time required for seed germination, and seeds exposed to high light intensity required more time to germinate. Seed size did not affect germination percentage, but seeds sown under high light intensity had a lower germination percentage than seeds sown under low light intensity and darkness. Seedling shoot mass showed a positive relationship with seeds mass, and seedlings grown in high light intensity had greater shoot mass than seedling growth in low light intensity and darkness. Thus, seed germinability of C. oblongifolia was higher in darkness while seedlings exhibited greater development under light. Looking to explain the ability of C. oblongifolia to colonize open/disturbed sites, it seems possible that plowing soil can bury seeds, thereby stimulating the germination of seeds present in the seed bank.

  1. AGROTECHNOLOGУ OF SMALL-VOLUME AND NON-SOIL INTENSE LIGHT-CULTURE IN CUCUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Anikina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology  of  intense  light-culture   has  been  developed to grow different crops under controlled environmental conditions  with  the use of specialized vegetation  apparatus  (VSU. In  the  specialized  vegetation apparatus,  designed  to   grow   plants  of   cucumber, tomato  and leafy crops, the formation of optimal light condition is constructively made with application of separate powerful lamps that have the same or different spectral quality irradiance, providing  the high illuminance,  60-90  W/m2  PAR on  cultivated  plants.  The vertical vegetation apparatus were used to develop technology of intense light-culture  in cucumber. Three modifications of vertical vegetation apparatus differing in  soil blocks  and  the  way of  nutrient  supply  to  root habitation area were elaborated to grow  the plants of cucumber.  The  development  of  cucumber  plants  in three apparatus modifications  was carried out  by one stem,  where  the  growth  was  limited  by  the  sizes of apparatus to  1.8 meter. The result of development  of small-volume and non-soil technology of intense lightculture in cucumber was presented in the article. This technology provides high productivity of plant being grown and reduces the ecological problems related to waste treatment. The application of technology of intense light-culture  in cucumber  assists the plants to realize a biological  potential and to  reach the highest productivity.  The observed plant products  are of high quality without  pesticides  and other harmful contaminants. The nitrate content  in young fruits was significantly lower the threshold allowable concentration (TAC. The basic  principles  of  intense  technology  of light-culture can be used for economically profitable enterprises  for  production  of  raw  material needs  for pharmaceutical and perfumery industries, and to  produce vitamin products  in

  2. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  3. Incidence of infection for preterm twins cared for in cobedding in the neonatal intensive-care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMar, Kim; Dowling, Donna A

    2006-01-01

    To describe the incidence of infection in a group of cobedded preterm twin infants and compare it to the incidence of infection in a cohort of preterm twin infants cared for in the same institution prior to the onset of cobedding. Retrospective descriptive design. Tertiary, referral neonatal intensive-care unit in the Midwest. Preterm twin infants between 23 and 35 weeks gestational age. Data from 1997 to 2001 (cobedding) compared to data from 1992 to 1996 (no cobedding). Infection as evidenced by positive blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine culture or radiographic evidence of pneumonia or necrotizing enterocolitis. Independent samples t test found the cobedded and non-cobedded infants to be homogenous in demographic data. A 2-way analysis of variance demonstrated no significant effects for cobedded infants on number of sepsis evaluations or number of positive blood cultures. There was a statistically significant difference for number of positive blood cultures at discharge reflecting the increased number of positive blood cultures in the non-cobedded infants. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences found between cobedded and non-cobedded for the presence of pneumonia or necrotizing enterocolitis. Cobedding of preterm twins cared for in the intensive-care nursery was not associated with an increased incidence of infection. Prospective studies are needed on cobedding before a change in practice is implemented.

  4. The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Lacoeuilhe

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

  5. The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

  6. The influence of 30 minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martina; Wenk, Caspar; Colombani, Paolo C

    2006-06-01

    Elevated postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and bouts of moderate intensity exercise of 60 min or more are often reported to lower postprandial lipemia. Information on moderate intensity exercise bouts of shorter duration corresponding to the current recommendations of health-maintaining exercise (i.e. 30 min or energy expenditure of approximately 630 kJ), however, is scarce. Therefore, we searched for the lowest exercise intensity during 30 min of light to moderate intensity cycling that still reduced postprandial lipemia. We employed a repeated measures cross-over design. Twelve healthy, not endurance trained, young men performed three activity trials (30 min cycling with a target energy expenditure of 420, 630 and 840 kJ) before ingestion of two mixed meals with a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations and a control trial (no physical activity before meal ingestion). Capillary triacylglycerol was measured in the fasting state and hourly for 6 h after the first meal. Respiratory gases were analyzed in the fasting state, and 3 and 6 h after the first meal. Triacylglycerol and respiratory responses between the trials were compared with analyses of variance. Postprandial lipemia and the incremental area under the triacylglycerol curve were not significantly different with the activity trials compared with the control trial. The postprandial respiratory exchange ratio was also not significantly affected by activity. Thirty minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling did not reduce postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with a moderate fat content in healthy, not endurance trained, young men.

  7. Incidence and outcome from adult cardiac arrest occurring in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendijev, Ilmar; Nurmi, Jouni; Castrén, Maaret; Skrifvars, Markus B

    2014-04-01

    Significant amount of data on the incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest have been published. Cardiac arrest occurring in the intensive care unit has received less attention. To evaluate and summarize current knowledge of intensive care unit cardiac arrest including quality of data, and results focusing on incidence and patient outcome. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane databases with the following search terms (medical subheadings): heart arrest AND intensive care unit OR critical care OR critical care nursing OR monitored bed OR monitored ward OR monitored patient. We included articles published from the 1st of January 1990 till 31st of December 2012. After exclusion of all duplicates and irrelevant articles we evaluated quality of studies using a predefined quality assessment score and summarized outcome data. The initial search yielded 794 articles of which 780 were excluded. Three papers were added after a manual search of the eligible studies' references. One paper was identified manually from the literature published after our initial search was completed, thus the final sample consisted of 18 papers. Of the studies included thirteen were retrospective, two based on prospective registries and three were focused prospective studies. All except two studies were from a single institution. Six studies reported the incidence of intensive care unit cardiac arrest, which varied from 5.6 to 78.1 cardiac arrests per 1000 intensive care unit admissions. The most frequently reported initial cardiac arrest rhythms were non-shockable. Patient outcome was variable with survival to hospital discharge being in the range of 0-79% and long-term survival ranging from 1 to 69%. Nine studies reported neurological status of survivors, which was mostly favorable, either no neurological sequelae or cerebral performance score mostly of 1-2. Studies focusing on post cardiac surgery patients reported the best long

  8. Parameter study for polymer solar modules based on various cell lengths and light intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Burgers, A.R.; Bende, E.E.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Veenstra, S.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, P63, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Polymer solar cells may be applied in portable electronic devices, where light intensity and spectral distribution of the illuminating source can be very different compared to outdoor applications. As the power output of solar cells depends on temperature, light intensity and spectrum, the design of the module must be optimized for the specific illumination conditions in the different applications. The interconnection area between cells in a module must be as narrow as possible to maximize the active area, also called geometrical fill factor, of the module. Laser scribing has the potential to realize this. The optimal width of the interconnection zone depends both on technological limitations, e.g. laser scribe width and the minimal distance between scribes, and electrical limitations like resistive losses. The latter depends on the generated current in the cell and thus also on illumination intensity. Besides that, also the type of junction, i.e. a single or tandem junction, will influence the optimal geometry. In this paper a calculation model is presented that can be used for electrical modeling of polymer cells and modules in order to optimize the performance for the specific illumination conditions.

  9. Light intensity controls anti-predator defences in Daphnia: the suppression of life-history changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Christoph; von Elert, Eric

    2014-05-07

    A huge variety of organisms respond to the presence of predators with inducible defences, each of which is associated with costs. Many genotypes have the potential to respond with more than one defence, and it has been argued that it would be maladaptive to exhibit all possible responses at the same time. Here, we test how a well-known anti-fish defence in Daphnia, life-history changes (LHC), is controlled by light. We show that the kairomone-mediated reduction in size at first reproduction is inversely coupled to the light intensity. A similar effect was found for the kairomone-mediated expression of candidate genes in Daphnia. We argue that the light intensity an individual is exposed to determines the degree of LHC, which allows for plastic adjustment to fluctuating environments and simultaneously minimizes the associated costs of multiple alternately deployable defences. It is hypothesized that this allows for a coupling of multiple defences, i.e. LHC and diel vertical migration.

  10. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and light intensity supply strategies on synthetic high-strength wastewater purification by Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheng; Zhao, Yongjun; Zheng, Zheng; Luo, Xingzhang

    2013-09-01

    Chemical fertilizer agricultural wastewater is a typical high-strength wastewater that has dramatically triggered numerous environmental problems in China. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system used in this study can effectively decontaminate the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater under an optimum light wavelength and light intensity supply strategy. The descending order of both the dry weight for C. vulgaris reproduction and wastewater nutrient removal efficiency is red > white > yellow > purple > blue > green, which indicates that red light is the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, rather than constant light, optimal light intensity is used for the incremental light intensity strategy. The phases for the optimal light intensity supply strategy are as follows: Phase 1 from 0 to 48 h at 800 μmol m(-2) s(-1); Phase 2 from 48 to 96 h at 1,200 μmol m(-2) s(-1); and Phase 3 from 96 to 144 h at 1,600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Additionally, the optimal cultivation time is 144 h.

  11. Impact of temperature and light intensity on triacylglycerol accumulation in marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpan Nogueira, Daniel P.; Silva, Anita F.; Araújo, Ofélia Q.F.; Chaloub, Ricardo M.

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity of Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Phaeodactylum tricornutum was compared to study their suitability for biotechnological applications. Photoautotrophic batch cultures grown at 20 °C and 50 μmol photons m −2  s −1 showed that N. oceanica had the least TAG content and TAG productivity of the three microalgae. Hence, effects of temperature and light intensity on growth rate and accumulation of TAG were subsequently assessed only in I. galbana and P. tricornutum by cultivation at 20 and 30 °C under 50, 300 and 600 μmol photons m −2  s −1 . Although P. tricornutum did not grow at temperatures higher than 20 °C, an increase in both TAG content (from 28.37 to 39.53%) and productivity (from 15.58 to 31.39 mg L −1  d −1 ) was observed at the highest irradiance values. We also found that combined effects of temperature and light intensity enhanced TAG content (from 18.59 to 31.71%) and productivity (from 11.76 to 21.67 mg L −1  d −1 ) in I. galbana. - Highlights: • Productivity of oil and biomass in batch-cultured marine microalgae was compared. • Increase in temperature and irradiance rose oil productivity in Isochrysis galbana. • An increase in light intensity rose oil productivity in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum showed the highest productivity in biomass and neutral lipids

  12. White noise analysis of Phycomyces light growth response system. I. Normal intensity range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, E D

    1975-10-01

    The Wiener-Lee-Schetzen method for the identification of a nonlinear system through white gaussian noise stimulation was applied to the transient light growth response of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. In order to cover a moderate dynamic range of light intensity I, the imput variable was defined to be log I. The experiments were performed in the normal range of light intensity, centered about I0 = 10(-6) W/cm2. The kernels of the Wierner functionals were computed up to second order. Within the range of a few decades the system is reasonably linear with log I. The main nonlinear feature of the second-order kernel corresponds to the property of rectification. Power spectral analysis reveals that the slow dynamics of the system are of at least fifth order. The system can be represented approximately by a linear transfer function, including a first-order high-pass (adaptation) filter with a 4 min time constant and an underdamped fourth-order low-pass filter. Accordingly a linear electronic circuit was constructed to simulate the small scale response characteristics. In terms of the adaptation model of Delbrück and Reichardt (1956, in Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, Princeton University Press), kernels were deduced for the dynamic dependence of the growth velocity (output) on the "subjective intensity", a presumed internal variable. Finally the linear electronic simulator above was generalized to accommodate the large scale nonlinearity of the adaptation model and to serve as a tool for deeper test of the model.

  13. The impact of normal saline on the incidence of exposure keratopathy in patients hospitalized in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Davoodabady

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS and the other eye to control group (standard care. In each patient, one eye (control group randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended.

  14. Perturbative diffusion theory formalism for interpreting temporal light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lee C L; Whelan, William M; Vitkin, I Alex

    2007-03-21

    In an effort to understand dynamic optical changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), we utilize the perturbative solution of the diffusion equation in heterogeneous media to formulate scattering weight functions for cylindrical line sources. The analysis explicitly shows how changes in detected interstitial light intensity are associated with the extent and location of the volume of thermal coagulation during treatment. Explanations for previously reported increases in optical intensity observed early during laser heating are clarified using the model and demonstrated with experimental measurements in ex vivo bovine liver tissue. This work provides an improved understanding of interstitial optical signal changes during LITT and indicates the sensitivity and potential of interstitial optical monitoring of thermal damage.

  15. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asubay, Sezai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Ocak, Yusuf Selim [Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Tombak, Ahmet, E-mail: tahmet@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Batman University, Batman (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy{sub 2}PNHCH{sub 2}-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}O)(η{sup 6}-p-cymene)Cl{sub 2}] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  16. Treatment of facial telangiectasia with narrow-band intense pulsed light in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huihui; Yue, Baishuang; Wang, Yan; Lu, Zhong

    2018-02-20

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of narrow-band intense pulsed light (DPL) in treating facial telangiectasia. Thirty patients with facial telangiectasia underwent five sessions of treatment with DPL (500 nm~600 nm) at 4-week interval. The erythema index (EI), temperature, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and lightness of the skin (L) were measured before each treatment session and at each follow-up. Thirty cases completed treatment and follow-ups. Twenty-seven cases (90%) got more than 50% clearance post-treatment and among them eight cases (27%) got more than 75% clearance. The average of the mean EI value decreased with the number of treatment sessions; the EI observed after two treatment sessions was significantly different from that observed before treatment (P = 0.012, P DPL is effective and safe in treating facial telangiectasia.

  17. Automatic Suppression of Intense Monochromatic Light in Electro-Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Gunnar; Eberle, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Electro-optical imaging sensors are widely distributed and used for many different tasks. Due to technical improvements, their pixel size has been steadily decreasing, resulting in a reduced saturation capacity. As a consequence, this progress makes them susceptible to intense point light sources. Developments in laser technology have led to very compact and powerful laser sources of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared spectral region, offered as laser pointers. The manifold of wavelengths makes it difficult to encounter sensor saturation over the complete operating waveband by conventional measures like absorption or interference filters. We present a concept for electro-optical sensors to suppress overexposure in the visible spectral region. The key element of the concept is a spatial light modulator in combination with wavelength multiplexing. This approach allows spectral filtering within a localized area in the field of view of the sensor. The system offers the possibility of automatic reduction of overexposure by monochromatic laser radiation. PMID:23202039

  18. Changes in the Incidence of Candidiasis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Clark, Reese H.; Laughon, Matthew; Walsh, Thomas J.; Hope, William W.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Kaufman, David; Arrieta, Antonio; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neonatal invasive candidiasis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe the association between invasive candidiasis and changes in use of antifungal prophylaxis, empirical antifungal therapy, and broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics over time. METHODS: We examined data from 709 325 infants at 322 NICUs managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2010. We determined the cumulative incidence of invasive candidiasis and use of antifungal prophylaxis, broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics, and empirical antifungal therapy by year. RESULTS: We identified 2063 (0.3%) infants with 2101 episodes of invasive candidiasis. Over the study period, the annual incidence of invasive candidiasis decreased from 3.6 episodes per 1000 patients to 1.4 episodes per 1000 patients among all infants, from 24.2 to 11.6 episodes per 1000 patients among infants with a birth weight of 750–999 g, and from 82.7 to 23.8 episodes per 1000 patients among infants with a birth weight candidiasis in the NICU decreased over the 14-year study period. Increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis and empirical antifungal therapy, along with decreased use of broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics, may have contributed to this observation. PMID:24446441

  19. INCIDENCE OF INFECTION ASSOCIATED TO CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERS IN A NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teixeira Reis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal e retrospectivo que objetivou  identificar o tipo de cateter venoso central (CVC mais utilizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de um hospital público universitário do estado do Rio de Janeiro, estratificado por peso de nascimento e apresentar as densidades de incidência de infecção associadas aos dispositivos.  Os dados foram coletados através de análise documental nos meses de junho e julho de 2008, referentes ao período de julho a dezembro de 2007, totalizando um registro de 712 cateteres-dia. Foi verificado o cateter central de inserção periférica (CCIP/PICC como o dispositivo mais utilizado na unidade, seguido do cateter venoso umbilical e da dissecção venosa. A densidade de incidência das infecções primárias da corrente sanguínea foi cerca de oito vezes maior nos recém-nascidos com peso ≤ 1.500g, sendo o cateter umbilical o dispositivo mais associado a essas infecções.

  20. Clinical User Experience Testing of Ambient Lighting for Neonatal Intensive Care

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, P.R.; Visser, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Believed to the first application of its kind in the UK, Philips hasinstalled dynamic and ambient LED lighting in the recently extendedNeonatal Intensive Care Unit, (NICU), at St Michael’s Hospital, Bristol. The neonatal facility was redeveloped in late 2011 with a newICU built next to an existing ICU. This provides the opportunity tomake comparisons between old and new ICU. Philips Research has conducted a clinical user experience trial to assess nurse’s reactions tothe two ICUs. A 3 week us...

  1. Thermo chemical stability of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles under intense pulsed light irradiation and high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorado, H.A., E-mail: hcoloradolopera@ucla.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Mechanical Engineering, Medellin (Colombia); Dhage, S.R. [International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad 500005 (India); Hahn, H.T. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > In this paper is about the thermochemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) irradiation. > After few irradiation shots over the nano-particles, CdS pillars appeared without phase transformation. > No oxidation was observed during the treatment process. > CdS nanoparticles are thermally stable until around 400 deg. C and 600 deg. C for air and argon atmospheres respectively. > It has been studied and demonstrated the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense pulsed light and under high temperature conditions. - Abstract: Thermo chemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under an Intense Pulsed Light from a xenon flash lamp and high temperature X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were investigated. The CdS nanoparticles were obtained with a chemical bath method. The CdSO{sub 4} (0.16 M) solution was added to an NH{sub 3} (7.5 M) solution under constant stirring. Afterwards, a thiourea (0.6 M) solution was added. The bath temperature and pH were maintained at 65 deg. C and 10, respectively and the mixture was stirred constantly until a solid precipitate of yellow CdS was produced. Its microstructure was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy, and its electronic properties were determined by UV-visible and Photo luminescence Spectroscopy. The microstructure of the sintered CdS nanoparticles, obtained the high temperature XRD, was investigated with EDAX and X-ray micro Tomography. In addition, high temperature XRD and Themogravimetric Analysis tests were conducted over the samples. The CdS nanoparticles' crystallinity increased with the irradiation exposure and they were thermally stable until 600 deg. C in argon atmosphere. However new phases start to appear after annealing at 400 deg. C for 30 min in air atmosphere. The main contribution of this paper was to investigate the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense light and high temperature conditions. It was found that the number of irradiation shots conducted with the

  2. Circular intensity differential scattering of light by helical structures. II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.; Maestre, M.F.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1980-12-15

    Analysis and numerical calculations were made of the total scattering and differential scattering of circularly polarized light by helices as models of chiral structures. The differential scattering patterns are much more sensitive than the total scattering to helical parameters. For large helices the angular dependence of these patterns show lobes which alternate in sign. The number of lobes and the positions of the zeros directly measure the ratios of radius and pitch to wavelength. The signs depend on the sense of the helix. The results are compared with measured circular intensity differential scattering of membranes from the bacterium Spirillum serpens. Good qualitative agreement is obtained.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloidesgrown under different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO D.T. SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii andPueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloidesplants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity ofN. wightiiand P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  4. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  5. Effects of light intensity on the morphology and CAM photosynthesis of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Díez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia is a neotropical orchid, whose fruits produce the natural vanilla, a fundamental ingredient for the food and cosmetic industry. Because of its importance in the world market, it is cultivated in many tropical countries and recently its cultivation has started in Colombia. This species requires shade for its development; however, the optimal of light conditions are unknown. This work evaluates the effect of different light intensities on CAM photosynthesis, physiology, morphology, and growth of this species. For this, vanilla seedlings were subjected to four treatments of relative illumination (RI (T1=8%, T2=17%, T3=31% and T4=67%. Most CO2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM species. Plants grown under high lighting (67% RI had almost half of the photosynthesis in treatments of intermediate lighting (17 and 31%, which is consistent with the lower nocturnal acid accumulation in that treatment. Likewise, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm showed that in plants of the 67% RI occurred high radiation stress. On the other hand, vanilla plants reached greater length, leaf area, and total biomass when grown under intermediate radiation (17 and 31% RI. These results suggest that high radiation alters the functioning of vanilla plants, inhibiting photosynthesis and growth, and that highly shaded environments not significantly affected the CAM photosynthesis of vanilla; however, in the long-term this species showed higher photosynthesis and growth under intermediate levels of radiation

  6. Effects of moderate-intensity light on vitamin A-deficient rat retinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter-Dawson, L.; Kuwabara, T.; Bieri, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of moderate-intensity light (150 to 200 ft-cd) on retinal structure were compared between retinol-adequate and retinol-deficient rats after 1 to 6 days of light exposure during the 12 hr light phase of the cycle. Both damage to the outer segments and loss of photoreceptor cells were accelerated in retinol-adequate rats. Outer segments in retinas of retinol-adequate rats showed an abnormal staining pattern and disruption of disc structure in the distal portion about 2 days before those of retinol-deficient rats. After 4 days of exposure 24% of the photoreceptor cells had degenerated in the retinol-adequate retinas, but only 6% in the retinol-deficient retinas. By 6 days 65% and 41% of the photoreceptors had degenerated in the retinol-adequate and retinol-deficient retinas, respectively. Thus light exposure induced more rapid degeneration of photoreceptor cells in rats receiving adequate retinol than in those deficient in this vitamin

  7. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Jansson, P.; Jacobsson Svärd, S.

    2018-02-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by nuclear safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the recording of Cherenkov light produced by the assemblies. One type of verification involves comparing the measured light intensity from an assembly with a predicted intensity, based on assembly declarations. Crucial for such analyses is the performance of the prediction model used, and recently new modelling methods have been introduced to allow for enhanced prediction capabilities by taking the irradiation history into account, and by including the cross-talk radiation from neighbouring assemblies in the predictions. In this work, the performance of three models for Cherenkov-light intensity prediction is evaluated by applying them to a set of short-cooled PWR 17x17 assemblies for which experimental DCVD measurements and operator-declared irradiation data was available; (1) a two-parameter model, based on total burnup and cooling time, previously used by the safeguards inspectors, (2) a newly introduced gamma-spectrum-based model, which incorporates cycle-wise burnup histories, and (3) the latter gamma-spectrum-based model with the addition to account for contributions from neighbouring assemblies. The results show that the two gamma-spectrum-based models provide significantly higher precision for the measured inventory compared to the two-parameter model, lowering the standard deviation between relative measured and predicted intensities from 15.2 % to 8.1 % respectively 7.8 %. The results show some systematic differences between assemblies of different designs (produced by different manufacturers) in spite of their similar PWR 17x17 geometries, and possible ways are discussed to address such differences, which may allow for even higher prediction capabilities. Still, it is concluded that the gamma-spectrum-based models enable confident verification of the fuel assembly inventory at the currently used

  9. Interaction between saflufenacil and imazethapyr in red rice (Oryza ssp.) and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) as affected by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Edinalvo R; Senseman, Scott A; McCauley, Garry N; Bowe, Steven; Harden, John; Guice, John B

    2012-07-01

    Saflufenacil is a broadleaf herbicide for preplant burndown and pre-emergence applications in various crops. This study was established to evaluate the absorption and translocation of saflufenacil in hemp sesbania and imazethapyr in red rice as a function of their post-emergence interaction and light intensity. Imazethapyr plus saflufenacil provided a greater uptake (30%) and translocation (35%) of (14) C-imazethapyr than imazethapyr alone. In the section above treated leaf (ATL), a higher percentage of the absorbed imazethapyr (23%) was quantified in the imazethapyr plus saflufenacil treatment after 168 h. Faster basipetal movement of imazethapyr was identified under higher light availability. Absorption of (14) C-saflufenacil ranged from approximately 40 to 60% among herbicide and light intensity treatments. At 12 and 24 h after treatment (HAT) a greater percentage (15-20%) of the absorbed saflufenacil was quantified above the treated leaf at the two lower light intensities. Similar trends were observed for basipetal movement of saflufenacil. Saflufenacil enhanced absorption, overall translocation and acropetal movement of imazethapyr in the TX4 red rice. Basipetal movement of imazethapyr was faster under higher light intensities. Overall, imazethapyr improved absorption of saflufenacil in hemp sesbania plants. Reduction in light intensity resulted in greater translocation of saflufenacil, promoting acropetal and basipetal distribution at the two lower light intensity treatments. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The effect of light intensity on prey detection behavior in two Lake Malawi cichlids, Aulonocara stuartgranti and Tramitichromis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2015-04-01

    Two sand-dwelling cichlids from Lake Malawi (Aulonocara stuartgranti, Tramitichromis sp.) that feed on benthic invertebrates, but have different lateral line phenotypes, use lateral line and/or visual cues to detect prey under light versus dark conditions. The current study examined how ecologically relevant variation in light intensity [0-800 lux (lx)] influences detection of prey (mobile, immobile) in each species by analyzing six behavioral parameters. Both species fed at light intensities ≥1 lx and trends in behavior among light intensities were informative. However, prey type and/or time of day (but not light intensity) predicted all four parameters analyzed with generalized linear mixed models in A. stuartgranti, whereas the interaction of light intensity and time of day predicted three of these parameters in Tramitichromis sp. Data suggest that the critical light intensity is 1-12 lx for both species, that the integration of visual and lateral line input explains differences in detection of mobile and immobile prey and behavioral changes at the transition from 1 to 0 lx in A. stuartgranti, and that Tramitichromis sp. likely uses binocular vision to locate prey. Differences in the sensory biology of species that exploit similar prey will have important implications for the trophic ecology of African cichlid fishes.

  11. Effect of nocturnal sound reduction on the incidence of delirium in intensive care unit patients: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Ineke; van Iterson, Mat; Maaskant, Jolanda

    2017-08-01

    Delirium in critically-ill patients is a common multifactorial disorder that is associated with various negative outcomes. It is assumed that sleep disturbances can result in an increased risk of delirium. This study hypothesized that implementing a protocol that reduces overall nocturnal sound levels improves quality of sleep and reduces the incidence of delirium in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. This interrupted time series study was performed in an adult mixed medical and surgical 24-bed ICU. A pre-intervention group of 211 patients was compared with a post-intervention group of 210 patients after implementation of a nocturnal sound-reduction protocol. Primary outcome measures were incidence of delirium, measured by the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and quality of sleep, measured by the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Secondary outcome measures were use of sleep-inducing medication, delirium treatment medication, and patient-perceived nocturnal noise. A significant difference in slope in the percentage of delirium was observed between the pre- and post-intervention periods (-3.7% per time period, p=0.02). Quality of sleep was unaffected (0.3 per time period, p=0.85). The post-intervention group used significantly less sleep-inducing medication (psound-reduction protocol. However, reported sleep quality did not improve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Verification of the light intensity from halogens curing lamps in comparison with the manufacturer's specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Ramirez, Elvis

    2011-01-01

    The light intensity emitted from halogens curing lamps is measured to determine if photoactivation units utilized in the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social are complied with the manufacturer's specifications of the lamp and the resin. The light intensity mW/cm 2 from halogens curing lamps operated by odontologist of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social is compared with the manufacturer's specifications of the lamp. The light intensity is compared with the manufacturer's specifications of the resin. The results obtained are analyzed to specify that lamp or lamps have presented light intensities lower to indication of the manufacturer. A list of recommendations is performed for each Servicio de Odontologia of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social of the Region Central Sur of the results reported [es

  13. Effect of light intensity on respiration rate of Spirulina plantensis; Spirulina no kokyu sokudo no oyobosu shodo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Obata, E.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Effects of light intensity and irradiation time on respiration rate in the dark period after irradiating are discussed. The specific respiration rate of S. platensis in the dark is a constant value Q1, up to 15-30 minutes, and then rapidly decreases to Q2 after 30 minutes. The specific respiration rate Q1 increases with light intensity. No significant effect of Q1 on irradiation time and Q2 on light intensity is observed. The respiration rate for a long dark time, Q0(=1.2 mg-O2{center_dot}kg-Spirulina{sup -1}centre dots{sup -1}), is almost the same as Q2. The effect of the logarithmic mean light intensity I{sub 1m}[klx] on Q1 is described by the following equation. Q1-Q0 = 13 and I{sub 1m}/(15+I{sub 1m}) 12 refs., 11 figs.

