WorldWideScience

Sample records for incident laser bandwidth

  1. Controlling Laser Plasma Instabilities Using Temporal Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2016-10-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temporal bandwidth under conditions relevant to current and future experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth (where the inverse bandwidth is comparable with the linear growth time), the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using beam smoothing techniques such as ISI). We will quantify these effects and investigate higher dimensional effects such as laser speckles. This work is supported by DOE and NRL.

  2. Modulation bandwidth of a spin laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Adari, R.; Murthy, M.; Suggisetti, P.; Ganguly, S.; Saha, D.

    2011-04-01

    We have studied small signal frequency response of a spin laser. We have shown that the response is characterized by two distinct resonant peaks corresponding to the two polarization modes of the spin laser. It is observed that the modulation bandwidth of a spin laser can be smaller or larger than that of a conventional laser depending upon the current bias and spin relaxation time constant. A small value for spin relaxation constant may not be detrimental for modulation bandwidth. This anomalous observation is explained by considering both the amplitude and phase response of the two polarization modes. A spin laser can act as a combination of low-pass and bandpass filters. The passband frequency range is tunable by external bias. We have also studied the evolution of resonant peaks and modulation bandwidth as a function of spin relaxation time constant.

  3. PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2015-11-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.

  4. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.

    2013-01-01

    Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...... the bandwidth below 0.1 nm. This allows frequency doubling in a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a reasonable conversion efficiency....

  5. Incident IR Bandwidth Effects on Efficiency and Shaping for Third Harmonic Generation of Quasi-Rectangular UV Longitudinal Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The photocathode of the proposed LCLS RF Photoinjector will be irradiated by uv laser light which is generated as the third harmonic of incident fundamental ir laser light. We have investigated quantitatively the effect of input ir spectral bandwidth on the exiting longitudinal intensity profiles, energy conversion efficiencies and spectral bandwidths that characterize the third harmonic generation (THG) process with a pair of crystals. These profiles, efficiencies and bandwidths include the residual fundamental and residual second harmonic light exiting the second crystal. The intrinsic acceptance bandwidth for THG is determined by crystal material and thickness as well as the type of phase matching that is used. For our case of BBO material with type I phase matching these bandwidths are approximately 0.9 nm*cm and 0.1 nm*cm for second and third harmonic generation respectively. Consequently for fixed crystal thicknesses and a fixed input ir longitudinal profile, the specified input ir bandwidth will determine the profiles, efficiencies and bandwidths exiting the second crystal. The results reported here are predictions of the SNLO code that is available as 'freeware' from the Sandia National Laboratories. It has been modified for this work. It is critical to note that this modification has enabled us to generate SNLO predictions of the 'coupled' case in which the output of the first crystal is used as input to the second crystal. Our focus is the dependence of uv longitudinal intensity profile and THG efficiency on the input ir bandwidth and crystal thicknesses. We include here cases that best illustrate input bandwidth effects. The criteria for selection of reported cases are highest efficiency generation of quasi-rectangular uv profiles with proportional intensity ripple less than 5% rms on the plateau of the pulse. Maximizing THG efficiency typically amounts to maximizing the crystal thicknesses with the longitudinal profile constraint. The specified incident

  6. Gain-switched, Yb-doped, all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, Martin; Nyga, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that an all-fiber, narrow bandwidth, high pulse energy pulsed laser can be constructed from commercially available components by applying gain-switching. After single-stage amplification the pulses are frequency doubled in ppSLT with high efficiency.......We demonstrate that an all-fiber, narrow bandwidth, high pulse energy pulsed laser can be constructed from commercially available components by applying gain-switching. After single-stage amplification the pulses are frequency doubled in ppSLT with high efficiency....

  7. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  8. Optical Sideband Generation: a Longitudinal Electron Beam Diagnostic Beyond the Laser Bandwidth Resolution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tilborg, J. van; Matlis, N. H.; Plateau, G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    Electro-optic sampling (EOS) is widely used as a technique to measure THz-domain electric field pulses such asthe self-fields of femtosecond electron beams. We present an EOS-based approach for single-shot spectral measurement that excels in simplicity (compatible with fiber integration) and bandwidth coverage (overcomes the laser bandwidth limitation), allowing few-fs electron beams or single-cycle THz pulses to be characterized with conventional picosecond probes. It is shown that the EOS-induced optical sidebands on the narrow-bandwidth optical probe are spectrally-shifted replicas of the THz pulse. An experimental demonstration on a 0-3 THz source is presented.

  9. Human performance decrements associated with the bandwidth of laser protective eyewear concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchany, Jerome W.; Lund, David J.

    1996-04-01

    Protecting the eye from coherent light sources is of critical concern to both military and civilian laser users. Laser protective eyewear degrades visual performance. Common and emerging applications use lasers emitting at numerous wavelengths or single lasers emitting at multiple wavelengths. Protection against multiple wavelengths increases the difficulty in selecting or building protective eyewear and concomitantly usually increases the performance penalty. Pursuit tracking performance decrements were measured as a function of bandwidth and peak wavelength transmission for 12 bandpass filters. Eight volunteers tracked a target subtending 34 milliradians (mrad) at a constant velocity of 5 mrad/sec for 15 sec. The target traversed an arc located 5 m from the tracker. Each volunteer received two training days and two test days. Twelve bandpass filters, with bandwidths of 10, 25, 40, and 70 nm, and peak wavelengths of 450, 550, and 650 nm were randomly inserted into the optics of the tracker. No volunteer received all 4 bandwidths of one peak wavelength on either test day, thereby reducing any adaptational effect. Luminance was equated across filters using Neutral Density (ND) filters. An ND filter of equal Optical Density served as the control. The total luminance at the eye was 0.8 cd/m2. Trials were collected at a rate of 4 per filter. The 10 nm blue filter elicited the poorest performance, followed by the 25, 40, and 70 nm blue filters. The red filters enhanced performance across all but the narrowest bandwidth. It can be assumed that the blue end of the visible spectrum with it's `forward of the retina' focusing properties and the low number of blue photoreceptors are responsible for the large decrements. Current philosophy in laser eye protection is to allow as much of the blue end of the spectrum through a filter to preserve scotopic transmission. The shortwave transmission may inadvertently increase error rates for visual tasks.

  10. Heterogeneous terahertz quantum cascade lasers exceeding 1.9 THz spectral bandwidth and featuring dual comb operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rösch Markus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a heterogeneous active region design for terahertz quantum cascade laser based frequency combs. Dynamic range, spectral bandwidth and output power have been significantly improved with respect to previous designs. When individually operating the lasers, narrow and stable intermode beatnote indicate frequency comb operation up to a spectral bandwidth of 1.1 THz, while in a dispersion-dominated regime a bandwidth up to 1.94 THz at a center frequency of 3 THz can be reached. A self-detected dual-comb setup has been used to verify the frequency comb nature of the lasers.

  11. Modulated method for efficient, narrow-bandwidth, laser Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2017-07-11

    A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.

  12. High power conversion efficiency and wavelength-stabilized narrow bandwidth 975nm diode laser pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanskar, M.; Cai, J.; Galstad, C.; He, Y.; Macomber, S. H.; Stiers, E.; Tatavarti-Bharatam, S. R.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J.

    2006-05-01

    We report on improvement from 50% to 70% power conversion efficiency on a 5-bar stack with 500 W of CW power at 25C coolant temperature resulting from a multi-pronged optimization approach. We also report on wavelength stabilization (0.07 nm/C) and emission bandwidth narrowing (0.3 nm at FWHM) of diode laser pump sources for precision pumping the upper transition levels of lasers that require narrow and stable pump sources such as Er/Yb co-doped or Yb:YAG lasers. These results have been achieved by integration of a Bragg grating inside a semiconductor laser cavity forming a low-loss, weak distributed feedback (DFB) laser, which results in record 53% wall-plug efficiency at 3 W CW operation and 25°C heatsink temperature from a 100-μm aperture diode laser and 45 W of wavelength-locked CW power from a 20% fill factor bar. This technique can be readily applied to diode laser structures for other strategic pump wavelengths.

  13. Frequency-swept laser light source at 1050 nm with higher bandwidth due to multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the development of an all-fiber frequency-swept laser light source in the 1050 nm range based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) with improved bandwidth due to multiple gain media. It is demonstrated that even two SOAs with nearly equal gain spectra can improve the performance......Hz) the SSOA configuration can maintain a significantly higher bandwidth (~50% higher) compared to the MOPA architecture. Correspondingly narrower point spread functions can be generated in a Michelson interferometer....

  14. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bellum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR at 45° angle of incidence (AOI, P polarization (Ppol of femtosecond (fs laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. Our design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. The design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT. We base the coating on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol. The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. For the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.

  15. Extremely wide lasing bandwidth from InAs/InP quantumdash ridge-waveguide laser near 1.6 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-broad lasing bandwidth (-3dB) of > 50 nm utilizing InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum-dash ridge-waveguide laser using chirped AlGaInAs barrier layer thickness. Our device exhibits a recorded bandwidth and significant improvement of laser characteristics

  16. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.

  17. Extended-bandwidth frequency sweeps of a distributed feedback laser using combined injection current and temperature modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This article details the generation of an extended-bandwidth frequency sweep using a single, communication grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The frequency sweep is generated using a two-step technique. In the first step, injection current modulation is employed as a means of varying the output frequency of a DFB laser over a bandwidth of 99.26 GHz. A digital optical phase lock loop is used to lock the frequency sweep speed during current modulation, resulting in a linear frequency chirp. In the second step, the temperature of the DFB laser is modulated, resulting in a shifted starting laser output frequency. A laser frequency chirp is again generated beginning at this shifted starting frequency, resulting in a frequency-shifted spectrum relative to the first recorded data. This process is then repeated across a range of starting temperatures, resulting in a series of partially overlapping, frequency-shifted spectra. These spectra are then aligned using cross-correlation and combined using averaging to form a single, broadband spectrum with a total bandwidth of 510.9 GHz. In order to investigate the utility of this technique, experimental testing was performed in which the approach was used as the swept-frequency source of a coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry system. This system was used to interrogate an optical fiber containing a 20 point, 1-mm pitch length fiber Bragg grating, corresponding to a period of 100 GHz. Using this technique, both the periodicity of the grating in the frequency domain and the individual reflector elements of the structure in the time domain were resolved, demonstrating the technique's potential as a method of extending the sweeping bandwidth of semiconductor lasers for frequency-based sensing applications.

  18. Free space broad-bandwidth tunable laser diode based on Littman configuration for 3D profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chang-Seok; Kim, Jeehyun

    2018-05-01

    We developed a tunable laser diode for an optical coherence tomography system that can perform three-dimensional profile measurement using an area scanning technique. The tunable laser diode is designed using an Eagleyard tunable laser diode with a galvano filter. The Littman free space configuration is used to demonstrate laser operation. The line- and bandwidths of this source are 0.27 nm (∼110 GHz) and 43 nm, respectively, at the center wavelength of 860 nm. The output power is 20 mW at an operating current of 150 mA. A step height target is imaged using a wide-area scanning system to show the measurement accuracy of the proposed tunable laser diode. A TEM grid is also imaged to measure the topography and thickness of the sample by proposed tunable laser diode.

  19. Plasmas produced by incident laser in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Campos, D. de; Boeckelmann, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental arrangement for plasma production by incident laser in solids and a system of diagnostics are presented. The system of diagnostics allows: verify the plasma generation and expansion through the ultrahigh-speed photography; obtain measurements of temperature and density by spectroscopy (using an optical analyser of multichannels) and obtain measurements of kinetic energy of ions through his fly time, using a 'Faraday cup'. A vacuum system with an adsorption pump for pre-vacuum and ionic pump was used to reduce pressure and avoid mechanical vibrations and system contaminations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Tb/s physical random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in three-cascaded semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Ryohsuke; Iwakawa, Kento; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi

    2015-01-26

    We experimentally demonstrate fast physical random bit generation from bandwidth-enhanced chaos by using three-cascaded semiconductor lasers. The bandwidth-enhanced chaos is obtained with the standard bandwidth of 35.2 GHz, the effective bandwidth of 26.0 GHz and the flatness of 5.6 dB, whose waveform is used for random bit generation. Two schemes of single-bit and multi-bit extraction methods for random bit generation are carried out to evaluate the entropy rate and the maximum random bit generation rate. For single-bit generation, the generation rate at 20 Gb/s is obtained for physical random bit sequences. For multi-bit generation, the maximum generation rate at 1.2 Tb/s ( = 100 GS/s × 6 bits × 2 data) is equivalently achieved for physical random bit sequences whose randomness is verified by using both NIST Special Publication 800-22 and TestU01.

  1. Linearly chirped waveform generation with large time-bandwidth product using sweeping laser and dual-polarization modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Yongjun; Zhu, Zihang; Qu, Kun; Li, Tao; Hu, Dapeng

    2018-03-01

    A method for photonic generation of a linearly chirped microwave waveform using a frequency-sweeping laser and a dual-polarization modulator is proposed and investigated. A frequency-sweeping continuous-wave light is generated from the laser and then sent to the modulator. In the modulator, one part of the light is modulated with an RF signal to generate a frequency-shifting optical signal, while another part of the light is passed through a polarization rotator to rotate the polarization to an orthogonal direction. At the output of the modulator, the two optical signals are combined with orthogonal polarizations, and then injected into a polarization delay device to introduce a time delay. After combining the two optical signals for heterodyning, a linearly chirped waveform can be generated. The bandwidth, time duration, chirp rate and sign, central frequency of the generated waveform can be tuned independently and flexibly, furthermore, frequency doubling for the central frequency can be achieved in the waveform generation. A simulation is demonstrated to verify the proposed scheme, a linearly chirped microwave pulse with up or down chirp, central frequency of 20 or 40 GHz, bandwidth of 20 GHz, time duration of 500 ns, time-bandwidth product (TBWP) of 10000 is obtained.

  2. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers enable high-density ultra-high bandwidth optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitica, N.; Carlsson, J.; Svenson, L.-G.; Chacinski, M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are key components enabling power- and cost-efficient, high-density, ultra-high bandwidth parallel optical interconnects for data center and high-performance computing applications. This paper presents recent developments at TE Connectivity (TE) in the area of 25 Gb/s per channel-class VCSEL and optical transmitter technology for applications such as 100G and 400G Ethernet and Enhanced Data Rate InfiniBand pluggable and mid-board connectivity solutions.

  3. Narrow bandwidth Laser-Plasma Accelerator driven Thomson photon source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Otero, G.; Liu, X.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-10-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies can be provided by Thomson scattering of a laser from the electron beam of a Laser-Plasma Accelerator (LPA). Recent experiments and simulations demonstrate controllable LPAs in the energy range appropriate to MeV sources. Simulations indicate that high flux with narrow energy spread can be achieved via control of the scattering laser pulse shape and laser guiding, and that undesired background bremsstrahlung can be mitigated by plasma based deceleration of the electron beam after photon production. Construction of experiments and laser capabilities to combine these elements will be presented, along with initial operations, towards a compact photon source system. Work supported by US DOE NNSA DNN R&D and by Sc. HEP under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system.

  5. Enhanced direct-modulated bandwidth of 37 GHz by a multi-section laser with a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, L.; Kaiser, W.; Reithmaier, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Using a new multi-section laser concept based on a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design, the material related intrinsic 3 dB modulation bandwidth can be enhanced up to 37 GHz for a 1.5 mm long device.......Using a new multi-section laser concept based on a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design, the material related intrinsic 3 dB modulation bandwidth can be enhanced up to 37 GHz for a 1.5 mm long device....

  6. Indirect high-bandwidth stabilization of carrier-envelope phase of a high-energy, low-repetition-rate laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-06-13

    We demonstrate a method of stabilizing the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of low-repetition-rate, high-energy femtosecond laser systems such as TW-PW class lasers. A relatively weak high-repetition-rate (~1 kHz) reference pulse copropagates with a low-repetition-rate (10 Hz) high-energy pulse, which are s- and p-polarized, respectively. Using a Brewster angle window, the reference pulse is separated after the power amplifier and used for feedback to stabilize its CEP. The single-shot CEP of the high-energy pulse is indirectly stabilized to 550 mrad RMS, which is the highest CEP stability ever reported for a low-repetition-rate (10-Hz) high-energy laser system. In this novel method, the feedback frequency of the reference pulse from the front-end preamplifier can be almost preserved. Thus, higher CEP stability can be realized than for lower frequencies. Of course, a reference pulse with an even higher repetition rate (e.g., 10 kHz) can be easily employed to sample and feed back CEP jitter over a broader frequency bandwidth.

  7. Numerical investigation of the self-focusing of broad-bandwidth laser light with applied angular dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenty, P. W.; Skupsky, S.; Kelly, J. H.; Cotton, C. T.

    1994-08-01

    The self-focusing of phase-modulated broad-bandwidth (BBW) laser light, in which the spectral components are angularly dispersed to produce smoothing of laser nonuniformities, is analyzed. A multifrequency, multidimensional computer code has been developed to simulate the propagation of angularly dispersed BBW light within a nonlinear medium. Earlier work has shown that the self-focusing behavior of phase-modulated BBW light without angular dispersion is insignificantly different from that of monochromatic beams. With the addition of angular dispersion, pure phase modulation cannot be maintained during propagation, and the beam becomes subject to the development of spatial amplitude modulation which moves across the beam in time. Instantaneously, this amplitude modulation will begin to self-focus in a nonlinear medium. However, when examined over one period of the phase modulation, the time-integrated intensity (TII) due to the angularly dispersed BBW beam is consistently smooth, regardless of the amount of propagation modulation or self-focusing growth present in the instantaneous profile. Similarly, the angular dispersion will produce a time-dependent deflection of any amplitude modulation on the beam produced by laser defects. Because the focus of the modulation is enlarged due to the deflection, the TII of this amplitude structure is found to be less than that for a monochromatic beam.

  8. A method for the possible species discrimination of juvenile gadoids by broad-bandwidth backscattering spectra vs. angle of incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......-swimming juvenile gadoids were evaluated. The method and data may be used to improve the acoustic identification of fish species and sizes, and thereby improve investigations of spatial prey-predator relationships, and the accuracy and efficiency of acoustic surveys....

  9. Single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a grazing-incidence four-mirror cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, D K; Binks, D J; Gloster, L A W; King, T A

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate stable single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a novel grazing-incidence four-mirror coupled cavity. This cavity consists of a grating, a gain medium, and four mirrors and, therefore, has a four-arm interferometer configuration. Through the interferometric effect, we could suppress the adjacent modes and obtain stable single mode operation with a bandwidth of < 200 MHz. We also have developed a general analysis of the laser modes and the threshold conditions for configuration and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Influence of laser beam incidence angle on laser lap welding quality of galvanized steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lifang; Yan, Dongbing; Chen, Genyu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chen, Shuixuan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the characteristics of laser welded structural parts of auto bodies, the influence of variation in laser beam incidence angle on the lap welding performance of galvanized auto-body sheets was studied. Lap welding tests were carried out on the galvanized sheets for auto-body application at different laser beam incidence angles by using the optimal welding parameters obtained through orthogonal experiment. The effects of incidence angle variation on seam appearance, cross-sectional shape, joint mechanical properties and microstructure of weldments were analyzed. In addition, the main factors influencing the value of incidence angle were investigated. According to the results, the weld seams had a good appearance as well as a fine, and uniform microstructure when the laser beam incidence angle was smaller than the critical incidence angle, and thus they could withstand great tensile and shear loads. Moreover, all tensile-shear specimens were fractured in the base material zone. When the laser beam incidence angle was larger than the critical incidence angle, defects like shrinkage and collapse tended to emerge, thereby resulting in the deteriorated weldability of specimens. Meanwhile, factors like the type and thickness of sheet, weld width as well as inter-sheet gap all had a certain effect on the value of laser beam incidence angle. When the sheet thickness was small and the weld width was narrow, the laser beam incidence angle could be increased appropriately. At the same time, small changes in the inter-sheet gap could greatly impact the value of incidence angle. When the inter-sheet gap was small, the laser beam incidence angle should not be too large.

  11. Bandwidth enhancement of wireless optical communication link using a near-infrared laser over turbid underwater channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee

    2017-11-30

    Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has been widely studied as a promising alternative to establish reliable short-range marine communication links. Microscopic particulates suspended in various ocean, harbor and natural waters will alter the propagation characteristics of the optical signals underwater. In this paper, we demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared (NIR)-based UWOC link using an 808-nm laser diode, to examine the feasibility of the proposed system in mitigating the particle scattering effect over turbid waters. We show that the NIR wavelengths presents greater resilience to the aqueous suspension of these micro-sized particles with a smaller scattering effect due to its longer wavelength, as evident by the smaller variations in the optical beam transmittance. It is also observed that the error performance is improved at higher concentrations albeit the significant reduction in received signal power. We further demonstrate that the overall frequency response of the system exhibits a bandwidth enhancement up to a few tens of MHz with increasing concentrations.

  12. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  13. A wavelength tunable ONU transmitter based on multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser and micro-ring resonator for bandwidth symmetric TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhensen; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Kaibin

    2016-02-01

    Wavelength tunable optical transmitter is an essential component for the newly standardized time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON), where tunable ONU with 10Gb/s bit rate is desired to provide 40Gb/s symmetric bandwidth. In this paper, a novel wavelength tunable optical transmitter is proposed by reusing legacy low speed multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser and connecting it with an integrated photonic chip with two coupled micro-ring resonators to generate a tunable single mode signal based on Vernier effect for 10Gb/s high speed modulation, which makes it as a promising solution for colorless ONU in future symmetric TWDM-PON.

  14. Free-Free Transitions in the Presence of Laser Fields at Very Low Incident Electron Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, Chandana

    2010-01-01

    We study the free-free transition in electron-hydrogenic systems in ground state in presence of an external laser field at very loud incident energies. The laser field is treated classically while the collision dynamics is treated quantum mechanically. The laser field is chosen to be monochromatic, linearly polarized and homogeneous. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser in a nonperturbative manner by choosing a Volkov wave function for it. The scattering weave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the effect of the electron exchange, short-range as well as of the long-range interactions to get the S and P wave phase shifts while for the higher angular momentum phase shifts the exchange approximation has only been considered. We calculate the laser assisted differential cross sections (LADCS) for the aforesaid free-free transition process for single photon absorption/emission. The laser intensity is chosen to be much less than the atomic field intensity. A strong suppression is noted in the LADCS as compared to the field free (FF) cross sections. Unlike the FF ones, the LADCS exhibit some oscillations having a distinct maximum at a low value of the scattering angle depending on the laser parameters as well as on the incident energies.

  15. Absorptivity modulation on wavy molten steel surfaces: The influence of laser wavelength and angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2012-10-01

    The modulation of the angle-dependent Fresnel absorptivity across wavy molten steel surfaces during laser materials processing, like drilling, cutting, or welding, has been calculated. The absorptivity is strongly altered by the grazing angle of incidence of the laser beam on the processing front. Owing to its specific Brewster-peak characteristics, the 10.64 μm wavelength CO2-laser shows an opposite trend with respect to roughness and angle-of-incidence compared to lasers in the wavelength range of 532-1070 nm. Plateaus or rings of Brewster-peak absorptivity can lead to hot spots on a wavy surface, often in close proximity to cold spots caused by shadow domains.

  16. Pulsed CO2 laser interaction with a metal surface at oblique incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, J. A.; Schriempf, J. T.; Cronburg, T. L.; Eninger, J. E.; Woodroffe, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal fluence deposition and surface pressure generation produced by a CO2 laser pulse have been measured as a function of angle of incidence theta on sheet aluminum in air. The paper finds that air plasma ignition depends on the laser beam intensity I sub 0 only, not on the surface-normal flux (I sub 0)(cos theta). Conversely, the fluence deposition and surface pressure depend only on the product (I sub 0)(cos theta), and obey the square-root and two-thirds-power dependences observed with simple I sub 0 variation at normal incidence.

  17. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  18. The effects of laser beam incident angle and intensity distribution on Fabry-Perot etalon spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Wenjuan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Mengling; Guo, Wenxin

    2017-11-01

    Fabry-Perot(F-P) etalon has important applications in laser detection, lidar and laser communication systems. In practical applications, the spectrum of the F-P etalon is affected by various factors, such as incident angle, divergence angle, spectral width, intensity distribution of the incident beam, absorption loss, surface defects of the plate and so on. The effects of the incident angle and the beam intensity distribution on F-P etalon spectrum are mainly analyzed. For the first time, taking into account both the beam incident angle and divergence angle, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. For the Gaussian light intensity distribution, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. The simulation analysis is carried out and the results are as follows. When the beam divergence angle is not zero, the incident angle increases, on the one hand, the center of the etalon spectrum is moved to the high frequency, and the frequency shift is linear with the square of the incident angle. The slope decreases with the increase of the divergence angle. On the other hand, resulting in peak reduction, spectral line broadening, and with the divergence angle increases, the more obvious the phenomenon. Considering the distribution of Gaussian light intensity, the spectrum of the etalon will be improved with the increase concentration of beam energy. On the one hand, the peak value is increased, the spectral line is narrowed and with the incidence angle increases, the degree of improvement is more obvious. On the one hand, the center of the spectrum moves toward the low frequency, but the larger the incident angle, the smaller the movement amount. The error of frequency discrimination or frequency locking by using the F-P etalon spectrum increases rapidly with the increase of the beam incident angle and beam divergence angle, and the Gaussian light intensity distribution beam can effectively

  19. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  20. Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Servaites, James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wolf, Warren [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-08-01

    This is a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, for several glassmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results.

  1. Glass Industry Bandwidth Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This is a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, for several glassmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results.

  2. Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Xiang Xia; Zu Xiao-Tao; Yuan Xiao-Dong; He Shao-Bo; Jiang Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Local CO 2 laser treatment has proved to be an effective method to prevent the 351-nm laser-induced damage sites in a fused silica surface from exponentially growing, which is responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high fluence laser systems. However, the CO 2 laser induced ablation crater is often surrounded by a raised rim at the edge, which can also result in the intensification of transmitted ultraviolet light that may damage the downstream optics. In this work, the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is developed to simulate the distribution of electrical field intensity in the vicinity of the CO 2 laser mitigated damage site located in the exit subsurface of fused silica. The simulated results show that the repaired damage sites with raised rims cause more notable modulation to the incident laser than those without rims. Specifically, we present a theoretical model of using dimpled patterning to control the rim structure around the edge of repaired damage sites to avoid damage to downstream optics. The calculated results accord well with previous experimental results and the underlying physical mechanism is analysed in detail. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Near-surface electron acceleration during intense laser-solid interaction in the grazing incidence regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    When a relativistically intense p-polarized laser pulse is grazingly incident onto a planar solid-state target, a slightly superluminal field structure is formed near the target surface due to the incident and reflected waves superposition. This field structure can both extract the electrons from the target and accelerate them. It is theoretically shown that the acceleration is possible and stable for a wide range of electron initial conditions. Particle-in-cell simulations confirm that this mechanism can actually take place for realistic parameters. As a result, the electron bunches with a charge of tens of nC and GeV-level energy can be produced using a laser intensity 1021-1022 W/cm2. It is also shown that the presence of a preplasma can improve acceleration, which becomes possible because of more efficient electron injection into the accelerating field structure.

  4. Grazing incidence metal mirrors as the final elements in a laser driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.; Guinan, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence metal mirrors (GIMMs) have been examined to replace dielectric mirrors for the final elements in a laser beam line for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. For a laser driver with a wavelength from 250 to 500 nm in a 10-ns pulse, irradiated mirrors made of Al, Al alloys, or Mg were found to have calculated laser damage limits of 0.3--2.3 J/cm 2 of beam energy and neutron lifetime fluence limits of over 5 x 10 20 14 MeV n/cm 2 (or 2.4 full power years when used in a 1000-MW reactor) when used at grazing incidence (an angle of incidence of 85 degrees) and operated at room temperature or at 77 K. A final focusing system including mirrors made of Al alloy 7457 at room temperature or at liquid nitrogen temperatures used with a driver which delivers 5 MJ of beam energy in 32 beams would require 32 mirrors of roughly 10 m 2 each. This paper briefly reviews the methods used in calculating the damage limits for GIMMs and discusses critical issues relevant to the integrity and lifetime of such mirrors in a reactor environment. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili Sani, V.; Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  6. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili Sani, V., E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-21

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  7. [Incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jijian; Xie, Xin; Du, Xinhua; Yang, Yabo; Yao, Ke

    2002-09-01

    To determine the incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions in myopic eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis. Vitreoretinal pathologic conditions of 1981 consecutive eyes (995 patients) having undergone laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for the correction of myopia were studied. Preoperative and postoperative basic examinations included visual acuity, manifest and cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp microscope examination, applanation tonometry and a fundus examination after pupil dilatation by indirect ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy with spherical lens of + 90 diopters. Before laser in situ keratomileusis, preventive treatment was carried out for predisposing lesion of retinal detachment in 8 eyes: 6 eyes for lattice degeneration and 2 eyes for atrophic holes. Postoperative examinations were conducted at 1, 3 and 12 months and once a year thereafter. All eyes were followed up for >/= 12 months. Eyes were followed for a mean of (18.40 +/- 4.50) months (range 12 - 28) after the surgery. Sixteen eyes of 13 patients (0.81%) developed vitreoretinopathy after LASIK, including 6 eyes with lattice degeneration (0.30%) in which one of them had previous laser treatment, 2 with posterior vitreous detachment (0.10%), 2 with macular hemorrhage (0.10%), 4 with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (0.20%), and 2 with retinal tear without retinal detachment (0.10%) in which one of them had previous laser treatment for lattice degeneration. Five patients were males (5 eyes involved). Others were females. Mean age of the group with vitreoretinal pathologic conditions was 31.80 +/- 5.85 years (range 22 to 43). The interval between refractive surgery and development of vitreoretinal complication was (10.38 +/- 6.20) months (range 1 to 24). The eyes that developed vitreoretinopathy had myopia -4.75 to -15.00 diopters (mean -9.45 +/- 2.61 D) before LASIK. The comparison of incidences of vitreoretinopathy after LASIK between the group of >/= -6.00 D and lattice degeneration and

  8. Free-Free Transitions in the Presence of Laser Fields and Debye Potential at Very Low Incident Electron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    We study the free-free transition in electron-helium ion in the ground state and embedded in a Debye potential in the presence of an external laser field at very low incident electron energies. The laser field is treated classically while the collision dynamics is treated quantum mechanically. The laser field is chosen as monochromatic, linearly polarized and homogeneous. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing Volkov wave function for it. The scattering wave function for the incident electron on the target embedded in a Debye potential is solved numerically by taking into account the effect of electron exchange. We calculate the laser-assisted differential and total cross sections for free-free transition for absorption/emission of a single photon or no photon exchange. The results will be presented at the conference.

  9. Side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO 4 cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO 4 cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M 2 = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M 2 = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  10. Coupled thermal-optic effects and electrical modulation mechanism of birefringence crystal with Gaussian laser incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ji; He Zhi-Hong; Ma Yu; Dong Shi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    We study the Gaussian laser transmission in lithium niobate crystal (LiNbO 3 ) by using the finite element method to solve the electromagnetic field’s frequency domain equation and energy equation. The heat generated is identified by calculating the transmission loss of the electromagnetic wave in the birefringence crystal, and the calculated value of the heat generated is substituted into the energy equation. The electromagnetic wave’s energy losses induced by its multiple refractions and reflections along with the resulting physical property changes of the lithium niobate crystal are considered. Influences of ambient temperature and heat transfer coefficient on refraction and walk-off angles of O-ray and E-ray in the cases of different incident powers and crystal thicknesses are analyzed. The E-ray electrical modulation instances, in which the polarized light waveform is adjusted to the rated condition via an applied electrical field in the cases of different ambient temperatures and heat transfer coefficients, are provided to conclude that there is a correlation between ambient temperature and applied electrical field intensity and a correlation between surface heat transfer coefficient and applied electrical field intensity. The applicable electrical modulation ranges without crystal breakdown are proposed. The study shows that the electrical field-adjustable heat transfer coefficient range becomes narrow as the incident power decreases and wide as the crystal thickness increases. In addition, it is pointed out that controlling the ambient temperature is easier than controlling the heat transfer coefficient. The results of the present study can be used as a quantitative theoretical basis for removing the adverse effects induced by thermal deposition due to linear laser absorption in the crystal, such as depolarization or wave front distortion, and indicate the feasibility of adjusting the refractive index in the window area by changing the heat transfer

  11. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  12. Tests of a grazing-incidence ring resonator free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.H.; Laucks, M.L.; Lowrey, A.R.; Adamski, J.L.; Pistoresi, D.J.; Shoffstall, D.R.; Bentz, M.P.; Burns, R.H.; Guha, J.; Sun, K.; Tomita, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Boeing free-electron laser (FEL) optical cavity that has been changed from a simple concentric cavity using two spherical mirrors to a larger grazing-incidence ring resonator. The new resonator consists of two mirror telescopes located at each end of the wiggler with a round-trip path length of approximately 133 m. Each telescope is a grazing-incidence hyperboloid followed by a normal-incidence paraboloid. Initial tests showed that poorly positioned ring focus and unreliable pointing alignment resulted in reduced and structured FEL output. (First lasing operation occurred on March 23 and 24, 1990.) Later efforts concentrated on improving the resonator alignment techniques and lowering the single-pass losses. FEL performance and reliability have significantly improved due to better ring alignment. The alignment procedure and recent lasing results are described. The effect the electron beam has on lasing is also discussed. Measurements are presented showing how FEL temporal output and wavelength are sensitive to electron beam energy variations

  13. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  14. Estimating Bottleneck Bandwidth using TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with estimating bottleneck bandwidth using TCP are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Why TCP is wanted to estimate the bottleneck bandwidth; 2) Setting ssthresh to an appropriate value to reduce loss; 3) Possible packet-pair solutions; and 4) Preliminary results: ACTS and the Internet.

  15. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz.

  16. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation; Estudo da influencia da angulacao do feixe laser na morfologia de esmalte e dentina irradiados com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  17. Incidence and Outcomes of Anterior Chamber Gas Bubble during Femtosecond Flap Creation for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan W. Rush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the incidence and outcomes of anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Methods. The charts of 2,886 consecutive eyes that underwent femtosecond LASIK from May 2011 through August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed in subjects developing anterior chamber gas bubble formation during the procedure. Results. A total of 4 cases (0.14% developed anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation. In all four cases, the excimer laser was unable to successfully track the pupil immediately following the anterior chamber bubble formation, temporarily postponing the completion of the procedure. There was an ethnicity predilection of anterior chamber gas formation toward Asians (p=0.0055. An uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 was ultimately achieved in all four cases without further complications. Conclusions. Anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for LASIK is an uncommon event that typically results in a delay in treatment completion; nevertheless, it does influence final positive visual outcome.

  18. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  19. Network bandwidth utilization forecast model on high bandwidth networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Wuchert (William) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2%. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  20. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  1. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  2. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  3. High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser optical communications offer the potential to dramatically increase the link bandwidth and decrease the emitter power in long-range space communications....

  4. Black holes, bandwidths and Beethoven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim

    2000-04-01

    It is usually believed that a function φ(t) whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component ωmax. This is, in fact, not the case, as Aharonov, Berry, and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counterexamples, so-called superoscillations. It has been claimed that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with a 1 Hz bandwidth. Bandlimited functions also occur as ultraviolet regularized fields. Their superoscillations have been suggested, for example, to resolve the trans-Planckian frequencies problem of black hole radiation. Here, we give an exact proof for generic superoscillations. Namely, we show that for every fixed bandwidth there exist functions that pass through any finite number of arbitrarily prespecified points. Further, we show that, in spite of the presence of superoscillations, the behavior of bandlimited functions can be characterized reliably, namely through an uncertainty relation: The standard deviation ΔT of samples φ(tn) taken at the Nyquist rate obeys ΔT>=1/4ωmax. This uncertainty relation generalizes to variable bandwidths. For ultraviolet regularized fields we identify the bandwidth as the in general spatially variable finite local density of degrees of freedom.

  5. High bandwidth frequency lock of a rigid tunable optical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millo, Jacques; Merzougui, Mourad; Di Pace, Sibilla; Chaibi, Walid

    2014-11-10

    In this paper, we present a high bandwidth frequency lock of a rigid tunable Fabry Perot cavity based on a set of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuators. The cavity spacer was specifically designed such that the frequency of the first resonance of the whole assembly under PZT excitation is above 35 kHz, thus allowing a servo-loop bandwidth of 13 kHz. It is demonstrated that no significant noise is added by the cavity to the output beam with respect to the input beam over the servo-loop bandwidth. This cavity can be used as a pre-mode cleaner in interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo.

  6. Moiré volume Bragg grating filter with tunable bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, Sergiy; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Zeldovich, Boris; Glebov, Leonid

    2014-08-25

    We propose a monolithic large-aperture narrowband optical filter based on a moiré volume Bragg grating formed by two sequentially recorded gratings with slightly different resonant wavelengths. Such recording creates a spatial modulation of refractive index with a slowly varying sinusoidal envelope. By cutting a specimen at a small angle, to a thickness of one-period of this envelope, the longitudinal envelope profile will shift from a sine profile to a cosine profile across the face of the device. The transmission peak of the filter has a tunable bandwidth while remaining at a fixed resonant wavelength by a transversal shift of incidence position. Analytical expressions for the tunable bandwidth of such a filter are calculated and experimental data from a filter operating at 1064 nm with bandwidth range 30-90 pm is demonstrated.

  7. Incidence of Peri-implant Diseases on Implants With and Without Laser-Microgrooved Collar: A 5-Year Retrospective Study Carried Out in Private Practice Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Grande, Maurizio; Zuffetti, Francesco; Testori, Tiziano

    To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis around dental implants with the same body design and surface but different collar surface (laser-microgrooved vs not laser-microgrooved) after 5 years of loading in private practice patients. The study was carried out on patients at a private dental clinic enrolled in a periodontal maintenance program, who received at least one implant with a laser-microgrooved collar surface and one implant without a laser-microgrooved collar surface. Clinical variables such as plaque, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, suppuration, and radiographic marginal bone loss at > 5 years around implants were investigated. The correlation between the prevalence of peri-implant mucositis/peri-implantitis and biotype, keratinized tissue width, prosthetic connection type, and prosthetic design type was also analyzed. A total of 166 implants in 74 patients were investigated. At the end of the 5-year follow-up period, 38 implants presented peri-implant mucositis, accounting for 22.8% of the total, affecting a total of 24 patients (32.4%), while 13 implants (7.8%) in 10 patients (13.5%) were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. Sixteen of 82 laser-microgrooved implants (19.5%) and 24 of 84 implants (28.5%) without a laser-microgrooved collar presented peri-implant mucositis, while 3 of 82 (3.6%) of laser-microgrooved implants and 10 of 84 (11.9%) implants without a laser-microgrooved collar demonstrated peri-implantitis. Differences in implant-based incidence of peri-implant diseases between implants with and without a laser-microgrooved collar were statistically significant (P implants with a laser-microgrooved collar, compared with implants without a laser-microgrooved collar, presented a statistically significantly lower incidence of peri-implant diseases.

  8. Damage thresholds for blaze diffraction gratings and grazing incidence optics at an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Conley, Raymond; Moeller, Stefan; Gwalt, Grzegorz; Siewert, Frank; Waberski, Christoph; Zeschke, Thomas; Cocco, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is upgrading its machine to high repetition rate and to extended ranges. Novel coatings, with limited surface oxidation, which are able to work at the carbon edge, are required. In addition, high-resolution soft X-ray monochromators become necessary. One of the big challenges is to design the mirror geometry and the grating profile to have high reflectivity (or efficiency) and at the same time survive the high peak energy of the free-electron laser pulses. For these reasons the experimental damage threshold, at 900 eV, of two platinum-coated gratings with different blazed angles has been investigated. The gratings were tested at 1° grazing incidence. To validate a model for which the damage threshold on the blaze grating can be estimated by calculating the damage threshold of a mirror with an angle of incidence identical to the angle of incidence on the grating plus the blaze angle, tests on Pt-coated substrates have also been performed. The results confirmed the prediction. Uncoated silicon, platinum and SiB 3 (both deposited on a silicon substrate) were also investigated. In general, the measured damage threshold at grazing incidence is higher than that calculated under the assumption that there is no energy transport from the volume where the photons are absorbed. However, it was found that, for the case of the SiB 3 coating, the grazing incidence condition did not increase the damage threshold, indicating that the energy transport away from the extinction volume is negligible.