  14. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  15. Worrisome trends in incidence and mortality of candidemia in intensive care units (Paris area, 2002-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortholary, Olivier; Renaudat, Charlotte; Sitbon, Karine; Madec, Yoann; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Wolff, Michel; Fontanet, Arnaud; Bretagne, Stéphane; Dromer, Françoise

    2014-09-01

    To analyze trends in incidence and mortality of candidemia in intensive care units (ICUs) vs. non-ICU hospitalized patients and to determine risk factors for infection by specific species and for death. Active hospital-based surveillance program of incident episodes of candidemia due to common species in 24 tertiary care hospitals in the Paris area, France between October 2002 and September 2010. Among 2,507 adult cases included, 2,571 Candida isolates were collected and species were C. albicans (56 %), C. glabrata (18.6 %), C. parapsilosis (11.5 %), C. tropicalis (9.3 %), C. krusei (2.9 %), and C. kefyr (1.8 %). Candidemia occurred in ICU in 1,206 patients (48.1 %). When comparing ICU vs. non-ICU patients, the former had significantly more frequent surgery during the past 30 days, were more often preexposed to fluconazole and treated with echinocandin, and were less frequently infected with C. parapsilosis. Risk factors and age remained unchanged during the study period. A significant increased incidence in the overall population and ICU was found. The odds of being infected with a given species in ICU was influenced by risk factors and preexposure to fluconazole and caspofungin. Echinocandins initial therapy increased over time in ICU (4.6 % first year of study, to 48.5 % last year of study, p candidemia and death in ICU patients in the Paris area.

  16. Disposable diapers decrease the incidence of neonatal infections compared to cloth diapers in a level II neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M Chowdary; Tandur, Baswaraj; Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas

    2015-08-01

    To study whether disposable diapers decrease the incidence of neonatal infections compared with cloth diapers in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All neonates admitted to the NICU and having duration of stay >48 h were enrolled. Those babies with signs and symptoms of infection were screened with septic screen and/or blood culture. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of probable sepsis. Of 253 babies enrolled in the study period, probable sepsis was present in 101 (39.9%) infants in the total study group and was higher in cloth diaper group as compared with disposable diaper group (p = 0.01). For an average NICU stay of 6 days, cloth diapers would cost Rs. 241 vs. Rs. 162 for disposable diaper for any infant. Usage of disposable diapers decrease the incidence of probable sepsis in babies admitted to NICU. It is also cost effective to use disposable diapers in the NICU. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Intensity of blue LED light: a potential stimulus for biomass and lipid content in fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Madiha; Idris, Ani; Bukhari, Ataullah; Wahidin, Suzana

    2013-11-01

    Light quality and the intensity are key factors which render microalgae as a potential source of biodiesel. In this study the effects of various intensities of blue light and its photoperiods on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by using LED (Light Emitting Diode) in batch culture. C. vulgaris was grown for 13 days at three different light intensities (100, 200 and 300 μmol m(-2)s(-1)). Effect of three different light and dark regimes (12:12, 16:08 and 24:00 h Light:Dark) were investigated for each light intensity at 25°C culture temperature. Maximum lipid content (23.5%) was obtained due to high efficiency and deep penetration of 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of blue light (12:12 L:D) with improved specific growth (1.26 d(-1)) within reduced cultivation time of 8 days. White light could produce 20.9% lipid content in 10 days at 16:08 h L:D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05 in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.

  19. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy transfer properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores during adaptation to low light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, B; Lunceford, C; Lin, S; Woronowicz, K; Niederman, R A; Woodbury, N W

    2014-08-28

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to explore the pathway and kinetics of energy transfer in photosynthetic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) isolated from Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides cells harvested 2, 4, 6 or 24 hours after a transition from growth in high to low level illumination. As previously observed, this light intensity transition initiates the remodeling of the photosynthetic apparatus and an increase in the number of light harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes relative to light harvesting 1 (LH1) and reaction center (RC) complexes. It has generally been thought that the increase in LH2 complexes served the purpose of increasing the overall energy transmission to the RC. However, fluorescence lifetime measurements and analysis in terms of energy transfer within LH2 and between LH2 and LH1 indicate that, during the remodeling time period measured, only a portion of the additional LH2 generated are well connected to LH1 and the reaction center. The majority of the additional LH2 fluorescence decays with a lifetime comparable to that of free, unconnected LH2 complexes. The presence of large LH2-only domains has been observed by atomic force microscopy in Rba. sphaeroides chromatophores (Bahatyrova et al., Nature, 2004, 430, 1058), providing structural support for the existence of pools of partially connected LH2 complexes. These LH2-only domains represent the light-responsive antenna complement formed after a switch in growth conditions from high to low illumination, while the remaining LH2 complexes occupy membrane regions containing mixtures of LH2 and LH1-RC core complexes. The current study utilized a multi-parameter approach to explore the fluorescence spectroscopic properties related to the remodeling process, shedding light on the structure-function relationship of the photosynthetic assembles. Possible reasons for the accumulation of these largely disconnected LH2-only pools are discussed.

  1. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  2. A comparison of the molecular mechanisms underpinning high-intensity, pulsed polychromatic light and low-intensity UV-C hormesis in tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, G.; Dickinson, Matthew; Shama, G.; Rupar, M.

    2018-01-01

    Postharvest treatment of tomato fruit with high-intensity, pulsed polychromatic light (HIPPL) has previously been shown to induce delayed ripening and disease resistance comparable to that of low-intensity UV-C (LIUV). Little, however, is known of the mechanisms underpinning postharvest HIPPL hormesis in tomato fruit. Expression of genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis, defence, secondary metabolism and ripening were monitored 24 h post treatment (24 HPT), 10 d post treatment (10 DPT) ...

  3. Incidence of moisture-associated skin damage in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Matarín, J; Del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Ribal-Prior, R; Pujol-Vila, M; Sandalinas-Mulero, I

    To determine the incidence of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) in the nappy area, identify predisposing factors and know the preventive measures and nursing records. Descriptive longitudinal study (June 2014-April 2015) in a general ICU. Patients whose stay >48hours and without skin lesions were included. The skin was assessed daily until the appearance of MASD, discharge or a maximum of 14 days. Demographics, stay, MASD type, incontinence, number and consistency of stools, obesity, Braden scale and prevention were recorded. 145 patients (66.2% male) were studied, median age was 69 (P 25 =56.5, P 75 =76) and median length of stay was five days (P 25 =3, P 75 =11.25), 29.9% were obese. Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) was detected in 26.2% and intertriginous dermatitis (ITD) in 15.9%. MASD was recorded in 23.8%. The variables causing IAD to develop were faecal incontinence, number of stools, liquid stools, and stay. Those for ITD were obesity and score on the Braden scale. Multivariate analysis selected faecal incontinence (OR=5.4, CI95%: 1.1-26) and the number of stools (OR=1.1, CI95%:1.0-1.2) as independent variables for developing IAD and obesity (OR=2.8, CI95%:1.0-8.2) and Braden (OR=0.8, CI95%:0.7-1.0) for developing ITD. Prevention to 23.8% of obese and 42.9% of incontinent was performed. There is a high incidence in MASD. Faecal incontinence and higher number of stools are the risk factors for developing IAD. Obesity and a lower score on the Braden scale may affect susceptibility to ITD. Recording of MASD and its prevention in patients at risk is insufficient. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A.; Speer, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  5. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  6. Profiling of Indoor Plant to Deteriorate Carbon Dioxide Using Low Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Shamsuri Mohd Mahathir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable grounds that human needs the plants because their abilities reduce carbon dioxide (CO2. However, it is not constantly human with the plants, especially in the building. This paper intends to study the abilities of seven plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Prayer Plants, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to absorb CO2 gas. The research was conducted in chambers (one cubic meter with temperature, lux intensity and CO2 concentration at 25±10C, 300 lux, and 450±10 ppm. Before experimental were carried out, all plants selected should be assimilated with an indoor setting for performance purpose, and the experiment was conducted during daytime (9 am-5 pm. The experiments run in triplicate. Based on the results that are using extremely low light that ever conducted on plants, only Spider Plants are not capable to absorb CO2, instead turn up the CO2 rate during respiration. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant is the most plant performed with CO2 reduction is 7.62%, and this plant also has equivalent results in triplicate study based on an ANOVA test with significant value at 0.072. The conclusions of this research, only Spider Plant cannot survive at indoor condition with extremely low light for plants live and reduce CO2 concentration for indoor air quality (IAQ. The rate of 300 lux is a minimum light at indoor that are set by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia.

  7. Bare and thin-film-coated substrates with null reflection for p- and s-polarized light at the same angle of incidence: reflectance and ellipsometric parameters as functions of substrate refractive index and film thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2016-10-20

    Intensity reflectances and ellipsometric parameters of a partially clad transparent substrate that suppresses the reflection of incident p- and s-polarized light at the same angle of incidence from uncoated and single-layer-coated areas are determined as functions of normalized film thickness ς and substrate refractive index n2. The common polarizing angle is the Brewster angle of the ambient-substrate interface, and the light beam incident from the ambient (air or vacuum) is refracted in the film at a 45° angle from the normal to the parallel-plane film boundaries. For n2≤2, the differential reflection phase shift Δ=δp-δs≈±90° for all values of ς so that the Brewster angle is also approximately the principal angle of the film-substrate system independent of film thickness. Accurate techniques for monitoring the deposition of such films are also proposed.

  8. EFFECT OF LIGHT CURING UNIT CHARACTERISTICS ON LIGHT INTENSITY OUTPUT, DEPTH OF CURE AND SURFACE MICRO-HARDNESS OF DENTAL RESIN COMPOSITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, B A; Kisumbi, B K; Lesan, W R; Gathece, L W

    2013-09-01

    Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and surface micro-hardness (SMH) of dental resin composite. Laboratory based, cross-sectional analytical study. Public and private dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Eighty three LCUs which were in use in private and public dental health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya and resin composite specimens. Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43 (51.8%) were Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and 39(47.0%) were Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) and 1 (1.2%) was Plasma Arc Curing (PAC) light. Mean light intensity for QTH and LED lights was 526.59 mW/cm2 and 493.67 mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while the mean DOC for QTH lights was 1.71 mm and LED was 1.67 mm (p=0.690). Mean Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) for LED was 57.44 and for QTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Mean light intensity for LCUs units > 5 years old (p=0.024). The mean DOC for the two age groups was 1.74 mm and 1.57 mm respectively (p=0.073). For SMH, the 5 years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46 respectively (p=0.1). On maintenance history, the frequency of routine inspection, duration since the last repair/replacement of a part or other maintenance activity and the nature of the last maintenance activity were determined and were not found to have influenced the light intensity, DOC and SMH. The LCU age has a statistically significant influence on its light intensity (p=0.024) while the type and maintenance history have no significant influence on its light intensity and composite DOC and SMH (p=0.574, p=0.690, p=0.713 respectively).

  9. Modeling the interaction of light intensity, nutrient concentration and uranium toxicity in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, E.; Horemans, N.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Cedergreen, N. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jager, T. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecology aims at assessing the effect of radionuclides and radiation on the environment. Since we cannot test every possible environmental situation in the laboratory, we need modeling approaches to extrapolate the results of toxicity assays to environmentally relevant scenarios. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand the effect of relevant environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light on the toxicity of the test. Radionuclides are often found to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, an overload of ROS can lead to disturbances of the photosynthetic system. Since the light intensity determines the efficiency of the photo-systems in plants, it can be expected to interact with the effect of radionuclides. The nutrient concentration of the test medium determines the physiological state of the plant, affecting in turn the plant's capability of dealing with stress and hence influences the toxicity of the contaminant. To study the interaction of stressors with environmental conditions, mechanistic effect modeling is promoted widely in ecotoxicology. In principle, the modelling aims at a mechanistic understanding of the different processes causing the stress individually, and integrating them in one framework to study their joint effect and possible interaction. We here present a mechanistic effect model for Lemna minor (common duckweed), which is based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Models based on DEB have been used widely to study the effects of compounds on animals. Due to its general applicability to all types of organisms, it holds potential to be used for comparison of species and compounds in a broad context. Energy uptake from the environment is modeled explicitly, and metabolic rates are set to depend on temperature in DEB models. Therefore, they can be used to extrapolate effects to a wide range of environmentally relevant scenarios. Until now, the DEB research in ecotoxicology has

  10. Influence of Different Light Sources, Illumination Intensities and Storage Times on the Vitamin C Content in Pasteurized Milk

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; TURGUT, Tamer

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various light sources and illumination intensities on the destruction of vitamin C was determined during the storage of pasteurized milk. For this purpose, raw cow's milk was pasteurized at 72 oC for 15 s, and then stored in 2 different refrigerators (4 ± 1oC) illuminated by fluorescent and tungsten light (normal light) sources with intensities of 1100, 2400 and 5800 lux. As a control group, a pasteurized milk sample was stored at the same temperature under dark conditi...

  11. Incidence of Candida species colonization in neonatal intensive care unit at Riyadh Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Alhussaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are important hospital-acquired pathogens in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study was performed in the NICU of Saudi Arabian Hospital, Riyadh region, KSA to analyze patterns of neonatal Candida colonization as well as to determine the potential risk factors.Methods: Weekly surveillance fungal cultures of anal area, oral cavity, umbilicus and ear canal of neonates were performed from birth until their discharge from the hospital. Colonization was analyzed for timing, site, species, birth weight and gestational age. Potential environmental reservoirs and hands of health care workers (HCWs were also cultured monthly for fungi. Antifungal susceptibility of the identified isolates was also determined.Results: One hundred subjects have been recruited in this study. The overall colonization rate was 51%. Early colonization was found in 27 (27% neonates whereas 24 (24% neonates were lately colonized during their stay in NICU. Colonization was more in preterm neonates than in full and post term. Perianal area and oral cavity were the most frequent colonized sites. C. albicans was the main spp. (58.8% isolated from the neonates followed by C. tropicalis (17.6%, C. glabrata (15.6%, and C. krusei (2%. Of the 51 isolated Candida spp., 68.6% were sensitive to fluconazole, 80% to itraconazole and 64.7% to ketoconazole, while only 33% were sensitive to amphotericin B.Conclusion: Candida has emerged as a common cause of infections in infants admitted to NICU, and C. albicans is the most commonly isolated candidal species. Neonatal infections caused by non- albicans species occur at a later age during their stay in NICU.

  12. Diarréia nosocomial em unidade de terapia intensiva: incidência e fatores de risco Nosocomial diarrhea in the intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvulo Luiz Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Diarréia nosocomial parece ser comum em unidades de terapia intensiva, embora sua epidemiologia seja pouco documentada em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Determinar a incidência e fatores de risco de diarréia entre pacientes adultos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos prospectivamente 457 pacientes no período entre outubro de 2005 e outubro de 2006. Dados demográficos, clínicos e bioquímicos, bem como aspecto e número de evacuações eram registrados diariamente até a saída do paciente do setor. RESULTADOS: Diarréia ocorreu em 135 (29,5% pacientes, durando em média 5,4 dias. O tempo do seu início em relação à internação foi de 17,8 dias e casos similares de diarréia no mesmo período foram registrados em 113 (83,7% pacientes. A mortalidade hospitalar foi maior nos pacientes com diarréia do que naqueles sem esta intercorrência. Na análise multivariada através de modelo de regressão logística, apenas o número de antibióticos (OR 1,65; IC 95% = 1,39-1,95 e o número de dias de antibioticoterapia (OR 1,16; IC 95% = 1,12-1,20 associaram-se estatisticamente com a ocorrência de diarréia. Cada dia de acréscimo a mais da antibioticoterapia aumentou em 16% o risco de diarréia (IC 12% a 20%, enquanto a adição de um antibiótico a mais ao esquema antimicrobiano aumentou as chances de ocorrência de diarréia em 65% (IC 39% a 95%. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de diarréia nosocomial na unidade de terapia intensiva é elevada (29,5%. Os principais fatores de risco para sua ocorrência foram número de antibióticos prescritos e duração da antibioticoterapia. Além das precauções entéricas, a prescrição judiciosa e limitada de antimicrobianos, provavelmente reduzirá a ocorrência de diarréia neste setor.BACKGROUND: Nosocomial diarrhea seems to be common at intensive care units, although its epidemiology be poorly documented in Brazil. AIM: To determine the incidence and risk factors of

  13. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  14. Polarization-resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells: Topological events driven by incident light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.; Egorov, Roman I.; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2008-09-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization-resolved angular (conoscopic) patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C points (points of circular polarization) and L lines (lines of linear polarization). For the homeotropically aligned cell, the Stokes polarimetry technique is used to measure the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns at different values of the ellipticity of the incident light, γell(inc) , impinging onto the cell. Using the exact analytical expressions for the transfer matrix we show that variations of the ellipticity, γell(inc) , induce transformations of the angular pattern exhibiting the effect of avoided L -line crossings and characterized by topological events such as creation and annihilation of the C points. The predictions of the theory are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Looking for light in the din: An examination of the circadian-disrupting properties of a medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Samantha J; Rappaport, Charles A; Loher, Michael K; Gehlbach, Brian K

    2018-03-28

    Critically ill patients exhibit profound disturbances of circadian rhythmicity, most commonly in the form of a phase delay. We investigated the specific zeitgeber properties of a medical intensive care unit to develop a model that explained these abnormalities. Prospective, observational study conducted during 2013-2014. Twenty-four-hour ambient light (lux, 672 hours) and sound pressure levels (dBA, 504 hours) were measured in patient rooms. Patients and families were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the environment. University-based adult medical intensive care unit. The timing and intensity of the ambient light-dark cycle and sound environment and the relationship of these measurements to patient/family perceptions. Twenty-four-hour light-dark cycles were extremely weak and phase delayed relative to the solar cycle. Morning light averaged 12.1 (4.8, 37.2) lux, when only 24.9% ± 10.9% of available light was utilised; yet patients and families did not identify low daytime light levels as problematic. Median noise levels were invariably excessive (nighttime 47.9 [45.0, 51.3] dBA) with minimal variation, consistent with the absence of a defined rest period. The intensive care unit functions as a near-constant routine protocol disconnected from solar time. Behavioural interventions to promote entrainment should be supported by objective measurements of light and sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux and standard bright light (10 000 lux are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos Elske H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT. Both treatments used the same illuminance (10 000 lux and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. Method In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD were given light treatment (10 000 lux for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000°K with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle with a vertical illuminance of 10 000 lux at eye position or BLT (17 000°K with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. Results On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%. On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. Conclusion With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found

  17. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10,000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J M; Bos, Elske H; Ruiter, Martine J

    2011-01-28

    Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same illuminance (10,000 lux) and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD) were given light treatment (10,000 lux) for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000 °K) with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle) with a vertical illuminance of 10,000 lux at eye position or BLT (17,000 °K) with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%). On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found to be highly effective. The therapeutic effects of low-intensity

  18. Breaking Up Sitting with Light-Intensity Physical Activity: Implications for Shift-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting, restricted sleep, and circadian disruption are all independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that breaking up sitting with light-intensity physical activity has clear benefits for the health of day workers, but these findings may not apply in the presence of sleep restriction and/or circadian disruption—both of which are commonly experienced by shift-workers. Specifically, sleep restriction, and circadian disruption result in acute physiological changes that may offset the benefits of breaking up sitting. This commentary will explore the potential benefits of breaking up sitting for health, work performance, and subsequent sleep in shift-workers. Future areas of research designed to understand the mechanisms by which prolonged sitting and shift work impact worker health and safety and to support the design of effective occupational health and safety interventions are proposed.

  19. Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light investigated via joint photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agliati, Andrea [Quanta System S.p.A., Via IV Novembre, 116-21058, Solbiate Olona (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Bondani, Maria [INFM/CNR, Unita di Como (Italy); Andreoni, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Cillis, Giovanni De [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    We address joint photodetection as a method for discriminating between the classical correlations of a thermal beam divided by a beam splitter and the quantum entanglement of a twin beam obtained by parametric down-conversion. We show that for intense beams of light the detection of the difference photocurrent may be used, in principle, in order to reveal entanglement, while the simple measurement of the correlation coefficient is not sufficient. We have experimentally measured the correlation coefficient and the variance of the difference photocurrent for several classical and quantum states. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions taking into account the extra noise in the generated fields that is due to the pump laser fluctuations.

  20. Quantum and classical correlations of intense beams of light investigated via joint photodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliati, Andrea; Bondani, Maria; Andreoni, Alessandra; Cillis, Giovanni De; Paris, Matteo G A

    2005-01-01

    We address joint photodetection as a method for discriminating between the classical correlations of a thermal beam divided by a beam splitter and the quantum entanglement of a twin beam obtained by parametric down-conversion. We show that for intense beams of light the detection of the difference photocurrent may be used, in principle, in order to reveal entanglement, while the simple measurement of the correlation coefficient is not sufficient. We have experimentally measured the correlation coefficient and the variance of the difference photocurrent for several classical and quantum states. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions taking into account the extra noise in the generated fields that is due to the pump laser fluctuations

  1. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  2. Laser-induced photo emission detection: data acquisition based on light intensity counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, N.; Yudasari, N.; Putri, K. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Detection (LIBD) is one of the quantification techniques for colloids. There are two ways of detection in LIBD: optical detection and acoustic detection. LIBD is based on the detection of plasma emission due to the interaction between particle and laser beam. In this research, the changing of light intensity during plasma formations was detected by a photodiode sensor. A photo emission data acquisition system was built to collect and transform them into digital counts. The real-time system used data acquisition device National Instrument DAQ 6009 and LABVIEW software. The system has been tested on distilled water and tap water samples. The result showed 99.8% accuracy by using counting technique in comparison to the acoustic detection with sample rate of 10 Hz, thus the acquisition system can be applied as an alternative method to the existing LIBD acquisition system.

  3. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  4. Active Appearance Segmentation for Intensity Inhomogeneity in Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Lyksborg, Mark; Hecksher-Sørensen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAM) are used for annotating or segmenting shapes in biomedical images. Performance relies heavily on the image data used to train the AAM. In this paper we improve the generalization properties of the model by making it robust to slowly varying spatial intensity...... inhomogeneities which are often seen in Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) images. This robustness is achieved by modelling the appearance of an image as a regularized Normalized Gradient Field (rNGF). We perform two experiments to challenge the model. First it is tested using a repeated leave......-one-out approach on images with minimal imperfections where the left out images are corrupted by a simulated bias field and segmented using the AAM. Secondly we test the model on LSFM images with common acquisition problems. In both experiments the proposed approach outperforms the often used AAM implementation...

  5. Adhesion characteristics of VO2 ink film sintered by intense pulsed light for smart window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji Won; Lee, Seok-Jae; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Dae Up

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the development of energy-efficient coatings on glass has led to the research of smart windows that can modulate solar energy in response to an external stimulus like light, heat, or electricity. Thermochromic smart windows have attracted great interest because they provide highly visible transparency and intelligently controllable solar heat. VO2 has been widely used as coating material for thermochromism owing to its reversible metal-to-insulator transition near room temperature. However, unstable crystalline phases and expensive fabrication processes of VO2 films limit their facile application in smart windows. To overcome these restrictions, we manufactured nanoinks based on VO2 nanoparticles and fabricated films using spin coating and intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering on a quartz substrate. We examined adhesion between the VO2 nanoink films and the quartz substrate by varying the applied voltages and the number of pulses. The average adhesion of thin films increased to 83 and 108 N/m as the applied voltage during IPL sintering increased from 1400 to 2000 V. By increasing the number of pulses from 5 to 20, the adhesive strength increased from 83 to 94 N/m at 1400 V, and decreased from 108 to 96 N/m at 2000 V voltage.

  6. Atmospheric Processing of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Intense Pulsed Light Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Lavery, Brandon W.; Druffel, Thad

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric processing of metal-organic halide perovskite materials is highly desirable for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells. Atmospheric deposition and thermal processing of perovskite thin films for photovoltaic applications facilitated via rapid intense pulsed light (IPL) processing have been carried out. The interplay between the deposition chemistry, process, and IPL parameters to produce a functional photoactive thin film is discussed. Further addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as functional surfactant is explored to influence grain growth during the IPL process. Structural analysis by x-ray diffraction revealed formation of mixed-phase perovskite crystals from methylammonium chloride and lead iodide precursors. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy indicated that the light absorption by the perovskite films lay within a narrow band of the visible spectrum with bandgap of 2.9 eV. Scanning electron microscopy characterization of the surface morphology of the perovskite films revealed that addition of PVP to the ink chemistry assisted the IPL process in forming a fully covered surface with clearly defined grains. Functional devices with perovskite thin film processed by IPL under fully atmospheric conditions were demonstrated.

  7. Influence of Light Intensity on Growth and Pigment Production by Monascus ruber in Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Rose Marie Meinicke; Müller, Bruna Luíse; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Vendruscolo, Francielo; de Oliveira, Debora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-07-01

    To reduce environmental problems caused by glycerine accumulation and to make the production of biodiesel more profitable, crude glycerin without treatment was used as substrate for obtaining higher value-added bioproducts. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces pigments, particularly red ones, which are used for coloring foods (rice wine and meat products). The interest in developing pigments from natural sources is increasing due to the restriction of using synthetic dyes. The effects of temperature, pH, microorganism morphology, aeration, nitrogen source, and substrates have been studied in the cultivation of M. ruber. In this work, it was observed that light intensity is also an important factor that should be considered for understanding the metabolism of the fungus. In M. ruber cultivation, inhibition of growth and pigment production was observed in Petri dishes and blaffed flasks exposed to direct illumination. Growth and pigment production were higher in Petri dishes and flasks exposed to red light and in the absence of light. Radial growth rate of M. ruber in plates in darkness was 1.50 mm day(-1) and in plates exposed to direct illumination was 0.59 mm day(-1). Maximum production of red pigments (8.32 UA) and biomass (8.82 g L(-1)) were obtained in baffled flasks covered with red film and 7.17 UA of red pigments, and 7.40 g L(-1) of biomass was obtained in flasks incubated in darkness. Under conditions of 1248 lux of luminance, the maximum pigment production was 4.48 UA, with production of 6.94 g L(-1) of biomass, indicating that the fungus has photoreceptors which influence the physiological responses.

  8. Influence of light intensity on surface free energy and dentin bond strength of core build-up resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Tsujimoto, A; Furuichi, T; Suzuki, T; Tsubota, K; Miyazaki, M; Platt, J A

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of light intensity on surface free energy characteristics and dentin bond strength of dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil Bond SE One and UniFil Core EM with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in acrylic resin and the facial dentin surfaces were wet ground on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to dentin surfaces and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). The surface free energy of the adhesives (five samples per group) was determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. To determine the strength of the dentin bond, the core build-up resin pastes were condensed into the mold on the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces according to the methods described for the surface free energy measurement. The resin pastes were cured with the same light intensities as those used for the adhesives. Ten specimens per group were stored in water maintained at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey-Kramer test were performed, with the significance level set at 0.05. The surface free energies of the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces decreased with an increase in the light intensity of the curing unit. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the type of core build-up system and the light intensity significantly influence the bond strength, although there was no significant interaction between the two factors. The highest bond strengths were achieved when the resin pastes were cured with the strongest light intensity for all the core build-up systems. When polymerized with a light intensity of 200 mW/cm(2) or less, significantly lower bond strengths were observed. CONClUSIONS: The

  9. Generating structured light with phase helix and intensity helix using reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifan; Du, Jing; Zhang, Jinrun; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Mid-infrared (2-20 μm) light has been attracting great attention in many areas of science and technology. Beyond the extended wavelength range from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared, shaping spatial structures may add opportunities to grooming applications of mid-infrared photonics. Here, we design and fabricate a reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface and demonstrate efficient generation of structured light with the phase helix and intensity helix at 2 μm. This work includes two distinct aspects. First, structured light (phase helix, intensity helix) generation at 2 μm, which is far beyond the ability of conventional spatial light modulators, is enabled by the metasurface with sub-wavelength engineered structures. Second, the self-referenced intensity helix against environmental noise is generated without using a spatially separated light. The demonstrations may open up advanced perspectives to structured light applications at 2 μm, such as phase helix for communications and non-communications (imaging, sensing) and intensity helix for enhanced microscopy and advanced metrology.

  10. Purifying Synthetic High-Strength Wastewater by Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris Under Various Light Emitting Diode Wavelengths and Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Ge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity.