  9. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, Jose Trancoso

    2001-01-01

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 μm, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  10. Optimal design and fabrication method for antireflection coatings for P-polarized 193 nm laser beam at large angles of incidence (68°-74°).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingcheng; Jin, Chunshui; Li, Chun; Deng, Wenyuan; Chang, Yanhe

    2013-09-01

    Most of the optical axes in modern systems are bent for optomechanical considerations. Antireflection (AR) coatings for polarized light at oblique incidence are widely used in optical surfaces like prisms or multiform lenses to suppress undesirable reflections. The optimal design and fabrication method for AR coatings with large-angle range (68°-74°) for a P-polarized 193 nm laser beam is discussed in detail. Experimental results showed that after coating, the reflection loss of a P-polarized laser beam at large angles of incidence on the optical surfaces is reduced dramatically, which could greatly improve the output efficiency of the optical components in the deep ultraviolet vacuum range.

  11. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  12. Large-bandwidth data acquisition network for XFEL facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Joti, Y.; Ohata, T.; Tanaka, R.; Yamaga, M.; Hatsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    The SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser) facility consists of an accelerator building, an undulator building and an experimental facility. SACLA is designed to produce X-ray with a wavelength as short as 0.06 nm and with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) experiments demands large bandwidth network for data acquisition (DAQ). At SACLA the experimental data rate is to be up to 5.8 Giga bit per second (Gbps). Some of the experiments demands preprocessing and on-line analysis by high-performance computers. In order to fulfill these requirements, a dedicated network system for DAQ and data analysis has been developed. A DAQ network consists of a dedicated 10 Gbps Ethernet (10 GbE) physical layer to secure the data bandwidth and a 1 GbE layer for instrument controls. The DAQ network is connected to a primary storage and indirectly to a PC cluster for data preprocessing. A fire-wall system with virtual private network (VPN) features is also implemented in order to secure remote access from off-site institutes. The use of a large-bandwidth data transfer technique allows the efficient transfer of pre-processed data from SACLA to an off-site supercomputer

  13. The Incidence of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Photorefractive Keratectomy and Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2012-01-01

    A chart review was performed to identify all patients with CSCR and a previous history of LASIK or PRK. Results. Over the 6-year study period, 1 of 4,876 eyes which had LASIK or PRK at the Moran Eye Center was diagnosed with CSCR. One other patient was referred from an outside center, developed CSCR symptoms one month after PRK. Both patients were managed conservatively with a final visual acuity of 20/20 or better. All other patients presented 4 or more years after refractive surgery. Conclusions. We report the first 2 CSCR cases developing within one month after PRK. The low incidence argues against a causal association. Topical corticosteroids or anxiety may elevate cortisol levels presenting therapeutic challenges for the management of CSCR after PRK or LASIK.

  14. Real-Time Optimization Of Receiver Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of signal and noise spectra enhance reception of weak signals. Carrier-tracking phase-locked loop represented by linear mathematical model at small rms phase errors. Loop continuously generates estimates of received phase. Bandwidth (in effect, scale of complex-frequency variable p) optimized to minimize rms phase error. Minimum signals tracked 5 to 15 dB below those tracked by current receivers. Improvement accomplished by use of bandwidths of 0.1 to 1.0 Hz, in contrast with 3-Hz bandwidth in current use. Principle of real-time optimization of bandwidth adapted to other situations to enhance reception of weak signals otherwise "buried" in noise.

  15. Free-Free Transitions of e-H System Inside a Dense Plasma Irradiated by a Laser Field at Very Low Incident Electron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.

    2012-01-01

    The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen in the ground state at low incident energies in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser-field inside a hot dense plasma.The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit, assuming that the plasma frequency is much higher than the laser frequency. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption /emission and no photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.

  16. Incidence of epithelial ingrowth in primary and retreatment laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Andrew I; Friess, David W; Schwendeman, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the risk for clinically significant epithelial ingrowth after primary laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and flap-lift retreatment LASIK. Private practice, Beverly Hills, California, USA. All cases of primary and flap-lift retreatment LASIK performed by the same surgeon in a single surgical center between January 2004 and June 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases that subsequently developed clinically significant epithelial ingrowth, defined as epithelial ingrowth impeding on the visual axis and negatively affecting uncorrected or corrected distance visual acuity, were identified and analyzed. Clinically significant epithelial ingrowth occurred in none of the 3866 primary LASIK cases and in 15 (2.3%) of the 646 flap-lift retreatment cases (P<.0001). Clinically significant ingrowth was more frequent when flap-lift retreatment was performed 3 or more years after primary LASIK (7.7% versus 1.0%) (P = .0001). Patient age and sex did not have a statistically significant effect on the epithelial ingrowth rate. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased epithelial ingrowth after flap-lift retreatment of Automated Corneal Shaper (ACS) microkeratome flaps. Flap-lift retreatment performed 3 or more years after primary LASIK led to a higher risk of clinically significant epithelial ingrowth than primary LASIK or earlier flap-lift retreatment. The author has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of venous leg ulcer healing and recurrence after treatment with endovenous laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, William A; Crowner, Jason; Kouri, Ana; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2017-07-01

    The Effect of Surgery and Compression on Healing and Recurrence (ESCHAR) trial previously reported that patients with venous leg ulcers treated with saphenous stripping experienced a significantly reduced incidence of ulcer recurrence compared with patients treated with compression therapy. Most patients with leg ulcers and saphenous insufficiency are currently treated with endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA), but little information is available on the long-term results after EVTA in Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) clinical class 5 (C5) and class 6 (C6) patients. We retrospectively reviewed all CEAP C5 or C6 patients treated with EVTA to define the incidence of ulcer healing and recurrence. Patients with active ulcers were managed weekly in a comprehensive wound center until healed. After healing, patients were treated with compression stockings and returned at 6-month intervals for follow-up. Time to healing and time to ulcer recurrence were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Risk factors were assessed to determine their association with ulcer recurrence. EVTA of the great saphenous vein (n = 146), small saphenous vein (n = 20), or both (n = 7) was performed on 173 limbs with active (n = 72) or healed (n = 101) ulcers. Deep venous insufficiency was present in 54 cases (31.2%). Concomitant phlebectomy was performed in 59 limbs (34%). Median follow-up time was 25.2 months after EVTA. Venous ulcers healed after EVTA in 57% of cases at 3 months, 74% at 6 months, and 78% at 12 months. Ulcers recurred in 9% of patients at 1 year after EVTA, 20% at 2 years, and 29% at 3 years of follow-up. Ulcers recurred significantly more often in patients with deep venous insufficiency and in patients who did not undergo phlebectomy of associated varicose veins at the time of EVTA. Ulcers recurred in a minority of CEAP clinical C5 and C6 patients after EVTA of the saphenous veins. Ulcer recurrence was less frequent in patients without

  18. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...... range can be adjusted in a post-fabrication thermal oxidation process....

  19. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  20. 3 Approaches to Achieve Bandwidth Capacity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 3 Approaches to Achieve Bandwidth Capacity. Install new fiber. Average cost $70,000 per mile. Right of way. Higher bandwidth on SONET/TDM. Single mode fiber high dispersion rate. NZDSF cost some 50 percent more than SMF. DWDM. Multi Wavelength Switching ...

  1. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  2. A wavelength scannable XeCl oscillator-ring amplifier laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, T. J.; Mcdermid, I. S.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A holographic grating at grazing angle of incidence was used to achieve tunable, narrow bandwidth (0.005 nm) operation of a XeCl oscillator for injection locking of a ring amplifier. The amplifier's narrow bandwidth output energy was constant and equal to the untuned, broadband output (approximately 15 mJ) in regions where injection locking was achieved. Scanning was provided by use of a stepping motor-driven differential micrometer on the tuning mirror. This system was used to produce a laser excitation spectrum of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in a flame.

  3. Bandwidth Selection for Weighted Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    In the this paper, the authors propose to estimate the density of a targeted population with a weighted kernel density estimator (wKDE) based on a weighted sample. Bandwidth selection for wKDE is discussed. Three mean integrated squared error based bandwidth estimators are introduced and their performance is illustrated via Monte Carlo simulation. The least-squares cross-validation method and the adaptive weight kernel density estimator are also studied. The authors also consider the boundary...

  4. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  5. Free-Free Transitions of the e-H System Inside a Dense Plasma Irradiated by a Laser Field at Very Low Incident-Electron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.

    2012-01-01

    The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen atom in ground state when a low-energy electron (external) is injected into hydrogenic plasma in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser field. The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption or emission and no-photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.

  6. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon-Meseldzija, Emilie; Lepetit, Thomas; Ferreira, Pietro Maris; Boust, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  7. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avignon-Meseldzija Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  8. A Bandwidth Reconfigurable Antenna for Cognitive Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, F.; Hall, P. S.

    Cognitive radios have two operating modes, the searching mode where the system looks for the bandwidth to operate in and the operating mode where users transmit and receive information data through this bandwidth. In the first mode, one may have a very wide bandwidth antenna to be able to scan all the spectrum and in the operating mode one may have a narrow bandwidth antenna to filter out unwanted signals. In this chapter, we present a new antenna capable of operating in both UWB and narrowband modes, which is also tunable in the operating (narrowband) mode. It is composed of a microstrip disc monopole with defect slots in its ground plane. When the slots are deactivated, the antenna exhibits UWB behaviour from 2 to 10 GHz. To narrow the frequency bandwidth, defect slots are activated to act as a band-pass filter that narrows the antenna response. The activation and deactivation of the slots can be achieved by using switches located under the antenna feed line. In this case, the antenna response can be tuned by varying the slots' length. To examine the presented approach, both simulated and measured results are presented and discussed.

  9. Adaptable bandwidth planning using reinforcement learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hetzer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bandwidth allocation considering feedback of operational environment, adaptable bandwidth planning based on reinforcement learning is proposed. The approach is based on new constrained scheduling algorithms controlled by reinforcement learning techniques. Different constrained scheduling algorithms,, such as "conflict free scheduling with minimum duration", "partial displacement" and "pattern oriented scheduling" are defined and implemented. The scheduling algorithms are integrated into reinforcement learning strategies. These strategies include: - Q-learning for selection of optimal planning schedule using Q-values; - Informed Q-learning for exploitation and handling of prior-knowledge (patterns of network behaviour; - Relational Q-learning for improving of bandwidth allocation policies dynamically in operational networks considering actual network performance data. Scenarios based on integration of the scheduling algorithms and reinforcement learning techniques in the experimental monitoring and bandwidth planning system called QORE (QoS and resource optimisation are given. The proposed adaptable bandwidth planning is required for more efficient usage of network resources.

  10. Teleoperation over low bandwidth communication links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, R.J.; Mair, G.M.; Clark, N.; Heng, J.

    1996-01-01

    Teleoperation is well established for many areas of hazardous environment working. Where such environments are well structured and contained, such as within a working plant, communications bandwidths need not be a constraining factor. However where the worksite is remote, large, poorly structured or damaged communications rapidly become a critical factor in the efficient deployment and use of teleoperation equipment. The paper justifies and describes means which we are exploring to reduce the required communications bandwidth for teleoperation whist retaining full functionality. Techniques involved include incorporation of local intelligence at the worksite, with bandwidth devoted to high-level up-link control signals and down-link feedback, and the use of highly compressed video feeding 'virtual reality type' HMDs to provide maximum system transparency for the operator. The work is drawing on previous experience with an 'anthropomorphic robot heat' for telepresence work, and proprietary algorithms capable of compressing full colour video to standard telephone modem data rates. (Author)

  11. Bandwidth Assessment for MultiRotor UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrarese Gastone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a technical note about the theoretical evaluation of the bandwidth of multirotor helicopters. Starting from a mathematical linear model of the dynamics of a multirotor aircraft, the transfer functions of the state variables that deeply affect the stability characteristics of the aircraft are obtained. From these transfer functions, the frequency response analysis of the system is effected. After this analysis, the bandwidth of the system is defined. This result is immediately utilized for the design of discrete PID controllers for hovering flight stabilization. Numeric simulations are shown to demonstrate that the knowledge of the bandwidth is a valid aid in the design of flight control systems of these machines.

  12. Improved space bandwidth product in image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique increasing the space bandwidth product of a nonlinear image upconversion process used for spectral imaging. The technique exploits the strong dependency of the phase-matching condition in sum frequency generation (SFG) on the angle of propagation of the interacting fields...... with respect to the optical axis. Appropriate scanning of the phase-match condition (Δk=0) while acquiring images, allow us to perform monochromatic image reconstruction with a significantly increased space bandwidth product. We derive the theory for the image reconstruction process and demonstrate acquisition...... of images with >10 fold increase in space bandwidth product, i.e. the number of pixel elements, when compared to upconversion of images using fixed phase-match conditions....

  13. Bandwidth extension of speech using perceptual criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth extension of speech is used in the International Telecommunication Union G.729.1 standard in which the narrowband bitstream is combined with quantized high-band parameters. Although this system produces high-quality wideband speech, the additional bits used to represent the high band can be further reduced. In addition to the algorithm used in the G.729.1 standard, bandwidth extension methods based on spectrum prediction have also been proposed. Although these algorithms do not require additional bits, they perform poorly when the correlation between the low and the high band is weak. In this book, two wideband speech coding algorithms that rely on bandwidth extension are developed. The algorithms operate as wrappers around existing narrowband compression schemes. More specifically, in these algorithms, the low band is encoded using an existing toll-quality narrowband system, whereas the high band is generated using the proposed extension techniques. The first method relies only on transmitted high-...

  14. Effective masking bandwidths at low frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, S; Horonjeff, R; Teffeteller, S; Green, D M

    1983-02-01

    Masking of low-frequency sinusoids of varying durations by Gaussian noise of varying spectral shape was measured in three different studies. Common solutions to technical problems associated with control and specification of low-frequency signals were used in the three studies. If interpreted in terms of Fletcher's critical ratio assumptions, data from the first study lead to the inference that the masking bandwidth is inversely related to signal frequency below about 200 Hz. Data from the second study rule out the likelihood that the apparent increase in masking bandwidth is attributable to changes in auditory integration times at low frequencies. The data of the third study suggest that the apparent increase in auditory filter bandwidth at low frequencies is more adequately explained by a decrease in observers' detection efficiency than by broadening of the filter bandpass.

  15. Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Passeron, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be succesfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-aulait macules should not b...

  16. Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Du, K.; Loosen, P.; Herziger, G.

    1991-01-01

    Laser, consisting of a beam path multiple-folded by means of two cavity end mirrors and having at least one reflector folding the laser beam retroreflectively, the axis of which is arranged offset in parallel to the axis of a further reflector. So that the laser exhibits an improved beam quality while retaining its comparatively low adjustment sensitivity, the beam path is folded at least twice by means of the retoreflective reflector.

  17. The information bandwidth of neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of the information content of a scientific measurement is introduced, and a theory is presented which enables the information that may be obtained by a neutron scattering instrument to be calculated. When combined with the time taken to perform the measurement the bandwidth of the instrument is obtained. This bandwidth is effectively a figure of merit which is of use in three respects: in the design of neutron instrumentation, the optimisation of measurements, and in the comparison of one instrument with another. (author)

  18. 3 Approaches to Achieve Bandwidth Capacity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Install new fiber. Average cost $70,000 per mile. Right of way. Higher bandwidth on SONET/TDM. Single mode fiber high dispersion rate. NZDSF cost some 50 percent more than SMF. DWDM. Multi Wavelength Switching, Multiple Interface ATM,Ethernet, Frame Relay, TDM/SONET; Fast, Simple, Cheap.

  19. Experiences in Traceroute and Bandwidth Change Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logg, C

    2004-06-23

    SLAC has been studying end-to-end WAN bandwidth availability and achievability for 2.5 years via IEPM-BW [1]. IEPM-BW performs network intensive tests every 90 minutes. Based on that experience we have also developed a light weight available bandwidth (ABwE [2]) measurement tool that can make a measurement within a second. We are now extending this to a WAN measurement and detection system (IEPM-LITE) aimed at more quickly detecting and troubleshooting network performance problems and also to be more friendly on lower performance paths. IEPM-LITE uses ping, forward traceroutes, and ABwE sensors to monitor, in close to real-time, Round Trip Times (RTT), changes in available bandwidth and routes to and from target hosts. This paper discusses the experiences, techniques and algorithms used to detect and report on significant traceroute and bandwidth changes. The ultimate aim is to develop a lightweight WAN network performance monitoring system that can detect, in near real time, significant changes and generate alerts.

  20. Experiences in Traceroute and Bandwidth Change Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C

    2004-01-01

    SLAC has been studying end-to-end WAN bandwidth availability and achievability for 2.5 years via IEPM-BW [1]. IEPM-BW performs network intensive tests every 90 minutes. Based on that experience we have also developed a light weight available bandwidth (ABwE [2]) measurement tool that can make a measurement within a second. We are now extending this to a WAN measurement and detection system (IEPM-LITE) aimed at more quickly detecting and troubleshooting network performance problems and also to be more friendly on lower performance paths. IEPM-LITE uses ping, forward traceroutes, and ABwE sensors to monitor, in close to real-time, Round Trip Times (RTT), changes in available bandwidth and routes to and from target hosts. This paper discusses the experiences, techniques and algorithms used to detect and report on significant traceroute and bandwidth changes. The ultimate aim is to develop a lightweight WAN network performance monitoring system that can detect, in near real time, significant changes and generate alerts

  1. Big Bandwidth Battle: Universal ADSL Looks Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the new Universal ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) standard, which promises simple, high-bandwidth access over standard telephone lines. Topics include varieties of DSL; voice and data capacities; adapters and installation for personal computers; Internet backbone capacity; and headend access. (LRW)

  2. Narrow Bandwidth 850-nm Fiber Bragg Gratings in Few-Mode Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Wu; Markos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    We report on the inscription and characterization of narrow bandwidth fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with 850-nm resonance wavelength in polymer optical fibers (POFs). We use two fibers: an in-house fabricated microstructured POF (mPOF) with relative hole size of 0.5 and a commercial step-index POF......, which supports six modes at 850 nm. The gratings have been written with the phase-mask technique and a 325-nm HeCd laser. The mPOF grating has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 0.29 nm and the step-index POF has a bandwidth of 0.17 nm. For both fibers, the static tensile strain...

  3. Side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration; Laser de Nd:YVO{sub 4} bombeado transversalmente em configuracao com angulo rasante interno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO{sub 4} cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M{sup 2} = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M{sup 2} = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  4. Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital demodulator for wide bandwidth SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of efficient digital quadrature demodulators for wide bandwidth SAR systems is described. Efficiency is obtained by setting the intermediate frequency to 1/4 the ADC sampling frequency. One channel is made filter-free by synchronizing the local oscillator with the o......A novel approach to the design of efficient digital quadrature demodulators for wide bandwidth SAR systems is described. Efficiency is obtained by setting the intermediate frequency to 1/4 the ADC sampling frequency. One channel is made filter-free by synchronizing the local oscillator...... with the output decimator. The filter required by the other channel is optimized through global search using the system level performance metrics integrated sidelobe level ratio (ISLR) and peak sidelobe level ratio (PSLR)....

  7. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...... of the bandwidth requirements are analysed. For this analysis the assumptions and limitations are defined. The results obtained by the analysis show, that the amount of data collected and transferred by a smart meter is very low compared to the available bandwidth of most internet connections. The results show...

  8. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  9. High bandwidth concurrent processing on commodity platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boosten, M; Van der Stok, P D V

    1999-01-01

    The I/O bandwidth and real-time processing power required for high- energy physics experiments is increasing rapidly over time. The current requirements can only be met by using large-scale concurrent processing. We are investigating the use of a large PC cluster interconnected by Fast and Gigabit Ethernet to meet the performance requirements of the ATLAS second level trigger. This architecture is attractive because of its performance and competitive pricing. A major problem is obtaining frequent high-bandwidth I/O without sacrificing the CPU's processing power. We present a tight integration of a user-level scheduler and a zero-copy communication layer. This system closely approaches the performance of the underlying hardware in terms of both CPU power and I/O capacity. (0 refs).

  10. Reconstitution of Low Bandwidth Reaction History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.; Clancy, T.; Fittinghoff, D.; Gennaro, P.; Hagans, K.; Halvorson, G.; Lowry, M.; Perry, T.; Roberson, P.; Smith, D.; Teruya, A.; Blair, J.; Davis, B.; Hunt, E.; Emkeit, B.; Galbraith, J.; Kelly, B.; Montoya, R.; Nickel, G.; Ogle, J.; Wilson, K.; Wood, M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Test Readiness Program is to transition to a 24 month test readiness posture and if approved move to an 18-month posture. One of the key components of the Test Readiness Program necessary to meet this goal is the reconstitution of the important diagnostics. Since the end of nuclear testing, the ability to field diagnostics on a nuclear test has deteriorated. Reconstitution of diagnostics before those who had experience in nuclear testing either retire or leave is essential to achieving a shorter test readiness posture. Also, the data recording systems have not been used since the end of testing. This report documents the reconstitution of one vital diagnostic: the low bandwidth reaction history diagnostic for FY04. Reaction history is one of the major diagnostics that has been used on all LLNL and LANL tests since the early days of nuclear testing. Reaction history refers to measuring the time history of the gamma and neutron output from a nuclear test. This gives direct information on the nuclear reactions taking place in the device. The reaction history measurements are one of the prime measurements the nuclear weapon scientists use to validate their models of device performance. All tests currently under consideration require the reaction history diagnostic. Thus moving to a shorter test readiness posture requires the reconstitution of the ability to make reaction history measurements. Reconstitution of reaction history was planned to be in two steps. Reaction history measurements that have been used in the past can be broadly placed into two categories. The most common type of reaction history and the one that has been performed on virtually all nuclear tests is termed low bandwidth reaction history. This measurement has a time response that is limited by the bandpass of kilometer length coaxial cables. When higher bandwidth has been required for specific measurements, fiber optic techniques have been used. This is referred to as high-bandwidth

  11. Time-optimal control with finite bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, M.; Cappellaro, P.

    2018-04-01

    Time-optimal control theory provides recipes to achieve quantum operations with high fidelity and speed, as required in quantum technologies such as quantum sensing and computation. While technical advances have achieved the ultrastrong driving regime in many physical systems, these capabilities have yet to be fully exploited for the precise control of quantum systems, as other limitations, such as the generation of higher harmonics or the finite response time of the control apparatus, prevent the implementation of theoretical time-optimal control. Here we present a method to achieve time-optimal control of qubit systems that can take advantage of fast driving beyond the rotating wave approximation. We exploit results from time-optimal control theory to design driving protocols that can be implemented with realistic, finite-bandwidth control fields, and we find a relationship between bandwidth limitations and achievable control fidelity.

  12. Probabilistic Bandwidth Assignment in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khan , Dawood; Nefzi , Bilel; Santinelli , Luca; Song , Ye-Qiong

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With this paper we offer an insight in designing and analyzing wireless sensor networks in a versatile manner. Our framework applies probabilistic and component-based design principles for the wireless sensor network modeling and consequently analysis; while maintaining flexibility and accuracy. In particular, we address the problem of allocating and reconfiguring the available bandwidth. The framework has been successfully implemented in IEEE 802.15.4 using an Admissi...

  13. Tunable excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The wide bandwidth nature of the rare-gas halide excimer transitions allow reasonable tuning of the laser oscillation wavelength that makes it useful for a number of applications. At the same time this wide bandwidth makes narrow band operation difficult and special techniques are needed to insure narrow frequency lasing as well as absolute frequency resettability. The author discusses briefly some of the classical frequency narrowing techniques and then goes on to some recent work that require lasers of special frequency characteristics for special applications including KrF laser fusion

  14. Review of single transient oscillographic recorders with gigahertz bandwidth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    In laser driven inertial confinement fusion research, at Livermore, we are diagnosing many phenomena that occur in a time frame that exceeds the capabilities of even the most advanced, present day oscillographic recording instruments. Many of the by-products of the interaction between the laser beam and fuel pellet are monitored to determine the specifics of the fusion process. By the use of appropriate detectors, we convert the information contained in the radiated by-products to electrical signals which are recorded on high bandwidth oscillographic recorders. Our present range of recording capabilities for one x-ray diagnostic measurement in use at Livermore is shown. A commonly used configuration consists of an XRD-31 x-ray detector connected to a direct access Tektronix R7912 transient digitizer using 1/2 in. diameter air dielectric coaxial cable. This configuration gives a system fwhm of approximately 335 ps. Our premier configuration, on the other hand, consists of an improved response detector and a French Thomson-CSF TSN-660 oscilloscope with a shorter length of coaxial cable (typically 20 feet). The system fwhm in this case is less than 120 ps which is our fastest oscillographic recording system at the present time

  15. Low and Expensive Bandwidth Remains Key Bottleneck for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bottlenecks have dwarfed the expectations of the citizens to fully participate in the new world economic order galvanized by e-commerce and world trade. It is estimated that M.I.T in Boston USA has bandwidth allocation that surpasses all the bandwidth allocated to Nigeria put together. Low bandwidth has been found ...

  16. Multicenter prospective cohort study of the incidence of adverse events associated with cosmetic dermatologic procedures: lasers, energy devices, and injectable neurotoxins and fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Kakar, Rohit; Nodzenski, Michael; Ibrahim, Omer; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Bolotin, Diana; Borovicka, Judy H; Pace, Natalie; Alster, Tina S; Arndt, Kenneth A; Beer, Kenneth R; Berlin, Joshua M; Bernstein, Leonard J; Brightman, Lori A; Butterwick, Kimberly; Cox, Sue Ellen; Chotzen, Vera; Fabi, Sabrina G; Fitzpatrick, Richard E; Geronemus, Roy G; Goldman, Mitchel P; Groff, William F; Kaminer, Michael S; Kilmer, Suzanne; Rohrer, Thomas E; Tanzi, Elizabeth L; Silva, Susan K; Yoo, Simon S; Weinkle, Susan H; Strasswimmer, John; Poon, Emily; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Common noninvasive to minimally invasive cosmetic dermatologic procedures are widely believed to be safe given the low incidence of reported adverse events, but reliable incidence data regarding adverse event rates are unavailable to date. To assess the incidence of adverse events associated with noninvasive to minimally invasive cosmetic dermatologic procedures, including those involving laser and energy devices, as well as injectable neurotoxins and fillers. A multicenter prospective cohort study (March 28, 2011, to December 30, 2011) of procedures performed using laser and energy devices, as well as injectable neurotoxins and soft-tissue augmentation materials, among 8 geographically dispersed US private and institutional dermatology outpatient clinical practices focused on cosmetic dermatology, with a total of 23 dermatologists. Participants represented a consecutive sample of 20 399 cosmetic procedures. Data acquisition was for 3 months (13 weeks) per center, with staggered start dates to account for seasonal variation. Web-based data collection daily at each center to record relevant procedures, by category type and subtype. Adverse events were detected by (1) initial observation by participating physicians or staff; (2) active ascertainment from patients, who were encouraged to self-report after their procedure; and (3) follow-up postprocedural phone calls to patients by staff, if appropriate. When adverse events were not observed by physicians but were suspected, follow-up visits were scheduled within 24 hours to characterize these events. Detailed information regarding each adverse event was entered into an online form. The main outcome was the total incidence of procedure-related adverse events (total adverse events divided by total procedures performed), as verified by clinical examination. Forty-eight adverse events were reported, for a rate of 0.24% (95% CI, 0.18%-0.31%). Overall, 36 procedures resulted in at least 1 adverse event, for a rate of 0

  17. Laser light absorption and reflection in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.; Valeo, E.; Estabrook, K.; Thomson, J.; Langdon, B.; Lasinski, B.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms by which intense laser light energy is absorbed or reflected by a hot, dense plasma are of central concern in laser fusion studies. Extensive computer simulations show that the plasma waves responsible for absorption near the critical density are produced by instabilities, resonant excitation and, more generally, by off-resonant coupling by non-linearly produced ion density fluctuations. Non-linear modifications in the plasma density profile are found to play a key role in the light absorption. DC magnetic fields large enough to affect electron transport are observed in computer simulations of intense obliquely incident light, even in the absence of irradiation asymmetry. Finally, plasma heating near one-fourth the critical density and the role of bandwidth as a means to control Brillouin reflection are discussed. (author)

  18. Wireless bandwidth authentication improving quality of service

    OpenAIRE

    Peart, Amanda; Good, Alice

    2012-01-01

    With the popularity of distributed applications such as BitTorrent and Peer 2 Peer (P2P) networks, coupled with the increase in mobility of end user devices, there is a requirement for dynamic bandwidth management. Mobile users require access to the internet at varying times and for various reasons. Generally this access is via public hotspots in places such as airports, hotels and coffee shops. Therefore it is paramount that user access is managed as some users will utilize an unfair amount ...

  19. Expanding the bandwidth of low level photo-electric amplifier using continuous equal-potential shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Sun, Bin; Shi, Xueyou; Huang, Anfeng; Xi, Ruoyao

    2016-03-01

    For the low level current preamplifier circuits in photo-electric detection, the bandwidth and the low noise characteristics are usually contradictory, because the bandwidth is limited by the high value resistor and its inevitable parasitic capacitances, which together exhibit low-pass characteristics. To expand the bandwidth of low level current amplifier, a novel method is proposed by using continuous equal-potential shielding to eliminate the parasitic capacitances and expand the bandwidth. The shielded resistor contains three layers: the center is high value resistance strip; the top and bottom layers are high conductivity shielding films with same path to center strip. The surrounding electric field energy could be provided by shielding structure instead by high value resistor itself, so the parasitic capacitances would be greatly reduced. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the equal potential shielding are presented, and the possible results are predicted by finite element simulation. The simulation was conducted by the ultra-low current preamplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results indicated that the parasitic capacitances reduced from 1.36×10-2pF to 1.18×10-3pF, meanwhile the bandwidth was expanded from 234.1 Hz to 2.43 kHz with more than 10 times of increase; the rise time decreased from 1.53ms to 0.085ms. The advantage of this method is that the bandwidth could be expanded without extra compensation; meanwhile the shielding layers improve the noise immunity. This method is suitable for the demand of rapid response to low level current in photo-electric detection field, such as scanning tunneling microscopy and laser radar.

  20. Narrowband tunable laser for uranium-233 cleanup process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunita; Sridhar, G.; Rawat, V.S.; Kawde, Nitin; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, S.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Design, development and technology demonstration of proto type Single Longitudinal Mode pulsed tunable laser is reported in this work. The tunable laser has a narrow bandwidth less than 400 MHz required for isotopic clean up of 233 U. (author)

  1. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards...... effectively increase the available capacity. Advanced modulation formats however require digitalization of the signals and digital signal processing blocks to both generate and recover the data. There is therefore a trade-off in terms of efficiency gain vs. complexity. Poly binary modulation, a generalized...... form of partial response modulation, employs simple codification and filtering at the transmitter to drastically increase the spectral efficiency. At the receiver side, poly binary modulation requires low complexity direct detection and very little digital signal processing. This talk will review...

  2. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  3. High Bandwidth Short Stroke Rotary Fast Tool Servo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

    2003-08-22

    This paper presents the design and performance of a new rotary fast tool servo (FTS) capable of developing the 40 g's tool tip acceleration required to follow a 5 micron PV sinusoidal surface at 2 kHz with a planned accuracy of 50 nm, and having a full stroke of 50 micron PV at lower frequencies. Tests with de-rated power supplies have demonstrated a closed-loop unity-gain bandwidth of 2 kHz with 20 g's tool acceleration, and we expect to achieve 40 g's with supplies providing {+-} 16 Amp to the Lorentz force actuator. The use of a fast tool servo with a diamond turning machine for producing non-axisymmetric or textured surfaces on a workpiece is well known. Our new rotary FTS was designed to specifically accommodate fabricating prescription textured surfaces on 5 mm diameter spherical target components for High Energy Density Physics experiments on the National Ignition Facility Laser (NIF).

  4. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles; Avaliacao morfologica das superficies do esmalte e do cimento dental apos a irradiacao do laser de Er:YAG em diferentes angulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannous, Jose Trancoso

    2001-07-01

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 {mu}m, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  5. Compact antenna arrays with wide bandwidth and low sidelobe levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2014-09-09

    Highly efficient, low cost, easily manufactured SAR antenna arrays with lightweight low profiles, large instantaneous bandwidths and low SLL are disclosed. The array topology provides all necessary circuitry within the available antenna aperture space and between the layers of material that comprise the aperture. Bandwidths of 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz, with 30 dB SLLs azimuthally and elevationally, and radiation efficiencies above 40% may be achieved. Operation over much larger bandwidths is possible as well.

  6. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterhuber, A; Povazay, B; Bizheva, K; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Stingl, A; Le, T; Seefeld, M; Menzel, R; Preusser, M; Budka, H; Schubert, Ch; Reitsamer, H; Ahnelt, P K; Morgan, J E; Cowey, A; Drexler, W

    2004-01-01

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 μm axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser (λ c = 785 nm, Δλ = 260 nm, P out = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at λ c = 1130 nm and 470 nm at λ c = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth

  7. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhuber, A [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Povazay, B [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bizheva, K [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hermann, B [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sattmann, H [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stingl, A [Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Le, T [Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Seefeld, M [Institute of Physics, Dep. of Photonics, Potsdam University, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Menzel, R [Institute of Physics, Dep. of Photonics, Potsdam University, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Preusser, M [Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Budka, H [Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schubert, Ch [Department of Physiology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Reitsamer, H [Department of Physiology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ahnelt, P K [Department of Physiology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Morgan, J E [University Hospital of Wales Health Park, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Cowey, A [University Hospital of Wales Health Park, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Drexler, W [Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Vienna and Christian Doppler Laboratory, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2004-04-07

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 {mu}m axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser ({lambda}{sub c} = 785 nm, {delta}{lambda} = 260 nm, P{sub out} = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at {lambda}{sub c} = 1130 nm and 470 nm at {lambda}{sub c} = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth.

  8. Frequency Bandwidth Optimization of Left-Handed Metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, left-handed metamaterials (LHM s) have been demonstrated with an effective negative index of refraction and with antiparallel group and phase velocities for microwave radiation over a narrow frequency bandwidth. In order to take advantage of these characteristics for practical applications, it will be beneficial to develop LHM s with increased frequency bandwidth response and lower losses. In this paper a commercial three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation code is used to explore the effects of geometry parameter variations on the frequency bandwidth of a LHM at microwave frequencies. Utilizing an optimizing routine in the code, a geometry was generated with a bandwidth more than twice as large as the original geometry.

  9. Reduced bandwidth video for remote vehicle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noell, T.E.; DePiero, F.W.

    1993-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory staff have developed a video compression system for low-bandwidth remote operations. The objective is to provide real-time video at data rates comparable to available tactical radio links, typically 16 to 64 thousand bits per second (kbps), while maintaining sufficient quality to achieve mission objectives. The system supports both continuous lossy transmission of black and white (gray scale) video for remote driving and progressive lossless transmission of black and white images for remote automatic target acquisition. The average data rate of the resulting bit stream is 64 kbps. This system has been demonstrated to provide video of sufficient quality to allow remote driving of a High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle at speeds up to 15 mph (24.1 kph) on a moguled dirt track. The nominal driving configuration provides a frame rate of 4 Hz, a compression per frame of 125:1, and a resulting latency of {approximately}1s. This paper reviews the system approach and implementation, and further describes some of our experiences when using the system to support remote driving.

  10. Bandwidth selection in smoothing functions | Kibua | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inexpensive and, hence, worth adopting. We argue that the bandwidth parameter is determined by two factors: the kernel function and the length of the smoothing region. We give an illustrative example of its application using real data. Keywords: Kernel, Smoothing functions, Bandwidth > East African Journal of Statistics ...

  11. Variable Bandwidth Analog Channel Filters for Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of Software Defined Radio is the ability to define the bandwidth of the filter that selects the desired channel. This paper first explains the importance of channel filtering. Then the advantage of analog channel filtering with a variable bandwidth in a Software Defined Radio is

  12. modeling the effect of bandwidth allocation on network performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling The Effect Of Bandwidth Allocation On Network Performance. MODELING THE EFFECT OF BANDWIDTH ... ABSTRACT. In this paper, a new channel capacity model for interference- limited systems was obtained .... congestion admission control, with the intent of minimizing energy consumption at each terminal.

  13. [Theory of lasers and lamps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, S; Michaud, T

    2009-10-01

    Lasers emit a coherent and monochromatic light beam, whereas pulsed lights produce a polychromatic light whose bandwidth is selected by adapted filters. The skin's chromophores are made up of water, hemoglobin, and melanin, to which must be added the exogenous pigments of tattoos. Each chromophore has its specific absorption spectrum. Lasers' main mechanisms of action are the photothermal effect and the photomechanical effect.

  14. Advanced high-bandwidth optical fuzing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jony J.; von der Lippe, Christian M.

    2005-10-01

    A robust and compact photonic proximity sensor is developed for optical fuze in munitions applications. The design of the optical fuze employed advanced optoelectronic technologies including high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the p-i-n or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, SiGe ASIC driver, and miniature optics. The development combines pioneering work and unique expertise at ARDEC, ARL, and Sandia National Laboratories and synergizes the key optoelectronic technologies in components and system designs. This compact sensor will replace conventional costly assemblies based on discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulky optics and provide a new capability for direct fire applications. It will be mass manufacturable in low cost and simplicity. In addition to the specific applications for gun-fired munitions, numerous civilian uses can be realized by this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics, and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  15. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  16. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Maxime; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Duvillaret, Lionel; Paupert, Alain; Lasserre, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We present pigtailed electro-optic probes that allow a simultaneous measurement of high frequency electric fields and temperature using a unique laser probe beam. This has been achieved by the development of a novel probe design associated with a fully automated servo-controlled optical bench, initially developed to stabilize the electric field sensor response. The developed electro-optic probes present a stable response in outdoors conditions over a time duration exceeding 1 h, a frequency bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 Vm(-1)Hz(-(1/2)), and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK.

  17. GHz-bandwidth upconversion detector using a unidirectional ring cavity to reduce multilongitudinal mode pump effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lichun; Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    narrow-linewidth lasers in a fiber coupler while tuning their wavelength difference down to 10 pm or less. The SFG crystal is placed inside an Nd:YVO4 ring cavity that provides 1064 nm circulating pump powers of up to 150 W in unidirectional operation. Measured Fabry-Perot spectrum at 1064 nm confirms...... for cooling, the GHz-bandwidth upconverter can readily be extended to the mid-IR (2 - 5 mu m) as an alternative to cooled low-bandgap semiconductor detectors for applications such as high-speed free-space optical communications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  18. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  19. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thomas A., E-mail: taw@physics.org; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Holton, James M. [University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kirian, Richard A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zatsepin, Nadia A. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chapman, Henry N. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  20. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam

  1. The incidence and risk factors of apnea in premature infants underwent general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachoo, Anchalee; Horatanaruang, Duenpen; Chongarunngamsang, Wanida; Lauhsattana, Suda

    2014-06-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative apnea in premature infants who received general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. A retrospective cohort study was performed by reviewing medical records of premature infants with ROP who underwent general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation during January 2008 and December 2010 at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. The incidence and risk factors of postoperative apnea were analyzed. Forty of 167 (24%) premature infants had apnea after general anesthesia for treatment of ROP. The risk factors were post-conceptual age and history of apnea. The risk of apnea in patients with post-conceptual age less than 35 weeks was 5.7 times higher than in patients with post-conceptual age more than 37 weeks (95% CI 1.59-20.45). Patients with a prior history of apnea had a 6.42 times greater risk of postoperative apnea compared to patients without a prior history of apnea (95% CI 2.01-20.50). No other serious complications were reported during the study period. The incidence of apnea after general anesthesia in infants with ROP treated with cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation was 24%. The risk factors of postoperative apnea were post-conceptual age less than 35 weeks and prior history of apnea. Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored.

  2. Complete elimination of nonlinear light-matter interactions with broadband ultrafast laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    optical effects, however, the probability of pure single-photon absorption is usually very low, which is particularly pertinent in the case of strong ultrafast laser pulses with broad bandwidth. Here we demonstrate theoretically a counterintuitive coherent single-photon absorption scheme by eliminating...... nonlinear interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with quantum systems. That is, a completely linear response of the system with respect to the spectral energy density of the incident light at the transition frequency can be obtained for all transition probabilities between 0 and 100% in multilevel quantum...... systems. To that end, a multiobjective optimization algorithm is developed to find an optimal spectral phase of an ultrafast laser pulse, which is capable of eliminating all possible nonlinear optical responses while maximizing the probability of single-photon absorption between quantum states. This work...