  11. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  12. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  13. Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of localized prostate cancer: Review of technical incidents and morbidity after 5 years of use

    OpenAIRE

    RIPERT, Thomas; AZEMAR, Marie Dominique; MENARD, Johann; BAYOUD, Younes; MESSAOUDI, Rabah; DUVAL, François; STAERMAN, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To report on technical incidents, and early and late complications, occurring on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective review of patients who were treated by Ablatherm? in our centre. We recorded all technical incidents, treatment discontinuations, and early (< 1 month) and late complications. RESULTS A total of 74 HIFU procedures were perfor...

  14. Incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock in German intensive care units: the prospective, multicentre INSEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the incidence density, point prevalence and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in German intensive care units (ICUs). In a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal observational study, all patients already on the ICU at 0:00 on 4 November 2013 and all patients admitted to a participating ICU between 0:00 on 4 November 2013 and 2359 hours on 1 December 2013 were included. The patients were followed up for the occurrence of severe sepsis or septic shock (SEPSIS-1 definitions) during their ICU stay. A total of 11,883 patients from 133 ICUs at 95 German hospitals were included in the study, of whom 1503 (12.6 %) were diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. In 860 cases (57.2 %) the infections were of nosocomial origin. The point prevalence was 17.9 % (95 % CI 16.3-19.7).The calculated incidence rate of severe sepsis or septic shock was 11.64 (95 % CI 10.51-12.86) per 1000 ICU days. ICU mortality in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock was 34.3 %, compared with 6 % in those without sepsis. Total hospital mortality of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was 40.4 %. Classification of the septic shock patients using the new SEPSIS-3 definitions showed higher ICU and hospital mortality (44.3 and 50.9 %). Severe sepsis and septic shock continue to be a frequent syndrome associated with high hospital mortality. Nosocomial infections play a major role in the development of sepsis. This study presents a pragmatic, affordable and feasible method for the surveillance of sepsis epidemiology. Implementation of the new SEPSIS-3 definitions may have a major effect on future epidemiological data.

  15. Incidence and Outcomes of Central Nervous System Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Relapse after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounder, Dana T; Khandelwal, Pooja; Chandra, Sharat; Jordan, Michael B; Kumar, Ashish R; Grimley, Michael S; Davies, Stella M; Bleesing, Jack J; Marsh, Rebecca A

    2017-05-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune regulatory disorder that commonly presents with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. The only cure for genetic HLH is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), typically treated with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. We sought to estimate the incidence of CNS relapse after RIC HSCT, determine risk factors, and evaluate outcomes. We performed a retrospective chart review of 94 consecutive children and young adults with primary HLH who received RIC HSCT. CNS relapse within 1 year after transplantation was diagnosed by review of clinical symptoms, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and radiologic findings. Four (4.25%) patients developed symptoms of possible CNS HLH after HSCT and 3 patients were diagnosed. Eight patients underwent screening lumbar puncture because of history of active CNS disease at the onset of the conditioning regimen and 4 had evidence of continued disease. The overall incidence of CNS relapse and continued CNS disease after RIC HSCT was 8%. All patients with CNS disease after HSCT responded to CNS-directed therapy. Whole blood donor chimerism at the time of CNS relapse was low at 1% to 34%, but it remained high at 88% to 100% for patients with continued CNS disease. Overall survival for patients with CNS relapse was 50%, compared with 75% for patients without CNS disease (P = .079). Our data suggest that a low level of donor chimerism or active CNS disease at the time of transplantation increase the risk of CNS HLH after HSCT. Surveillance CSF evaluation after allogeneic RIC HSCT should be considered in patients with risk factors and CNS-directed treatment should be initiated if appropriate. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit–related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627

  17. LM-OSL signals from some insulators: an analysis of the dependency of the detrapping probability on stimulation light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from various insulators including quartz, Al2O3 : C, BeO and NaCl have been studied using the linear modulation OSL (LM-OSL) technique. LM-OSL is based on the linear increase of the stimulation light power from zero to a maximum during the measurement...... is not always correct. The initial decay rates of the blue (similar to 470 nm) light stimulated constant power OSL decay curves were examined to test the relation between the detrapping rates and the stimulation light intensity. In SiO2, Al2O3 : C and BeO a linear relation between the detrapping rates....... The resultant OSL curve initially increases and then decays after reaching a maximum, The analysis of LM-OSL data usually assumes a linear relationship between the detrapping rate and the stimulation light intensity. However, experiments carried out using various insulators have shown that this assumption...

  18. Investigation and modeling of the effects of light spectrum and incident angle on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliès, Antoine; Legrand, Jack; Marec, Hélène; Pruvost, Jérémy; Castelain, Cathy; Burghelea, Teodor; Cornet, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth investigation of how various illumination conditions influence microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBR) has been presented. Effects of both the light emission spectrum (white and red) and the light incident angle (0° and 60°) on the PBR surface were investigated. The experiments were conducted in two fully controlled lab-scale PBRs, a torus PBR and a thin flat-panel PBR for high cell density culture. The results obtained in the torus PBR were used to build the kinetic growth model of Chlorella vulgaris taken as a model species. The PBR model was then applied to the thin flat-panel PBR, which was run with various illumination conditions. Its detailed representation of local rate of photon absorption under various conditions (spectral calculation of light attenuation, incident angle influence) enabled the model to take into account all the tested conditions with no further adjustment. This allowed a detailed investigation of the coupling between radiation field and photosynthetic growth. Effects of all the radiation conditions together with pigment acclimation, which was found to be relevant, were investigated in depth. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:247-261, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Dependence of optical properties of monoclinic MnWO{sub 4} on the electric field of incident light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Lugang [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu Famin, E-mail: fmliu@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Dian; Zhong Wenwu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Considering the electric field of incident light along four particular directions [100], [110], [011], and [010], the optical properties of monoclinic MnWO{sub 4} were investigated by the first-principle methods. The calculated electronic structures show that the O 2p states and Mn 3d states dominate the top of the valence bands, while the W 5d and Mn 3d states play a key role in the bottom of the conduction bands. The dielectric function and other optical properties, including absorption coefficient, reflectivity spectra, and energy-loss spectra, were calculated and analyzed. The results predicted the maximum static dielectric function when the electric field of incident light was along the [100] direction; meanwhile the absorption edge was calculated to be consistent with the energy band gap and the values and positions of peaks in absorption coefficient are related with the electric field of light. Otherwise, it is found that the appearance of peaks in the energy-loss spectra is also dependent on the electric field and simultaneously corresponds to the edge of absorption spectra and the peaks' position of reflectivity spectra.

  20. Intense light pulses decontamination of minimally processed vegetables and their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Bonduelle, V; Debevere, J

    2005-08-15

    Intense light pulses (ILP) is a new method intended for decontamination of food surfaces by killing microorganisms using short time high frequency pulses of an intense broad spectrum, rich in UV-C light. This work studied in a first step the effect of food components on the killing efficiency of ILP. In a second step, the decontamination of eight minimally processed (MP) vegetables by ILP was evaluated, and thirdly, the effect of this treatment on the shelf-life of MP cabbage and lettuce stored at 7 degrees C in equilibrium modified atmosphere packages was assessed by monitoring headspace gas concentrations, microbial populations and sensory attributes. Proteins and oil decreased the decontamination effect of ILP, whilst carbohydrates and water showed variable results depending on the microorganism. For this reason, high protein and fat containing food products have little potential to be efficiently treated by ILP. Vegetables, on the other hand, do not contain high concentrations of both compounds and could therefore be suitable for ILP treatment. For the eight tested MP vegetables, log reductions up to 2.04 were achieved on aerobic mesophilic counts. For the shelf-life studies, respiration rates at 3% O2 and 7 degrees C were 14.63, 17.89, 9.17 and 16.83 ml O2/h kg produce for control and treated cabbage, and control and treated lettuce respectively; used packaging configurations prevented anoxic conditions during the storage times. Log reductions of 0.54 and 0.46 for aerobic psychrothrophic count (APC) were achieved after flashing MP cabbage and lettuce respectively. APC of treated cabbage became equal than that from control at day 2, and higher at day 7, when the tolerance limit (8 log) was reached and the panel detected the presence of unacceptable levels of off-odours. Control never reached 8 log in APC and were sensory acceptable until the end of the experiment (9 days). In MP lettuce, APC of controls reached rejectable levels at day 2, whilst that of treated

  1. Optical diffraction tomography microscopy with transport of intensity equation using a light-emitting diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaji; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Jialin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yan; Zuo, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an effective label-free technique for quantitatively refractive index imaging, which enables long-term monitoring of the internal three-dimensional (3D) structures and molecular composition of biological cells with minimal perturbation. However, existing optical tomographic methods generally rely on interferometric configuration for phase measurement and sophisticated mechanical systems for sample rotation or beam scanning. Thereby, the measurement is suspect to phase error coming from the coherent speckle, environmental vibrations, and mechanical error during data acquisition process. To overcome these limitations, we present a new ODT technique based on non-interferometric phase retrieval and programmable illumination emitting from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. The experimental system is built based on a traditional bright field microscope, with the light source replaced by a programmable LED array, which provides angle-variable quasi-monochromatic illumination with an angular coverage of ±37 degrees in both x and y directions (corresponding to an illumination numerical aperture of ∼0.6). Transport of intensity equation (TIE) is utilized to recover the phase at different illumination angles, and the refractive index distribution is reconstructed based on the ODT framework under first Rytov approximation. The missing-cone problem in ODT is addressed by using the iterative non-negative constraint algorithm, and the misalignment of the LED array is further numerically corrected to improve the accuracy of refractive index quantification. Experiments on polystyrene beads and thick biological specimens show that the proposed approach allows accurate refractive index reconstruction while greatly reduced the system complexity and environmental sensitivity compared to conventional interferometric ODT approaches.

  2. Computational diffraction tomographic microscopy with transport of intensity equation using a light-emitting diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaji; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Jialin; Zuo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an effective label-free technique for quantitatively refractive index imaging, which enables long-term monitoring of the internal three-dimensional (3D) structures and molecular composition of biological cells with minimal perturbation. However, existing optical tomographic methods generally rely on interferometric configuration for phase measurement and sophisticated mechanical systems for sample rotation or beam scanning. Thereby, the measurement is suspect to phase error coming from the coherent speckle, environmental vibrations, and mechanical error during data acquisition process. To overcome these limitations, we present a new ODT technique based on non-interferometric phase retrieval and programmable illumination emitting from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. The experimental system is built based on a traditional bright field microscope, with the light source replaced by a programmable LED array, which provides angle-variable quasi-monochromatic illumination with an angular coverage of +/-37 degrees in both x and y directions (corresponding to an illumination numerical aperture of ˜ 0.6). Transport of intensity equation (TIE) is utilized to recover the phase at different illumination angles, and the refractive index distribution is reconstructed based on the ODT framework under first Rytov approximation. The missing-cone problem in ODT is addressed by using the iterative non-negative constraint algorithm, and the misalignment of the LED array is further numerically corrected to improve the accuracy of refractive index quantification. Experiments on polystyrene beads and thick biological specimens show that the proposed approach allows accurate refractive index reconstruction while greatly reduced the system complexity and environmental sensitivity compared to conventional interferometric ODT approaches.

  3. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner ...

  4. Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in the Treatment of Facial Acne Vulgaris: Comparison of Two Different Fluences

    OpenAIRE

    Patidar, Monika V; Deshmukh, Ashish Ramchandra; Khedkar, Maruti Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL) therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. Aims: (1) to study ef...

  5. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW INTENSITY VISIBLE AND INFRARED LIGHT ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER (MCF7 CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Peidaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7 cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM cells (control were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm. The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlueTM cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlueTM assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  6. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors: effects of light intensities and light-dark cycles on growth, productivity, and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Barbara; Morosinotto, Tomas; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Bertucco, Alberto; Sforza, Eleonora

    2014-03-01

    One of the main parameters influencing microalgae production is light, which provides energy to support metabolism but, if present in excess, can lead to oxidative stress and growth inhibition. In this work, the influence of illumination on Scenedesmus obliquus growth was assessed by cultivating cells at different light intensities in a flat plate photobioreactor. S. obliquus showed a maximum growth rate at 150 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Below this value, light was limiting for growth, while with more intense illumination photosaturation effects were observed, although cells still showed the ability to duplicate. Looking at the biochemical composition, light affected the pigment contents only while carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contents remained stable. By considering that in industrial photobioreactors microalgae cells are subjected to light-dark cycles due to mixing, algae were also grown under pulsed illumination (5, 10, and 15 Hz). Interestingly, the ability to exploit pulsed light with good efficiency required a pre-acclimation to the same conditions, suggesting the presence of a biological response to these conditions.

  7. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  8. Intense pulsed light for photo-rejuvenation and freckles of middle eastern skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bedewi, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Facial ageing is a gradual process which could be due to intrinsic and extrinsic causes and it ultimately results in the appearance of activity induced tissue ptosis, wrinkles, epidermal and dermal artoply, dryness, senile lentigo, flushing, telangiectasia and enlarged pores. Moreover, freckles are frequently seen on the face and other sun exposed areas and it is characterized with incrreased melanin in the epidermis. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)is the latest technology for selective photo-thermolysis as a non-ablative photo-rejuvenation. Thirty-four patients of age ranging between 35- 70 years with skin type ranging between III-V with or without freckles were treated with 3-5 sessions of IPL. Three weeks intervals were considered between every two succesive session. Irradiation wavelength was controlled using cutoff filters ranging from 535 to 580 nmwith a fluence of 25-35 j/cm-2. Significant improvement was demonstrated after 6 months by computerized image analysis compared with the baseline. IPL was found to be effective and saf treatment for fine wrinkles, facial freckles, telangiectasia, flushing as well as post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation with a high satisfactory level and a relatively afew adverse effects

  9. Beyond linear response theory for intensive light-matter interactions: Order formalism and ultrafast transient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, M.; Barbalinardo, G.; Carva, K.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recently constructed radiation sources deliver brilliant, ultrashort coherent radiation fields with which the material's response can be investigated on the femtosecond to attosecond time scale. Here, we develop a theoretical framework for the interaction of the material's electrons with such intensive, short radiation pulses. Our theory is based on the time evolution of the electron density matrix, as defined through the Liouville-von Neumann equation. The latter equation is solved here within the framework of the response theory, incorporating the perturbing field in higher orders. An analytical tool, called the order notation, is developed, which permits the explicit calculation of the arising nth-order operatorial convolutions. As examples of the formalism, explicit expressions for several optical phenomena are worked out. Through the developed theory presented here, two fundamental results are achieved: first, the perturbing field to higher than linear orders is included in an elegant and compact way, allowing to treat highly brilliant light, and, second, the complete transient time response on the subfemtosecond scale is analytically provided, thus dropping the adiabatic approximation commonly made in standard linear response theory.

  10. Development of evaluation methods for the approval and review of Intense pulsed light (IPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung-Youl Lee; Cho-Long Ju; Tae-Hee Lee; Hyeon-Su Na; In-Su Lee; Chang-Won Park

    2017-07-01

    This Intense pulsed light (IPL) is skin therapy medical device to remove infection and lesion. The market size of IPL has increased because of increasing device users such as doctors, nurses, engineers, patients. Thus, the number of IPL approvals by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) has increased. However, since there are no standard and guideline for evaluation of IPL performance and safety, it is need to develop the evaluation method of IPL performance and safety for petitioners and examiners who are having difficulties in approval and review. In this study, the criteria and methods for scientific evaluation of safety and performance of IPL are proposed to support approval and review, and it is expected to enhance the international competitiveness of domestic medical device industry and patient safety. To develop the evaluation methods of IPL, first, the types and information of IPL have been collected and analyzed, and relative international and domestic standard and FDA guidance have been studied. Second, drawn test items, criteria and methods were verified at medical device testing institute. Finally, the guideline for evaluation of IPL performance and safety was reviewed through a consultative body composed of academic, industrial, institute, and government experts.

  11. Efficacy of new microprocessed phototherapy system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Bianca M R; de Carvalho, Manoel; Moreira, Maria E L; Lopes, José M A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a microprocessed phototherapy (PT) system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED) for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of premature infants. Randomized clinical trial using Super LED phototherapy in the study group and twin halogen spotlight phototherapy in the control group. A stratified blocked randomization, based on birth weight, was performed. The duration of phototherapy and the rate of decrease of total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentration in the first 24 hours of treatment were the main outcome measures. We studied 88 infants, 44 in the Super LED group and 44 in the halogen spotlight PT group. The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Infants in the Super LED group had a similar mean initial serum bilirubin level (10.1+/-2.4 mg%) to those receiving halogen spotlight treatment (10.9+/-2.0 mg%). After 24 hours of treatment, the decrease in total serum bilirubin levels was significantly greater in the Super LED group (27.9 vs. 10.7%, pphototherapy was significantly shorter in this group (36.8 h vs. 63.8 h, pLED phototherapy had reached serum bilirubin concentrations low enough to allow withdrawal of treatment (23 vs. 10, pLED phototherapy for treating hyperbilirubinemia in premature infants was significantly better than halogen phototherapy.

  12. Fabrication of Elemental Copper by Intense Pulsed Light Processing of a Copper Nitrate Hydroxide Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Gabriel L; Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Staats, Meghan E; Lavery, Brandon W; Druffel, Thad

    2015-08-05

    Printed electronics and renewable energy technologies have shown a growing demand for scalable copper and copper precursor inks. An alternative copper precursor ink of copper nitrate hydroxide, Cu2(OH)3NO3, was aqueously synthesized under ambient conditions with copper nitrate and potassium hydroxide reagents. Films were deposited by screen-printing and subsequently processed with intense pulsed light. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 quickly transformed in less than 100 s using 40 (2 ms, 12.8 J cm(-2)) pulses into CuO. At higher energy densities, the sintering improved the bulk film quality. The direct formation of Cu from the Cu2(OH)3NO3 requires a reducing agent; therefore, fructose and glucose were added to the inks. Rather than oxidizing, the thermal decomposition of the sugars led to a reducing environment and direct conversion of the films into elemental copper. The chemical and physical transformations were studied with XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis.

  13. Polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent by Chlorella vulgaris under low light intensity

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2017-05-29

    To investigate anaerobic secondary effluent polishing by microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) under low light intensity (14 μmol/m2/s), bubbling column reactors were operated in batches of 8 d with initial ammonium nitrogen 10-50 mg/L, initial phosphate phosphorus 2-10 mg/L and microalgal seed 40 mg/L. Maximum microalgal biomass and minimum generation time were 370.9 mg/L and 2.5 d, respectively. Nitrogen removal (maximum 99.6%) was mainly attributed to microalgal growth rate, while phosphorus removal (maximum 49.8%) was related to microalgal growth rate, cell phosphorus content (maximum 1.5%) and initial nutrients ratio. Dissolved microalgal organics release in terms of chemical oxygen demand (maximum 63.2 mg/L) and hexane extractable material (i.e., oil and grease, maximum 8.5 mg/L) was firstly reported and mainly affected by nitrogen deficiency and deteriorated effluent quality. Ultrafiltration critical flux (16.6-39.5 L/m2/h) showed negative linear correlation to microalgal biomass. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results with slight inhibition to synthetic effluent.

  14. Comparative Study Between Intense Pulsed Light IPLAND Pulsed Dye Laser In The Treatment Of Striae Distensae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, Gh.M.K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) and Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) have been used to treat Striae Distensae (SD). Thirty patients with age ranging from 14 - 42 years were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated on one side of their bodies with PDL and on the other side with IPL while seven patients were treated on both sides by IPL and three patients were treated on both sides by PDL for five sessions with four weeks interval between sessions. Skin biopsies were stained with H and E, Masson Trichrome, Orcein, Alcian blue and anti-collagen I Α1. After both PDL and IPL treatments striae width was decreased and the texture was improved in a highly significant manners where P value was 0.001. Collagen expression was increased in a highly significant manner and P values were <0.001 and 0.004 after PDL and IPL treatments respectively. However, PDL induced expression of collagen I in a highly significant manner compared to the treatment with IPL where P values were <0.001 and 0.193 respectively. Striae rubra gave a superior response with either PDL or IPL compared to striae alba which was evaluated clinically by the width, color and texture, although the histological changes could not verify this consequence. Both PDL and IPL can enhance the clinical picture of striae through collagen stimulation therapeutic modalities

  15. Results after implementation of a protocol on the incidence of urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Anna Letícia; de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio; Nacer, Daiana Terra; Aguiar, Cynthia Adalgisa Mesojedovas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the results of urinary tract infection incidence, by means of the rate of indwelling urethral catheter use, and to identify microorganisms in urine cultures and surveillance cultures before and after the implementation of a clinical protocol for intensive care unit patients . Method: urinary tract infection is defined as a positive urine culture > 105 CFU/mL, notified by the hospital infection control service, six months before and after the implementation of the protocol. The sample consisted of 47 patients, 28 reported before and 19 after implementation. The protocol established in the institution is based on the Ministry of Health manual to prevent healthcare-related infections; the goal is patient safety and improving the quality of health services. Results: a negative linear correlation was observed between the later months of implementation and the reduction of reported cases of urinary tract infection, using the Spearman rank order coefficient (p = 0.045), and a reduction in the number of urine culture microorganisms (p = 0.026) using the Fisher exact test. Conclusion: educational interventions with implementation protocols in health institutions favor the standardization of maintenance of the invasive devices, which may reduce colonization and subsequent infections. PMID:27627125

  16. Sex differences in the association of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates and geographic ultraviolet light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Smith, Feng; Farhat, Ahmed Majid; Arce, Anthony; Ziogas, Argyrios; Taylor, Thomas; Wang, Zi; Yourk, Vandy; Liu, Jing; Wu, Jun; McEligot, Archana J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Meyskens, Frank L

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) incidence rates continue to increase, and the reasons are unknown. Previously, we reported a unique age-specific sex difference in melanoma that suggested additional causes other than solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This study attempted to understand whether and how UV radiation differentially impacts the CM incidence in men and women. CM data and daily UV index (UVI) from 31 cancer registries were collected for association analysis. A second dataset from 42 US states was used for validation. There was no association between log-transformed female CM rates and levels of UVI, but there was a significant association between male rates and UVI and a significant association between overall rates and UVI. The 5-year age-specific rate-UVI association levels (represented by Pearson's coefficient ρ) increased with age in men, but age-specific ρ levels remained low and unchanged in women. The significant rate-UVI association in men and nonassociation in women was validated in a population of white residents of the United States. Confounders, including temperature and latitude, are difficult to separate from UVI. Ambient UVI appears to be associated with melanoma incidence in males but not in females. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Light-activation through indirect ceramic restorations: does the overexposure compensate for the attenuation in light intensity during resin cement polymerization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano Luis Novaes Bueno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of light exposure through simulated indirect ceramic restorations (SICR on hardness (KHN of dual-cured resin cements (RCs, immediately after light-activation and 24 h later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three dual-cured RCs were evaluated: Eco-Link (Ivoclar Vivadent, Rely X ARC (3M ESPE, and Panavia F (Kuraray Medical Inc.. The RCs were manipulated in accordance to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed into cylindrical acrylic matrixes (1-mm-thick and 4-mm diameter. The RC light-activation (Optilux 501; Demetron Kerr was performed through a glass slide for 120 s (control group, or through 2-mm or 4-mm thick SICRs (IPS Empress II; Ivoclar Vivadent. The specimens were submitted to KHN analysis immediately and 24 h after light-activation. The data obtained at the 2 evaluation intervals were submitted to 2-way ANOVA repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey's test (pre-set alpha of 5%. RESULTS: Lower KHN was observed when light-activation was performed through SICRs for Eco-Link at all evaluation intervals and for Rely X ARC 24 h later. For Panavia F, no significant difference in KHN was observed between control and experimental groups, regardless of evaluation interval. Most groups exhibited higher KHN after 24 h than immediately after light-activation, with the exception of Rely X ARC light-activated through SICR, as no significant difference in KHN was found between evaluation intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Light overexposure did not compensate for light intensity attenuation due to the presence of SICR when Rely X and Eco-Link were used. Although hardness of such RCs increased over a 24-h interval, the RCs subjected to light overexposure did not reach the hardness values exhibited after direct light exposure.

  18. Influence of light intensity on the toxicity of atrazine to the submerged freshwater aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Hoberg, James; Hosmer, Alan J; Wall, Steven B

    2012-05-01

    Light intensity can have a profound influence on the degree of phytotoxicity experienced by plants exposed to photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides. This relationship was evaluated in the submerged aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis exposed to three different concentrations of atrazine (510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L) plus an untreated control at three different light intensities (0, 500 and 6000 lx) under static-renewal conditions for 14 days. Under 500 lx light intensity, control plants demonstrated a rapid increase in shoot length but minimal increase in dry shoot weight, suggesting limited photosynthesis. Based on shoot-length and biomass, growth was not affected by any atrazine exposure relative to controls under dark conditions (0 lx). Under low-light conditions at 500 lx, exposures to 510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L atrazine significantly decreased net shoot lengths by 34%, 38% and 35%, respectively, relative to corresponding (500 lx) controls. However, atrazine exposure under this light condition did not significantly decrease biomass (dry shoot weight). Compared to 6000 lx, only approximately 8% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under 500 lx intensity, indicating that minimal PAR was available for photosynthesis. Under optimal light conditions (6000 lx), net shoot lengths significantly decreased in the treated atrazine groups by 48%, 51% and 68%, and net dry shoot weights (biomass) were significantly decreased by 79%, 81% and 91%, respectively, relative to corresponding (6000 lx) controls. These data show that under low light conditions, atrazine-induced effects on dry shoot weight (biomass) are dependent on available PAR and active photosynthesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. "Light-emitting diode" light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm(2) and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm(2). The "quartz-tungsten-halogen" LCU (400 mW/cm(2)) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity.

  20. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  1. Variation in pupil diameter in North American Gartersnakes (Thamnophis) is regulated by immersion in water, not by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Clifford L

    2008-07-01

    A variable pupil generally regulates the amount of incoming light available for image formation on the retina. However, some of the semi-aquatic snakes (North American Gartersnakes, Thamnophis) that forage in relatively low light conditions reduce the pupil aperture in response to submergence underwater at the expense incoming light. Given that these snakes have all-cone retinas, reduction of incoming light because of pupillary constriction upon immersion seems counterintuitive. To test the effect of light and water on pupil aperture, three species of North American Gartersnakes (T. atratus, T. hammondii, and T. sirtalis) were exposed to nine light intensities in air and water. There was no effect of light on relative pupil aperture for any species. However, all three species showed a significant reduction in pupil aperture upon submergence underwater. The lack of a light response is surprising, and may be related to the method of accommodation in snakes. Snakes lack a ciliary muscle, and move the lens by constricting the pupil, which increases pressure in the posterior chamber and pushes the lens forward. Upon submergence, the snakes may be attempting to overcome the change in refractive index and defocus imposed by the water, by constricting the pupil. Thus, having the iris muscle involved in accommodation may preclude it from much of a light regulating function.

  2. Reflection and transmission of obliquely incident light by chiral sculptured thin films fabricated using asymmetric serial-bideposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Patrick D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    Chiral sculptured thin films (STFs) were grown using the asymmetric serial-bideposition (ASBD) technique, whereby (i) two subdeposits of unequal heights are separated by a substrate rotation of 180 deg about the central normal axis, and (ii) consecutive subdeposit pairs are separated by a small substrate rotation δ on the order of a few degrees. Eight samples were prepared with subdeposit heights in ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 9:1. A finely ambichiral STF was also grown. All nine samples were grown with the same vapor flux direction and to have 10 periods with the same thickness. The spectrums of all eight circular remittances of every sample were measured over a wide range of incidence angle θinc. Redshifting and narrowing of the circular Bragg regime was observed with increasing subdeposit-height ratio for all values of θinc, arriving at a limit with the 9:1 sample. The finely ambichiral sample has a circular Bragg regime similar to that of the 9:1 sample, but the latter exhibits much better discrimination between incident left circularly polarized light and right circularly polarized light than the former for θinc larger than about 20 deg.