  3. Energy efficiency in elastic-bandwidth optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaino, Jorge Lopez; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    The forecasted growth in the Internet traffic has made the operators and industry to be concerned about the power consumption of the networks, and to become interested in alternatives to plan and operate the networks in a more energy efficient manner. The introduction of OFDM, and its property...... of elastic bandwidth allocation, opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks. In this paper, we compare the network planning problem in an elastic bandwidth CO-OFDM-based network and a fixed-grid WDM network. We highlight the benefits that bandwidth elasticity and the selection of different...

  4. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  5. Increase of the grating coupler bandwidth with a graphene overlay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhenzhou; Li, Zhen; Xu, Ke; Tsang, Hon Ki, E-mail: hktsang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-17

    We present theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate an increase in the grating bandwidth by placing a graphene on the chip. A focusing subwavelength grating with coupling efficiency of −4.3 dB and 1 dB bandwidth of ∼60 nm was demonstrated. After a graphene sheet was transferred onto the chip, the maximum 1 dB bandwidth was increased to ∼72 nm. Experimental results are consistent with the calculated graphene induced waveguide refractive index and dispersion changes, and the bandwidth improvement may be attributed to the reduction of grating dispersion. This study may be of interest for graphene-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit applications.

  6. Bandwidth Estimation in Wireless Lans for Multimedia Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of multimedia streaming services via wireless networks presents major challenges in the management of network bandwidth. One challenge is to quickly and precisely estimate the available bandwidth for the decision of streaming rates of layered and scalable multimedia services. Previous studies based on wired networks are too burdensome to be applied to multimedia applications in wireless networks. In this paper, a new method, IdleGap, is suggested to estimate the available bandwidth of a wireless LAN based on the information from a low layer in the protocol stack. We use a network simulation tool, NS-2, to evaluate our new method with various ranges of cross-traffic and observation times. Our simulation results show that IdleGap accurately estimates the available bandwidth for all ranges of cross-traffic (100 Kbps ∼ 1 Mbps with a very short observation time of 10 seconds.

  7. High-Bandwidth Hybrid Sensor (HYSENS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA has demonstrated the primary innovation of combining a precision MEMS gyro (BAE SiRRS01) with a high bandwidth angular rate sensor, ATA's ARS-14 resulting in a...

  8. Ultrafast broadband tunable-bandwidth magneto-optic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gavin D.; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y.

    1999-11-01

    We present our investigation of a variable bandwidth, ultrafast magneto-optic waveguide modulator employing the ferromagnetic resonant precession of the magnetization in a Bizmuth-substituted YIG film. Ultrafast magnetic field pulses, produced by current pulses propagated through a high-speed transmission line, are used to modulate the optical beam in the film. Such a device is capable of multi- gigahertz bandwidth and potential integration into current IC technology. Single frequency modulation of an 800 nm optical carrier is measured at bandwidths tuned between 4.6 and 11.7 GHz. The bandwidth is tuned by means of an externally applied DC magnetic field. It is found that the mode conversion efficiency of a waveguide type of device is limited by the linear birefringence of the thin Bi-YIG film. Birefringence-compensating schemes are discussed to optimize the mode conversion.

  9. TPROXY dan FILTERING SEBAGAI METODE OPTIMASI PEMAKAIAN BANDWIDTH INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyo Sutiyo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Until now the use of the internet disuatu agencies viewed from the initial planning, use and care, even long-term planning is still not optimal. The main factor lies in the existing human resources, especially in IT personnel and policy makers who do not understand or do not even know at all how your use of the Internet well, optimal, efficient, particularly associated with the consumption of Internet bandwidth. Internet bandwidth capacity greatly affect the speed of web access or other Internet applications. So we need a plan and maintance necessary to obtain good Internet bandwidth consumption efficiency and guaranteed QoS, such as by utilizing Tproxy and filtering methods. TProxy is a development of which has been patched Squid, a proxy to be able to pass traffic without NAT (Network Access Translation. Fitering a firewall system which is used for filtering data packets that do not want filtered dikendaki or akhirmya able to minimize traffic on bandwidth usage. Tproxy and filtering runs on the Linux platform. Linux distributions are often used to Tproxy is a variant Debian, Centos and then to use Mikrotik Filtering. At the end of each request or query from the client or the response of the proxy server does not have meaningful constraints, the bandwidth between the client and the proxy server does not happen limitation, bandwidth capable of running close to capacity including 10 Mbps Ethernet, 100 Mbps, and even a GPS (full speed.

  10. Fiber-coupled transceiver for terahertz reflection measurements with a 4.5  THz bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globisch, Björn; Dietz, Roman J B; Kohlhaas, Robert B; Nellen, Simon; Kleinert, Moritz; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin

    2016-11-15

    We present a fiber-coupled transceiver for THz time-domain spectroscopy, which combines an emitter and a receiver on a single photoconductive chip. With a bandwidth of 4.5 THz and a peak dynamic range larger than 70 dB, it allows for THz reflection measurements under normal incidence. This THz reflection head is a promising device for applications in such fields as material inspection and nondestructive testing.

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag, its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η, i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  13. The applicability of DPSS laser for light curing of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hoon; Jang, Chang-Min; Shin, Dong-Hee; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2008-10-01

    The applicability of diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser for light curing the composite resins was tested with a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp-based unit and a light emitting diode unit. The emission spectra of the light-curing systems used match with the absorption spectrum of camphorquinone. Among the light-curing systems, DPSS laser showed the narrowest emission bandwidth. The light intensity of DPSS laser was approximately 64% of the other two light-curing units. In most specimens, DPSS laser showed the least attenuation of the number of incident photons. On the top surface, specimens cured with DPSS laser showed similar microhardness values compared to the specimens cured with the other two light-curing units. During the light curing, DPSS laser induced the lowest temperature rise (25.5-35.5 degrees C) in the specimens compared to the other two light-curing units (34.2-41.7 degrees C). In conclusion, DPSS laser has high potential to be an alternative to the other light-curing units or a new light-curing unit.

  14. Open-Loop Wide-Bandwidth Phase Modulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nidhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing growth in the bandwidth of wireless communication channels requires the transmitter to be wide-bandwidth and power-efficient. Polar and outphasing transmitter topologies are two promising candidates for such applications, in future. Both these architectures require a wide-bandwidth phase modulator. Open-loop phase modulation presents a viable solution for achieving wide-bandwidth operation. An overview of prior art and recent approaches for phase modulation is presented in this paper. Phase quantization noise cancellation was recently introduced to lower the out-of-band noise in a digital phase modulator. A detailed analysis on the impact of timing and quantization of the cancellation signal is presented. Noise generated by the transmitter in the receive band frequency poses another challenge for wide-bandwidth transmitter design. Addition of a noise transfer function notch, in a digital phase modulator, to reduce the noise in the receive band during phase modulation is described in this paper.

  15. Efficient use of satellite bandwidth for shipboard science platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    In its 11th year of operation, HiSeasNet, a satellite network connecting the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) fleet to the Internet, enables ships to stream sets of sensor data to shore in near-real-time, along with a variety of other ship traffic. With more ongoing and single-cruise projects wishing to use significant amounts of ship-to-shore bandwidth, efficient use of the bandwidth has become increasingly important. Incremental improvements have been made over the past few years. However, as use cases change and technology becomes more bandwidth-intensive, more work remains on both technical and behavioral levels for optimizing scientific use of satellite links.

  16. Optical computing for image bandwidth compression: analysis and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B R

    1978-09-15

    Image bandwidth compression is dominated by digital methods for carrying out the required computations. This paper discusses the general problem of using optics to realize the computations in bandwidth compression. A common method of digital bandwidth compression, feedback differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), is reviewed, and the obstacles to making a direct optical analogy to feedback DPCM are discussed. Instead of a direct optical analogy to DPCM, an optical system which captures the essential features of DPCM without optical feedback is introduced. The essential features of this incoherent optical system are encoding of low-frequency information and generation of difference samples which can be coded with a small number of bits. A simulation of this optical system by means of digital image processing is presented, and performance data are also included.

  17. Correlation and image compression for limited-bandwidth CCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas G.

    2005-07-01

    As radars move to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with limited-bandwidth data downlinks, the amount of data stored and transmitted with each image becomes more significant. This document gives the results of a study to determine the effect of lossy compression in the image magnitude and phase on Coherent Change Detection (CCD). We examine 44 lossy compression types, plus lossless zlib compression, and test each compression method with over 600 CCD image pairs. We also derive theoretical predictions for the correlation for most of these compression schemes, which compare favorably with the experimental results. We recommend image transmission formats for limited-bandwidth programs having various requirements for CCD, including programs which cannot allow performance degradation and those which have stricter bandwidth requirements at the expense of CCD performance.

  18. [Tumor segmentation of brain MRI with adaptive bandwidth mean shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaowen; Liu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    In order to get the adaptive bandwidth of mean shift to make the tumor segmentation of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be more accurate, we in this paper present an advanced mean shift method. Firstly, we made use of the space characteristics of brain image to eliminate the impact on segmentation of skull; and then, based on the characteristics of spatial agglomeration of different tissues of brain (includes tumor), we applied edge points to get the optimal initial mean value and the respectively adaptive bandwidth, in order to improve the accuracy of tumor segmentation. The results of experiment showed that, contrast to the fixed bandwidth mean shift method, the method in this paper could segment the tumor more accurately.

  19. Estimating auditory filter bandwidth using distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauen, Sigurd van; Rukjær, Andreas Harbo; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The basic frequency selectivity in the listener’s hearing is often characterized by auditory filters. These filters are determined through listening tests, which determine the masking threshold as a function of frequency of the tone and the bandwidth of the masking sound. The auditory filters have...... correlation to the theoretical relation between frequency and auditory filter bandwidth, described by the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB, Glasberg and Moore, 1990). The purpose of the present study is to test if a similar correlation exists on an individual basis at normal audiometric frequencies....... The optimal 2f1-f2 (L1/L2=65/45 dB SPL). The distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission ratio is determined using a custom-made measurement system programmed in MATLAB. The auditory filters are determined using notched-noise method in a two alternative forced choice experiment with noise levels at 40 dB SPL...

  20. Constrained ℋ∞ control for low bandwidth active suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiwitono, Unggul; Sutantra, I. Nyoman

    2017-08-01

    Low Bandwidth Active Suspension (LBAS) is shown to be more competitive to High Bandwidth Active Suspension (HBAS) when energy and cost aspects are taken into account. In this paper, the constrained ℋ∞ control scheme is applied for LBAS system. The ℋ∞ performance is used to measure ride comfort while the concept of reachable set in a state-space ellipsoid defined by a quadratic storage function is used to capture the time domain constraint that representing the requirements for road holding, suspension deflection limitation and actuator saturation. Then, the control problem is derived in the framework of Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) optimization. The simulation is conducted considering the road disturbance as a stationary random process. The achievable performance of LBAS is analyzed for different values of bandwidth and damping ratio.

  1. Development of a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Yang, B.; Cai, W. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth limiting neutron choppers are indispensable key equipments for the time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometers of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The main principle is to chop the neutron beam to limit the neutron wavelength bandwidth at the neutron detector. We have successfully developed a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS in the CSNS advance research project II. The transmission rate of the neutron absorbing coating is less than 1×10-4 (for 1 angstrom neutron). The phase control accuracy is ±0.084° (±9.4 μs at 25 Hz). The dynamic balance grade is G1.0. Various experimental technical features have met the design requirements, and it also runs stably and reliably during the long-term tests.

  2. Development of a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.; Yang, B.; Cai, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Bandwidth limiting neutron choppers are indispensable key equipments for the time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometers of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The main principle is to chop the neutron beam to limit the neutron wavelength bandwidth at the neutron detector. We have successfully developed a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS in the CSNS advance research project II. The transmission rate of the neutron absorbing coating is less than 1×10 −4 (for 1 angstrom neutron). The phase control accuracy is ±0.084° (±9.4 μs at 25 Hz). The dynamic balance grade is G1.0. Various experimental technical features have met the design requirements, and it also runs stably and reliably during the long-term tests

  3. Sistem Pakar Fuzzy Untuk Optimasi Penggunaan Bandwidth Jaringan Komputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaziri Mustaziri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for bandwidth availability today is very high along with the increase of infrastructural growth of internet network. Therefore, the presence of efficient, reliable, and economical service availability system is required. It can be achieved byperforming  good  and  appropriate  system  planning.  In  providing  efficient  and  reliable  internet  services,  one  of  the supporting factors is the optimization of bandwidth using. To optimize the use of bandwidth, we use fuzzy expert system by Sugeno method. This fuzzy expert system use 3 input variables, such as lecture room, day, and t ime, with one output variable of the capacity of bandwidth used. Rule base being made based on the consultation with the expert to determine the rule base for fuzzy  system input.  The computation to determine the average error using the computation formula  of MAPE  (Means  Absolute  Percentage  Error  which  is  the  error  median  of  absolute  percentage.  The  data  of  the  research results on the optimization of bandwidth using in fuzzy expert system with Sugeno method obtain from verification, that is by comparing actual data to prediction data with fuzzy system. The average error result is 6,5142 %.Keywords: Fuzzy Expert System; Optimization; Bandwidth

  4. EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH FOR SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC IN ATM NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the effective bandwidth for self-similar traffic in ATM network. In this approach we use the tail distribution of queue length based on FBM model. This approach is derived from the inequalities for Mills’ ratio. Then a comparison with Norros and Trinh&Miki schemes are analysed. The results demonstrate reasonable agreement between numerical and simulation results and between all schemes. Their bandwidth estimation tends closer for CLP improvement.

  5. Compact silicon multimode waveguide spectrometer with enhanced bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Compact, broadband, and high-resolution spectrometers are appealing for sensing applications, but difficult to fabricate. Here we show using calibration data a spectrometer based on a multimode waveguide with 2 GHz resolution, 250 GHz bandwidth, and a 1.6 mm × 2.1 mm footprint. Typically......, such spectrometers have a bandwidth limited by the number of modes supported by the waveguide. In this case, an on-chip mode-exciting element is used to repeatably excite distinct collections of waveguide modes. This increases the number of independent spectral channels from the number of modes to this number...

  6. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  7. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  8. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practical perspectives. We developed BMCloud, a new low repair bandwidth, low maintenance cost cloud storage system, which aims to reduce repair bandwidth and maintenance cost. The system employs both functional repair and exact repair while it inherits advantages from the both. We propose the JUDGE_STYLE algorithm, which can judge whether the system should adopt exact repair or functional repair. We implemented a networked storage system prototype and demonstrated our findings. Compared with existing solutions, BMCloud can be used in engineering to save repair bandwidth and degrade maintenance significantly.

  9. Frequency Selective Surfaces for extended Bandwidth backing reflector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M.; Neto, A.; Monni, S.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to increase the Efficiency × Bandwidth product in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna arrays whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector is realized in one metal plane solution its location will be

  10. Come together: African universities collaborate to improve bandwidth

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... SEE ALSO... In Reports magazine: Viewpoint: Bandwidth can bring African universities up to speed. In Reports magazine: Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa · The AAU Web site. The Connectivity Africa Web site. The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Web site. IDRC's ICT4D Web site ...

  11. Estimating auditory filter bandwidth using distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukjær, Andreas Harbo; Hauen, Sigurd van; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The basic frequency selectivity in the listener’s hearing is often characterized by auditory filters. These filters are determined through listening tests, which estimate the masking threshold as a function of frequency of the tone and the bandwidth of the masking sound. The auditory filters have...

  12. Iterative Available Bandwidth Estimation for Mobile Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; López Villa, Dimas; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Available bandwidth estimation has lately been proposed to be used for end-to-end resource management in existing and emerging mobile communication systems, whose transport networks could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. Algorithms for admission control, handover...

  13. Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

  14. Sensitivity-Bandwidth Limit in a Multimode Optoelectromechanical Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel Haghighi, I.; Malossi, N.; Natali, R.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2018-03-01

    An optoelectromechanical system formed by a nanomembrane capacitively coupled to an L C resonator and to an optical interferometer has recently been employed for the highly sensitive optical readout of rf signals [T. Bagci et al., Nature (London) 507, 81 (2013), 10.1038/nature13029]. We propose and experimentally demonstrate how the bandwidth of such a transducer can be increased by controlling the interference between two electromechanical interaction pathways of a two-mode mechanical system. With a proof-of-principle device operating at room temperature, we achieve a sensitivity of 300 nV /√{Hz } over a bandwidth of 15 kHz in the presence of radio-frequency noise, and an optimal shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 10 nV /√{Hz } over a bandwidth of 5 kHz. We discuss strategies for improving the performance of the device, showing that, for the same given sensitivity, a mechanical multimode transducer can achieve a bandwidth significantly larger than that for a single-mode one.

  15. Come together: African universities collaborate to improve bandwidth

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... However, a stumbling block to realizing this vision arose: the cost of access. As Bob Hawkins, a senior education specialist at the WBI, points out, “the average African university pays 50 times more than the amount a North American university pays for Internet access.” Moreover, the bandwidth available to ...

  16. A Practical Approach For Excess Bandwidth Distribution for EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2014-03-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES), which practically reuse the excess bandwidth in EPONs system. DES is suitable for the industrial deployment as it requires no timing constraint and achieves better performance compared to the previously reported schemes.

  17. On bounding the bandwidth of graphs with symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.R.; Sotirov, R.

    2015-01-01

    We derive a new lower bound for the bandwidth of a graph that is based on a new lower bound for the min-cut problem. Our new semidefinite programming relaxation of the min-cut problem is obtained by strengthening the known semidefinite programming relaxation for the quadratic assignment problem (or

  18. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2016-05-15

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved

  19. ±25ppm repeatable measurement of trapezoidal pulses with 5MHz bandwidth

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    High-quality measurements of pulses are nowadays widely used in fields such as radars, pulsed lasers, electromagnetic pulse generators, and particle accelerators. Whilst literature is mainly focused on fast systems for nanosecond regime with relaxed metrological requirements, in this paper, the high-performance measurement of slower pulses in microsecond regime is faced. In particular, the experimental proof demonstration for a 15 MS/s,_25 ppm repeatable acquisition system to characterize the flat-top of 3 ms rise-time trapezoidal pulses is given. The system exploits a 5MHz bandwidth circuit for analogue signal processing based on the concept of flat-top removal. The requirements, as well as the conceptual and physical designs are illustrated. Simulation results aimed at assessing the circuit performance are also presented. Finally, an experimental case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystrons modulators of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN is reported. In ...

  20. Frequency comb swept lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a approximately -1.2dB sensitivity roll off over approximately 3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have -10dB and -5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0-3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed.

  1. Relationships of skin depths and temperatures when varying pulse repetition frequencies from 2.0-microm laser light incident on pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, David; Johnson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human perception of 2.0-microm infrared laser irradiation has become significant in such disparate fields as law enforcement, neuroscience, and pain research. Several recent studies have found damage thresholds for single-pulse and continuous wave irradiations at this wavelength. However, the only publication using multiple-pulse irradiations was investigating the cornea rather than skin. Literature has claimed that the 2.0-microm light characteristic thermal diffusion time was as long as 300-ms. Irradiating the skin with 2.0-microm lasers to produce sensation should follow published recommendations to use pulses on the order of 10 to 100 ms, which approach the theoretical thermal diffusion time. Therefore, investigation of the heating of skin for a variety of laser pulse combinations was undertaken. Temperatures of ex vivo pig skin were measured at the surface and at three depths from pulse sequences of six different duty factors. Differences were found in temperature rise per unit exposure that did not follow a linear relation to duty factor. The differences can be explained by significant heat conduction during the pulses. Therefore, the common heat modeling assumption of thermal confinement during a pulse may need to be experimentally verified if the pulse approaches the theoretical thermal confinement time.

  2. Environmentally stable picosecond Yb fiber laser with low repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartl, M.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Díez, A.; Rothhardt, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2013-04-01

    A SESAM-mode-locked, all-polarization-maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser producing picosecond pulses with narrow spectral bandwidth is presented. A simple linear all-fiber cavity without dispersion compensation is realized using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Different cavity lengths are investigated and repetition rates down to 0.7 MHz are obtained. Bandwidth and pulse duration of the output pulses are mainly determined by the choice of FBG. Pulses between 30 and 200 ps are generated employing different FBGs with bandwidths between 17 and 96 pm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The laser holds great potential for simple amplification setups without pulse picking.

  3. Bandwidth-enhanced photopolymer waveguide hologram-based optical backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hai; Tian, Chuhua; Chen, Ray T.; Han, Xuliang

    2005-01-01

    As multiprocessing comes into the mainstream, the board-to-board interconnects become even more critical. In a shared-memory multiprocessing system, the shared bus topology is the preferred interconnect scheme because its broadcast nature can be effectively utilized to reduce communication latency, lessen networking complexity, and support cache coherence. In the electrical domain, however, a major performance bottleneck is anticipated due to the restricted bus bandwidth. In this paper, an innovative architecture, optical centralized shared bus, is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This architecture utilizes the terascale bandwidth capacity of substrate-guided optical interconnects, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology. Thus, a smooth migration with substantial multiprocessing performance improvement is expected. A conceptual emulation of the shared-memory multiprocessing scheme is demonstrated on a generic PCI subsystem with an optical centralized shared bus. The objective of this effort is to prove the technical feasibility from the architecture standpoint.

  4. Systems with selective overflow and change of bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2012-01-01

    We consider a loss system with n channels and a finite or infinite overflow group, which is offered N different services, all having Poisson arrival processes. All calls have same bandwidth demand and mean service time, but the mean service time may be different on the primary group and the overf......We consider a loss system with n channels and a finite or infinite overflow group, which is offered N different services, all having Poisson arrival processes. All calls have same bandwidth demand and mean service time, but the mean service time may be different on the primary group...... on the overflow group, we show by balance equations that the number of calls of each service will be Multinomial distributed with probabilities proportional with the arrival rates. Using a recent result of Newcomer & al, we then find moments (done up to fourth order) of individual overflow streams or any...

  5. Bandwidth-sharing in LHCONE, an analysis of the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    The LHC experiments have traditionally regarded the network as an unreliable resource, one which was expected to be a major source of errors and inefficiency at the time their original computing models were derived. Now, however, the network is seen as much more capable and reliable. Data are routinely transferred with high efficiency and low latency to wherever computing or storage resources are available to use or manage them. Although there was sufficient network bandwidth for the experiments’ needs during Run-1, they cannot rely on ever-increasing bandwidth as a solution to their data-transfer needs in the future. Sooner or later they need to consider the network as a finite resource that they interact with to manage their traffic, in much the same way as they manage their use of disk and CPU resources. There are several possible ways for the experiments to integrate management of the network in their software stacks, such as the use of virtual circuits with hard bandwidth guarantees or soft real-time flow-control, with somewhat less firm guarantees. Abstractly, these can all be considered as the users (the experiments, or groups of users within the experiment) expressing a request for a given bandwidth between two points for a given duration of time. The network fabric then grants some allocation to each user, dependent on the sum of all requests and the sum of available resources, and attempts to ensure the requirements are met (either deterministically or statistically). An unresolved question at this time is how to convert the users’ requests into an allocation. Simply put, how do we decide what fraction of a network's bandwidth to allocate to each user when the sum of requests exceeds the available bandwidth? The usual problems of any resourcescheduling system arise here, namely how to ensure the resource is used efficiently and fairly, while still satisfying the needs of the users. Simply fixing quotas on network paths for each user is likely to lead

  6. The Bandwidths of a Matrix. A Survey of Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafteiu-Scai Liviu Octavian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth, average bandwidth, envelope, profile and antibandwidth of the matrices have been the subjects of study for at least 45 years. These problems have generated considerable interest over the years because of them practical relevance in areas like: solving the system of equations, finite element methods, circuit design, hypertext layout, chemical kinetics, numerical geophysics etc. In this paper a brief description of these problems are made in terms of their definitions, followed by a comparative study of them, using both approaches: matrix geometry and graph theory. Time evolution of the corresponding algorithms as well as a short description of them are made. The work also contains concrete real applications for which a large part of presented algorithms were developed.

  7. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  8. Bandwidth Management in Wireless Home Networks for IPTV Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Jursonovics

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal allocation of the retransmission bandwidth is essential for IPTV service providers to ensure maximal service quality. This paper highlights the relevance of the wireless transport in today’s IPTV solution and discusses how this new media affects the existing broadcast technologies. A new Markovian channel model is developed to address the optimization issues of the retransmission throughput, and a new method is presented which is evaluated by empirical measurements followed by mathematical analysis.

  9. Designing large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Our waveguide design is characterized by first of all a large bandwidth, and secondly it is characterized by a relatively high group velocity giving a better modal dispersion match with the modes of standard waveguides used for coupling light into the planar crystal waveguide (PCW). We consider t...... the dispersion properties for a PCW based on introducing a line defect in a photonic crystal with air-holes arranged periodically on a triangular lattice in silicon....

  10. T0001 / MilliNewton force sensor / frequency bandwidth

    OpenAIRE

    Maeder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This document gives an approximate calculation of the frequency bandwidth of the MilliNewton – and serves as a starting point for calculations on other cantilever-type sensors. The mechanical resonance frequencies of MilliNewton are high, due to the very small cantilever size. The working frequency is in fact limited by the electrical circuit at ca. 1 kHz (MilliNewton-A) or ca. 200 Hz (MilliNewton-B).

  11. Development of Information Assurance Protocol for Low Bandwidth Nanosatellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    encryption method may be the fastest most reliable encryption method for nanosatellites. Utilizing Python as a development and testing platform for the...immediately by the state of health data. F. NERDP PROOF OF CONCEPT PLATFORM DEVELOPMENT In order to test the validity of the design of NERDP, a proof of...bandwidth reliable network protocol that can support a cryptographic system for encrypted communications using commercial off-the-shelf components

  12. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  13. iGrid2002 Demonstration: Bandwidth from the Low Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2002-11-01

    We report on a demonstration of several complementary high performance end-to-end active network throughput measurement tools. These include: the PingWorld Java applet that displays the Round Trip Time (RTT) and losses to sites around the world from the user's host; the multi-path analysis tool that visualizes common paths from traceroutes to selected hosts; the IEPM high-performance BandWidth monitoring toolkit which gives achievable throughput for several types of TCP data transfer applications; and the Available Bandwidth Estimation (ABWE) tool that reports in real time the available bandwidth to several paths within the range from Mbits/s to Gbit/s. We also demonstrated sending high-speed data from 4 hosts at iGrid2002 to over 30 hosts in 10 countries to simulate a high energy physics experiment distributing data to collaborators. The demonstration utilized the high-speed, long latency, trans-Atlantic network set up for iGrid2002 in Amsterdam during September 2002.

  14. Neural bandwidth of veridical perception across the visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael O.; Anderson, Roger S.; Bradley, Arthur; Thibos, Larry N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural undersampling of the retinal image limits the range of spatial frequencies that can be represented veridically by the array of retinal ganglion cells conveying visual information from eye to brain. Our goal was to demarcate the neural bandwidth and local anisotropy of veridical perception, unencumbered by optical imperfections of the eye, and to test competing hypotheses that might account for the results. Using monochromatic interference fringes to stimulate the retina with high-contrast sinusoidal gratings, we measured sampling-limited visual resolution along eight meridians from 0° to 50° of eccentricity. The resulting isoacuity contour maps revealed all of the expected features of the human array of retinal ganglion cells. Contours in the radial fringe maps are elongated horizontally, revealing the functional equivalent of the anatomical visual streak, and are extended into nasal retina and superior retina, indicating higher resolution along those meridians. Contours are larger in diameter for radial gratings compared to tangential or oblique gratings, indicating local anisotropy with highest bandwidth for radially oriented gratings. Comparison of these results to anatomical predictions indicates acuity is proportional to the sampling density of retinal ganglion cells everywhere in the retina. These results support the long-standing hypothesis that “pixel density” of the discrete neural image carried by the human optic nerve limits the spatial bandwidth of veridical perception at all retinal locations. PMID:26824638

  15. Managing high-bandwidth real-time data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-23

    There exist certain systems which generate real-time data at high bandwidth, but do not necessarily require the long-term retention of that data in normal conditions. In some cases, the data may not actually be useful, and in others, there may be too much data to permanently retain in long-term storage whether it is useful or not. However, certain portions of the data may be identified as being vitally important from time to time, and must therefore be retained for further analysis or permanent storage without interrupting the ongoing collection of new data. We have developed a system, Mahanaxar, intended to address this problem. It provides quality of service guarantees for incoming real-time data streams and simultaneous access to already-recorded data on a best-effort basis utilizing any spare bandwidth. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale upwards to meet increasing bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. We will show that a prototype version of this system provides better performance than a flat file (traditional filesystem) based version, particularly with regard to quality of service guarantees and hard real-time requirements.

  16. Quantum gates with optimal bandwidth in noisy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Guang Hao; Theodore, Yoder; Chuang, Isaac

    The traditional approach of open-loop quantum error correction suppresses certain systematic imperfections ɛ in quantum control to higher orders ɛ  (L) by a well-designed sequence of L imperfect quantum gates. However, this philosophy of maximal flatness leads to an ɛ-bandwidth that scales poorly with length and a residual that is easily overwhelmed by unaccounted sources of noise. We advance the paradigm of equiripple compensated gates that directly optimize for bandwidth given the limitations imposed by noise of magnitude δ, leading to dramatically improved performance. Where ɛ represent amplitude errors, we provide a formalism that generalizes both approaches and is effective at finding such gates. With it, we provide in closed-form the phase angles for an optimal family of population inversion gates with an ɛ -bandwidth of  (logδ-1/L) - a quadratic improvement over optimal maximally flat variants. We also construct optimal NOT gates and discuss extensions to other gates and error models.

  17. Evidence for evanescent waves at interfaces in a high-index prism/liquid-crystal-Au-NPs/glass/air structure and effects of relative concentration of gold nanoparticles, wavelength, polarization, and incident angle of the laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kunal; Singh, Ankit; Sharma, Suresh

    2011-10-01

    Incorporation of relatively small concentrations of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is known to lower the operating threshold voltage and increase optical transmission through the device.ootnotetextA. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 081114 (2010) In order to understand whether there is an interplay between the localized surface plasmon resonance at Au-NPs-dielectric interfaces and the electro-optical properties of PDLC devices, we have investigated propagation of light through a high-index prism/liquid-crystal-Au-NPs/glass/air structure by using Kretschmann geometry as functions of concentration of Au NPs in the liquid crystal, and the wavelength, polarization, and angle of incidence of the laser beam. We will discuss to what extent the results of these experiments support an interplay between the localized surface plasmon resonance at NPs/dielectric interfaces and optical propagation through the above-described structure.

  18. Generation of bandwidth-limited tunable picosecond pulses by injection- locked parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnitskii, S.A.; Malachova, V.I.; Tarasevich, A.P.; Tunkin, V.G.; Yakubovich, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    We report a new Nd:YAG-pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator that generates bandwidth-limited pulses. Using two LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals, it produces tunable, near-1.4-..mu..m (signal-wave) pulses of 18-psec duration and ..delta nu.. = 1.2 cm/sup -1/ FWHM (..delta nu..tau = 0.7). The output energy of the optical parametric oscillators in a signal wave is no less than 2 mJ with 10% energy stability. The key to this device is the injection of cw single-frequency GaAs diode-laser radiation. Using the injection of diode-laser radiation, we have measured the spectral intensity of a quantun noise at lambda = 0.85 ..mu..m. The intensity was found to be 6 +- 2 W/cm/sup 2/ cm/sup -1/ sr (theoretical value, 4.7 W/cm/sup 2/ cm/sup -1/ sr).

  19. Sleep/doze controlled dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for energy-efficient passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maluge Pubuduni Imali; Wong, Elaine

    2013-04-22

    In this work, we present a comparative study of two just-in-time (JIT) dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms (DBAs), designed to improve the energy-efficiency of the 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical networks (10G-EPONs). The algorithms, termed just-in-time with varying polling cycle times (JIT) and just-in-time with fixed polling cycle times (J-FIT), are designed to achieve energy-savings when the idle time of an optical network unit (ONU) is less than the sleep-to-active transition time. This is made possible by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) ONU that can transit into sleep or doze modes during its idle time. We evaluate the performance of the algorithms in terms of polling cycle time, power consumption, percentage of energy-savings, and average delay. The energy-efficiency of a VCSEL ONU that can transition into sleep or doze mode is compared to an always-ON distributed feedback (DFB) laser ONU. Simulation results indicate that both JIT and J-FIT DBA algorithms result in improved energy-efficiency whilst J-FIT performs better in terms of energy-savings at low network loads. The J-FIT DBA however, results in increased average delay in comparison to the JIT DBA. Nonetheless, this increase in average delay is within the acceptable range to support the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the next-generation access networks.

  20. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  1. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution.

  2. Robust laser frequency stabilization by serrodyne modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Ralf; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Bernon, Simon; Bertoldi, Andrea; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2012-03-15

    We report the relative frequency stabilization of a distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber laser on an optical cavity by serrodyne frequency shifting. A correction bandwidth of 2.3 MHz and a dynamic range of 220 MHz are achieved, which leads to a strong robustness against large disturbances up to high frequencies. We demonstrate that serrodyne frequency shifting reaches a higher correction bandwidth and lower relative frequency noise level compared to a standard acousto-optical modulator based scheme. Our results allow us to consider promising applications in the absolute frequency stabilization of lasers on optical cavities.

  3. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  4. Coherent Polariton Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Fischer, Julian; Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Deng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The semiconductor polariton laser promises a new source of coherent light, which, compared to conventional semiconductor photon lasers, has input-energy threshold orders of magnitude lower. However, intensity stability, a defining feature of a coherent state, has remained poor. Intensity noise many times the shot noise of a coherent state has persisted, attributed to multiple mechanisms that are difficult to separate in conventional polariton systems. The large intensity noise, in turn, limits the phase coherence. Thus, the capability of the polariton laser as a source of coherence light is limited. Here, we demonstrate a polariton laser with shot-noise-limited intensity stability, as expected from a fully coherent state. This stability is achieved by using an optical cavity with high mode selectivity to enforce single-mode lasing, suppress condensate depletion, and establish gain saturation. Moreover, the absence of spurious intensity fluctuations enables the measurement of a transition from exponential to Gaussian decay of the phase coherence of the polariton laser. It suggests large self-interaction energies in the polariton condensate, exceeding the laser bandwidth. Such strong interactions are unique to matter-wave lasers and important for nonlinear polariton devices. The results will guide future development of polariton lasers and nonlinear polariton devices.

  5. Coherent Polariton Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor polariton laser promises a new source of coherent light, which, compared to conventional semiconductor photon lasers, has input-energy threshold orders of magnitude lower. However, intensity stability, a defining feature of a coherent state, has remained poor. Intensity noise many times the shot noise of a coherent state has persisted, attributed to multiple mechanisms that are difficult to separate in conventional polariton systems. The large intensity noise, in turn, limits the phase coherence. Thus, the capability of the polariton laser as a source of coherence light is limited. Here, we demonstrate a polariton laser with shot-noise-limited intensity stability, as expected from a fully coherent state. This stability is achieved by using an optical cavity with high mode selectivity to enforce single-mode lasing, suppress condensate depletion, and establish gain saturation. Moreover, the absence of spurious intensity fluctuations enables the measurement of a transition from exponential to Gaussian decay of the phase coherence of the polariton laser. It suggests large self-interaction energies in the polariton condensate, exceeding the laser bandwidth. Such strong interactions are unique to matter-wave lasers and important for nonlinear polariton devices. The results will guide future development of polariton lasers and nonlinear polariton devices.

  6. Development of broad bandwidth nonlinear spectroscopies for characterization of electronic states in materials systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbacher, Randy D.

    Carbon nanotubes are an interesting class of materials with many exceptional properties that make them appealing for optoelectronic devices. Their optical properties, particularly when cast in thin films, are not well understood. In this thesis, I describe the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring energy and charge transport processes in thin films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, I observe energy transport on two time scales in these films, with 20% of nanotubes transferring energy to smaller bandgap nanotubes within 300 fs. After 3 ps, 70% of the photoexcitation resides on small bandgap nanotubes. To study the complete landscape of energy transport in thin films of carbon nanotubes, I developed two dimensional white light spectroscopy (2D-WL). In 2D-WL spectroscopy, a broadband, white light supercontinuum is used to both excite and probe the sample. This technique has a bandwidth spanning > 500-1500 nm, a far broader bandwidth than previously reported in 2D electronic spectra. I take advantage of this large bandwidth to study the interactions and evolution of S1 and S2 excitons in a thin film of carbon nanotubes. I find that energy transfers between S1 excitons on a 2 ps time scale and occurs by a non-Forster energy transfer mechanism. In contrast, the energy in the S2 states redistributes on an ultrafast time scale, films of bare, semiconducting carbon nanotubes. In these films, energy transfer occurs in <100 fs between bare carbon nanotubes and this energy transfer is between parallel nanotubes. By taking advantage of the laser pulse polarization for each interaction, I resolve otherwise difficult to observe couplings between electronic states. To facilitate data interpretation, the orientational response for isotropic two dimensional samples to polarized electric fields is developed. Using polarization control 2D-WL spectroscopy, I measure the coupling between nanotube S1 transitions and radial

  7. Study on bandwidth enhancement techniques of microstrip antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab M. Elsagheer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a Novel Triangular UWB microstrip antenna which offers an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB greater than 8 GHz. This optimum antenna design provides satisfactory gain all over the UWB. The study includes partially truncating the ground plane (defected ground, inserting slits in the triangular radiating patch, and using different substrate materials in order to obtain band-notched UWB. The simulation experiments have been carried out using the IE3D Zeland software. The final antenna design is fabricated on two substrates; FR4 and Droid 5880 (Teflon. The practical measurements well agree with the simulation results.

  8. An empirical spectral bandwidth model for superior conjunction. [spacecraft communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The downlink signal from spacecraft in superior solar conjunction phases suffers a great reduction in signal-to-noise ratio. Responsible in large part for this effect is the line broadening of the signal spectrum. An analytic empirical expression was developed for spectral bandwidth as a function of heliocentric distance from 1 to 20 solar radii. The study is based on spectral broadening data obtained from the superior conjunctions of Helios 1 (1975), Helios 2 (1976), and Pioneer 6 (1968). The empirical fit is based in part on a function describing the electron content in the solar corona.

  9. Modulator reliability and bandwidth improvement: replacing tetrodes with MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of power MOS field effect transistors were studied with the intent of replacing a parallel pair of vacuum tube tetrodes in a linear modulator. The tetrodes have the shortest lifetimes of any other tubes in the system. The FETs offer definite performance advantages when compared to bipolar transistors and definite cost advantages when compared to vacuum tubes. Replacement of the tetrodes does however require careful consideration of voltage, current and to a lesser extent bandwidth capability in order to enhance overall modulator reliability without compromising present performance

  10. Bandwidth allocation for video under quality of service constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Anjum, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    We present queueing-based algorithms to calculate the bandwidth required for a video stream so that the three main Quality of Service constraints, i.e., end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss, are ensured. Conversational and streaming video-based applications are becoming a major part of the everyday Internet usage. The quality of these applications (QoS), as experienced by the user, depends on three main metrics of the underlying network, namely, end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss. These metrics are, in turn, directly related to the capacity of the links that the video traffic trave

  11. IMPLEMENTASI MANAJEMEN BANDWIDTH DENGAN DISIPLIN ANTRIAN HIERARCHICAL TOKEN BUCKET (HTB PADA SISTEM OPERASI LINUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nugraha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important Problem on Internet networking is exhausted resource and bandwidth by some user while other user did not get service properly. To overcome that problem we need to implement traffic control and bandwidth management system in router. In this research author want to implement Hierarchical Token Bucket algorithm as queue discipline (qdisc to get bandwidth management accurately in order the user can get bandwidth properly. The result of this research is form the management bandwidth cheaply and efficiently by using Hierarchical Token Bucket qdisc on Linux operating system were able to manage the user as we want.