  3. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence and Severity of Prescribing Errors in Parenteral Nutrition for Pediatric Inpatients at a Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hermanspann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPediatric inpatients are particularly vulnerable to medication errors (MEs, especially in highly individualized preparations like parenteral nutrition (PN. Aside from prescribing via a computerized physician order entry system (CPOE, we evaluated the effect of cross-checking by a clinical pharmacist to prevent harm from PN order errors in a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU.MethodsThe incidence of prescribing errors in PN in a tertiary level NICU/PICU was surveyed prospectively between March 2012 and July 2013 (n = 3,012 orders. A pharmacist cross-checked all PN orders prior to preparation. Errors were assigned to seven different error-type categories. Three independent experts from different academic tertiary level NICUs judged the severity of each error according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP Index (categories A–I.ResultsThe error rate was 3.9% for all 3,012 orders (118 prescribing errors in 111 orders. 77 (6.0%, 1,277 orders errors occurred in the category concentration range, all concerning a relative overdose of calcium gluconate for peripheral infusion. The majority of all events (60% were assigned to categories C and D (without major harmful consequences while 28% could not be assigned due to missing majority decision. Potential harmful consequences requiring interventions (category E could have occurred in 12% of assessments.ConclusionNext to systematic application of clinical guidelines and prescribing via CPOE, order review by a clinical pharmacist is still required to effectively reduce MEs and thus to prevent minor and major adverse drug events with the aim to enhance medication safety.

  5. The success of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in freshwaters is enhanced by the combined effects of light intensity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Bonilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters are thought to be a consequence of the combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and climate change. It is expected that climate change will affect water mixing regimes that alter the water transparency and ultimately the light environment for phytoplankton. Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii are expanding from tropical towards temperate regions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this expansion, including an increase in water temperature due to climate change and the high phenotypic plasticity of the species that allows it to exploit different light environments. We performed an analysis based on eight lakes in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions to examine the distribution and abundance of C. raciborskii in relation to water temperature and transparency. We then conducted a series of short-term factorial experiments that combined three temperatures and two light intensity levels using C. raciborskii cultures alone and in interaction with another cyanobacterium to identify its growth capacity. Our results from the field, in contrast to predictions, showed no differences in dominance (>40% to the total biovolume of C. raciborskii between climate regions. C. raciborskii was able to dominate the phytoplankton in a wide range of light environments (euphotic zone = 1.5 to 5 m, euphotic zone/mixing zone ratio <0.5 to >1.5. Moreover, C. raciborskii was capable of dominating the phytoplankton at low temperatures (<15°C. Our experimental results showed that C. raciborskii growing in interaction was enhanced by the increase of the temperature and light intensity. C. raciborskii growth in high light intensities and at a wide range of temperatures, suggests that any advantage that this species may derive from climate change that favors its dominance in the phytoplankton is likely due to changes in the light environment rather than changes in

  6. Pentoses and light intensity increase the growth and carbohydrate production and alter the protein profile of Chlorella minutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, B C B; Cassuriaga, A P A; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2017-08-01

    High concentrations of carbon, which is considered a necessary element, are required for microalgal growth. Therefore, the identification of alternative carbon sources available in large quantities is increasingly important. This study evaluated the effects of light variation and pentose addition on the carbohydrate content and protein profile of Chlorella minutissima grown in a raceway photobioreactor. The kinetic parameters, carbohydrate content, and protein profile of Chlorella minutissima and its theoretical potential for ethanol production were estimated. The highest cellular concentrations were obtained with a light intensity of 33.75µmol.m -2 .s -1 . Arabinose addition combined with a light intensity of 33.75µmol.m -2 .s -1 increased the carbohydrate content by 53.8% and theoretically produced 39.1mL·100g -1 ethanol. All of the assays showed that a lower light availability altered the protein profile. The luminous intensity affects xylose and arabinose assimilation and augments the carbohydrate content in C. minutissima, making this microalga appropriate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Video tracking for high-similarity drug tablets based on reflective lightness intensity and fuzzy recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongwei; Liu, Xiaochu; Tan, Shisong; Wen, Yiheng

    2016-03-01

    Video tracking of drug tablet exerts important influences on the efficiency and reliability of its mass production; this topic also becomes a difficult and targeted focus for pharmaceutical production monitory in the past several years due to the high similarity and random distribution of those objectives to be searched for. By measuring the reflective lightness intensity of illumination lightness on tablet surface, reflective lightness intensity matrix was established and demonstrated in the form of grey image, presenting its shape topology and topography details in return. On this basis, a series of mathematical properties for describing reflective lightness intensity images were proposed, thereafter a set of fuzzy recognition system and its identification rules can be employed to classify those moving tablets with inputted image properties, which facilitates the determination of their instantaneous coordinate positions on given image frame accordingly. By repeating identical operations on the next frame, the real-time motions of tablet objectives were traced successfully. Orthogonal tracking experiment and performance comparisons verified the accuracy and reliability of this new method in pharmaceutical industry. With original suggestions concerning imaging arrangements, tablet descriptions and video tracking, this article provides reliable references and new research ideas for tablet tracking performance in high-yielding production domain. © IMechE 2016.

  8. The impact of architectural design upon the environmental sound and light exposure of neonates who require intensive care: an evaluation of the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D C; Akram Khan, M; Munson, D P; Reid, E J; Helseth, C C; Buggy, J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in environmental sound, illumination and physiological parameters in the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (BNICU), which was designed to comply with current recommendations and standards, as compared with a conventional neonatal intensive care unit (CNICU). Prospectively designed observational study. Median sound levels in the unoccupied BNICU (37.6 dBA) were lower than the CNICU (42.1 dBA, P<0.001). Median levels of minimum (6.4 vs 48.4 lux, P<0.05) and maximum illumination (357 vs 402 lux, P<0.05) were lower in the BNICU. A group of six neonates delivered at 32 weeks gestation showed significantly less periodic breathing (14 vs 21%) and awake time (17.6 vs 29.3%) in the BNICU as compared to the CNICU. Light and sound were both significantly reduced in the BNICU. Care in the BNICU was associated with improved physiological parameters.

  9. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  10. Intense light-ion beams provide a robust, common-driver path toward ignition, gain, and commercial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Cook, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Intense light-ion beams are being developed for investigations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This effort has concentrated on developing the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) at Sandia as a driver for ICF target experiments, on design concepts for a high-yield, high-gain Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), and on a comprehensive system study of a light-ion beam-driven commercial fusion reactor (LIBRA). Reports are given on the status of design concepts and research in these areas. (author)

  11. Bedroom Light Exposure at Night and the Incidence of Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that minimal exposure to light at night (LAN) increases depression risk, even at 5 lux, in nocturnal and diurnal mammals. Although such low-level LAN may affect human circadian physiology, the association between exposure to LAN and depressive symptoms remains uncertain. In the present study, bedroom light intensity was measured objectively, and depressive symptoms were assessed, during 2010-2014 in Nara, Japan. Of 863 participants (mean age = 71.5 years) who did not have depressive symptoms at baseline, 73 participants reported development of depressive symptoms during follow-up (median, 24 months). Compared with the "dark" group (average of <5 lux; n = 710), the LAN group (average of ≥5 lux; n = 153) exhibited a significantly higher depression risk (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.14), according to a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and economic status. Further, the significance remained in a multivariable model adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, and sleep parameters (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.89). Sensitivity analyses using bedroom light data with a cutoff value of ≥10 lux suggested consistent results. In conclusion, these results indicated that exposure to LAN in home settings was independently associated with subsequent depression risk in an elderly general population.

  12. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. Method: methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. Results: The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. Conclusion: the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. PMID:27992025

  13. Enhancement factor sign inversion triggered by the variation of the incident direction of light in the azo-dye doped liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Luogen; Wang Liang; Luo Liyuan; Wang Guohui

    2006-01-01

    The optical reorientation process of the azo-dye doped liquid crystals (LCs) is studied and the dependence of the enhancement factor on the incident light direction is explained. By analysing the relation between the order parameter and the cis isomer concentration in the azo-dye doped LC system, an analytical expression that describes the dependence of the order parameters on the direction of the incident light is obtained. It is found that, since the order parameters of the guest-host LC system depend on the direction of the incident light, the intermolecular orientational interaction potentials are also related with the incident light direction. In order to describe the interaction of the cis isomer with the liquid crystalline molecules, a revised Maier-Saupe potential expression that allows for a higher-order interaction is used. A microscopic formula of the enhancement factor for the azo-dye doped LC system is derived on the basis of a simplified two-level model. From the microscopic formula, the mechanism behind the dependence of the enhancement factor on the incident direction of light is revealed. The comparison of our computational results with the existent experimental data verified our enhancement factor's microscopic form

  14. High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Benjamin M; Horton, Kyle G; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klinck, Holger; Elbin, Susan B; Farnsworth, Andrew

    2017-10-17

    Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring the beams of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum's "Tribute in Light" in New York, quantifying behavioral responses with radar and acoustic sensors and modeling disorientation and attraction with simulations. This single light source induced significant behavioral alterations in birds, even in good visibility conditions, in this heavily photopolluted environment, and to altitudes up to 4 km. We estimate that the installation influenced ≈1.1 million birds during our study period of 7 d over 7 y. When the installation was illuminated, birds aggregated in high densities, decreased flight speeds, followed circular flight paths, and vocalized frequently. Simulations revealed a high probability of disorientation and subsequent attraction for nearby birds, and bird densities near the installation exceeded magnitudes 20 times greater than surrounding baseline densities during each year's observations. However, behavioral disruptions disappeared when lights were extinguished, suggesting that selective removal of light during nights with substantial bird migration is a viable strategy for minimizing potentially fatal interactions among ALAN, structures, and birds. Our results also highlight the value of additional studies describing behavioral patterns of nocturnally migrating birds in powerful lights in urban areas as well as conservation implications for such lighting installations.

  15. The relationship between maximum tolerated light intensity and photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic antenna: chloroplast gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Alexander V; Belgio, Erica

    2014-04-19

    The principle of quantifying the efficiency of protection of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres against photoinhibition by non-photochemical energy dissipation (NPQ) has been recently introduced by Ruban & Murchie (2012 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1817, 977-982 (doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.03.026)). This is based upon the assessment of two key parameters: (i) the relationship between the PSII yield and NPQ, and (ii) the fraction of intact PSII reaction centres in the dark after illumination. In this paper, we have quantified the relationship between the amplitude of NPQ and the light intensity at which all PSII reaction centres remain intact for plants with different levels of PsbS protein, known to play a key role in the process. It was found that the same, nearly linear, relationship exists between the levels of the protective NPQ component (pNPQ) and the tolerated light intensity in all types of studied plants. This approach allowed for the quantification of the maximum tolerated light intensity, the light intensity at which all plant leaves become photoinhibited, the fraction of (most likely) unnecessary or 'wasteful' NPQ, and the fraction of photoinhibited PSII reaction centres under conditions of prolonged illumination by full sunlight. It was concluded that the governing factors in the photoprotection of PSII are the level and rate of protective pNPQ formation, which are often in discord with the amplitude of the conventional measure of photoprotection, the quickly reversible NPQ component, qE. Hence, we recommend pNPQ as a more informative and less ambiguous parameter than qE, as it reflects the effectiveness and limitations of the major photoprotective process of the photosynthetic membrane.

  16. The generation of short-wave UV light in cells under the action of ultrashort pulses of intense visible radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarsky, V. A.; Philipp, B. S.; Kovarsky, E. V.

    1997-02-01

    The action of intense laser pulses ( λ = 0.53 μm) on E.coli cells is considered (the cells are transparent in this range). The transformation of laser radiation into UV light due to the high-harmonics generation on the protein molecules (the dipole moment is 100-1000 D) leads to the appearance of thymine dimers in bacterial DNA and results in a lethal effect for strains of E.coli which are highly sensitive to UV radiation.

  17. Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Attraction to Different Wavelengths and Intensities of Light-Emitting Diodes in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ryan B; Snyder, Darren; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; McCornack, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), populations is important for targeted management methods. Also, effectiveness of monitoring efforts is critical to surveillance efforts in regions of the world without this pest. Current Hessian fly monitoring traps rely purely on a single attractant, the female sex pheromone, which is ineffective for monitoring females in the population. Our objective was to examine another attractant targeting vision of both males and females. To do this, we evaluated emitted light of various wavelengths and intensities produced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Hessian flies were released in the center of a four-leaf clover-shaped arena, which contained an LED within each collection cup at the apex of each of the four cloverleaves. Initially, we examined a range of colors, including red, amber, green, and blue, with wavelengths of 624, 590, 527, and 472 nm, respectively. Both sexes of Hessian fly preferred green LEDs; therefore, we examined specific wavelengths within the green spectrum (502, 525, and 565 nm), and varied light intensities (4, 8, 12, and 16 W/m2). Specifically, females preferred wavelengths in the lower region of the green spectrum (502 and 525 nm), and both sexes preferred high intensity light (16 W/m2). This is the first report of Hessian fly attraction to select emitted wavelengths and intensities from LEDs under controlled conditions. Leveraging these results into new trap designs will add a second sensory modality to the existing trap; however, future studies are needed to assess attraction to LED traps under field conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Influence of light intensity on surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Kie; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Syo; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of light intensity on the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step selfetch adhesives. The adhesives were applied to the dentin surfaces of bovine mandibular incisors and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). Surface-free energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. Dentin bond strengths of the specimens were also measured. Polymerization with a higher light intensity resulted in a lower surface-free energy of the cured adhesives. The greatest bond strength was achieved when a light intensity of 400 mW/cm(2) or greater was used. Our data suggest that the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesives are affected by light intensity of the curing unit.

  20. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  1. Array-based goniospectroradiometer for measurement of spectral radiant intensity and spectral total flux of light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Michael; Goodman, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    We present a description of a new goniospectroradiometric measurement system developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The instrument incorporates a modified array spectrometer and a series of rotary stages to allow measurement of the spectral radiant intensity distribution of a variety of different types of light source from 350 to 830 nm. Associated source properties such as chromaticity and correlated color temperature distributions and total spectral flux are then calculated from the radiant intensity data. A preliminary comparison with NPL's integrating sphere-based luminous flux scale shows agreement to within 0.4%, well within the combined measurement uncertainty. Measurements of the luminous intensity and color temperature distributions and the spectral total flux of a tungsten filament flux standard, a white LED cluster and a compact fluorescent source made using the goniospectroradiometer, are also presented

  2. An Integrated Response of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 Growth and Photo-Physiology to Iron, CO2, and Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G. Boatman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have assessed how varying CO2 (180, 380, and 720 μatm and growth light intensity (40 and 400 μmol photons m−2 s−1 affected Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 growth and photophysiology over free iron (Fe′ concentrations between 20 and 9,600 pM. We found significant iron dependencies of growth rate and the initial slope and maximal relative PSII electron transport rates (rPm. Under iron-limiting concentrations, high-light increased growth rates and rPm; possibly indicating a lower allocation of resources to iron-containing photosynthetic proteins. Higher CO2 increased growth rates across all iron concentrations, enabled growth to occur at lower Fe′ concentrations, increased rPm and lowered the iron half saturation constants for growth (Km. We attribute these CO2 responses to the operation of the CCM and the ATP spent/saved for CO2 uptake and transport at low and high CO2, respectively. It seems reasonable to conclude that T. erythraeum IMS101 can exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to CO2, light intensity and iron-limitation. These results are important given predictions of increased dissolved CO2 and water column stratification (i.e., higher light exposures over the coming decades.

  3. Empirical Study of How Traffic Intensity Detector Parameters Influence Dynamic Street Lighting Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Krakow, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of dynamic street lighting, which adjusts lighting levels to fulfill particular needs, leads to energy savings. These savings contribute to the overall lighting infrastructure maintenance cost. Yet another contribution is the cost of traffic intensity data. The data is read directly from sensor systems or intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. The more frequent the readings are, the more costly they become, because of hardware capabilities, data transfer and software license costs, among others. The paper investigates a relationship between the frequency of readings, in particular the averaging window size and step, and achieved energy savings. It is based on a simulation, taking into account a representative part of a city and traffic intensity data, which span over a period of one year. While the energy consumption reduction is simulated, all data, including each luminaire power setting, induction loop locations and street characteristics, come from a representative sample of the city of Krakow, Poland. Controlling the power settings complies with the lighting standard CEN/TR 13201. Analysis of the outcomes indicates that the shorter the window size or step are, the more energy saving that is available. In particular, for the previous standard CEN/TR 13201 2004, having the window size and step at 15 min results in 26.75% of energy saving, while reducing these values to 6 min provides 27%. Savings are more profound for the current standard (CEN/TR 13201 2014, assuming a 15 min size and step results in 47.43%, while having a 6 min size and step provides 47.69%. The results can serve as a guideline for identifying the economic viability of dynamic lighting control systems. Additionally, it can be observed that the current lighting standard provides far greater potential for dynamic control then the previous standard.

  4. Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy at low light intensities by using reversibly photoswitchable proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, M.; Eggeling, C.; Jakobs, S.; Hell, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is indispensable in many areas of science, but until recently, diffraction has limited the resolution of its lens-based variant. The diffraction barrier has been broken by a saturated depletion of the marker's fluorescent state by stimulated emission, but this approach requires picosecond laser pulses of GW/cm2 intensity. Here, we demonstrate the surpassing of the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy with illumination intensities that are eight orders of magn...

  5. Dependence of Changes of Histogram Shapes from Time and Space Direction is the Same when Fluctuation Intensities of Both Light-Diode Light Flow and 239-Pu Alpha-Activity are Measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinshtein I. A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tells that spectra of fluctuation amplitudes, that is, shapes of corresponding histograms, resulting measurements of intensity of light fluxes issued by a light-diode and measurements of intensity of 239 Pu alpha-particles issues change synchronously. Experiments with light beams show the same diurnal periodicity and space direction dependencies as experiments with radioactivity. Thus new possibilities for investigation of “macroscopic fluctuations” come.

  6. Results after implementation of a protocol on the incidence of urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Anna Letícia; Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Nacer, Daiana Terra; Aguiar, Cynthia Adalgisa Mesojedovas

    2016-09-09

    to compare the results of urinary tract infection incidence, by means of the rate of indwelling urethral catheter use, and to identify microorganisms in urine cultures and surveillance cultures before and after the implementation of a clinical protocol for intensive care unit patients . urinary tract infection is defined as a positive urine culture > 105 CFU/mL, notified by the hospital infection control service, six months before and after the implementation of the protocol. The sample consisted of 47 patients, 28 reported before and 19 after implementation. The protocol established in the institution is based on the Ministry of Health manual to prevent healthcare-related infections; the goal is patient safety and improving the quality of health services. a negative linear correlation was observed between the later months of implementation and the reduction of reported cases of urinary tract infection, using the Spearman rank order coefficient (p = 0.045), and a reduction in the number of urine culture microorganisms (p = 0.026) using the Fisher exact test. educational interventions with implementation protocols in health institutions favor the standardization of maintenance of the invasive devices, which may reduce colonization and subsequent infections. comparar os resultados da incidência de infecção do trato urinário, por meio da taxa de utilização do cateter vesical de demora e identificar os micro-organismos na urocultura e cultura de vigilância antes e após a implementação de um protocolo assistencial em pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. definiu-se infecção do trato urinário pacientes com urocultura positiva >105 UFC/mL, notificados pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, seis meses antes e após a implementação do protocolo. A amostra foi constituída por 47 pacientes, sendo 28 notificados antes e 19 após. O protocolo, criado na instituição, é baseado no manual do Ministério da Saúde na prevenção de

  7. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  8. Timing and intensity of light correlate with body weight in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J Reid

    Full Text Available Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD = 11.7 years. Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500 was defined as the average clock time of all aggregated data points above 500 lux. MLiT500 was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.51, p<0.001, and midpoint of sleep (r = 0.47, p<0.01. In a multivariable linear regression model including MLiT500 and midpoint of sleep, MLiT500 was a significant predictor of BMI (B = 1.26 SE = 0.34, β = 0.53 p = 0.001, r2Δ = 0.22. Adjusting for covariates, MLiT500 remained an independent predictor of BMI (B = 1.28 SE = 0.36, β = 0.54, p = 0.002, r2Δ = 0.20. The full model accounted for 34.7% of the variance in BMI (p = 0.01. Exposure to moderate levels of light at biologically appropriate times can influence weight, independent of sleep timing and duration.

  9. The relationship among pressure ulcer risk factors, incidence and nursing documentation in hospital-acquired pressure ulcer patients in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan

    2016-08-01

    To explore the quality/comprehensiveness of nursing documentation of pressure ulcers and to investigate the relationship between the nursing documentation and the incidence of pressure ulcers in four intensive care units. Pressure ulcer prevention requires consistent assessments and documentation to decrease pressure ulcer incidence. Currently, most research is focused on devices to prevent pressure ulcers. Studies have rarely considered the relationship among pressure ulcer risk factors, incidence and nursing documentation. Thus, a study to investigate this relationship is needed to fill this information gap. A retrospective, comparative, descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample of 196 intensive care units patients at the selected medical centre comprised the study sample. All medical records of patients admitted to intensive care units between the time periods of September 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012 were audited. Data used in the analysis included 98 pressure ulcer patients and 98 non-pressure ulcer patients. The quality and comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation were measured by the modified European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Ulcers Assessment Instrument and the Comprehensiveness in Nursing Documentation instrument. The correlations between quality/comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation and incidence of pressure ulcers were not statistically significant. Patients with pressure ulcers had longer length of stay than patients without pressure ulcers stay. There were no statistically significant differences in quality/comprehensiveness scores of pressure ulcer documentation between dayshift and nightshift. This study revealed a lack of quality/comprehensiveness in nursing documentation of pressure ulcers. This study demonstrates that staff nurses often perform poorly on documenting pressure ulcer appearance, staging and treatment. Moreover, nursing documentation of pressure ulcers does not provide a complete

  10. Measurement of guided light-mode intensity: An alternative waveguide sensing principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Skivesen, N.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    An alternative transduction mechanism for planar optical waveguide sensors is reported. Based on a simple measurement of the mode intensity, the presented transduction is an interesting alternative to the conventional mode-angle transduction, because the expensive, high-precision angular rotation...

  11. Ponderomotive dressing of doubly-excited states with intensity-controlled laser light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We laser-dress several doubly-excited states in helium. Tuning the coupling-laser intensity from perturbative to the strong-coupling regime, we are able to measure phases imprinted on the two-electron wavefunctions, and observe a new continuum coupling mechanism.

  12. Perceived Intensity of Emotional Point-Light Displays Is Reduced in Subjects with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Kaletsch, Morten; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Schwippert, Sven-Sören; Hennig, Jürgen; Stark, Rudolf; Lis, Stefanie; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn

    2018-01-01

    One major characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is problems with social interaction and communication. The present study explored ASD-related alterations in perceiving emotions expressed via body movements. 16 participants with ASD and 16 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point-light displays. They…

  13. INCIDENCE, OUTCOME AND RISK FACTORS FOR SEPSIS--A TWO YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AT SURGICAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, All; Hashmi, Madiha; Rashid, Saima; Khan, Fazal Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is amongst the leading causes of admission to the intensive care units and is associated with a high mortality. However, data from developing countries is scares. Aim of conducting this study was to determine the incidence, outcome and risk factors for sepsis on admission to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a teaching hospital in Pakistan. Two year retrospective observational study included all consecutive adult admissions to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a University Hospital, from January 2012 to December 2013. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age of the patients was 46.35 ± 18.23 years (16-85), mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 15.92 ± 8.13 and males were 67.6%. Median length of ICU stay was 4 [IQR 5]. 43% patients fulfilled the criteria of sepsis at the time of admission to the SICU and incidence of severe sepsis/septic shock was 35%. Abdominal sepsis was the most frequent source of infection (57.5%). The overall intensive care unit mortality was 32.31% but the mortality of sepsis-group was 51.15% as compared to 17.7% of the non- sepsis group. Stepwise logistic regression model showed that increasing age, female gender, non-operative admission, admission under general surgery and co-morbidities like ischaemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of sepsis. The incidence of sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock, on admission to SICU is high and mortality of the sepsis group is nearly three times the mortality of the non-sepsis group.

  14. Incidence, outcome and risk factors for sepsis - a two year retrospective study at surgical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, A.; Hashmi, M.; Rashid, S.; Khan, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is amongst the leading causes of admission to the intensive care units and is associated with a high mortality. However, data from developing countries is scarse. Aim of conducting this study was to determine the incidence, outcome and risk factors for sepsis on admission to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: Two year retrospective observational study included all consecutive adult admissions to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a University Hospital, from January 2012 to December 2013. Results: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age of the patients was 46.35±18.23 years (16-85), mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 15.92±8.13 and males were 67.6 percentage. Median length of ICU stay was 4 [IQR 5]. 43 percentage patients fulfilled the criteria of sepsis at the time of admission to the SICU and incidence of severe sepsis/septic shock was 35 percentage. Abdominal sepsis was the most frequent source of infection (57.5 percentage). The overall intensive care unit mortality was 32.31 percentage but the mortality of sepsis-group was 51.15 percentage as compared to 17.7 percentage of the non-sepsis group. Stepwise logistic regression model showed that increasing age, female gender, non-operative admission, admission under general surgery and co-morbidities like ischaemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of sepsis. Conclusion: The incidence of sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock, on admission to SICU is high and mortality of the sepsis group is nearly three times the mortality of the non-sepsis group. (author)

  15. Incidence and predictors of readmission to the cardiac surgery intensive care unit: A retrospective cohort study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Giakoumidakis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One intraoperative and three preoperative variables are associated strongly with higher probability for ICU readmission. Shorter CPB duration could contribute to lower ICU readmission incidence. In addition, the early identification of high risk patients for readmission in the cardiac surgery ICU could encourage both the more efficient healthcare planning and resources allocation.

  16. Which aspects of safety culture predict incident reporting behavior in neonatal intensive care units? A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Cathelijne; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Molendijk, Harry; Kok, J. H.; te Pas, E.; Pas, H.; van der Starre, C.; Bloemendaal, E.; Lopes Cardozo, R. H.; Molenaar, A. M.; Giezen, A.; van Lingen, R. A.; Maat, H. E.; Molendijk, A.; Snijders, C.; Lavrijssen, S.; Mulder, A. L. M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Koolen, A. M. P.; Schellekens, M.; Verlaan, W.; Vrancken, S.; Fetter, W. P. F.; Schotman, L.; van der Zwaan, A.; van der Tuijn, Y.; Tibboel, D.; van der Schaaf, T. W.; Klip, H.; Kollen, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Safety culture assessments are increasingly used to evaluate patient-safety programs. However, it is not clear which aspects of safety culture are most relevant in understanding incident reporting behavior, and ultimately improving patient safety. The objective of this study was to

  17. A portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform that measures transmitted light intensities of nanosubstrates using an ambient light sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Xu, Fangxiang; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Liangrong; Yu, Shiting; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-21

    Plasmonic nanosensors may be used as tools for diagnostic testing in the field of medicine. However, quantification of plasmonic nanosensors often requires complex and bulky readout instruments. Here, we report the development of a portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform (PNRP) for accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. This device operates by transmitting excitation light from a LED through a nanosubstrate and measuring the intensity of the transmitted light using the ambient light sensor of a smart phone. The device is a cylinder with a diameter of 14 mm, a length of 38 mm, and a gross weight of 3.5 g. We demonstrated the utility of this smart phone-based PNRP by measuring two well-established plasmonic nanosensors with this system. In the first experiment, the device measured the morphology changes of triangular silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs) in an immunoassay for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the second experiment, the device measured the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aptamer-based assay for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The results from the smart phone-based PNRP were consistent with those from commercial spectrophotometers, demonstrating that the smart phone-based PNRP enables accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors.

  18. Efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Zaman Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a very common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. It can be associated with considerable loss of self-esteem and psychological morbidity when left untreated. With the emergence of lasers and intense pulsed light, long-term reduction of acne lesions is now possible. The success of these optical devices depends on the selected parameters and biologic variables of patient. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This interventional study was conducted for a period of one year after approval of synopsis. A total of 75 patients of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were included through non-probability, convenience sampling. Patients were subjected to intense pulsed light (IPL therapy once a week for four weeks. Digital photography was done at the baseline and at the sixth week. Follow-up was done after two weeks of completion of four sessions. Repeated measurement ANOVA was used for significance of IPL at six weeks of follow-up. The p value 50% reduction with therapy. Percentage reduction was observed as 49 ± 20% at final follow-up. Papules count was reduced from 11.95 ± 2.89 to 6.69 ± 2.96, pustules count was reduced from 2.55 ± 1.54 to 0.79 ± 1.02 from baseline to final follow-up visit. 16 subjects showed mild erythema that resolved within 24 h. None of the patients showed any severe side effects at final follow-up visit. We conclude from the results of this study that IPL is safe and efficacious in more than half of the patients in the treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris. A long-term follow-up is required to determine long-term safety on skin following such procedures.