  12. Rate of ectasia and incidence of irregular topography in patients with unidentified preoperative risk factors undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Jared G Smedley,2 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Allison Jarsted,3 Erik M Ostler1 1John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA Purpose: To report the rate of postoperative ectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation, in a population of patients with no identified preoperative risk factors. Methods: A retrospective case review of 1,992 eyes (1,364 patients treated between March 2007 and January 2009 was conducted, with a follow up of over 4 years. After identifying cases of ectasia, all the patient charts were examined retrospectively for preoperative findings suggestive of forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC. Results: Five eyes of four patients with post-LASIK ectasia were identified. All eyes passed preoperative screening and received bilateral LASIK. One of the five patients developed ectasia in both eyes. Three patients retrospectively revealed preoperative topography suggestive of FFKC, while one patient had no identifiable preoperative risk factors. Upon review of all the charts, a total 69 eyes, including four of the five eyes with ectasia, were retrospectively found to have topographies suggestive of FFKC. Conclusion: We identified four cases of post-LASIK ectasia that had risk factors for FFKC on reexamination of the chart and one case of post-LASIK ectasia with no identifiable preoperative risk factors. The most conservative screening recommendations would not have precluded this patient from LASIK. The rate of purely iatrogenic post-LASIK ectasia at our center was 0.05% (1/1,992, and the total rate of post-LASIK ectasia for our entire study was 0.25% (1/398. The rate of eyes with unrecognized preoperative FFKC that developed post-LASIK ectasia was 5.8% (1/17. Keywords

  13. Laser bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, D R; Harrell, J H

    2001-11-01

    Because the lung cancer epidemic shows no signs of abating, little doubt exists that the need for interventional bronchoscopists will persist for many years to come. The Nd:YAG laser and the rigid bronchoscope remain crucial weapons in the fight against lung cancer. With more than 4000 published interventions pertaining to it, this combination is ideal for treating central airways obstruction. The safety and efficacy of laser bronchoscopy has been well established, and the reported incidence of complications is impressively low. If complications were to arise, a skilled bronchoscopist can manage them easily by using the beneficial attributes of the rigid bronchoscope. Many complications can be avoided by implementing the established safety procedures and techniques. A solid understanding of laser physics and tissue interactions is a necessity to anyone performing laser surgery. The team approach, relying on communication among the bronchoscopist, anesthesiologist, laser technician, and nurses, leads to a safer and more successful procedure. It is important to remember, however, that this is typically a palliative procedure, and therefore the focus should be on alleviating symptoms and improving quality of life. Unfortunately, because not every patient is a candidate for laser bronchoscopy, there are specific characteristics of endobronchial lesions that make them more or less amenable to resection. Each year a promising new technology is being developed, such as argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, and endobronchial electrosurgery. Although it is unclear what role these technologies will have, prospective controlled studies must be done to help clarify this question. The future may lay in combining these various technologies along with Nd:YAG laser bronchoscopy to maximize the therapeutic, palliative, and possibly even curative effect. As the experience of the medical community with Nd:YAG laser bronchoscopy continues to grow and as more health-care professionals

  14. A bandwidth independent linear method for detection of carrier envelope phase drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerbe, M.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Most of the femtosecond-scale physical phenomena can be experimentally investigated by using carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized laser pulses only. The usual method of CEP stabilization requires laser pulses with a bandwidth of one octave broad at least. If the spectrum of the fundamental pulse itself is not sufficiently broad, then its bandwidth has to be broadened by use of any nonlinear method. Spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry (SSRI) has been proven to be a powerful technique for dispersion measurement of various materials and optical elements. It typically consists of a two-beam interferometer equipped with an imaging spectrograph. The interference pattern is imaged onto the input slit of the spectrograph, so that spatially (along the slit) and spectrally resolved interference fringes are formed on the 2D detector (CCD camera) inserted at the output plane of the spectrograph. In this paper we show that the visibility of the spectrally and spatially resolved interference fringes depends strongly on the CEP drift of subsequent pulses from a pulse train. When the pulses are CEP stabilized then the visibility has a definite extremum. To introduce the operation principle, let's assume a black box in the sample are of the interferometer illuminated by train of CEP-stabilized laser pulses. This imaginary black box would change only the CEP of the subsequent pulses by Δ ψ but leaves their dispersion relative to the reference pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the other arm of the interferometer, unchanged. The spatial position of the interference fringes depends on Δ ψ . If the subsequent fringes are formed by pulses with different CEP, the spatial position of each interference fringe changes. The detector, i.e. the CCD chip of the imaging spectrograph is slow, so that it actually captures many subsequent interference patterns, on top of each other. As a result, the visibility of the resulted and captured

  15. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  16. Analisis Efektifitas Bandwidth Menggunakan Ipcop (Studi Kasus : Balai Besar Teknologi Energi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viva Arifin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada Balai Besar Teknologi Energi (B2TE kerap mengalami masalah koneksi.  Masalah koneksi dapat mengganggu jalannya aktifitas komunikasi. Untuk menanggulangi masalah tersebut, maka perlu adanya pengaturan bandwidth.  Salah satu pengaturan bandwidth yang dapat menurunkan beban bandwidth adalah menggunakan pemakaian dua jalur modem ADSL. Pada IPCop pembatasan bandwidth menggunakan Advanced Proxy yaitu dengan download throttling. Pada B2TE total bandwidth pada jaringan antarmuka GREEN adalah 2 Mbps, kemudian dibatasi setiap host/pengguna untuk mengunduh adalah 512 Kbps. Begitu juga pada jaringan antarmuka BLUE bandwidth yang disediakan adalah 512 Kbps, dan untuk setiap pengguna dibatasi untuk mengunduh adalah 512 Kbps. Traffic shaping digunakan untuk membatasi kecepatan lajur. Maksimal kecepatan dibatasi hanya sampai 1 Mbps, sedangkan untuk mengundah 512 Kbps. Hal ini untuk mencegah para pengguna mengunduh data secara berlebihan yang mengakibatkan pemborosan bandwidth.

  17. Characteristics of a Saturated 18.9 nm Tabletop Laser Operating at 5 Hz Repetition Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larotonda, M A; Luther, B M; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Alessi, D; Berrill, M; Dummer, A; Brizuela, F; Menoni, C S; Marconi, M; Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Rocca, J J

    2005-01-01

    We report the characteristics of a saturated high repetition rate Ni-like Mo laser at 18.9 nm. This table-top soft x-ray laser was pumped at 5 Hz repetition rate by 8 ps, 1 J optical laser pulses impinging at grazing incidence into a pre-created Mo plasma. The variation of the laser output intensity as a function of the grazing incidence angle of the main pump beam is reported. The maximum laser intensity was observed for an angle of 20 degrees, at which we measured a small signal gain of 65 cm -1 and a gain-length product gxl > 15. Spatial coherence measurements resulting from a Young's double slit interference experiment show the equivalent incoherent source diameter is about 11 (micro)m. The peak spectral brightness is estimated to be of the order of 1 x 10 24 photons s -1 mm -2 mrad -2 within 0.01% spectral bandwidth. This type of practical, small scale, high repetition soft x-ray laser is of interest for many applications. This acts to reduce the sensitivity of burst properties to metallicity. Only the first anomalous burst in one model produces nuclei as heavy as A = 100. For the present choice of nuclear physics and accretion rates, other bursts and models make chiefly nuclei with A ∼ 64. The amount of carbon remaining after hydrogen-helium bursts is typically ∼ -10 M circledot yr -1 and solar metallicity, bursts are ignited in a hydrogen-free helium layer. At the base of this layer, up to 90% of the helium has already burned to carbon prior to the unstable ignition of the helium shell. These helium-ignited bursts have (a) briefer, brighter light curves with shorter tails; (b) very rapid rise times (< 0.1 s); and (c) ashes lighter than the iron group

  18. A wide-bandwidth and high-sensitivity robust microgyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Korhan; Sahin, Emre; Akin, Tayfun; Alper, Said Emre

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a microgyroscope design concept with the help of a 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) sense mode to achieve a wide bandwidth without sacrificing mechanical and electronic sensitivity and to obtain robust operation against variations under ambient conditions. The design concept is demonstrated with a tuning fork microgyroscope fabricated with an in-house silicon-on-glass micromachining process. When the fabricated gyroscope is operated with a relatively wide bandwidth of 1 kHz, measurements show a relatively high raw mechanical sensitivity of 131 µV (° s −1 ) −1 . The variation in the amplified mechanical sensitivity (scale factor) of the gyroscope is measured to be less than 0.38% for large ambient pressure variations such as from 40 to 500 mTorr. The bias instability and angle random walk of the gyroscope are measured to be 131° h −1 and 1.15° h −1/2 , respectively

  19. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines RJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  20. Multi-Modulator for Bandwidth-Efficient Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Lee, Dennis; Lay, Norman; Cheetham, Craig; Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; King, Robin; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; Fisher, Dave

    2009-01-01

    A modulator circuit board has recently been developed to be used in conjunction with a vector modulator to generate any of a large number of modulations for bandwidth-efficient radio transmission of digital data signals at rates than can exceed 100 Mb/s. The modulations include quadrature phaseshift keying (QPSK), offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK), Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), and octonary phase-shift keying (8PSK) with square-root raised-cosine pulse shaping. The figure is a greatly simplified block diagram showing the relationship between the modulator board and the rest of the transmitter. The role of the modulator board is to encode the incoming data stream and to shape the resulting pulses, which are fed as inputs to the vector modulator. The combination of encoding and pulse shaping in a given application is chosen to maximize the bandwidth efficiency. The modulator board includes gallium arsenide serial-to-parallel converters at its input end. A complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) performs the coding and modulation computations and utilizes parallel processing in doing so. The results of the parallel computation are combined and converted to pulse waveforms by use of gallium arsenide parallel-to-serial converters integrated with digital-to-analog converters. Without changing the hardware, one can configure the modulator to produce any of the designed combinations of coding and modulation by loading the appropriate bit configuration file into the FPGA.

  1. Ionospheric Coherence Bandwidth Measurements in the Lower VHF Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 820 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric coherence bandwidth and S4 scintillation index measurements in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range collected during the ESCINT equatorial scintillation experiment. 40-MHz continuous wave (CW) and 32 - 44 MHz swept frequency signals were transmitted simultaneously to the RFProp receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in three separate campaigns during the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results show coherence bandwidths as small as ~ 1 kHz for strong scintillation (S4 > 0.7) and indicate a high degree of ionospheric variability and irregularity on 10-m spatial scales. Spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities are also observed and are dominant at low elevation angles. The results are compared to previous measurements and available scaling laws.

  2. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Malah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately 3⋅10−4. In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in 92.5% of the test utterances.

  3. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately . In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in of the test utterances.

  4. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave.

  5. Flexible power and bandwidth allocation in mobile satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, L. A.

    The introduction of L-band mobile communication services by spot beam satellites creates a payload design challenge due to uncertainty in the location and size of the new market to be served. A combination of payload technologies that allow a flexible allocation of power and bandwidth to any portion of the coverage area is described. Power flexibility is achieved by a novel combination of a low-level beam-forming network and a matrix power module which ensures equal sharing of power among individual amplifiers. This eliminates the loss of efficiency and increased mass when an amplifier associated with a beam must be over-designed to meet uncertainties in power distribution between beams. Flexibility in allocation of bandwidth to beams is achieved by intermediate frequency subdivision of the L-band service categories defined by ITU. These spectral subdivisions are assigned to beams by an IF interconnect matrix having beam ports and filter ports as inputs and outputs, respectively. Two such filter switch matrices are required, one for the inbound L-band to feeder link transponder, and one for the outbound feeder link to L-band transponder.

  6. Spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits. The purpose of this work is to investigate such external control for providing a new class of diode lasers with technologically interesting properties, such as a narrow spectral bandwidth and spectrally tunable

  7. A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakule, P; Baird, PEG; Boshier, MG; Cornish, SL; Heller, DF; Jungmann, K; Lane, IC; Meyer, Franc; Sandars, PHG; Toner, WT; Towrie, M; Walling, JC

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy is described which produces pulses of 35 mJ energy in a 10 MHz bandwidth, with a high-purity TEM00 mode. The laser can be synchronised to external event to within 100 ns. The output pulse length is 120 ns and the repetition

  8. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. GAS LASERS FOR STRONG-FIELD APPLICATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2004-09-15

    Atomic-, molecular- and excimer-gas lasers employ variety of pumping schemes including electric discharge, optical, or chemical reactions and cover a broad spectral range from UV to far-IR. Several types of gas lasers can produce multi-kilojoule pulses and kilowatts of average power. Among them, excimer- and high-pressure molecular lasers have sufficient bandwidth for generating pico- and femtosecond pulses. Projects are underway and prospects are opening up to bring ultrafast gas laser technology to the front lines of advanced accelerator applications.

  10. NASA's laser-propulsion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. W.; Keefer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Design concepts, study results, and research directions toward development of CW laser heating of remotely flying spacecraft fuels to provide high impulse thrust are presented. The incident laser radiation would be absorbed by hydrogen through a medium of a laser-supported plasma. The laser energy could be furnished from an orbiting solar-powered laser platform and used to drive the engines of an orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) at costs less than with a chemical propulsion system. The OTV propulsion chamber would be reduced in size comparable to the volume addition of the incident laser energy absorber. The temperatures in the hydrogen-fueled system could reach 5000-15,000 K, and studies have been done to examine the feasibility of ion-electron recombination. Kinetic performance, temperature field, and power necessary to sustain a laser thrust augmented system modeling results are discussed, along with near-term 30 kW CO2 laser system tests.

  11. A Hybrid ACO Approach to the Matrix Bandwidth Minimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintea, Camelia-M.; Crişan, Gloria-Cerasela; Chira, Camelia

    The evolution of the human society raises more and more difficult endeavors. For some of the real-life problems, the computing time-restriction enhances their complexity. The Matrix Bandwidth Minimization Problem (MBMP) seeks for a simultaneous permutation of the rows and the columns of a square matrix in order to keep its nonzero entries close to the main diagonal. The MBMP is a highly investigated {NP}-complete problem, as it has broad applications in industry, logistics, artificial intelligence or information recovery. This paper describes a new attempt to use the Ant Colony Optimization framework in tackling MBMP. The introduced model is based on the hybridization of the Ant Colony System technique with new local search mechanisms. Computational experiments confirm a good performance of the proposed algorithm for the considered set of MBMP instances.

  12. Impedance Bandwidth and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Antenna Using Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xiong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved ultra-wideband (UWB and high gain rectangular antenna is specifically designed in this paper using planar-patterned metamaterial concepts. The antenna has isolated triangle gaps and crossed gaps etched on the metal patch and ground plane, respectively. By changing the pattern on the ground, the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna are much better. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 3.85–15.62 GHz, which is about 267% broader. The proposed antenna has an average gain of 5.42 dB and the peak is 8.36 dB at 13.5 GHz. Compared with the original one, the gain of the proposed antenna improved about 1.4 dB. Moreover, the size is reduced slightly. Simulated and experimental results obtained for this antenna show that it exhibits good radiation behavior within the UWB frequency range

  13. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter....... The experimental results of measured loop-gain at different operating points are presented to validate the theoretical performance of the controller....

  14. Description of a New 400MHz Bandwidth Chirp Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Lucas; Hartogh, Paul

    A new chirp transform spectrometer (CTS) with a bandwidth of 400MHz and a spectral resolution of 100 kHz has been developed. The CTS is deviced using a digital chirp generator and a preprocessing unit based on a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). A build in PC 104 computer handles the process control and the external communication via Ethernet and a Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) interface. The CTS has been applied to atmospheric science, i.e., a 25-K noise temperature, 22-GHz water vapor, and a 142-GHz ozone system. Astronomical observations have been performed using the Heinrich Hertz submillimeter telescope. In this paper, we describe the function of the CTS and provide information about its functional performance.

  15. Very low bandwidth, unattended imager for surveillance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, P.H.; Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The need arises in certain vehicular surveillance applications for an electronic imager that can perform without human interaction and can transmit definitive images over very low bandwidth channels. The investigators have found that line scan imagers offer particular advantages toward these ends. Specifically, the use of a line scan imager facilitates the following processing steps: (1) segmentation of the vehicle from the background, (2) automatic exposure control, (3) light level equalization prior to quantization, and (4) implementation of an adaptive sampling scheme. These processing steps together with the source encoder may be implemented on a relatively low throughput processor and achieve near real time operation. The specific encoding method used here is an extended differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). A prototype system has been developed, producing medium resolution images at less than 10K bits per frame.

  16. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-03-31

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded highpermittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating.

  17. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  18. Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    Data collection and transmission are the fundamental operations of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A key challenge in effective data collection and transmission is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with the global clock. This paper proposes the Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid...... Synchronization Data Aggregation Algorithm (BESDA) using spanning tree mechanism (SPT). It uses static sink and mobile nodes in the network. BESDA considers the synchronization of a local clock of node with global clock of the network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure...... in the network and then perform the pair-wise synchronization. With the mobility of node, the structure frequently changes causing an increase in energy consumption. To mitigate the problem BESDA aggregate data with the notion of a global timescale throughout the network and schedule based time-division multiple...

  19. Fibre Bragg grating based accelerometer with extended bandwidth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basumallick, Nandini; Biswas, Palas; Dasgupta, Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chakraborty, Rajib; Chakraborty, Sushanta

    2016-01-01

    We have shown experimentally that the operable bandwidth of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) based accelerometer can be extended significantly, without compromising its sensitivity, using a post-signal processing technique which involves frequency domain weighting. It has been demonstrated that using the above technique acceleration can be correctly interpreted even when the operating frequency encroaches on the region where the frequency response of the sensor is non-uniform. Two different excitation signals, which we often encounter in structural health monitoring applications, e.g. (i) a signal composed of multi-frequency components and (ii) a sinusoidal excitation with a frequency sweep, have been considered in our experiment. The results obtained have been compared with a piezo accelerometer. (paper)

  20. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Philip; Ohki, Thomas A.; Fong, Kin Chung

    2015-01-01

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T ∼ 100 K

  1. High-efficiency 2 μm Tm-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornikov, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Tm doped fiber laser operating in so called 'eye safe' wavelength region and designed in a MOPA configuration has been demonstrated. Large-mode-area fiber design and availability of high-brightness, high-power pump diodes at 795 nm made possible maximum output power of 25 W achieved at incident pump power of 72 W resulting in optical conversion efficiency about 35%. An important factor that led to an interest in 2 μm Tm-doped lasers is significantly broader spectral tunability of Tm-doped fibers compared to Yb-doped fibers, spanning wavelengths from below 1850 nm to beyond 2100 nm, corresponding to more than 200 nm of available bandwidth. This wavelength region covers the water absorption peaks around 1940 nm, making these lasers a valuable tool for precise medical procedures including noninvasive surgery, as well as several atmospheric transmission windows that are useful for remote sensing, laser radar and range-finding. This work was carried out as part of the EU funded Joint Operational Programme 'Black Sea Basin 2007-2013' and project 2.2.1.74459.339, MIS-ETC 1443 'Research networking for the environmental monitoring and mitigation of adverse ecological effects in the Black Sea Basin (BSB Net-Eco)'.

  2. Piezo-based, high dynamic range, wide bandwidth steering system for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasikov, Nir; Peled, Gal; Yasinov, Roman; Feinstein, Alan

    2017-05-01

    Piezoelectric motors and actuators are characterized by direct drive, fast response, high positioning resolution and high mechanical power density. These properties are beneficial for optical devices such as gimbals, optical image stabilizers and mirror angular positioners. The range of applications includes sensor pointing systems, image stabilization, laser steering and more. This paper reports on the construction, properties and operation of three types of piezo based building blocks for optical steering applications: a small gimbal and a two-axis OIS (Optical Image Stabilization) mechanism, both based on piezoelectric motors, and a flexure-assisted piezoelectric actuator for mirror angular positioning. The gimbal weighs less than 190 grams, has a wide angular span (solid angle of > 2π) and allows for a 80 micro-radian stabilization with a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz. The OIS is an X-Y, closed loop, platform having a lateral positioning resolution better than 1 μm, a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz and a travel of +/-2 mm. It is used for laser steering or positioning of the image sensor, based on signals from a MEMS Gyro sensor. The actuator mirror positioner is based on three piezoelectric actuation axes for tip tilt (each providing a 50 μm motion range), has a positioning resolution of 10 nm and is capable of a 1000 Hz response. A combination of the gimbal with the mirror positioner or the OIS stage is explored by simulations, indicating a <10 micro-radian stabilization capability under substantial perturbation. Simulations and experimental results are presented for a combined device facilitating both wide steering angle range and bandwidth.