  19. EFFECT OF Cu AND Mn TOXICITY ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND GAS EXCHANGE IN RICE AND SUNFLOWER UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu and manganese (Mn are essential micronutrients for plants, but toxic at high concentrations. Responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to toxic concentrations of Mn and Cu (up to 100 μM were studied under three light intensities including low (LL, PPFD=100, intermediate (IL, PPFD=500 and high (HL, PPFD=800 light intensities in hydroponic medium. Rice plants showed higher susceptibility than sunflower to both heavy metals concerning dry matter of shoot and root. Growing under higher light intensity strengthened the effect of Cu toxicity while ameliorated that of Mn, the latter was attributed to the lower Mn accumulation of HL plants in both shoot and root. Chlorophyll content of leaves was influenced negatively only by Cu treatment and that at the highest concentration in the medium (100 μM. Similar with growth results, reduction of net assimilation rate (A was higher in HL than LL plants treated by excess Cu, but in contrast to growth response, reduction was more prominent in sunflower than rice. Excess Mn-induced reduction of A was similar between LL and HL plants and was greater in sunflower than rice. Reduction of A was partly attributable to stomatal limitation, but non-stomatal mechanisms were also involved in this reduction. Copper and Mn treatment did not change the optimal quantum efficiency of PSII in dark-adapted chloroplasts (Fv/Fm ratio, but Fv/F0 was influenced particularly by Cu treatment, the reduction was higher in rice than sunflower and in HL compared to LL plants. Regarding excess Cu and Mn-mediated alterations in chlorophyll concentration, Fv/F0 and Tm values, it was suggested that, Cu and Mn toxicity depress the leaf photosynthetic capacity primarily by causing a significant alteration of the composition and functional competence of the photosynthetic units rather a reduction in the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs per unit leaf area.

  20. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Saeid; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali; Nicola, Silvana

    2016-09-01

    Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Azmoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT and photometer (Hagner Model were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P=0.002. Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r=0.241, P=0.33 but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r=0.019. Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners.

  2. Modulating emission intensity of GaN-based green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric dual-wavelength (green/blue) coupled InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells were proposed to modulate the green emission intensity. Electroluminescent measurements demonstrate the conspicuous increment of the green light intensity by decreasing the coupled barrier thickness. This was partly attributed to capture of more carriers when holes tunnel across the thinner barrier from the blue quantum wells, as a hole reservoir, to the green quantum wells. While lower effective barrier height of the blue quantum wells benefits improved hole transportation from p-GaN to the active region. Efficiency droop of the green quantum wells was partially alleviated due to the enhanced injection efficiency of holes

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF SEVERAL SKIN CANCER TYPES BASED ON AUTOFLUORESCENCE INTENSITY OF VISIBLE LIGHT TO NEAR INFRARED RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo Tedjo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin caused by many factors. The most common skin cancers are Basal Cell Cancer (BCC and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC. This research uses a discriminant analysis to classify some tissues of skin cancer based on criterion number of independent variables. An independent variable is variation of excitation light sources (LED lamp, filters, and sensors to measure Autofluorescence Intensity (IAF of visible light to near infrared (VIS/NIR ratio of paraffin embedded tissue biopsy from BCC, SCC, and Lipoma. From the result of discriminant analysis, it is known that the discriminant function is determined by 4 (four independent variables i.e., Blue LED-Red Filter, Blue LED-Yellow Filter, UV LED-Blue Filter, and UV LED-Yellow Filter. The accuracy of discriminant in classifying the analysis of three skin cancer tissues is 100 %.

  4. Effects of nutrients and light intensity on the growth and biochemical composition of a marine microalga Odontella aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Song; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Sang, Min; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-11-01

    Algal biotechnology has advanced greatly in the past three decades. Many microalgae are now cultivated to produce bioactive substances. Odontella aurita is a marine diatom industrially cultured in outdoor open ponds and used for human nutrition. For the first time, we have systematically investigated the effects of culture conditions in cylindrical glass columns and flat-plate photobioreactors, including nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur), light intensity and light path, on O. aurita cell growth and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, β-1,3-glucan, lipids, and ash). The optimal medium for photoautotrophic cultivation of O. aurita contained 17.65 mmol/L nitrogen, 1.09 mmol/L phosphorus, 0.42 mmol/L silicon, and 24.51 mmol/L sulfur, yielding a maximum biomass production of 6.1-6.8 g/L and 6.7-7.8 g/L under low and high light, respectively. Scale-up experiments were conducted with flat-plate photobioreactors using different light-paths, indicating that a short light path was more suitable for biomass production of O. aurita. Analyses of biochemical composition showed that protein content decreased while carbohydrate (mainly composed of β-1,3-glucan) increased remarkably to about 50% of dry weight during the entire culture period. The highest lipid content (19.7% of dry weight) was obtained under 0.11 mmol/L silicon and high light conditions at harvest time. Fatty acid Profiles revealed that 80% were C14, C16, and C20, while arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) accounted for 1.6%-5.6% and 9%-20% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass production and characteristic biochemical composition Profiles make O. aurita a promising microalga for the production of bioactive components, such as EPA and β-1,3-glucan.

  5. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  6. A code to determine the energy distribution, the incident energy and the flux of a beam of light ions into a stack of foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.; Romo, A.S.M.A.; Frosch, W.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The stacked-foil technique is one of the most used methods to obtain excitation functions of nuclear reactions using light ions as projectiles. The purpose of this program is the calculation of the energy of the beam in the stack, as well as to obtain the incident energy and the flux of the beam by using monitor excitation functions. (orig.)

  7. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  8. Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL. However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI] in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Methods Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8–21 d+latter HI (22–35 d; T2 = early DI (8–28 d+latter HI (29–35 d, T3 = early HI (8–21 d+latter DI (22–35 d, T4 = early HI (8–28 d+latter DI (29–35 d and T5 = control (white light; WT (8–35 d at medium intensity (20 lux. Body weight (BW, weight gain (WG, water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR were assessed. Common behaviours (15 were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. Results On 35 d, the highest BW (2,155.72±176 g, WG (1,967.78±174 g were recorded by T2 compared to WT (BWWT = 1,878.22±155, WGWT = 1,691.83±160. But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength (218.5±120 s was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength (64.58±33 s and the highest ocular weight (2.48±1 g were recorded by T1. Significantly (p<0.05 the highest skin weight (162.17±6 g but the lowest fat% in meat (13.03%±5% was recorded by T2. Conclusion Early exposure to DI-RL up to 28 days followed by exposure to HI-RL is the most favorable lighting regimen for

  9. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop

  10. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  11. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  12. Impedance spectroscopy characterisation of highly efficient silicon solar cells under different light illumination intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Seró, Iván; García Belmonte, Germà; Pérez Boix, Pablo; Vázquez, Miguel A.; Bisquert, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient silicon solar cells have been characterised by impedance spectroscopy and current–potential characteristic in the dark and with different illumination intensities. For each illumination the impedance behaviour has been analysed at different applied bias potentials, in the forward and reverse region, comparing the results with the current–potential characteristic. Different cell parameters, as series and parallel resistances, capacitance, diode factor, minority carrier lifetim...

  13. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of solid surface by intense pulsed light-ion and metal-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ariyoshi, T.; Hanjo, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Fujii, Y.; Itami, M.; Okamoto, A.; Ogawa, S.; Hamada, T.; Fukumaru, F.

    1989-03-01

    Metal surfaces of Al, stainless-steel and Ti were bombarded with focused intense pulsed proton and carbon ion beams (energy ˜ 80 keV, current density ≲ 1000 A/cm 2, pulse width ˜ 300 ns). Thin titanium carbide layers were produced by carbon-ion irradiation on the titanium surface. The observed molten surface structures and recrystallized layer (20 μm depth) indicated that the surfaces reached high temperatures as a result of the irradiation. The implantation of intense pulsed metal ion beams (Al +, ˜ 20 A/cm 2) with simultaneous deposition of anode metal vapor on Ti and Fe made a mixed layer of AlTi and AlFe of about 0.5 μm depth. Ti and B multilayered films evaporated on glass substrates were irradiated by intense pulsed proton beams of relatively lower current density (10-200 A/cm 2). Ti films containing B atoms above 10 at.% were obtained. When the current density was about 200 A/cm 2 diffraction peaks of TiB 2 appeared.

  15. Breaking the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy at low light intensities by using reversibly photoswitchable proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Michael; Eggeling, Christian; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W

    2005-12-06

    Fluorescence microscopy is indispensable in many areas of science, but until recently, diffraction has limited the resolution of its lens-based variant. The diffraction barrier has been broken by a saturated depletion of the marker's fluorescent state by stimulated emission, but this approach requires picosecond laser pulses of GW/cm2 intensity. Here, we demonstrate the surpassing of the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy with illumination intensities that are eight orders of magnitude smaller. The subdiffraction resolution results from reversible photoswitching of a marker protein between a fluorescence-activated and a nonactivated state, whereby one of the transitions is accomplished by means of a spatial intensity distribution featuring a zero. After characterizing the switching kinetics of the used marker protein asFP595, we demonstrate the current capability of this RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) type of concept to resolve 50-100 nm in the focal plane. The observed resolution is limited only by the photokinetics of the protein and the perfection of the zero. Our results underscore the potential to finally achieve molecular resolution in fluorescence microscopy by technical optimization.

  16. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.

    1978-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found...

  17. Risk of Incident Diabetes With Intensive-Dose Compared With Moderate-Dose Statin Therapy A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, David; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Welsh, Paul; Murphy, Sabina A.; Ho, Jennifer E.; Waters, David D.; Demicco, David A.; Barter, Philip; Cannon, Christopher P.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Braunwald, Eugene; Kastelein, John J. P.; de Lemos, James A.; Blazing, Michael A.; Pedersen, Terje R.; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Sattar, Naveed; Ray, Kausik K.

    2011-01-01

    Context A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that statin therapy is associated with excess risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Objective To investigate whether intensive-dose statin therapy is associated with increased risk of new-onset diabetes compared with moderate-dose statin therapy. Data

  18. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  19. ICD and its exploration by short, intense and coherent light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    How does a microscopic system like an atom or a small molecule get rid of the excess electronic energy it has acquired, for instance, by absorbing a photon? If this microscopic system is isolated, the issue has been much investigated and the answer to this question is more or less well known. But what happens if our system has neighbors as is usually the case in nature or in the laboratory? In a human society, if our stress is large, we would like to pass it over to our neighbors. Indeed, this is in brief what happens also to the sufficiently excited microscopic system. A new mechanism of energy transfer has been theoretically predicted and verified in several exciting experiments. This mechanism seems to prevail ``everywhere'' from the extreme quantum system of the He dimer to water and even to quantum dots. The transfer is ultrafast and typically dominates other relaxation pathways. To exploit the high intensity of laser radiation, we propose to select frequencies at which single-photon absorption is of too low energy and two or more photons are needed to produce states of an atom that can undergo interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) with its neighbors. ICD is an extremely efficient decay mechanism for excited systems which are embedded in environment. For the Ne2 dimer it is explicitly demonstrated that the proposed multiphoton absorption scheme is much more efficient than schemes used until now, which rely on single-photon absorption. Extensive calculations on Ne2 show how the low-energy ICD electrons and Ne + pairs are produced for different laser intensities and pulse durations. At higher intensities the production of Ne + pairs by successive ionization of the two atoms becomes competitive and the respective emitted electrons interfere with the ICD electrons. It is also shown that a measurement after a time delay can be used to determine the contribution of ICD even at high laser intensity. The study can provide a hint how the energy deposited by a FEL on one

  20. Influence of the low intensity high repetition rate UV laser light on proliferating and testing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karu, T.Y.; Fedoseeva, E.V.; Yudakhina, E.V.; Kalendo, G.S.; Lobko, V.V. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Spektroskopii)

    1983-10-01

    The effect of low-intense pulsed-periodic UV-radiation (lambda=271.2 nm) on DNA and RNA synthesis in proliferating and resting cells (Hela cells and fibroblast-like cells of Chinese hamster 431) is studied. Radiation in the 0.05-5 J/m/sup 2/ dose range promotes DNA synthesis in resting cells and it does not stimulate in proliferating cells. Autoradiographical data reveal that the number of cells synthesizing DNA grows in the same dose range in 2.5 h after radiation.

  1. Light intensity controls anti-predator defences in Daphnia: the suppression of life-history changes

    OpenAIRE

    Effertz, Christoph; von Elert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A huge variety of organisms respond to the presence of predators with inducible defences, each of which is associated with costs. Many genotypes have the potential to respond with more than one defence, and it has been argued that it would be maladaptive to exhibit all possible responses at the same time. Here, we test how a well-known anti-fish defence in Daphnia, life-history changes (LHC), is controlled by light. We show that the kairomone-mediated reduction in size at first reproduction i...

  2. Effects of temperature, salinity, light intensity, and pH on the eicosapentaenoic acid production of Pinguiococcus pyrenoidosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Min; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jianhui; Zhang, Chengwu; Li, Aifen

    2012-06-01

    The effects of temperature, light intensity, salinity, and initial pH on the growth and fatty acid composition of Pinguiococcus pyrenoidosus 2078 were studied for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production potential. The fatty acid composition was assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicated that the main fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0 and EPA. The highest EPA percentage 20.83% of total fatty acids was obtained at 20°C with the temperature being set at 20, 24, and 28°C. Under different salinities and light intensities, the highest percentages of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and EPA were 17.82% and 31.37% of total fatty acids, respectively, which were achieved at salinity 30 and 100 μmol photon m-2s-1 illumination. The highest percentages of total PUFAs and EPA were 38.75% and 23.13% of total fatty acids, respectively, which were reached at an initial pH of 6 with the test range being from 5.0 to 9.0.

  3. Light intensity and N/P nutrient affect the accumulation of lipid and unsaturated fatty acids by Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Su, Gaomin; Li, Zheng; Chang, Jingyu; Zeng, Xianhai; Sun, Yong; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, different light intensities (80, 160, 240 and 320 μmol/m(2) s) and various mediums including control medium (CM), N/P rich medium (NPM), N rich medium (NM), and P rich medium (PM) were applied for cultivation of Chlorella sp. It was revealed that cultivation of Chlorella sp. in CM under the light intensity of 320 μmol/m(2) s led to a lipid content up to 30% enhancement, which was higher than the results of other cases. A rather high unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of 7.5% and unsaturated fatty acid/total fatty acid (UFA/TFA) ratio of 0.73 were obtained under 320 μmol/m(2) s in CM, indicating that the CM-320 system was applicable for the generation of UFA. Moreover, Chlorella sp. cultivated in PM under 320 μmol/m(2) s provided higher TFA content (7.3%), which was appropriate for biofuel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-session combination treatment with intense pulsed light and nonablative fractional photothermolysis: a split-face study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Chris; Brew, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) and fractional photothermolysis (FP) are effective nonablative treatments for photoaging. To investigate the safety and efficacy of administering these two treatments in the same session with the aim of maximizing results while maintaining safety and minimizing downtime. We sought to compare the efficacy of the combination treatment with that of individual treatments of IPL and FP by conducting a split-face study. Twenty-nine subjects received a full-face standard-strength treatment with IPL immediately followed by treatment with 1550-nm FP. A further 14 patients underwent a split-face study comparing combined IPL and FP on one side of the face with these two treatments performed in isolation, 4 weeks apart, on the other side. The combination treatment achieved results statistically superior to treatment with IPL alone, FP alone, and treatment with IPL and FP performed 4 weeks apart. Downtime and adverse events were similar to those expected with individual treatments of IPL or FP alone. Intense pulsed light and PF appear to be synergistic when performed together in a single session, and the combination treatment is associated with a good safety profile and minimal downtime. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Intense Pulsed Light in the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of a novel treatment-intense pulsed light (IPL in MGD eyes. Methods. This study is a prospective and open label study. Forty eyes of 40 MGD patients were recruited in the study and received 4 consecutive IPL treatments on day 1, day 15, day 45, and day 75. Ten ocular surface symptoms were evaluated with a subjective face score at every visit. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, conjunctival injection, upper and lower tear meniscus height (TMH, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal staining, lid margin and meibomian gland assessments, and meibography were also recorded at every visit, as well as the adverse effects on the eye and ocular surface. Results. Significant improvements were observed in single and total ocular surface symptom scores, TBUT, and conjunctival injection at all the visits after the initial IPL treatment (P<0.05. Compared to baseline, the signs of eyelid margin, meibomian gland secretion quality, and expressibility were significantly improved at every visit after treatments. There was no regional and systemic threat observed in any patient. Conclusion. Intense pulsed light (IPL therapy is a safe and efficient treatment in relieving symptoms and signs of MGD eyes.

  6. High root temperature affects the tolerance to high light intensity in Spathiphyllum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Adriana; Hernández, Laura; Quiles, María José

    2014-10-01

    Spathiphyllum wallisii plants were sensitive to temperature stress under high illumination, although the susceptibility of leaves to stress may be modified by root temperature. Leaves showed higher tolerance to high illumination, in both cold and heat conditions, when the roots were cooled, probably because the chloroplast were protected by excess excitation energy dissipation mechanisms such as cyclic electron transport. When the roots were cooled both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased. However, when the stems were heated or cooled under high illumination, but the roots were heated, the quantum yield of PSII decreased considerably and neither the electron donation activity by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone nor the amount of PGR5 polypeptide increased. In such conditions, the cyclic electron flow cannot be enhanced by high light and PSII is damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of excess light energy. Additionally, the damage to PSII induced the increase in both chlororespiratory enzymes, NDH complex and PTOX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study and development of a new ECR source creating an intense light ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyckees, S.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is in the context of study and design of a new ECR light ion source on LEDA (Laboratory of Research and Development of Accelerators - CEA Saclay), named ALISES (Advanced Light Ions Source Extraction System). As a first step, the magnetic, electrical and mechanical design of the new source is described. Then, simulations were performed to determine the reduction of emittance growth taking into account the reduction of the length of the LBE (Low Energy Beam Line) provided by the source ALISES. With this source, it's also possible to realize a study on the dimensions of the cylindrical plasma chamber. Simulations were performed to better understand the interaction between radiofrequency wave and plasma. Subsequently, experiments on the source ALISES helped highlight, understand and solve problems in the Penning discharges inside the accelerator column. Measurements performed on the plasma have yielded the assumption that the electrons are heated at the entrance of the plasma chamber and thermalized along its entire length to achieve an energy corresponding to the maximum of the ionization cross section for hydrogen. (author) [fr

  8. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  9. Modeling and simulation of a 3D-CMOS silicon photodetector for low-intensity light detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri Alirezaei, Iman; Burte, Edmund P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a design and simulation of a novel high performance 3D-silicon photodetector for implementing in the low intensity light detection at room temperature (300K). The photodetector is modeled by inspiration of general MEMS fabrication to make a 3D- structure in the silicon substrate using a bulk micromachining process, and based on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The design includes a vertical n+/p junction as an optical window for lateral illumination. The simulation is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics relying on theoretical and physical concepts, and then, the assessment of the results is done by the numerical analysis with SILVACO (Atlas) device simulator. Light is regarded as a monochromatic beam with a wavelength of 633nm that is placed 1μm far from the optical window. The simulation is considered under the reverse bias dc voltage in the steadystate. We present photocurrent-voltage (Iph-V) characteristics under different light intensities (2… 10[mW/cm2]), and dark current-voltage (Id-V) characteristics. Comparative studies of sensitivity dependence on the dopant concentration in the substrate as an intrinsic region are accomplished utilizing two different p-type silicon substrates with 1×1015 [1/cm3] and 4×1012 [1/cm3] doping concentration. Moreover, the sensitivity is evaluated with respect to the active substrate thickness. The simulated results confirmed that the high optical sensitivity of the photodetector with low dark current can be realized in this model.

  10. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 103 eV and I  ≈  1016 W cm-2, it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z 2 α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d105s25p6) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z 2 α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling. It is also

  11. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures (T0) and at 4 °C (T+4) and 8 °C (T+8) above average. The crops were grown in pots...... pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at T+4 and T+8 than at T0 after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil......The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...

  12. Intense pulsed light, near infrared pulsed light, and fractional laser combination therapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian subjects: a prospective multi-center study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wu, Jiaqiang; Qian, Hui; Lu, Zhong; Li, Yuanhong; Wang, Weizhen; Zhao, Xiaozhong; Tu, Ping; Yin, Rui; Xiang, Leihong

    2015-09-01

    Ablative skin rejuvenation therapies have limitations for Asian people, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long down time. Non-ablative lasers are safer but have limited efficacy. This study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of intense pulsed light (IPL), near infrared (NIR) light, and fractional erbium YAG (Er:YAG) laser for skin rejuvenation in Asian people. This study recruited 113 subjects from six sites in China. Subjects were randomly assigned to a full-face group, who received combination therapy, and split-face groups, in which one half of the face received combination therapy and the other half received IPL monotherapy. Each subject received five treatment sessions during a period of 90 days. Subjects were followed up at 1 and 3 months post last treatment. Three months after last treatment, the full-face group (n = 57) had a global improvement rate of 29 % and 29 % for wrinkles, 32 % for skin texture, 33 % for pigment spots, 28 % for pore size, respectively. For patients in the split-face groups (n = 54), monotherapy side had a global improvement rate of 23 % and 20 % for wrinkles, 27 % for skin texture, 25 % for pigment spots, 25 % for pore size, respectively. Both combination therapy and monotherapy resulted in significant improvements at the follow-up visits compared to baseline (P skin rejuvenation in Asian people.

  13. Evaluation of effect of different disposable infection control barriers on light intensity of light-curing unit and microhardness of composite - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khode, Rajiv Tarachand; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Kubde, Rajesh R; Makade, Chetana S; Wadekar, Kanchan D; Khode, Priyanka Tarachand

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated effect of infection control barriers on light intensity (LI) of light-curing unit (LCU) and microhardness of composite. Four different disposable barriers ( n = 30) were tested against the control. LI for each barrier was measured with Lux meter. One hundred and fifty Teflon molds were equally divided into five groups of thirty each. Composite was filled in bulk in these molds and cured without and with barrier. Microhardness was evaluated on top and bottom surface of composite specimen with microhardness testing machine and hardness ratio (HR) was derived. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference test, and paired t -test using SPSS version 18 software. All barriers had significantly reduced the baseline LI of LCU ( P glove pieces (LCGP) significantly reduced the microhardness of the composite ( P < 0.05). However, HR determined inadequate curing only with LCGP. Although entire tested barrier significantly reduced the LI; none, except LCGP markedly affected the degree of cure of the composite.

  14. Relaxation and interaction of electronic excitations induced by intense ultra short light pulses in BaF2 scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirm, M.; Nagirnyi, V.; Vielhauer, S.; Feldbach, E.

    2011-06-01

    Excitation density effects have a pronounced influence on relaxation processes in solids. They come into play in scintillating and dosimetric materials exposed to ionizing radiation or in laser materials operating in intense ultraviolet light fields. The scientific understanding of the underlying process is poor, mainly because most of the studies of light emitting materials under short wavelength excitation have been performed at weak and moderate excitation intensities due to limited availability of powerful light sources. Disembodied data on excitation density effects have been reported for wide-gap dielectrics studied by luminescence spectroscopy, by using such excitation sources as powerful ion beams,1,2pulsed electron beams,2,3 and wide-band hard X-ray synchrotron radiation.4 It is obvious that such non-selective excitation is a good tool for revealing density-related phenomena in these materials in general, but for investigating specific features of relaxation processes in insulators, light sources with well defined parameters are necessary. Since the shortwavelength free electron laser (FEL) technology has been devised by an international consortium at HASYLAB of DESY, resulting in the development of TESLA Test facility (TTF)5 and later in the construction of a dedicated FEL source FLASH in Hamburg,6 more advanced studies became possible. The range of interests towards this light source covers the fields from material science and various other branches of physics to structural biology. The pioneering luminescence study revealed excitation density effects in the decay of Ce3+ 5d-4f luminescence in Y3Al5O12 crystals and luminescence of BaF2 crystals in UV-visible range.7 These results motivated systematic investigations of excitation density effects in wide gap crystals using FEL8,9 and high-harmonic-generated VUV radiation,10 and, at lower energies, femtosecond laser pulses in the UV.11,12 The main goal of the present work is to analyze the same phenomenon

  15. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  16. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  17. The in-vivo monitoring method for traumatic brain injury of mouse based on near-infrared light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weitao; Wang, Xuena; Qian, Zhiyu; Xie, Jieru; Liu, Xing

    2012-02-01

    A system based on near-infrared light intensity was used to monitor mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) noninvasively. The measurement system was controlled by microcontroller. Light from a 760/850nm dual-wavelength light emitting diode was coupled to a 0.6-mm-diameter optical fiber. The collection fibers were coupled to optoelectronic detectors, which were placed in the different distance from the source fiber. The system consisted of a constant current bias, a circuit lock-in amplifier (including band pass filter, lock-in amplifier, and low pass filter), a PCI 6240 data acquisition card and a multi-core-processor computer. The modified Lambert Beer law was used to calculate the concentration of ΔHbO2 and ΔHb. The sensitivity matrix was defined to evaluate the region of effective detection of optical probe. Five groups of TBI mouse models were built by Feeney's free-falling method. The data measured by system show after TBI the concentration of ΔHbO2 decreased and that of ΔHb increased. It can be concluded that the system can be used to monitor the changes of TBI of mouse non-invasively.

  18. High- but not low-intensity light leads to oxidative stress and quality loss of cold-stored baby leaf spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Mogren, Lars M; Reade, John P H; Cobb, Andrew H; Monaghan, James M

    2015-07-01

    Quality management in the fresh produce industry is an important issue. Spinach is exposed to various adverse conditions (temperature, light, etc.) within the supply chain. The present experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of light conditions (dark, low-intensity light (LL) and high-intensity light (HL)) and photoperiod (6 h HL and 18 h dark) on the quality changes of cold-stored spinach. HL exposure resulted in oxidative stress, causing tissue damage and quality loss as evidenced by increased membrane damage and water loss. The content of total ascorbic acid was reduced under HL conditions. On the other hand, storage of spinach under LL conditions gave promising results, as nutritional quality was not reduced, while texture maintenance was improved. No significant differences, with the exception of nutritional quality, were found between spinach leaves stored under continuous (24 h) low-intensity light (30-35 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and their counterparts stored under the same light integral over 6 h (130-140 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). LL extended the shelf-life of spinach. The amount of light received by the leaves was the key factor affecting produce quality. Light intensity, however, has to be low enough not to cause excess oxidative stress and lead to accelerated senescence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and on plant hormones content in Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L. seedlings grown under light of different intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Michniewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine seedlings were cultivated in the Ingested nutrient solution containing N as NH4Cl at concentrations of 0 and 500 ppm, under a 16-hr day, at a light intensity of 1500 and 500 lx and temperature ± 20°C. Measurements of seedlings and determination of plant hormones were performed 8 weeks after sowing. It was found that more intensive light stimulated initiation of needles and lateral roots as well as elongation of needles and roots, and increased the fresh weight and dry matter of these organs. Growth stimulation of needles was correlated with an increase in free gibberellins, cytokinins, an ABA-like inhibitor and with a decrease in auxins and water content of tissues. A similar effect of light on plant hormones (except ABA was also observed in roots. The level of this inhibitor depended on N nutrition. Nitrogen bad a similar effect as light on the growth and initiation of needles and lateral roots. However, it strongly inhibited elongation of roots and increased the water content of the tissues. In needles N increased the level of GAs and auxins, under both light variants, as well as the level of cytokinins, under more intensive light. It decreased the amount of ABA-like inhibitor. In roots the effect of N nutrition on the level of plant hormones depended upon the light intensity. Under light of low intensity N decreased the level of GAs and ABA, increased the level of auxins and had nonsignificant influence on the level of cytokinins. Under more intensive light it had no effect on the GAs and auxin levels and increased the level of cytoikinins and the ABA-like inhibitor.

  20. Incidence of carbapenem resistant nonfermenting gram negative bacilli from patients with respiratory infections in the intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to carbapenems is commonly seen in nonfermenting gram negative bacilli (NFGNB. We document herein the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in NFGNB isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections in the intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 460 NFGNB were isolated from 606 endotracheal aspirate specimens during January through December 2003, of which 56 (12.2% were found to be resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Of these, 24 (42.8% were Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 8 (14.2% were Acinetobacter spp. and 24 (42.8% were other NFGNB. Stringent protocols such as antibiotic policies and resistance surveillance programs are mandatory to curb these bacteria in ICU settings.

  1. Descriptive study of current therapeutic practices, clinical reproductive findings and incidence of pregnancy loss in intensively managed thoroughbred mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B V; Firth, M; Morris, B; Roach, J M; Wathes, D C; Verheyen, K L P; de Mestre, A M

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic practices in equine reproductive medicine have dramatically evolved over the last 20 years but current usage is not described. The aims of this study were to provide a description of medication use and clinical findings of reproductive examinations alongside measures of reproductive efficiency in thoroughbreds. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons. Mare and stallion details, information on veterinary interventions and findings of reproductive ultrasound scans were collected using questionnaires and entered into a custom-designed Microsoft Access database. Descriptive summary statistics were derived directly from the database and using Microsoft Excel. Information was collected from 2246 pregnancies in 1754 mares from 29 stud farms. Ovulatory induction agents were used in 91.8% of cases, oestrus induction agents in 38.4% and covering therapies in 62.7%. Intrauterine antimicrobials were used in 49.6% of mares. Single pregnancies accounted for 83.9% of pregnancies, twins for 15.3% and triplets for 0.7%. The overall incidence of pregnancy loss between days 15-42 was 6.4% (95% CI 5.4%, 7.4%) and 1.6% (95% CI 1.1%, 2.1%) between days 43-65. A further 1.3% of pregnancies were lost by October and 4.5% by birth (including stillbirths). Eighty-three percent of all pregnancies resulted in a live foal. In conclusion, there has been a considerable increase in the use of reproductive therapeutics over the last 12 years. Nonetheless, incidence of pregnancy loss and live foal percentages remain essentially unchanged. Risk factor studies are required to determine if the substantial increase in therapeutic usage is conferring positive benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of low light intensity: A step towards understanding the connection between light, optic/lens and photovoltaic behavior for Sb2S3 thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojpur, Vesna; Mitrić, Miodrag; Validžić, Ivana Lj

    2018-05-01

    We report here an optic/lens system that we used so far, for cooling the surface of solar cells, the reduction of light intensity and the change of light distribution that reaches the surface of the solar cell. The objective was to improve photovoltaic characteristics under very low light illumination, as well as to understand the connection between light, optic/lens and photovoltaic behavior for Sb2S3 thin-film solar cells. It was found that for all so far designed thin-film solar cells made and based on the synthesized Sb2S3, optics/lens system causes an increase in open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (ISC) and thus the efficiencies of made solar devices. Values of energy gaps for the thin-films made devices were in the range from 1.4 to 2 eV. Improvements of the photovoltaic response of the designed devices are found to be better at the lower light intensity (5% sun), than at higher intensities of light. For the same intensity of light used optic/lens improves the efficiency of the devices, by changing the light distribution. Other processes that are related to the optics/lens system, leading to an increase in ISC and VOC and consequently to an increase in efficiencies of the designed devices, are investigated.

  3. Effects of Light Intensity and Oxidized Nitrogen Sources on Hydrogen Production by Chlamydomonas reinhardii1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Pedro J.; Azuara, María P.; Ballesteros, Antonio; Fernández, Victor M.

    1985-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardii cells, after a period of dark anaerobic adaptation, evolve H2 not only in the dark but also in the light. Our results show that high irradiances impair prolonged H2 evolution, while under low irradiances or darkness H2 evolution proceeds for more than 50 hours. NO3− and NO2− suppress H2 evolution both in the dark or under low irradiance. Apparently the cells prefer these oxidized nitrogen sources to protons as electron acceptors, since both NO3− and NO2− become reduced to NH4+, which is excreted to the culture medium in high amounts. H2 evolution started once these oxidized anions were largely depleted from the medium. Moreover, H2 evolution was consistently associated with NH4+ excretion even if NH4+ was already present in high amounts in the medium. This observation indicates that the cells utilize not only their carbohydrate but also their protein reserves as sources of reducing power for H2 evolution. This conclusion was supported by the observation that when nitrogen-starved cells were made anaerobic in a nitrogen-free medium, they not only evolved H2 at very high rates but excreted concomitantly NH4+ up to concentrations in the millimolar range. PMID:16664329

  4. PSB27: A thylakoid protein enabling Arabidopsis to adapt to changing light intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Garcia, Veder J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Buchanan, Bob B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Luan, Sheng [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2016-08-22

    Project Title: Immunophilins in the assembly and maintenance of photosynthetic electron transport chain in Arabidopsis Applicant: The Regents of the University of California PI: Sheng Luan, University of California at Berkeley Photosynthetic light energy conversion entails coordinated function of complex molecular machines that capture and convert light energy into chemical forms through photosynthetic electron transport chain. Each molecular machine, such as photosystem II (PSII), may consist of dozens of protein subunits and small molecule cofactors. Despite advanced understanding of the structure and function of these complexes, little is known about “How individual proteins and cofactors assemble into a functional machine and how do these molecular machines maintain their structure and function under a highly hazardous lumenal environment.” Our studies on immunophilins have unexpectedly contributed to the understanding of this question. Originally defined as cellular receptors for immunosuppressants, immunophilins have been discovered in a wide range of organisms from bacteria, fungi, plants, to animals. Immunophilins function in protein folding processes as chaperones and foldases. Arabidopsis genome encodes ca. 50 immunophilins. The most striking finding is that 16 immunophilin members are targeted to chloroplast thylakoid lumen, by far the largest group in the lumenal proteome. What is the function of immunophilins in the thylakoid lumen? Our studies have demonstrated critical roles for several immunophilins in the biogenesis and maintenance of photosynthetic complexes such as PSII. These studies have made a critical link between immunophilins and the assembly of photosynthetic machines and thus opened up a new area of research in photosynthesis. Our goal is to dissect the roles of immunophilins and their partners in the assembly and maintenance of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The specific objectives for this funding period will be: 1. To

  5. A new high dynamic range ROIC with smart light intensity control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Melik; Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Galioglu, Arman; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-05-01

    This journal presents a new high dynamic range ROIC with smart pixel which consists of two pre-amplifiers that are controlled by a circuit inside the pixel. Each pixel automatically decides which pre-amplifier is used according to the incoming illumination level. Instead of using single pre-amplifier, two input pre-amplifiers, which are optimized for different signal levels, are placed inside each pixel. The smart circuit mechanism, which decides the best input circuit according to the incoming light level, is also designed for each pixel. In short, an individual pixel has the ability to select the best input amplifier circuit that performs the best/highest SNR for the incoming signal level. A 32 × 32 ROIC prototype chip is designed to demonstrate the concept in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The prototype is optimized for NIR and SWIR bands. Instead of a detector, process variation optimized current sources are placed inside the ROIC. The chip achieves minimum 8.6 e- input referred noise and 98.9 dB dynamic range. It has the highest dynamic range in the literature in terms of analog ROICs for SWIR band. It is operating in room temperature and power consumption is 2.8 μ W per pixel.

  6. Incidence of and risk factors for infection or colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients in the intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ching Pan

    Full Text Available The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE colonization or infection in the hospital setting has increased globally. Many previous studies had analysed the risk factors for acquiring VRE, based on cross-sectional studies or prevalent cases. However, the actual incidence of and risk factors for VRE remain unclear. The present study was conducted in order to clarify the incidence of and risk factors for VRE in the intensive care unit (ICU. From 1(st April 2008 to 31(st March 2009, all patients admitted to a surgical ICU (SICU were put on active surveillance for VRE. The surveillance cultures, obtained by rectal swab, were taken on admission, weekly while staying in the SICU, and on discharge from the SICU. A total of 871 patients were screened. Among them, 34 were found to carry VRE before their admission to the SICU, and 47 acquired VRE during their stay in the SICU, five of whom developed VRE infections. The incidence of newly acquired VRE during ICU stay was 21.9 per 1000 patient-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.4-29.1. Using multivariate analysis by logistic regression, we found that the length of ICU stay was an independent risk factor for new acquisition of VRE. In contrast, patients with prior exposure to first-generation cephalosporin were significantly less likely to acquire VRE. Strategies to reduce the duration of ICU stay and prudent usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics are the keys to controlling VRE transmission.

  7. Trends in the incidence rate of device-associated infections in intensive care units after the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, S-O; Kim, H B; Han, S H; Choi, H J; Kim, Y K; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Eun, B W; Kim, D W; Koo, H-S; Bae, G-R; Lee, K

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of continuous nationwide surveillance on healthcare-associated infections should be investigated in each country. To assess the rate of device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) since the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS). Nationwide data were obtained on the incidence rate of DAI in ICUs reported to KONIS by all participating hospitals. The three major DAIs were studied: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The pooled and year-wise incidence rates (cases per 1000 device-days) of these DAIs were determined for the period 2006 and 2012. In addition, data from institutions that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years were analysed separately. The number of ICUs participating in KONIS gradually increased from 76 in 2006 to 162 in 2012. Between 2006 and 2012, the incidence rate per 1000 device-days for VAP decreased significantly from 3.48 to 1.64 (F = 11, P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Roll-to-roll-compatible, flexible, transparent electrodes based on self-nanoembedded Cu nanowires using intense pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoyang; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Hwang, Hyewon; Kwon, Sin; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Youngu; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Kwangyoung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-04-01

    Copper nanowire (Cu NW)-based flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTCEs) have been investigated in detail for use in various applications such as flexible touch screens, organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. In this study, hexadecylamine (HDA) adsorbed onto the surface of NWs is changed into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via a ligand exchange process; the high-molecular-weight PVP enables high dispersion stability. Intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation is used to remove organic species present on the surface of the NWs and to form direct connections between the NWs rapidly without any atmospheric control. NWs are self-nanoembedded into a plastic substrate after IPL irradiation, which results in a smooth surface, strong NW/substrate adhesion, excellent mechanical flexibility and enhanced oxidation stability. Moreover, Cu NW FTCEs with high uniformities are successfully fabricated on a large area (150 mm × 200 mm) via successive IPL irradiation that is synchronized with the motion of the sample stage. This study demonstrates the possibility of roll-to-roll-based, large-scale production of low-cost, high-performance Cu NW-based FTCEs.Copper nanowire (Cu NW)-based flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTCEs) have been investigated in detail for use in various applications such as flexible touch screens, organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. In this study, hexadecylamine (HDA) adsorbed onto the surface of NWs is changed into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via a ligand exchange process; the high-molecular-weight PVP enables high dispersion stability. Intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation is used to remove organic species present on the surface of the NWs and to form direct connections between the NWs rapidly without any atmospheric control. NWs are self-nanoembedded into a plastic substrate after IPL irradiation, which results in a smooth surface, strong NW/substrate adhesion, excellent mechanical flexibility and enhanced

  9. Fast algal eco-toxicity assessment: Influence of light intensity and exposure time on Chlorella vulgaris inhibition by atrazine and DCMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuel, Alexandre; Guieysse, Benoit; Alcántara, Cynthia; Béchet, Quentin

    2017-06-01

    In order to develop a rapid assay suitable for algal eco-toxicity assessments under conditions representative of natural ecosystems, this study evaluated the short-term (840μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR) as the EC 50 for atrazine and DCMU decreased by up to 6.2 and 2.1 folds, respectively, after 50min of exposure at a light irradiance of 1400μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR. This decrease was particularly marked at high light intensities and low algae concentrations and is explained by the herbicide disruption of the electron transfer chain triggering photo-inhibition at high light intensities. Eco-toxicity assessments aiming to understand the potential impact of toxic compounds on natural ecosystems should therefore be performed over sufficient exposure times (>20min for C. vulgaris) and under light intensities relevant to these ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of different media composition, light intensity and photoperiod on morphology and physiology of freshwater microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus--a potential strain for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Basil; Pancha, Imran; Desai, Chahana; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Mishra, Sandhya

    2014-11-01

    Media composition, light intensity and photoperiod significantly affect the algal growth and productivity and their optimization is important for the commercialization of microalgae based biofuels. In the present study, effects of different culture medium, light intensity and photoperiod were studied on growth, biomass productivity, and biochemical composition of a fresh water microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus in batch culture. The results revealed that A. falcatus could yield more than 35% of total lipid (containing around 65.74% neutral lipid) along with optimal growth (0.20 μ) and biomass productivity (7.9 mg/L/day) in the BG-11 medium under a light intensity of 60 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 12:12 (Light: Dark) cycle. The highest total lipid yield of 67.2% (containing 72.68% of neutral lipid) was observed in Zarrouk's medium grown culture but with altered cell morphology and ultra-structural changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute effects on cognitive performance following bouts of standing and light-intensity physical activity in a simulated workplace environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Sarah L; Buman, Matthew P; Zeigler, Zachary S; Crespo, Noe C; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2017-05-01

    To compare acute cognitive effects following bouts of standing (STAND), cycling (CYCLE) and walking (WALK) to a sit-only (SIT) condition. Randomized cross-over full-factorial study. Nine overweight (BMI=29±3kg/m 2 ) adults (30±15years; 7 females, 2 males) completed four conditions (SIT, STAND, WALK and CYCLE) across a 6h period with a 7days washout period between conditions. SIT consisted of uninterrupted sitting. Experimental conditions included intermittent bouts of standing (STAND), cycling (CYCLE) and walking (WALK). A cognitive performance battery (Cogstate) was completed twice in a seated position following bouts of standing and light-intensity physical activity. Mixed-effects models compared between-condition differences in standardized score (z-score), accuracy (%), and speed (log10ms). Cognitive performance z-score and accuracy measures were higher during STAND, CYCLE and WALK (PSports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect on light intensity and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content in leaves of young coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.; Vento, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Young coffee plants (Coffea arabica, L., var. Caturra) were grown under different conditions of mineral nutrition (1/8 N-P-K, N-P-K, 3 N-P-K, N 1/2-P-K and N-2P-K) and illumination (directly in the sunlight or shaded) with the aim of studying the effect of light and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content of the leaves. For determining these compounds 14 CO 2 was used. Sugars were separated after the method of paper chromatography. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of 14 C in sugars and organic acids was more intensive in plants grown directly in the sunlight, while in starch 14 C was incorporated more intensively in the shaded plants. Carbohydrate content rose parallel to the increase of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. Changingthe rate of phosphorus from 1/2P to two doses exerted highest effect on 14 C incorporation in starch and in hemicellulose. (author)

  13. Gross and microscopic findings in patients submitted to nonablative full-face resurfacing using intense pulsed light: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Enrique; Ibiett, Erick Valencia

    2002-08-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a noncoherent, nonlaser, filtered flashlamp emitting a broadband visible light that has been shown to be effective in photoepilation, as well as in a number of vascular and pigmented lesions of the skin. Their efficacy has also been reported recently in the treatment of photodamaged facial skin. In the last condition, however, there are few studies showing the clinical and microscopic changes produced by IPL. To assess the gross and microscopic changes that occur in photodamaged skin submitted to nonablative full-face resurfacing (NAFFR) using IPL. Five women were submitted to five NAFFR sessions using IPL, one every 2 weeks. Skin biopsies and photographs were taken on all of the patients before the first procedure and after the last one, as well as weekly clinical assessment. Data concerning skin features (wrinkles, oiliness, thickness, dilated pores, and general appearance) were all assessed. Microscopic improvement of the aging features in the epidermis and dermis were all assessed. For the statistical analysis a t test for small samples was used. All the patients showed clinical and microscopic improvement in every one of the parameters assessed. The t test for small samples showed a statistically significant difference (P Facial photodamage was clinically and microscopically improved using IPL. Use of IPL as a rejuvenating method seems to be promising, with minimal side effects, a wide safety margin, and minimal downtime.

  14. Effect of Locomotor Respiratory Coupling Induced by Cortical Oxygenated Hemoglobin Levels During Cycle Ergometer Exercise of Light Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanagi, Keiichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Yasufuku, Yuichi; Takai, Haruna; Kera, Takeshi; Tamaki, Akira; Iwata, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) induced by light load cycle ergometer exercise on oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and sensorimotor cortex (SMC). The participants were 15 young healthy adults (9 men and 6 women, mean age: 23.1 ± 1.8 (SEM) years). We conducted a task in both LRC-inducing and LRC-non-inducing conditions for all participants. O2Hb was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. The LRC frequency ratio during induction was 2:1; pedaling rate, 50 rpm; and intensity of load, 30 % peak volume of oxygen uptake. The test protocol included a 3-min rest prior to exercise, steady loading motion for 10 min, and 10-min rest post exercise (a total of 23 min). In the measurement of O2Hb, we focused on the DLPFC, SMA, and SMC. The LRC frequency was significantly higher in the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). O2Hb during exercise was significantly lower in the DLPFC and SMA, under the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). The study revealed that even light load could induce LRC and that O2Hb in the DLPFC and SMA decreases during exercise via LRC induction.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of glycogen, lipids and polyhydroxybutyrate under optimal nutrients and light intensities in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshupanee, T; Incharoensakdi, A

    2014-04-01

    Glycogen (GL) and lipids (LP) are efficient biofuel substrates, whereas polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a potent biodegradable plastic. This study aimed to increase accumulation of these three compounds in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Under autophototrophic growth, co-accumulation of the three compounds reached maximum level in a mid-stationary phase at 39·2% of dry weight (22·7% GL, 14·1% LP and 2·4% PHB). Nitrogen deprivation increased this to 61·5% (36·8% GL, 11·2% LP and 13·5% PHB), higher than that achieved by phosphorus, sulfur, iron or calcium deprivation. Combining nitrogen deprivation with 0·4% (w/v) glucose addition for heterophototrophic growth and optimizing the light intensity (200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) synergistically enhanced combined accumulation to 71·1% of biomass (41·3% GL, 16·7% LP and 13·1% PHB), a higher level than previously reported in Synechocystis. However, the maximum coproductivity of GL, LP and PHB (at 0·72 g l(-1) ) was obtained in the 12-day heterophototrophic culture without nitrogen deprivation. Accumulation of GL, LP and PHB was enhanced under both autophototrophic and heterophototrophic conditions by optimizations of nutrient and light supplies. This study provides a means for increasing co-production of potent bioenergy substrates and useful biomaterials in Synechocystis which may also be applicable to other cyanobacteria. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  17. Decreased TK activity alters growth, yield and tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity in transgenic cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huangai; Dong, Xubing; Wu, Guoxiu; Wang, Meiling; Ai, Xizhen

    2015-02-01

    Four CsTK antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased TK activity decreased the photosynthetic rate, seed germination rate, growth yield, and the tolerance to low temperature and weak light stress. Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A cDNA fragment (526 bp) encoding transketolase was cloned from cucumber plants (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR. The antisense expression [(PBI-CsTK(-)] vector containing the CsTK gene fragment was constructed. The resulting plasmid was introduced into the cucumber inbred lines '08-1' using the agrobacterium-mediated method, and four antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased CsTK expression either unaltered or slightly increased the mRNA abundance and activities of the other main enzymes in the Calvin cycle, however, it decreased the TK activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in antisense transgenic cucumber leaves. Antisense plants showed decreases in the growth, ratio of female flowers and yield compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The decrease in Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) were greater in antisense transgenic plants than in WT plants under low temperature (5 °C) and low light intensity (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)).

  18. A Heuristic Approach to Remove the Background Intensity on White-light Solar Images. I. STEREO /HI-1 Heliospheric Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenborg, Guillermo; Howard, Russell A. [Space Science Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    White-light coronal and heliospheric imagers observe scattering of photospheric light from both dust particles (the F-Corona) and free electrons in the corona (the K-corona). The separation of the two coronae is thus vitally important to reveal the faint K-coronal structures (e.g., streamers, co-rotating interaction regions, coronal mass ejections, etc.). However, the separation of the two coronae is very difficult, so we are content in defining a background corona that contains the F- and as little K- as possible. For both the LASCO-C2 and LASCO-C3 coronagraphs aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) and the white-light imagers of the SECCHI suite aboard the Solar Terrestrial Relationships Observatory ( STEREO ), a time-dependent model of the background corona is generated from about a month of similar images. The creation of such models is possible because the missions carrying these instruments are orbiting the Sun at about 1 au. However, the orbit profiles for the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions are very different. These missions will have elliptic orbits with a rapidly changing radial distance, hence invalidating the techniques in use for the SOHO /LASCO and STEREO /SECCHI instruments. We have been investigating techniques to generate background models out of just single images that could be used for the Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager and the Wide-field Imager for the Solar Probe Plus packages on board the respective spacecraft. In this paper, we introduce a state-of-the-art, heuristic technique to create the background intensity models of STEREO /HI-1 data based solely on individual images, report on new results derived from its application, and discuss its relevance to instrumental and operational issues.

  19. ACHT4-driven oxidation of APS1 attenuates starch synthesis under low light intensity in Arabidopsis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Erez; Rog, Ido; Inbal, Dangoor; Danon, Avihai

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms that use signals of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be obscured by ROS produced under stress and thus are better investigated under homeostatic conditions. Previous studies showed that the chloroplastic atypical thioredoxin ACHT1 is oxidized by 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) in Arabidopsis plants illuminated with growth light and in turn transmits a disulfide-based signal via yet unknown target proteins in a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we studied the role of a second chloroplastic paralog, ACHT4, in plants subjected to low light conditions. Likewise, ACHT4 reacted in planta with 2-Cys Prx, indicating that it is oxidized by a similar disulfide exchange reaction. ACHT4 further reacted uniquely with the small subunit (APS1) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the first committed enzyme of the starch synthesis pathway, suggesting that it transfers the disulfides it receives from 2-Cys Prx to APS1 and turns off AGPase. In accordance, ACHT4 participated in an oxidative signal that quenched AGPase activity during the diurnal transition from day to night, and also in an attenuating oxidative signal of AGPase in a dynamic response to small fluctuations in light intensity during the day. Increasing the level of expressed ACHT4 or of ACHT4ΔC, a C terminus-deleted form that does not react with APS1, correspondingly decreased or increased the level of reduced APS1 and decreased or increased transitory starch content. These findings imply that oxidative control mechanisms act in concert with reductive signals to fine tune starch synthesis during daily homeostatic conditions. PMID:26424450

  20. Genetic fitness and selection intensity in a population affected with high-incidence spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Fedor A; Tyryshkin, Kathrin; Tikhonov, Dmitriy G; Neustroyeva, Tatyana S; Sivtseva, Tatyana M; Yakovleva, Natalya V; Nikolaev, Valerian P; Sidorova, Oksana G; Kononova, Sardana K; Goldfarb, Lev G; Renwick, Neil M

    2016-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is the major and likely the only type of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in the Sakha (Yakut) people of Eastern Siberia. The prevalence rate of SCA1 has doubled over the past 21 years peaking at 46 cases per 100,000 rural population. The age at death correlates closely with the number of CAG triplet repeats in the mutant ATXN1 gene (r = -0.81); most patients with low-medium (39-55) repeat numbers survived until the end of reproductive age. The number of CAG repeats expands in meiosis, particularly in paternal transmissions; the average total increase in intergenerational transmissions in our cohort was estimated at 1.6 CAG repeats. The fertility rates of heterozygous carriers of 39-55 CAG repeats in women were no different from those of the general Sakha population. Overall, the survival of mutation carriers through reproductive age, unaltered fertility rates, low childhood mortality in SCA1-affected families, and intergenerational transmission of increasing numbers of CAG repeats in the ATXN1 gene indicate that SCA1 in the Sakha population will be maintained at high prevalence levels. The low (0.19) Crow's index of total selection intensity in our SCA1 cohort implies that this mutation is unlikely to be eliminated through natural selection alone.

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kwizera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU. Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher’s exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51% had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium.

  2. Heat and mass transfer in a gas in a capillary induced by light with nonuniform intensity distribution over the beam cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V. G.; Polikarpov, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the heat and drift fluxes induced by velocity-selective light absorption in a single-component gas in a capillary tube. The light intensity distribution across the beam is assumed to have a Gaussian profile. Kinetic equations are solved numerically to calculate flux profiles and kinetic coefficients quantifying the contributions of surface and collisional mechanisms to light-induced transfer as functions of the Knudsen number, the ratio of the rate of radiative decay of the exited level and intermolecular collision frequency, accommodation coefficient, and the ratio of the tube radius to the light beam radius.

  3. Ca²⁺ signal contributing to the synthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenghui; Li, Tianjiao; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Kai; He, Xiangfeng; Leng, Pingsheng

    2015-06-01

    The floral scent is an important part of plant volatile compounds, and is influenced by environmental factors. The emission of monoterpenes of Lilium 'siberia' is regulated by light intensity, but the mechanism is large unknown. In this study, the expression of Li-mTPS, a monoterpene synthase gene in the tepals of Lilium 'siberia', and net Ca(2+) flux were investigated after exposure to different levels of light intensity (0, 100, 300, 600, 1000, and 1500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Moreover the effect of LaCl3 and ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) on the Li-mTPS expression, monoterpene emission, and net Ca(2+) flux were examined at 600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that along with the enhancement of light intensity, the expression level of Li-mTPS increased gradually, and the net Ca(2+) influx was also enhanced showing a similar pattern. It was found that LaCl3 and EGTA effectively inhibited the increase in expression of Li-mTPS and the net Ca(2+) influx induced by light treatment. Moreover, the release amounts of monoterpenes decreased significantly after treatment with LaCl3 and EGTA. So it can be concluded that Ca(2+) signal contributed to the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia' tepals. The increased light intensity firstly triggered the Ca(2+) influx to cytoplasm, and then the gene expression of monoterpene synthases downstream was activated to regulate the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes. But in the signaling pathway other mechanisms were thought to be involved in the emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity, which need to be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Light intensity, photoperiod duration, daily light flux and coral growth of Galaxea fascicularis in an aquarium setting: a matter of photons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Ven, R.M.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the (skeletal) growth of scleractinian corals. Light stimulates coral growth by the process of light-enhanced calcification, which is mediated by zooxanthellar photosynthesis. However, the quantity of light that is available for daily

  5. The Combination of SAT and SBT Protocols May Help Reduce the Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei Larry; Sims, Kaci D; Butts, Charles C; Frotan, M Amin; Kahn, Steven; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D

    There are few published reports on the unique nature of burn patients using a paired spontaneous awakening and spontaneous breathing protocol. A combined protocol was implemented in our burn intensive care unit (ICU) on January 1, 2012. This study evaluates the impact of this protocol on patient outcomes in a burn ICU. We performed a retrospective review of our burn registry over 4 years, including all patients placed on mechanical ventilation. In the latter 2 years, patients meeting criteria underwent daily spontaneous awakening trial; if successful, spontaneous breathing trial was performed. Patient data included age, burn size, percent full-thickness burn, tracheostomy, and inhalation injury. Outcome measures included ventilator days, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, pneumonia, and disposition. Data were analyzed using Graphpad Prism and IBM SPSS software, with statistical significance defined as P < .05. There were 171 admissions in the preprotocol period and 136 after protocol implementation. Protocol patients had greater percent full-thickness burns, but did not differ in other characteristics. The protocol group had significantly shorter ICU length of stay, fewer ventilator days, and lower pneumonia incidence. Hospital length of stay, disposition, and mortality were not significantly different. Among patients with inhalation injuries, the protocol group exhibited fewer ventilator and ICU days. Protocol implementation in a burn ICU was accompanied by decreased ventilator days and a reduced incidence of pneumonia. A combined spontaneous awakening and breathing protocol is safe and may improve clinical practice in the burn ICU.

  6. Incidence and Determinants of Health Care-Associated Blood Stream Infection at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Ujjain, India: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Dhaneria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about laboratory-confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR 2.23, duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75, chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18, premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32, neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32, malpresentation (RR 3.05, endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41, umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17. The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22. The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%. The results of the present study can be used to design and implement antibiotic stewardship policy and introduce interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.

  7. Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Prevalence and Incidence from Indicators of Antimicrobial Use: What Is the Most Accurate Indicator for Surveillance in Intensive Care Units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Fortin

    Full Text Available The optimal way to measure antimicrobial use in hospital populations, as a complement to surveillance of resistance is still unclear. Using respiratory isolates and antimicrobial prescriptions of nine intensive care units (ICUs, this study aimed to identify the indicator of antimicrobial use that predicted prevalence and incidence rates of resistance with the best accuracy.Retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to three neonatal (NICU, two pediatric (PICU and four adult ICUs between April 2006 and March 2010. Ten different resistance/antimicrobial use combinations were studied. After adjustment for ICU type, indicators of antimicrobial use were successively tested in regression models, to predict resistance prevalence and incidence rates, per 4-week time period, per ICU. Binomial regression and Poisson regression were used to model prevalence and incidence rates, respectively. Multiplicative and additive models were tested, as well as no time lag and a one 4-week-period time lag. For each model, the mean absolute error (MAE in prediction of resistance was computed. The most accurate indicator was compared to other indicators using t-tests.Results for all indicators were equivalent, except for 1/20 scenarios studied. In this scenario, where prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas sp. was predicted with carbapenem use, recommended daily doses per 100 admissions were less accurate than courses per 100 patient-days (p = 0.0006.A single best indicator to predict antimicrobial resistance might not exist. Feasibility considerations such as ease of computation or potential external comparisons could be decisive in the choice of an indicator for surveillance of healthcare antimicrobial use.

  8. Continuous ultra-low-intensity artificial daylight is not as effective as red LED light in photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine Regin; Heydenreich, Jakob; Fabricius, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT wit...... with light-emitting diode (LED) to daylight-mediated PDT with very low-intensity artificial daylight ('daylight') in the treatment of multiple AKs in the face or scalp.......Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT...

  9. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  10. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Light is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind light, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  11. Impact of light polarization on photoluminescence intensity and quantum efficiency in AlGaN and AlInGaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, C.; Knauer, A.; Weyers, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed emission intensity, quantum efficiency, and emitted light polarization of c-plane AlGaN and AlInGaN layers (λ = 320-350 nm) by temperature dependent photoluminescence. Low indium content in AlInGaN structures causes a significant intensity increase by change of the polarization of the emitted light. Polarization changes from E ⊥ c to E ‖ c with increasing aluminum content. It switches back to E ⊥ c with the incorporation of indium. The polarization degree decreases with temperature. This temperature dependence can corrupt internal quantum efficiency determination by temperature dependent photoluminescence.

  12. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuejin; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology. PMID:29543784

  13. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology.

  14. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  15. Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in the Treatment of Facial Acne Vulgaris: Comparison of Two Different Fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Monika V; Deshmukh, Ashish Ramchandra; Khedkar, Maruti Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL) therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. (1) to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2) To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used). Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm(2) on right and 20J/cm(2) on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%), moderate (26-50%), good (51-75%) and excellent (76-100%). Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%), good in 22(49%) and moderate in 13(29%) patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%), good in 19(42%) and moderate in 16(43%) patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin.

  16. Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamič, M; Pavlović, M D; Troilius Rubin, A; Palmetun-Ekbäck, M; Boixeda, P

    2015-09-01

    Lasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. These guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. Lasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Efficacy of intense pulsed light therapy in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris: Comparison of two different fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika V Patidar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. Aims: (1 to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2 To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. Methods: (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used. Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm2 on right and 20J/cm2 on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%, moderate (26-50%, good (51-75% and excellent (76-100%. Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. Results: On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%, good in 22(49% and moderate in 13(29% patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%, good in 19(42% and moderate in 16(43% patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Conclusions: IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin.

  18. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalevée, Jacques; Mokbel, Haifaa; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-20

    Photoinitiators (PI) or photoinitiating systems (PIS) usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP) and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP) reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP)) together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  19. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Lalevée; Haifaa Mokbel; Jean-Pierre Fouassier

    2015-01-01

    Photoinitiators (PI) or photoinitiating systems (PIS) usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP) and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP) reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP)) together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under vario...

  20. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lalevée

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoinitiators (PI or photoinitiating systems (PIS usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  1. Difference between the Brewster angle and angle of minimum reflectance for incident unpolarized or circularly polarized light at interfaces between transparent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2015-06-01

    For reflection at interfaces between transparent optically isotropic media, the difference between the Brewster angle ϕB of zero reflectance for incident p-polarized light and the angle ϕu min of minimum reflectance for incident unpolarized or circularly polarized light is considered as function of the relative refractive n in external and internal reflection. We determine the following. (i) ϕu min reflection (n > 1), the maximum difference (ϕB - ϕu min)max = 75° at n = 2 + √3. (iii) In internal reflection and 0 reflectance R0 at normal incidence is in the range 0 ≤ R0 ≤ 1/3, ϕu min = 0, and ϕB - ϕu min = ϕB. (v) For internal reflection and 0 < n < 2 - √3, ϕu min exhibits an unexpected maximum (= 12.30°) at n = 0.24265. Finally, (vi) for 1/3 ≤ R0 < 1, Ru min at ϕu min is limited to the range 1/3 ≤ Ru min < 1/2.

  2. The effect of spectral property and intensity of light on natural refractive development and compensation to negative lenses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Lan, Weizhong; Yang, Shiqi; Liao, Yunru; Xu, Qinglin; Lin, Lixia; Yang, Zhikuan

    2014-10-02

    To investigate the effect of spectral composition and light intensity on refractive development in guinea pigs. One-week-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to groups exposed to broad-spectrum Solux halogen light (BS) or spiked-spectrum fluorescent light (FL) at both high (Hi, 10,000 lux) and low (Lo, 500 lux) intensities under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. Half of the animals in each group were used as controls (n = 24, 20, 22, and 20, respectively), and half were fitted with binocular -4-diopter (D) lenses (L, lenses; n = 22, 20, 24, and 22, respectively). Refractive error, corneal curvature, and axial dimensions were determined by cycloplegic retinoscopy, photokeratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Guinea pigs exposed to FL and BS showed similar changes in refraction under both high (HiFL: 2.26 ± 0.55 D versus HiBS: 2.17 ± 0.65 D, P > 0.05)- and low-intensity lighting (LoFL: 1.39 ± 0.88 D versus LoBS: 1.40 ± 0.93 D, P > 0.05). This was also true for the groups wearing lenses (HiFL-L: -1.81 ± 0.73 D versus HiBS-L: -1.45 ± 0.99 D, P > 0.05; LoFL-L: -2.58 ± 0.65 D versus LoBS-L: -2.29 ± 0.50 D, P > 0.05). Nevertheless, animals under high-intensity lighting exhibited a significantly larger hyperopic shift compared with those under low-intensity lighting (HiFL versus LoFL: P guinea pigs, spectrally spiked light and broad-spectrum light have similar effects on natural refractive development and negative lens compensation. As found in other species, effects of light intensity on refractive development were also observed in guinea pigs in both illuminants. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H.; Duijzer, Wianne; Bos, Elisabeth; V, Hommes,

    2016-01-01

    Background The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the

  4. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10 000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Bos, Elske H.; Ruiter, Martine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same

  5. Quality difference of neointima following the implantation of bioresorbable scaffold and metallic stent in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: quantitative assessments by light intensity, light attenuation, and backscatter on optical coherence tomography in TROFI II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Liu, Shengnan; Asano, Taku; Eggermont, Jeroen; Katagiri, Yuki; Cavalcante, Rafael; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Räber, Lorenz; Sabaté, Manel; Windecker, Stephan; Dijkstra, Jouke; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-02-27

    We aimed to assess possible difference of the neointimal quality after everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BVS) implantation in comparison with cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting scaffold (CoCr-EES) by optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). This study is a post-hoc analysis of TROFI II trial assessing neointimal quality 6-month after the implantation of BVS(N=82) and CoCr-EES(N=87) in STEMI patients. Neointimal light property analysis by OFDI full-automatically computed light attenuation, backscatter and light intensity for superficial and deep neointima. High light attenuation/backscatter and high light intensity are reportedly associated with lipidic change and tissue maturation, respectively. Superficial and deep neointima in BVS presented lower light attenuation than CoCr-EES (superficial:0.77±0.15 vs. 1.27±0.55mm-1, p<0.001; deep:0.88±0.20 vs. 1.17±0.27mm-1, p<0.001). Superficial neointima in BVS showed comparable backscatter to that of CoCr-EES (4.81±0.52 vs. 4.94±0.61, p=0.141), while deep neointima in BVS showed lower backscatter than that of CoCr-EES (4.60±0.62 vs. 4.97±0.62, p<0.001). Light intensity of superficial neointima was comparable between both arms (139±13 vs. 144±30, p=0.236), whereas light intensity of deep neointima in BVS was lower than CoCr-EES (129±14 vs. 138±21, p<0.001). The present OFDI comparison suggested that tissue maturation was comparable but lipidic change of neointima was less prominent after the BVS implantation than CoCr-EES.

  6. Comparison of tubular and panel type photobioreactors for biohydrogen production utilizing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii considering mixing time and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, S; Kose, A

    2014-01-01

    Two different photobioreactor designs; tubular and panel, were investigated for the biohydrogen production utilizing a green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC124 following the two stage protocol. Mixing time and light intensity of the systems were adjusted to compare the productivity of both aerobic culture phase and the following anaerobic biohydrogen production phase. The results showed there was an effect on both phases related with the design. During the aerobic phase bigger illumination area serving more energy, tubular photobioreactor reached higher biomass productivity of 31.8±2.1 mg L(-1) h(-1) which was about 11% higher than the panel photobioreactor. On the other hand biohydrogen productivity in the panel photobioreactor reached a value of 1.3±0.05 mL L(-1) h(-1) based on the efficient removal of biohydrogen gas. According to the results it would be a good approach to utilize tubular design for aerobic phase and panel for biohydrogen production phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas-breakdown effects associated with the self-pinched transport of intense light-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, P.F.; Olson, C.L.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-pinched transport (SPT) of intense light-ion beams is being considered for delivering energy to a high-gain, high-yield inertial confinement fusion target. Proton beam SPT experiments are underway on the Gamble II generators at the Naval Research Laboratory. The physics of SPT in low-pressure gas is being analyzed with analytic theory and numerical simulations. A 1-D theory estimates the net current fraction necessary for stable transport as a function of gas density for a given beam profile. SPT simulations using the 3-D hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) code IPROP determine the beam profile. Important to both theory and simulations is the inclusion of gas-breakdown physics. A comparison between the theory and the self-consistent simulations using IPROP is made. Additional SPT simulations have been carried out using the 2-D hybrid PIC code SOLENZ which assumes a pre-ionized plasma. This simulation model enables the investigation of long time scale beam propagation issues. A comparison between IPROP and SOLENZ will be presented. SOLENZ simulations with the Gamble I beam parameters demonstrate SPT but point to the need to study the injection conditions to improve beam confinement. Simulations examining beam-to-wall distance and injection conditions will be presented

  8. Effects of temperature, CO 2/O 2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 °C), three levels of CO 2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O 2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 μmol m -2 s -1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 °C, CO 2 concentration of 4%, O 2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 μmol m -2 s -1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO 2 to O 2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules.

  9. Effects of temperature, CO2/O2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    2005-01-01

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 degrees C), three levels of CO2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 micromoles m-2 s-1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 degrees C, CO2 concentration of 4%, O2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO2 to O2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  10. The Role of NADPH Oxidase in the Inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum by 420-nm Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL on Trichophyton rubrum and investigate its mechanism of action.Methods: The viability of fungi treated with IPL alone and with IPL combined with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (DPI pretreatment was determined by MTT assays. The reactive oxygen species (ROS were quantified with a DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. Malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities were determined by commercial kits. The transcription of the Nox gene was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, and micromorphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, fungal keratinase activity was detected by measuring dye release from keratin azure.Results: The growth declined with statistical significance after 6 h of treatment (P < 0.001. The ROS and MDA content increased after IPL treatment, whereas the SOD and GSH-Px activity decreased. Nox gene expression was upregulated, and the micromorphology was damaged. Keratinase activity decreased. Fungi that received DPI pretreatment exhibited contrasting outcomes.Conclusion: We found that 420-nm IPL significantly inhibited the growth and pathogenicity of T. rubrum in vitro. A suggested mechanism involves Nox as a factor that mediates 420-nm IPL-induced oxidative damage of T. rubrum.

  11. Cytokinins and Abscisic Acid Act Antagonistically in the Regulation of the Bud Outgrowth Pattern by Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Corot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bud outgrowth is a key process in the elaboration of yield and visual quality in rose crops. Although light intensity is well known to affect bud outgrowth, little is known on the mechanisms involved in this regulation. The objective of this work was to test if the control of bud outgrowth pattern along the stem by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD is mediated by sugars, cytokinins and/or abscisic acid in intact rose plants. Rooted cuttings of Rosa hybrida ‘Radrazz’ were grown in growth chambers under high PPFD (530 μmol m-2 s-1 until the floral bud visible stage. Plants were then either placed under low PPFD (90 μmol m-2 s-1 or maintained under high PPFD. Bud outgrowth inhibition by low PPFD was associated with lower cytokinin and sugar contents and a higher abscisic acid content in the stem. Interestingly, cytokinin supply to the stem restored bud outgrowth under low PPFD. On the other hand, abscisic acid supply inhibited outgrowth under high PPFD and antagonized bud outgrowth stimulation by cytokinins under low PPFD. In contrast, application of sugars did not restore bud outgrowth under low PPFD. These results suggest that PPFD regulation of bud outgrowth in rose involves a signaling pathway in which cytokinins and abscisic acid play antagonistic roles. Sugars can act as nutritional and signaling compounds and may be involved too, but do not appear as the main regulator of the response to PPFD.

  12. Objectively measured light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time are independently associated with metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study of Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Tanabe, Kai; Yokoyama, Noriko; Zempo, Hirofumi; Kuno, Shinya

    2013-03-04

    Reducing sedentary time and increasing lifestyle activities, including light-intensity activity, may be an option to help prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether objectively measured light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time is associated with MetS, independent of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). The participants in this cross-sectional study were 483 middle-aged Japanese adults, aged 30-64 years. The participants were divided into those with or without MetS according to the Japanese criteria for MetS. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure light-intensity lifestyle activity [1.6-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and sedentary time (≤1.5 METs). Logistic regression was used to predict MetS from the levels of light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time with age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time, and MVPA as covariates. The odds ratios (OR) for MetS in the highest and middle tertiles of light-intensity lifestyle activity were 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.81] and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.89) relative to the lowest tertile, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time and MVPA (Ptrend = 0.012). Sedentary time was also associated with the risk of MetS (Ptrend = 0.018). Among participants in the highest tertile of sedentary time, the risk of MetS was 2.27-times greater than that in the lowest tertile (95% CI: 1.25 to 4.11). The risk of MetS was not significantly increased in subjects in the middle tertile of sedentary time. We found that light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time were significantly associated with the risk of MetS, independent of MVPA. The results of our study suggest that public health messages and guidelines should be refined to include increases in light-intensity lifestyle activity and/or decreases in sedentary time, alongside promoting MVPA, to prevent MetS.

  13. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  14. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Duijzer, Wianne B; Hommes, Vanja

    2018-05-01

    Ever since a new photoreceptor was discovered with a highest sensitivity to 470-490 nm blue light, it has been speculated that blue light has some advantages in the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) over more traditional treatments. In this study we compared the effects of exposure to narrow-band blue light (BLUE) to those of broad-wavelength white light (BLT) in the treatment of SAD. In a 15-day design, 45 patients suffering from SAD completed 30-min sessions of light treatment on 5 consecutive days. 21 subjects received white-light treatment (BLT, broad-wavelength without UV, 10 000 lx, irradiance 31.7 W/m 2 ), 24 subjects received narrow-band blue light (BLUE, 100 lx, irradiance 1.0 W/m 2 ). All participants completed weekly questionnaires concerning mood and energy levels, and were also assessed by means of the SIGH-SAD, which is the primary outcome measure. On day 15, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (BLT 73.2%, effect size 3.37; BLUE 67%, effect size 2.63), which outcomes were not statistically significant different between both conditions. Small sample size. Light treatment is an effective treatment for SAD. The use of narrow-band blue light is equally effective as a treatment using bright white-light. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of light intensity on growth, anatomy and forage quality of two tropical grasses (Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deinum, B.; Sulastri, R.D.; Zeinab, M.H.J.; Maassen, A.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of light intensity on growth, histology and anatomy, and nutritive value were studied in seedlings of two shade tolerant species: Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume. They were studied under greenhouse conditions in pots with sandy soil and sufficient N and cut after a

  16. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  17. Ambient and elevated carbon dioxide on growth, physiological and nutrient uptake parameters of perennial leguminous cover crops under low light intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptability and optimum growth of cover crops in plantation crops is affected by the inherent nature of the cover crop species and the light intensity at canopy levels. Globally concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are increasing and this creates higher photosynthesis and nutrient demand by crops as l...

  18. Light Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis by Overexpression of Chlorophyllide a Oxygenase in Tobacco1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Ajaya K.; Pattanayak, Gopal K.; Pandey, Shiv S.; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Reddy, Vanga S.; Govindjee; Tripathy, Baishnab C.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyll b is synthesized by the oxidation of a methyl group on the B ring of a tetrapyrrole molecule to a formyl group by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO). The full-length CAO from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that grows well at light intensities much higher than those tolerated by Arabidopsis. This resulted in an increased synthesis of glutamate semialdehyde, 5-aminolevulinic acid, magnesium-porphyrins, and chlorophylls. Overexpression of CAO resulted in increased chlorophyll b synthesis and a decreased chlorophyll a/b ratio in low light-grown as well as high light-grown tobacco plants; this effect, however, was more pronounced in high light. The increased potential of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase activity and chlorophyll biosynthesis compensated for the usual loss of chlorophylls in high light. Increased chlorophyll b synthesis in CAO-overexpressed plants was accompanied not only by an increased abundance of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins but also of other proteins of the electron transport chain, which led to an increase in the capture of light as well as enhanced (40%–80%) electron transport rates of photosystems I and II at both limiting and saturating light intensities. Although the quantum yield of carbon dioxide fixation remained unchanged, the light-saturated photosynthetic carbon assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation increased in CAO-overexpressed plants grown in both low- and high-light regimes. These results demonstrate that controlled up-regulation of chlorophyll b biosynthesis comodulates the expression of several thylakoid membrane proteins that increase both the antenna size and the electron transport rates and enhance carbon dioxide assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation. PMID:22419827

  19. Lethal effects of high-intensity violet 405-nm light on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and on dormant and germinating spores of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, L E; McKenzie, K; Maclean, M; Macgregor, S J; Anderson, J G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of high-intensity violet light on selected yeast and mould fungi. Cell suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and dormant and germinating spores (conidia) of the mould Aspergillus niger were exposed to high-intensity narrow band violet light with peak output at 405 nm generated from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. All three fungal species were inactivated by the 405-nm light without a requirement for addition of exogenous photosensitiser chemicals. Of the fungal species tested, S. cerevisiae was most sensitive and dormant conidia of A. niger were most resistant to 405-nm light exposure. Five-log10 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU ml(-1)) reductions of the tested species required exposure doses of 288 J cm(-2) for S. cerevisiae, 576 J cm(-2) for C. albicans, and a much higher value of 2.3 kJ cm(-2) for dormant conidia of A. niger. During germination, A. niger conidia became more sensitive to 405-nm light exposure and sensitivity increased as germination progressed over an 8 h test period. Light exposure under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with results obtained using ascorbic acid as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, revealed that 405-nm light inactivation in fungi involved an oxygen-dependent mechanism, as previously described in bacteria. The inactivation results achieved with yeast cells and fungal spores together with operational advantages associated with the use of a visible (nonultraviolet (UV)) light source highlight the potential of 405-nm light for fungal decontamination applications. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  1. Quantitative Measurements of Photocatalytic CO-Oxidation as a Function of Light Intensity and Wavelength over TiO2 Nanotube Thin Films in mu-Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; In, Su-il; Olsen, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase photooxidation of CO over TiO2 catalysts (P25 and TiO2 nanotubes) in mu-reactors with quantitative product detection was used to study turnover as a function of illumination intensity over 4 orders of magnitude. Turnover was found to be of order 0.84 in illumination intensity. A CO...... photooxidation action spectrum was also recorded for TiO2 nanotubes. The action spectrum was used to calculate both the incident photon to product efficiency (IPPE) and the absorbed photon to product efficiency (APPE). The wavelength dependence of the IPPE was found to follow the absorption spectrum while...

  2. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H; Duijzer, Wianne B; Hommes, Vanja

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the treatment of SAD. In this study, a comparison has been made between the effects of broad-wavelength light without ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths compared to narrow-band blue light in the treatment of sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder (Sub-SAD). In a 15-day design, 48 participants suffering from Sub-SAD completed 20-minute sessions of light treatment on five consecutive days. 22 participants were given bright white-light treatment (BLT, broad-wavelength light without UV 10 000 lux, irradiance 31.7 Watt/m(2)) and 26 participants received narrow-band blue light (BLUE, 100 lux, irradiance 1.0 Watt/m(2)). All participants completed daily and weekly questionnaires concerning mood, activation, sleep quality, sleepiness and energy. Also, mood and energy levels were assessed by means of the SIGH-SAD, the primary outcome measure. On day 15, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (BLT 54.8 %, effect size 1.7 and BLUE 50.7 %, effect size 1.9). No statistically significant differences were found on the main outcome measures. Light treatment is an effective treatment for Sub-SAD. The use of narrow-band blue-light treatment is equally effective as bright white-light treatment. This study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (Nederlands Trial Register TC =  4342 ) (20-12-2013).

  3. A wide area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Reginald J.

    Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) will require high-speed, real-time three dimensional (3-D) image processing to navigate treacherous terrain in order to complete their assigned mission without a human in the loop. LIDAR scanners of the 3-D variety, provide the necessary area coverage for 3-D image processing, but lack the speed to deliver the collected data for real-time processing. A novel Hybrid Range-Intensity System (HRIS) has been proposed for imaging large swaths of area very rapidly. This system is comprised of two infrared cameras, an illumination source, a control and coordination system to position the cameras, and signal processing algorithms to extract the contour image of the scene. This dissertation focused on the development of an illuminator for the HRIS. This illuminator enables faster image rendering and reduces the potential of errors in return signal data, that could be generated from extremely rough terrain. Four major achievements resulted from this work, which advance the field of 3-D image acquisition. The first is that the TJ is an effective current spreading layer for LEDs with mesa width up to 140 mum and current densities of ˜ 1 x 106A/cm2. The TJ allows fabrication of an efficient illuminator, with required geometry for the HRIS to operate as a real-time 3-D imaging system. Secondly, a design for a Bipolar Cascade-Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (BC-RCLED) has been accomplished, that will illuminate the FOV of the hybrid-ranged intensity system with a single sweep of the beam. This device is capable of producing ˜ 330 mW of output power. Additionally, from this work, key parameters for HRIS design were identified. Using a collection optic with a 15 cm diameter, an HRIS mounting height of 1.5 m, and a detector integration time of 330 msec, a SNR of 20 dB was achieved. Lastly, we demonstrated that the BC-RCLED designed for the HRIS can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we

  4. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqian Pan

    Full Text Available Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4. Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H" with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors

  5. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-12-19

    to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. construir e validar um instrumento para avaliação do uso de tecnologias leves, pela equipe de enfermagem, em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. estudo metodológico no qual o instrumento foi elaborado utilizando o método psicométrico para construção com base na categorização das tecnologias em saúde de Merhy e Franco, da Política Nacional de Humanização, utilizando-se a taxonomia Nursing Intervention Classification para categorizar os domínios do instrumento. Utilizou-se o Percentual de Concordância e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) para validação. o resultado da aplicação do Percentual de Concordância entre os juízes foi superior ao recomendado de 80%, havendo destaque na avaliação da pertinência ao tema proposto, apresentando um percentual de concordância de 99%. o instrumento foi validado com quatro domínios (Vínculo, Autonomia, Acolhimento e Gestão) e dezenove itens que avaliam o uso das tecnologias leves em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. construir y validar un instrumento para evaluación del uso de tecnologías leves, por el equipo de enfermer

  6. Effect of Light Intensities and Atmospheric Gas Conditions on Biohydrogen Production of Microalgae Isolated from Fisheries Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujalin Pholchan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the fishery farming industry has been developed rapidly due to increasing demand and consumption as well as the depletion of wild fish resources. Production processes in the industry usually generate large amounts of wastewater containing high nutrients, posing a threat to downstream water. However, phytoplankton removal techniques commonly used to counteract the threat, though appearing to have low efficiency, are timeconsuming and less sustainable. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that convert solar energy into hydrogen. Using the isolated algae from fish farms as a source of renewable energy production could be a promising choice for handling fisheries wastewater in a more efficient manner. However, hydrogen production processes from algae still need more studies as their efficiencies vary between algae species and growth factors. In this work, the efficiency of hydrogen production from Scenedesmus accuminatus and Arthrospira platensis harvested from fish farms under three different light intensity conditions and three atmospheric gas conditions was determined. The results showed that the best conditions for hydrogen production from both species included 24 h darkness and carbon dioxide addition. Under the atmospheric gas combination of 99% argon and 1% carbon dioxide, S. accuminatus could produce hydrogen gas as high as 0.572 mol H2/mgCh h within 12 h, while the highest hydrogen production (0.348 mol H2/mgCh h obtained from A. platensis was found under the atmospheric gas mixture of 98% argon and 2% carbon dioxide. Interestingly, S. accuminatus appeared to produce more hydrogen than A. platensis under the same conditions.

  7. Photo Epilation with Intense Pulsed Light for Thinning of Anterior Hairline after Hairline Correction Surgery in East Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThin hairs are critical to achieve natural result in female hairline correction surgery. However, there are few studies on the usefulness of hair thinning by intense pulsed light (IPL after hairline correction surgery in East Asian females.MethodsHair thinning using IPL was performed in 54 women who had complained about thick hairs along the frontal hairline after hairline correction surgery. Patient mean age was 31.2 years old and patients were an average of 2.1 years post-hairline correction surgery. Initial treatment used 10 J, while second and third sessions were conducted with 10 to 15 J according to responsiveness to treatment.ResultsMean thickness of individual hairs assessed before the procedure was 78.86 µm. The mean number of procedures was 1.6 per patient. Forty of 54 subjects (74% achieved satisfactory hair thinning with only one procedure from 78.01 to 66.14 µm after treatment. The measured thickness was 66.43 µm at the end of the first year in patients who were satisfied after one procedure. Thirteen cases achieved satisfactory hair thinning after two sessions. Mean thickness was 74.44 µm and 67.51 µm, before and after the second session. One case required a third session with 15J, thinning from 89.00 to 66.50 µm.ConclusionsHair thinning by IPL is a very useful method to provide a natural look after hairline correction surgery in East Asians, who have naturally thick hair.

  8. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY AND SUCROSE FEEDING ON THE FINE STRUCTURE IN CHLOROPLASTS AND ON THE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF ETIOLATED LEAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Yael; Klein, S.

    1962-01-01

    Changes in the fine structure of proplastids of etiolated leaves exposed to various conditions of light and darkness for 24 and 48 hours were investigated, and the chlorophyll content of the leaves so treated was determined in vivo. The light treatments were given while the leaves were floated on tap water or on a 0.2 M sucrose solution. Leaves floated on water under low light intensity (2 foot-candles) were low in chlorophyll and contained plastids with concentric rows of vesicles. Transferring the leaves back to darkness resulted in the disappearance of the concentric rigs and re-formation of vesicular centers together with straight rows of vesicles and tubules, evenly spaced throughout the stroma. Chloroplasts of leaves floated on a sucrose solution under low light showed large vesicular centers together with stacks of rows of elongated tubules. The same chloroplast structure was found in leaves floated on a sucrose solution in the dark, after having been exposed to weak light for 24 hours. Chlorophyll content in these leaves was the same as in leaves floated on water under high light intensity, where the chloroplasts had normal grana and lamellae. The effect of the investigated factors on plastid development is discussed. PMID:13889621

  9. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  10. Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens in a public tertiary teaching hospital of Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Das, Soumi; Chawan, Neeraj S; Hazra, Avijit

    2015-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality associated with nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a matter of serious concern today. To determine the incidence of nosocomial infections acquired in the ICU, their risk factors, the causative pathogens and the outcome in a tertiary care teaching hospital. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 12 bedded combined medical and surgical ICU of a medical college hospital. The study group comprised 242 patients admitted for more than 48 h in the ICU. Data were collected regarding severity of the illness, primary reason for ICU admission, presence of risk factors, presence of infection, infecting agent, length of ICU and hospital stay, and survival status and logistic regression analysis was done. The nosocomial infection rate was 11.98% (95% confidence interval 7.89-16.07%). Pneumonia was the most frequently detected infection (62.07%), followed by urinary tract infections and central venous catheter associated bloodstream infections. Prior antimicrobial therapy, urinary catheterization and length of ICU stay were found to be statistically significant risk factors associated with nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infection resulted in a statistically significant increase in length of ICU and hospital stay, but not in mortality. Nosocomial infections increase morbidity of hospitalized patients. These findings can be utilized for planning nosocomial infection surveillance program in our setting.

  11. Determination of unique power conversion efficiency of solar cell showing hysteresis in the I-V curve under various light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Tamaki, Koichi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V V; Kaneko, Shoji; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2017-09-18

    Energy harvesting at low light intensities has recently attracted a great deal of attention of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) which are regarded as promising candidate for indoor application. Anomalous hysteresis of the PSCs a complex issue for reliable evaluation of the cell performance. In order to address these challenges, we constructed two new evaluation methods to determinate the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs. The first setup is a solar simulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) allowing evaluation of the solar cells at wider range of light intensities, ranging from 10 2  to 10 -3  mW·cm -2 . As the overestimate error, we found that the PCEs of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) and PSCs increase dramatically at low light intensities conditions. Due to the internal capacitance at the interfaces on hybrid solar cells, the measurement of current below 10 -2  mW·cm -2 shows constant value given high PCE, which is related to the capacitive current and origin of the hysteresis. The second setup is a photovoltaic power analyzing system, designed for tracking the maximum power (P max ) with time. The paper suggests the combination of the LED solar simulator and P max tracking technique as a standard to evaluate the PCE of capacitive solar cells.

  12. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY THE CYANOBACTERIUM PLECTONEMA BORYANUM: EFFECTS OF INITIAL NITRATE CONCENTRATION, LIGHT INTENSITY, AND INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYSTEM II BY DCMU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, B.; Huesemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The alarming rate at which atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels will have incalculable consequences if disregarded. Fuel cells, a source of energy that does not add to carbon dioxide emissions, have become an important topic of study. Although signifi cant advances have been made related to fuel cells, the problem of cheap and renewable hydrogen production still remains. The cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum has demonstrated potential as a resolution to this problem by producing hydrogen under nitrogen defi cient growing conditions. Plectonema boryanum cultures were tested in a series of experiments to determine the effects of light intensity, initial nitrate concentration, and photosystem II inhibitor DCMU (3-(3,4- dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) upon hydrogen production. Cultures were grown in sterile Chu. No. 10 medium within photobioreactors constantly illuminated by halogen lights. Because the enzyme responsible for hydrogen production is sensitive to oxygen, the medium was continuously sparged with argon/CO2 (99.7%/0.3% vol/vol) by gas dispersion tubes immersed in the culture. Hydrogen production was monitored by using a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. In the initial experiment, the effects of initial nitrate concentration were tested and results revealed cumulative hydrogen production was maximum at an initial nitrate concentration of 1 mM. A second experiment was then conducted at an initial nitrate concentration of 1 mM to determine the effects of light intensity at 50, 100, and 200 μmole m-2 s-1. Cumulative hydrogen production increased with increasing light intensity. A fi nal experiment, conducted at an initial nitrate concentration of 2 mM, tested the effects of high light intensity at 200 and 400 μmole m-2 s-1. Excessive light at 400 μmole m-2 s-1 decreased cumulative hydrogen production. Based upon all experiments, cumulative hydrogen production rates were optimal

  13. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol

  14. Theory of photostructural changes in glasses with negative-U centers: dependencies of steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is presented of a mechanism for the photostructural changes observed in semiconducting glasses. The theory takes into account that in these materials negative-U centers are the basic charge carriers, and gap-light generated excited states of such centers are accompanied by metastable 'defects' in the original structure, which can be identified as the photostructural changes. The theory gives rise to a consistent interpretation, and some predictions, of dependencies of the steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

  15. Side effects from intense pulsed light: Importance of skin pigmentation, fluence level and ultraviolet radiation-A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F; Beerwerth, Frank; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans C; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on IPL-induced side effects. The study was a blinded, randomized intra-individual controlled trial including 16 healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick Skin Types (FST) II-V. Three test areas were each divided into four sites, randomized to a single IPL exposure of 22, 34, 46 J/cm 2 or triple stacking of 46 J/cm 2 . Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced a wide range of skin reactions, including erythema (87% of subjects), purpura (27%), blisters (20%), edema (13%), crusting (13%), hyper- (60%), and hypopigmentation (20%). Darker skin pigmentation and increasing IPL fluence were determinants for IPL-induced side effects (P ≤ 0.002), while a single exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase after IPL (P ≥ 0.24). Skin pigmentation and IPL fluence are major determinants of side effects after IPL exposure, while a single exposure to three SED of UVR at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL

  16. Incidence, morbidity, and mortality of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in a surgical intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Plaud, Benoit; Lehoux, Philippe; Samba, Désiré; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2012-06-01

    Data on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce and controversial. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of CI-AKI in a surgical ICU. We conducted a 13-month prospective observational study. Three definitions were compared to characterize CI-AKI: Barrett and Parfrey criteria; Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function and End stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification; and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Patients hospitalized in surgical ICU who had received an injection of contrast medium, who were not on renal replacement therapy, who had stable serum creatinine before injection, and no other etiology for new acute kidney injury were included. One hundred one patients were included. The frequency of CI-AKI was 17%, 19%, and 19% according to Barrett and Parfrey criteria; RIFLE classification; and AKIN criteria, respectively. Diabetes mellitus, creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/min, and concomitant aminoglycoside administration were associated with CI-AKI. Statistically significant associations were found between CI-AKI and renal replacement therapy with all 3 definitions and between CI-AKI and mortality when AKIN criteria were used. These results show that CI-AKI is not inconsequential in critically ill patients. In the present study, AKIN criteria appear to be most relevant to define CI-AKI. Further studies are required to explore CI-AKI prevention in ICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) is known to cause hypopigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L.). This study examined a possible link between dietary ARA supplementation - light intensity and tank colour on pigment defects in common sole larvae. Larval tissue ARA...... treated with the ARA supplemented emulsion during premetamorphosis showed partly or complete dorsal hypopigmentation. There were no significant effects of light intensity or tank background colour in combination with ARA on malpigmentation. Larval hypopigmentation was below 10% in the groups not treated...... to be related to a higher feed intake. Early pigment cell (chromatophor) development until 11 dph (i.e. start of metamorphosis) was not significantly related to dietary treatment, but during metamorphosis (from 16 dph) total chromatophore concentration (cells larvae (-1)) was significantly lower for larvae...

  18. Effects of light intensity and curing time of the newest LED Curing units on the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, D.; Herda, E.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light intensity and curing time of the latest LED curing units on the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins. Sixty-three specimens from three brands (Polofil Supra, Filtek Z250, and Solare X) were divided into two test groups and one control group. The test groups were polymerized with a Flashmax P3 LED curing unit for one or three seconds. The control group was polymerized with a Ledmax 450 curing unit with the curing time based on the resin manufacturer’s instructions. A higher light intensity and shorter curing time did not influence the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins.

  19. Long-pulsed dye laser versus intense pulsed light for photodamaged skin: A randomized split-face trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, G.F.; Hedelund, L.; Haedersdal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In a randomized controlled split-face trial to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects from rejuvenation with long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) versus intense pulsed light (IPL). Materials and Methods: Twenty female volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, classes I-II rhytids, and symme......Objective: In a randomized controlled split-face trial to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects from rejuvenation with long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) versus intense pulsed light (IPL). Materials and Methods: Twenty female volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, classes I-II rhytids......, and symmetrical split-face photodamage were included in the study. Subjects received a series of three treatments at 3-week intervals with half-face LPDL (V-beam Perfecta, 595 nm, Candela Laser Corporation) and half-face IPL (Ellipse Flex, Danish Dermatologic Development); the interventions being randomly...

  20. Direct monitoring of erythrocytes aggregation under the effect of the low-intensity magnetic field by measuring light transmission at wavelength 800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elblbesy, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-01

    Interacting electromagnetic field with the living organisms and cells became of the great interest in the last decade. Erythrocytes are the most common types of the blood cells and have unique rheological, electrical, and magnetic properties. Aggregation is one of the important characteristics of the erythrocytes which has a great impact in some clinical cases. The present study introduces a simple method to monitor the effect of static magnetic field on erythrocytes aggregation using light transmission. Features were extracted from the time course curve of the light transmission through the whole blood under different intensities of the magnetic field. The findings of this research showed that static magnetic field could influence the size and the rate of erythrocytes aggregation. The strong correlations confirmed these results between the static magnetic field intensity and both the time of aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. From this study, it can be concluded that static magnetic field can be used to modify the mechanisms of erythrocytes aggregation.

  1. Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Georg; Gufler, Veronika; Griesmacher, Andrea; Bartenbach, Christian; Canazei, Markus; Staggl, Siegmund; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Workplace illumination is of paramount importance in determining the employee's productivity and well-being. Moreover, light exerts non-visual effects with respect to biological rhythms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different lighting conditions (500-1800 lx, 6500 K; 500 lx, 4000 K) on sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6-s) and subjective mood in an experimental office accommodation. Urinary aMT6-s concentrations were significantly decreased at all days of the experiment in both lights. On day 3, differences between aMT6-s concentrations in specimen collected at 05:00 p.m. and at 09:00 a.m. were significantly higher under variable lighting conditions. Analyses of a mood rating inventory revealed a benefit of variable light with respect to the dimensions of "Activity", while "Deactivation" and "Fatigue" were increased in regular light on day 1. "Activity", "Concentration", and "Deactivation" changed in opposite directions when comparing variable with regular illumination on two consecutive days. In conclusion, variable light exerts a potential advantage in indoor office accommodations with respect to subjective mood, although no unequivocal differences in the profile of aMT6-s were found as compared to regular light.

  2. An intervention to reduce sitting and increase light-intensity physical activity at work: Design and rationale of the 'Stand & Move at Work' group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Mullane, Sarah L; Toledo, Meynard J; Rydell, Sarah A; Gaesser, Glenn A; Crespo, Noe C; Hannan, Peter; Feltes, Linda; Vuong, Brenna; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    American workers spend 70-80% of their time at work being sedentary. Traditional approaches to increase moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be perceived to be harmful to productivity. Approaches that target reductions in sedentary behavior and/or increases in standing or light-intensity physical activity [LPA] may not interfere with productivity and may be more feasible to achieve through small changes accumulated throughout the workday METHODS/DESIGN: This group randomized trial (i.e., cluster randomized trial) will test the relative efficacy of two sedentary behavior focused interventions in 24 worksites across two states (N=720 workers). The MOVE+ intervention is a multilevel individual, social, environmental, and organizational intervention targeting increases in light-intensity physical activity in the workplace. The STAND+ intervention is the MOVE+ intervention with the addition of the installation and use of sit-stand workstations to reduce sedentary behavior and enhance light-intensity physical activity opportunities. Our primary outcome will be objectively-measured changes in sedentary behavior and light-intensity physical activity over 12months, with additional process measures at 3months and longer-term sustainability outcomes at 24months. Our secondary outcomes will be a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (comprised of fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure), workplace productivity, and job satisfaction DISCUSSION: This study will determine the efficacy of a multi-level workplace intervention (including the use of a sit-stand workstation) to reduce sedentary behavior and increase LPA and concomitant impact on cardiometabolic health, workplace productivity, and satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02566317 (date of registration: 10/1/2015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stationary Light Waves in Anizotropy and Nonolinear Plane Media, whose Dielectric Tensor's Principal Values Arbitrarily Depend upon Intensity Case of Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ochirbat, G

    2000-01-01

    A plane medium, whose dielectric tensor's principal values arbitrarily depend upon intensity, is considered. The problems of the TM and TE waves, within the problem of light scattering, are reduced to quadrature. A question of integrability of the full system of Maxwell equations is discussed. A closed equation has been obtained for an auxiliary variable for a nonlinearity of Kerr type. A scheme for integrating the full system of Maxwell equations by solving the equation over the auxiliary variable is suggested.

  4. The influence of light intensity on anatomical structure and pigment contents of Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antonio Sousa Paiva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of five different light intensities on the anatomical structure and on the pigment contents in leaves of Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea. Once light intensity became lower, the thickness of leaf lamina and mesophyll were reduced. Adjustments in light-harvesting antenna size were observed: an increase in chlorophyll a + b/carotenoids ratio at low-light growth conditions. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the light intensity values and anthocyanin contents. Hence, T. pallida cv. purpurea acclimation to distinct environmental conditions might be related to its capacity of altering structurally and physiologically its phenotype.As espécies de Tradescantia colonizam uma ampla faixa de ambientes, desde aqueles completamente expostos a luz até aqueles caracteristicamente sombreados. Suas estratégias adaptativas e eficiência como invasoras de culturas estão provavelmente associadas a sua adaptação a intensidades luminosas distintas. Este trabalho mostra os efeitos de cinco diferentes intensidades luminosas na estrutura anatômica e no teor de pigmentos em folhas de Tradescantia pallida. As espessuras da lâmina foliar e do mesofilo foram alteradas, tornando-se mais delgadas à medida que a intensidade luminosa diminuiu. Observou-se um ajuste nos pigmentos fotossintéticos caracterizado por aumentos na razão clorofilas/carotenóides sob condições de baixa intensidade luminosa. Houve uma forte correlação linear positiva entre os valores de intensidade luminosa e teores de antocianinas. Deste modo, pode-se concluir que a aclimatação da espécie aos diferentes habitats está relacionada a alterações estruturais e fotossintéticas.

  5. Light intensity impacts the production of biofuel intermediates in Heterosigma akashiwo growing on simulated flue gas containing carbon dioxide and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Colleen M; Stewart, Jennifer J; Miller, Katherine R; Fitzgerald, Catherine; Coyne, Kathryn J

    2016-11-01

    As a potential biofuel feedstock, the marine microalga, Heterosigma akashiwo, accumulates significant lipids, is capable of long-term growth in outdoor photobioreactors, and is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of industrial emissions. Here, we evaluated resource partitioning in H. akashiwo growing on a CO2 and NO gas mixture under three light intensities: 160, 560, or 1200μmolquantam(-2)s(-1). Light levels had no effect on growth; however, cultures in high light accumulated 2.3-fold more carbohydrates and 17% fewer lipids. Light levels did not affect the percentage of saturated fatty acids, but mono-unsaturates increased by 6% and poly-unsaturates decreased by 12% in high light. The fatty acid profiles reported here suggest that H. akashiwo is a good candidate for the production of neutral lipids for biodiesel and also omega-3 fatty acids, and that the quality of biodiesel acquired from feedstocks grown under fluctuating light conditions would be relatively stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    1. Oligotrophic softwater lakes represent a special type of aquatic ecosystem with unique plant communities where generalisations from other aquatic plant communities to rising CO2 in the water column may not apply. 2. In the present study, we set up large in situ mesocosms and supporting...... laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...

  7. New insight into the disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger by TiO2 photocatalyst under low intensity UVA light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhum, Chonlada; Viboonratanasri, Duangamon; Chawengkijwanich, Chamorn

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) photocatalytic reaction has great potential for the disinfection of harmful pathogens. However, the disinfection mechanisms of TiO 2 photocatalysis are not yet well-known for fungi and protozoa. In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger under low intensity UVA light (365nm, <10W/m 2 ) was studied at the ultrastructural level. Photocatalytic treatments showed that the photocatalytic oxidation of 10% TiO 2 based paint was efficacious in the complete disinfection of F. monoliforme under low intensity UVA light. No growth of F. monoliforme was observed on agar plate in the subsequent dark. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of F. monoliforme exposed to TiO 2 photocatalysis treatment showed a distinct damage to electron-dense outer cell wall, but not to an underlying electron-transparent layer cell wall. The TEM image revealed that the UVA-light only did not damage cell wall, cell membrane and cellular organelles. Unlike, A. niger was more sensitive to UVA-light. Serious destructions of cell membrane and cellular organelles were shown in A. niger exposed to UVA-light only and photocatalytic treatments. However, morphological change in A. niger cell wall was only observed in photocatalytic treatment. Changes to the outermost melanin like layer and cell wall of A. niger spore due to photocatalytic treatment were greatly apparent while the intracellular organelles of A. niger spore were not affected. Therefore, regrowth of A. niger on agar plate was expected from the germination of A. niger spore in the subsequent dark. These observations give a better understanding of the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism toward fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of ammonium and high light intensity on the accumulation of lipids in Nannochloropsis oceanica (CCAP 849/10) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (CCAP 1055/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Okurowska, Katarzyna; Kapoore, Rahul Vijay; Johnson, Matthew P; Gilmour, D James; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica . We hypothesized that the lower energy cost of assimilating ammonium would allow the organisms to use more reductant power for lipid biosynthesis without compromising growth and that this would be further stimulated by the effect of high light (1000 µmol m -2 s -1 ) stress. We studied the changes in growth and physiology of both species when grown in culture media that either contained nitrate or ammonium as the nitrogen source, and an additional medium that contained ammonium with tungsten in place of molybdenum and compared this with growth in media without nitrogen. We focused our investigation on the early stages of exposure to the treatments to correspond to events relevant to induction of lipid accumulation in these two species. At super-saturating light intensities, lipid productivity in P. tricornutum increased twofold when grown in ammonium compared to nitrogen free medium that increased further when tungsten was present in the medium in place of molybdenum. Conversely, N. oceanica growth and physiology was not compromised by the high light intensities used, and the use of ammonium had a negative effect on the lipid productivity, which was even more marked when tungsten was present. Whilst the use of ammonium and super-saturating light intensities in P. tricornutum was revealed to be a good strategy for increasing lipid biosynthesis, no

  9. A series approximation model for optical light transport and output intensity field distribution in large aspect ratio cylindrical scintillation crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, Benjamin John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-09

    A series approximation has been derived for the transport of optical photons within a cylindrically symmetric light pipe and applied to the task of evaluating both the origin and angular distribution of light reaching the output plane. This analytic expression finds particular utility in first-pass photonic design applications since it may be evaluated at a very modest computational cost and is readily parameterized for relevant design constraints. It has been applied toward quantitative exploration of various scintillation crystal preparations and their impact on both quantum efficiency and noise, reproducing sensible dependencies and providing physical justification for certain gamma ray camera design choices.

  10. Light Intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bann

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time-assessed both objectively and by self-report-with body mass index (BMI and grip strength in a large sample of older adults.We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity activity were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3-7 days (Actigraph GT3X and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression.Greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity activity. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light activity (assessed objectively was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength.In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary activities with light intensity activities could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity prevalence among the population of older

  11. Light Intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Hire, Don; Manini, Todd; Cooper, Rachel; Botoseneanu, Anda; McDermott, Mary M; Pahor, Marco; Glynn, Nancy W; Fielding, Roger; King, Abby C; Church, Timothy; Ambrosius, Walter T; Gill, Thomas M; Gill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time-assessed both objectively and by self-report-with body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in a large sample of older adults. We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years) at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity activity were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3-7 days (Actigraph GT3X) and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression. Greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity activity. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light activity (assessed objectively) was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength. In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary activities with light intensity activities could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity prevalence among the population of older adults

  12. Physics of intense light ion beams and production of high energy density in matter. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results obtained in 1994 within the FZK-program on 'Physics of intense ion beams and pulsed plasmas'. It describes the present status of the 6 MW, 2 TW pulsed generator KALIF-HELIA, the production and focussing of high power ion beams and numerical simulations and experiments related to the hydrodynamics of beam matter interaction. (orig.) [de

  13. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.

    2004-01-01

    τ of the electron that per se is an invariant, it is proportional to a certain interval dη. In the chapter 3 it will see that the movement analysis of the charged particles in the electromagnetic field presents serious mathematical difficulties, where the integration of the movement equations results extraordinarily complex and it can only be integrated in most of the cases by numerical means. We will present the procedure used for the deduction of the equations of motion of a charged particle in the interaction of a laser light pulse and a homogeneous magnetic field in arbitrary direction, with the addition of an harmonic term of force. In this chapter it is not sought to make a meticulous discussion of the involved physics and only we will present the algebraic procedure. In the chapter 4 we will present the integration method of the Lorentz force, and we will obtain the exact solution for the case of a pulse of a plane wave elliptically polarized of arbitrary amplitude spreading along an external magnetic field. The solution method will allow to decrease the solutions to the case in which we have an infinite waves train reported by Ondarza (10) and so the corresponding solutions will be obtained reported in the literature by other authors. The main contribution in this part will be the one of obtaining an exact solution for the problem of the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse, modulated by a form of gaussian type, and a charged particle. The above-mentioned approaches in acceptable measure to real situations in well-known experiments. It will be found that when the form of the pulse is introduced to modulate the electromagnetic field, an amplification of the resonance zone in the solutions appears. Such resonance depends of the external magnetic field that fixes by turns the cyclotron frequency, and of the number of optical cycles that compose the encircling one that modulates the pulse form. In the chapter 5 it will see the case of small oscillations free of

  14. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

    2009-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, ...

  15. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...

  16. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  17. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Jansen, Remi D.; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  18. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anneloes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  19. Effect of low dose of intrathecal pethidine on the incidence and intensity of shivering during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Shoaleh; Nasseri, Karim; Shirmohammadi, Mousa; Sarshivi, Farzad; Ghadami, Negin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Pouladi, Mokhtar; Barzanji, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    Shivering is among the unpleasant and potentially harmful side effects of spinal anesthesia. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial was to compare the antishivering effect of two different doses of intrathecal pethidine on the incidence and intensity of shivering and other side effects in patients who underwent cesarean section. In this study, 150 parturient females scheduled for nonemergent cesarean section were randomly allocated to three groups. Spinal anesthesia was performed with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg), plus 0.5 mL of 0.9% saline in the standard group (S group), and the same dose of bupivacaine with 5 mg (P5 group) or 10 mg of pethidine (P10 group). Demographic and surgical data, incidence and intensity of shivering (primary outcome), hemodynamic indices, forehead and core temperatures, maximum sensory level, Apgar scores, and adverse events were evaluated by a blinded observer. There were no significant differences between the three study groups regarding the demographic and surgical data, hemodynamic indices, core temperatures, and maximum sensory level ( P >0.05). The incidence and intensity of shivering were significantly less in the P5 and P10 groups ( P shivering during cesarean section, without having major side effects.

  20. Young drivers who obtained their licence after an intensive driving course report more incidents than drivers with a traditional driver education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de & Vlakveld, W.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of intensive driving courses; both in driving test success and safe driving after passing the driving test. The so-called intensive driving course (IDC) consists of a limited number of consecutive days in which the learner driver takes driving lessons all day

  1. Silicon coupled-resonator optical-waveguide-based biosensors using light-scattering pattern recognition with pixelized mode-field-intensity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Yao, Zhanshi; Lei, Ting; Poon, Andrew W

    2014-12-18

    Chip-scale, optical microcavity-based biosensors typically employ an ultra-high-quality microcavity and require a precision wavelength-tunable laser for exciting the cavity resonance. For point-of-care applications, however, such a system based on measurements in the spectral domain is prone to equipment noise and not portable. An alternative microcavity-based biosensor that enables a high sensitivity in an equipment-noise-tolerant and potentially portable system is desirable. Here, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of such a biosensor using a coupled-resonator optical-waveguide (CROW) on a silicon-on-insulator chip. The sensing scheme is based on measurements in the spatial domain, and only requires exciting the CROW at a fixed wavelength and imaging the out-of-plane elastic light-scattering intensity patterns of the CROW. Based on correlating the light-scattering intensity pattern at a probe wavelength with the light-scattering intensity patterns at the CROW eigenstates, we devise a pattern-recognition algorithm that enables the extraction of a refractive index change, Δn, applied upon the CROW upper-cladding from a calibrated set of correlation coefficients. Our experiments using an 8-microring CROW covered by NaCl solutions of different concentrations reveal a Δn of ~1.5 × 10(-4) refractive index unit (RIU) and a sensitivity of ~752 RIU(-1), with a noise-equivalent detection limit of ~6 × 10(-6) RIU.

  2. Extremely Intensive and Conservative Fault Capability Studies on Nuclear Facilities in Japan after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Rocks of the Japanese islands are mostly faulted since the Mesozoic Era. The opening of the Sea of Japan in Middle Miocene stretched most of the Japanese crust together with rifting systems. Modern compressional tectonic regime started in Pliocene and accelerated during Quaternary. The ubiquitous bedrock fault prior to the Quaternary had long been regarded as incapable for the future rupturing. This view on the bedrock fault, however, is in question after the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunamis. There is no scientific reason for the Tohoku earthquake to let the geologists and seismologists worry about the capability of the long-deceased fault. Neither the unexpected April 11, 2011 extensional faulting event on shore in southern Fukushima prefecture has any scientific reason as well. There was no change and no new stress field, but the psychological situation of the scientists and the public welcomed the wrong belief in unexpected stress changes all over Japan, in the same manner that the March 11 M 9 was not expected. Finally, the capabilities of the bedrock faults, fractures, and joints came up to concern about seismic safety of nuclear facilities. After the incidents, the nuclear regulation authority of Japan began reevaluation of the seismic safety of all facilities in Japan. The primary issues of the reevaluation were conjunctive multi-fault mega-earthquakes and the capabilities of the bedrock faults, precisely reflecting the Tohoku events. The former does not require immediate abandonment of a facility. However, the latter now denies any chance of continued operation. It is because of the new (July 2013) safety guide gave top priority to the capability of the displacement under a facility for the evaluation on safe operation. The guide also requires utmost deterministic manner in very conservative ways. The regulators ordered the utility companies to thoroughly examine the capability for several sites, and started review of the studies in late 2012

  3. Photoconduction kinetics of the ferromagnetic semiconductors CdCr2Se4 and HgCr2Se4 over a broad range of light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voktoravichyus, V.S.; Galdikas, A.P.; Grebinskij, S.I.; Zakharov, S.Ya.; Aminov, T.G.; Shabunina, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Photoconduction kinetics of HgGr 2 Se 4 and CdCr 2 Se 4 monocrystals with p-type conductivity over a broad range of light intensity (I) is investigated. Measurements were carried out at 78 K and 300 K. It is shown that with I increase decrease of photoconduction relaxation time is observed. It is connected with adhesion of charge carriers, if adhesion levels are occupied acceptor levels. The authors consider the given supposition to be ligitimate due to earlier obtained coincidence of electric conductivity activation energy and photoconductivity relaxation time of these crystals

  4. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in Passiflora suberosa L.(Passifloraceae): induction and reversion of two morphs by variation in light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, E A; Soares, G L G; Gosmann, G; Machado, A M; Vecchi, C; Moreira, G R P

    2006-08-01

    Leaf morphology may vary considerably even within a branch of Passiflora suberosa plants. Leaves are of a typical green type in shaded areas, but in open fields turn into violet, and apparently have greater thickness and trichome density. The proximate causes and the adaptive meaning, if any, for the existence of the violet morph are still unknown. By cultivating P. suberosa clones under two light regimes (total and partial exposure to sunlight), we consecutively induced (first year) and then reversed (second year) the appearance of the violet morph. We evaluated the corresponding changes in morpho-anatomic and chemical leaf characteristics. Plants that were grown under partial sunlight had a greater size and did not alter their green color, but those grown under total sunlight changed into violet, were smaller in size and their leaves were tougher, thicker, and had a greater number of trichomes. The violet morph had increased anthocyanins and phenolic derivatives. It also showed cellular hypertrophy, a greater number of cell layers in the mesophyll, and a lignified pericycle. Since these morphs are interchangeable by changing light conditions, we inferred that they are not determined by genotypic diversity, but are mainly a result of a physiological response to light stress, and thus part of P. suberosa phenotypic plasticity.

  6. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  7. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES OF INTENSIVE SMALL-VOLUME LIGHT – CULTURE IN WITH NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Anikina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of maintenance of environment parameters for plant growth, the use of nutrient solutions prepared with non-deficient fertilizers is an effective method of reducing the cost of vegetable production. The article examines economic prospects of the use of technologies of small-volume (0,15 — 0,3 l./per plant the intensity of light-culture of plants in nutrient solutions, prepared on the basis of industrially produced fertilizers ‘Rastvorin A’, ‘Akvarin’, ‘Agricola’ and ‘Kemira Lux’, which are recommended for leafy crops. ‘Knop’ solution as one of the most effective for intensive technologies of the light-culture of leafy crops was used as a control. The object of study was a lettuce, cultivar ‘Tayphun’ and parsley cultivar ‘Bogatyr’. Plants were grown under different levels of light irradiance. Light during the growing period for both species was for 12 hours, the temperature was maintained at 20-22C° in the day and 18-20C° at night, air humidity between 60-65%. The duration of the vegetation period is 25 days. As a result of the study, it was shown that the productivity of lettuce cultivar ‘Typhun’ and parsley cultivar ‘Bogatyr’ that were grown on nutrient solutions ‘Agricola’ and ‘Rastvorin’ was very high. The content of nitrates for all cases was not extended more than the MCL. The highest productivity in the range of irradiance between 60 and 40 watts has been observed in lettuce plants of cultivar ‘Typhoon’, grown under light-culture system with the use of nutrient solutions ‘Akvarin’ and ‘Agricola’