  3. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification of infantile seborrheic dermatitis-causing Malassezia and incidence of culture-based cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mikachi; Umeda, Yoshiko; Yo, Ayaka; Yamaura, Mariko; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been utilized for identification of various microorganisms. Malassezia species, including Malassezia restricta, which is associated with seborrheic dermatitis, has been difficult to identify by traditional means. This study was performed to develop a system for identification of Malassezia species with MALDI-TOF-MS and to investigate the incidence and variety of cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants using this technique. A Malassezia species-specific MALDI-TOF-MS database was developed from eight standard strains, and the availability of this system was assessed using 54 clinical strains isolated from the skin of 1-month-old infants. Clinical isolates were cultured initially on CHROMagar Malassezia growth medium, and the 28S ribosomal DNA (D1/D2) sequence was analyzed for confirmatory identification. Using this database, we detected and analyzed Malassezia species in 68% and 44% of infants with and without infantile seborrheic dermatitis, respectively. The results of MALDI-TOF-MS analysis were consistent with those of rDNA sequencing identification (100% accuracy rate). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a MALDI-TOF-MS database for major skin pathogenic Malassezia species. This system is an easy, rapid and reliable method for identification of Malassezia. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Characteristics of III-nitride based laser diode employed for short range underwater wireless optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Liu, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Feng, Liangsen; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2018-03-01

    An off-the-shelf green laser diode (LD) was measured to investigate its temperature dependent characteristics. Performance of the device was severely restricted by rising temperature in terms of increasing threshold current and decreasing modulation bandwidth. The observation reveals that dynamic characteristics of the LD is sensitive to temperature. Influence of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the green LD was also studied. The impact of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the LD in short and low turbid water channel was not obvious while slight difference in modulation bandwidth under same injection level was observed between water channel and free space even at short range.

  5. Analysis and active compensation of microphonics in continuous wave narrow-bandwidth superconducting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neumann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proposals for next generation light sources based on single pass free electron lasers or energy recovery linac facilities require a continuous wave (cw driven superconducting linac. The effective beam loading in such machines is very small and in principle the cavities can be operated at a bandwidth of a few Hz and with less than a few kW of rf power. However, a power reserve is required to ensure field stability. A major error source is the mechanical microphonics detuning of the niobium cavities. To understand the influence of cavity detuning on longitudinal beam stability, a measurement program has been started at the horizontal cavity test facility HoBiCaT at HZB to study TESLA-type cavities. The microphonics detuning spectral content, peak detuning values, and the driving terms for these mechanical oscillations have been analyzed. In combination with the characterization of cw-adapted fast tuning systems based on the piezoelectric effect this information has been used to design a detuning compensation algorithm. It has been shown that a compensation factor between 2–7 is achievable, reducing the typical detuning of 2–3 Hz rms to below 0.5 Hz rms. These results were included in rf-control simulations of the cavities, and it was demonstrated that a phase stability below 0.02° can be achieved.

  6. Space communication and radar with lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sensitive heterodyne detection with lasers applied .to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to random Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of

  7. High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range optical telecommunications (LROT) impose challenging requirements on detector array sensitivity at 1064nm and arrays timing bandwidth. Large photonic...

  8. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  9. Bandwidth allocation strategy for traffic systems of scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Hu MaobBin; Du Wenbo; Jiang Rui; Wu Yonghong; Wu Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the bandwidth resource allocation strategy is considered for traffic systems of complex networks. With a finite resource of bandwidth, an allocation strategy with preference parameter α is proposed considering the links importance. The performance of bandwidth allocation strategy is studied for the local routing protocol and the shortest path protocol. When important links are slightly favored in the bandwidth allocation, the system can achieve the optimal traffic performance for the two routing protocols. For the shortest path protocol, we also give a method to estimate the network traffic capacity theoretically.

  10. Bandwidth tunable microwave photonic filter based on digital and analog modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yubing; Sun, Xian; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong

    2018-05-01

    A bandwidth tunable microwave photonic filter based on digital and analog modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The digital modulation is used to broaden the effective gain spectrum and the analog modulation is to get optical lines. By changing the symbol rate of data pattern, the bandwidth is tunable from 50 MHz to 700 MHz. The interval of optical lines is set according to the bandwidth of gain spectrum which is related to the symbol rate. Several times of bandwidth increase are achieved compared to a single analog modulation and the selectivity of the response is increased by 3.7 dB compared to a single digital modulation.

  11. Bandwidth-adaptable silicon photonic differentiator employing a slow light effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A photonic differentiator (DIFF) plays a crucial role in photonic circuits. Despite the fact that a DIFF having a tera-hertz bandwidth has been reported, the practical bandwidth is limited to being a bandpass response. In this Letter, we propose the concept of a bandwidth-adaptable DIFF, which...... exploits the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) to overcome the inherent bandwidth limitation of current photonic DIFFs. We fabricated a PhCW Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PhCW-MZI) on the silicon-onisolator material platform to validate our concept. Input Gaussian pulses with full...

  12. The Prediction of Bandwidth On Need Computer Network Through Artificial Neural Network Method of Backpropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhthison Mekongga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for bandwidth has been increasing recently. This is because the development of internet infrastructure is also increasing so that we need an economic and efficient provider system. This can be achieved through good planning and a proper system. The prediction of the bandwidth consumption is one of the factors that support the planning for an efficient internet service provider system. Bandwidth consumption is predicted using ANN. ANN is an information processing system which has similar characteristics as the biologic al neural network.  ANN  is  chosen  to  predict  the  consumption  of  the  bandwidth  because  ANN  has  good  approachability  to  non-linearity.  The variable used in ANN is the historical load data. A bandwidth consumption information system was built using neural networks  with a backpropagation algorithm to make the use of bandwidth more efficient in the future both in the rental rate of the bandwidth and in the usage of the bandwidth.Keywords: Forecasting, Bandwidth, Backpropagation

  13. Study of a Linear Acoustooptic Laser Modulator Based on All-Fibre Sagnac Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trinidad García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre (PM-PCF strategy for acoustooptic modulation using all-fibre Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated. The principal constraint to apply the strategy is defined by a linear laser acoustooptic modulator (AOM for 1550 nm. The intensity of incident acoustic waves over the PM-PCF loop segment affected the signal interference transmission; here, modulation by birefringence variation around 7.6×10-4±Δni was observed. It is discovered that, through mathematical analysis, two operation points in the spectrum, TSI(λ, operate in a linear region, and expressions for spectral gain and sensibility are also discovered. AOM has a bandwidth from 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz, and its dynamic range is from 0.0 to 43.5 dB.

  14. Scaling Mesa Indium Phosphide DHBTs to Record Bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobisser, Evan

    Indium phosphide heterojunction bipolar transistors are able to achieve higher bandwidths at a given feature size than transistors in the Silicon material system for a given feature size. Indium phosphide bipolar transistors demonstrate higher breakdown voltages at a given bandwidth than both Si bipolars and field effect transistors in the InP material system. The high bandwidth of InP HBTs results from both intrinsic material parameters and bandgap engineering through epitaxial growth. The electron mobility in the InGaAs base and saturation velocity in the InP collector are both approximately three times higher than their counterparts in the SiGe material system. Resistance of the base can be made very low due to the large offset in the valence band between the InP emitter and the InGaAs base, which allows the base to be doped on the order of 1020 cm-3 with negligible reduction in emitter injection efficiency. This thesis deals with type-I, NPN dual-heterojunction bipolar transistors. The emitters are InP, and the base is InGaAs. There is a thin (˜ 10 nm) n-type InGaAs "setback" region, followed by a chirped superlattice InGaAs/InAlAs grade to the InP collector. The setback, grade, and collector are all lightly doped n-type. The emitter and collector are contacted through thin (˜ 5 nm) heavily doped n-type InGaAs layers to reduce contact resistivity. The primary focus of this work is increasing the bandwidth of InP HBTs through the proportional scaling of the device dimensions, both layer thicknesses and junction areas, as well as the reduction of the contact resistivities associated with the transistor. Essentially, all RC time constants and transit times must be reduced by a factor of two to double a transistor's bandwidth. Chapter 2 describes in detail the scaling laws and design principles for high frequency bipolar transistor design. A low-stress, blanket sputter deposited composite emitter metal process was developed. Refractory metal base contacts were

  15. Thermal tuning On narrow linewidth fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peiqi; Liu, Tianshan; Gao, Xincun; Ren, Shiwei

    2010-10-01

    At present, people have been dedicated to high-speed and large-capacity optical fiber communication system. Studies have been shown that optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is an effective means of communication to increase the channel capacity. Tunable lasers have very important applications in high-speed, largecapacity optical communications, and distributed sensing, it can provide narrow linewidth and tunable laser for highspeed optical communication. As the erbium-doped fiber amplifier has a large gain bandwidth, the erbium-doped fiber laser can be achieved lasing wavelength tunable by adding a tunable filter components, so tunable filter device is the key components in tunable fiber laser.At present, fiber laser wavelength is tuned by PZT, if thermal wavelength tuning is combined with PZT, a broader range of wavelength tuning is appearance . Erbium-doped fiber laser is used in the experiments,the main research is the physical characteristics of fiber grating temperature-dependent relationship and the fiber grating laser wavelength effects. It is found that the fiber laser wavelength changes continuously with temperature, tracking several temperature points observed the self-heterodyne spectrum and found that the changes in spectra of the 3dB bandwidth of less than 1kHz, and therefore the fiber laser with election-mode fiber Bragg grating shows excellent spectral properties and wavelength stability.

  16. Some fundamental problems relating to optical fibres. II. The ultimate bandwidth performance of optical fibre transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambling, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Optical fibre transmission lines can be divided broadly into two types, namely single mode and multimode. The bandwidth of the former is limited by the variation in group velocity with frequency caused by mode dispersion and material dispersion, with predicted values of tens of gigahertz over tens of kilometres for a monochromatic carrier, falling to approximately l GHz over 1km for a typical injection laser. Multimode fibres have the additional limitation of group delay between the various propagating modes. Several schemes have been suggested for reducing this effect, such as: (a) exciting only a few modes (ideally one) in a fibre exhibiting no mode conversion, (b) inducing coupling between bound modes but not into radiating modes, and (c) equalizing the mode velocities by means of a suitable refractive index profile. Most effort is presently being devoted to (c) and it has been shown that the optimum profile is affected by leaky modes and material dispersion. By operating at a wavelength in the region of 1.25μm the effect of material dispersion can be greatly reduced and bandwidths in excess of 1 GHz over 1km might be expected, even with sources of large linewidth. (author)

  17. Enhancement of sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational wave detectors using fast-light-based white light cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salit, M; Shahriar, M S

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gravitational waves (GWs) has been observed indirectly, by monitoring the change in the orbital frequency of neutron stars in a binary system as they lose energy via gravitational radiation. However, GWs have not yet been observed directly. The initial LIGO apparatus has not yet observed GWs. The advanced LIGO (AdLIGO) will use a combination of improved techniques in order to increase the sensitivity. Along with power recycling and a higher power laser source, the AdLIGO will employ signal recycling (SR). While SR would increase sensitivity, it would also reduce the bandwidth significantly. Previously, we and others have investigated, theoretically and experimentally, the feasibility of using a fast-light-based white light cavity (WLC) to circumvent this constraint. However, in the previous work, it was not clear how one would incorporate the white light cavity effect. Here, we first develop a general model for Michelson-interferometer-based GW detectors that can be easily adapted to include the effects of incorporating a WLC into the design. We then describe a concrete design of a WLC constructed as a compound mirror, to replace the signal recycling mirror. This design is simple, robust, completely non-invasive, and can be added to the AdLIGO system without changing any other optical elements. We show a choice of parameters for which the signal sensitivity as well as the bandwidth are enhanced significantly over what is planned for the AdLIGO, covering the entire spectrum of interest for gravitational waves

  18. Studies of high repetition rate laser-produced plasma soft-X-ray amplifiers; Etudes d'amplificateurs plasma laser a haute cadence dans le domaine X-UV et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassou, K

    2006-12-15

    The progress made as well on the Ti:Sa laser system, as in the control and the knowledge of laser produced X-UV sources allowed the construction of a X-UV laser station dedicated to the applications. My thesis work falls under the development of this station and more particularly on the characterization of a X-UV laser plasma amplifier. The experimental study relates to the coupling improvement of the pump infra-red laser with plasma within the framework of the transient collisional X-UV laser generation. These X-UV lasers are generated in a plasma formed by the interaction of a solid target and a laser pulse of approximately 500 ps duration, followed by a second infra-red laser pulse known as of pump (about 5 ps) impinging on the target in grazing incidence. For the first time, a complete parametric study was undertaken on the influence of the grazing angle on the pumping of the amplifying medium. One of the results was to reach very high peak brightness about 10{sup 28} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/(0.1%bandwidth), which compares well with the free-electron laser brightness. Moreover, we modified then used a new two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement in order to understand the influence of the space-time properties of the infra-red laser on the formation and the evolution of the amplifying plasma. Our modeling highlighted the interest to use a super Gaussian transverse profile for the line focus leading to an increase in a factor two of the gain region size and a reduction of the electron density gradient by three orders of magnitude. These improvements should strongly increase the energy contained in X-UV laser beam. We thus used X-UV laser to study the appearance of transient defects produced by a laser IR on a beam-splitter rear side. We also began research on the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by a very intense X-UV radiation. (author)

  19. High-power laser diodes at various wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, M.A.

    1997-02-19

    High power laser diodes at various wavelengths are described. First, performance and reliability of an optimized large transverse mode diode structure at 808 and 941 nm are presented. Next, data are presented on a 9.5 kW peak power array at 900 nm having a narrow emission bandwidth suitable for pumping Yb:S-FAP laser materials. Finally, results on a fiber-coupled laser diode array at {approx}730 nm are presented.

  20. Development of high-power laser technology -Development of pulse modification technique of dye laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Won; Kim, Dong Ho; Han, Jae Won; Seo, Jung Chul [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The pulsed dye laser beam obtained through the pulsed amplification of weak CW narrow bandwidth dye laser with four-pass amplifier has high power gain of 10{sup 7} and narrow bandwidth of 130 MHz. The use of grating in four-pass= amplifier reduced the intensity ratio of the amplified spontaneous emission v. total laser power to less than 1.5 %, and the technique improved output power by about 4 %. Also, the dye laser amplifier composed of three stage amplification system was fabricated to study time-resolved spectroscopy. We performed a pump-probe experiment with continuum pulses generated by high-power femtosecond pulses and study on a technique to generate femtosecond pulses in wide wavelength region. (Author) 69 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  1. Laser linewidth narrowing using transient spectral hole burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Böttger, Thomas, E-mail: tbottger@usfca.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2130 Fulton Street, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate significant narrowing of laser linewidths by high optical density materials with inhomogeneously broadened absorption. As a laser propagates through the material, the nonlinear spectral hole burning process causes a progressive self-filtering of the laser spectrum, potentially reaching values less than the homogeneous linewidth. The transient spectral hole dynamically adjusts itself to the instantaneous frequency of the laser, passively suppressing laser phase noise and side modes over the entire material absorption bandwidth without the need for electronic or optical feedback to the laser. Wide bandwidth laser phase noise suppression was demonstrated using Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and LiNbO{sub 3} at 1.5 μm by employing time-delayed self-heterodyne detection of an external cavity diode laser to study the spectral narrowing effect. Our method is not restricted to any particular wavelength or laser system and is attractive for a range of applications where ultra-low phase noise sources are required. - Highlights: • We demonstrate significant laser linewidths narrowing by high optical density materials. • Nonlinear spectral hole burning causes progressive self-filtering of laser spectrum. • Filter dynamically adjusts itself to the instantaneous frequency of the laser. • Demonstrated at 1.5 μm in Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and LiNbO{sub 3}. • Linewidth filtering is not restricted to any particular wavelength or laser system.

  2. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-06

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. A Multicarrier Multiplexing Method for Very Wide Bandwidth Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymoglou George

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multicarrier orthogonal code division multiplexing (MC-OCDM introduced here has been designed for very wide bandwidth (VWB point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmission. In order to meet VWB transmission requirements, the MC-OCDM design has two components, the basic and the composite. The basic MC-OCDM is a generalized form of the standard orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. It has the property of distributing the power of each transmitted symbol into all subcarrier frequencies. Each subcarrier will then carry all transmitted symbols which are distinguished by orthogonal Hadamard sequences. The resulting system is shown to improve the performance of OFDM by introducing frequency and time diversity. As shown, by both analysis and simulation, the basic MC-OCDM combats the effects of narrowband interference (NBI. In particular, the simulation results show that the BER performance of the basic MC-OCDM in the presence of NBI is better than OFDM for both coded and uncoded systems. Furthermore, the composite MC-OCDM is a method of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM basic MC-OCDM channels. This allows us to multiplex more than one basic MC-OCDM channel into a VWB transmission system which can have the performance and spectral efficiency required in fixed wireless transmission environments.

  4. Bandwidth-Enhanced Low-Profile Antenna with Parasitic Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Xuat Ta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents low-profile broadband antennas, which are composed of four parasitic patches placed between planar radiators and a perfect electric conductor ground plane. Two types of planar radiators, a conventional dipole and a crossed dipole, are employed to produce linearly polarized (LP and circularly polarized (CP radiations, respectively. The radiator and parasitic patches are realized on thin substrates to lower the cost. Owing to the presence of parasitic patches, the antenna performance improves in terms of profile reduction, resonant frequency decrease, and bandwidth enhancement. These improvements are discussed and confirmed computationally and experimentally. The LP design with the overall dimensions of 120 mm × 120 mm × 16.3 mm (0.64λ0 × 0.64λ0 × 0.087λ0 at 1.6 GHz has a |S11|  96%. The CP design, which has the same physical size as the LP case, has a |S11|  90%.

  5. QoS routing via multiple paths using bandwidth reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors address the problem of computing a multipath, consisting of possibly overlapping paths, to transmit data from the source node s to the destination node d over a computer network while ensuring deterministic bounds on end-to-end delay or delivery rate. They consider two generic routing problems within the framework wherein bandwidth can be reserved, and guaranteed, once reserved, on various links of the communication network. The first problem requires that a message of finite length be transmitted from s to d within {tau} units of time. The second problem requires that a sequential message of r units be transmitted at a rate of {eta} such that maximum time difference between two units that are received out of order is no more than q. They propose a polynomial-time algorithm to the first problem based on an adaptation of the classical Ford-Fulkerson`s method. They present simulation results to illustrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm. They show the second problem to be NP-complete and propose a polynomial-time approximate solution.

  6. QoS routing via multiple paths using bandwidth reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors address the problem of computing a multipath, consisting of possibly overlapping paths, to transmit data from the source node s to the destination node d over a computer network while ensuring deterministic bounds on end-to-end delay or delivery rate.They consider two generic routing problems within the framework wherein bandwidth can be reserved, and guaranteed, once reserved, on various links of the communication network. The first problem requires that a message of finite length be transmitted from s to d within {tau} units of time. The second problem requires that a sequential message of r units be transmitted at a rate of {eta} such that maximum time difference between two units that are received out of order is no more than q. They propose a polynomial-time algorithm to the first problem based on an adaptation of the classical Ford-Fulkerson`s method. They present simulation results to illustrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm. They show the second problem to be NP-complete, and propose a polynomial-time approximately solution.

  7. Constant-bandwidth constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, P

    2007-07-01

    A constant-temperature anemometer (CTA) enables the measurement of fast-changing velocity fluctuations. In the classical solution of CTA, the transmission band is a function of flow velocity. This is a minor drawback when the mean flow velocity does not significantly change, though it might lead to dynamic errors when flow velocity varies over a considerable range. A modification is outlined, whereby an adaptive controller is incorporated in the CTA system such that the anemometer's transmission band remains constant in the function of flow velocity. For that purpose, a second feedback loop is provided, and the output signal from the anemometer will regulate the controller's parameters such that the transmission bandwidth remains constant. The mathematical model of a CTA that has been developed and model testing data allow a through evaluation of the proposed solution. A modified anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows in a wide range of velocities. The proposed modification allows the minimization of dynamic measurement errors.

  8. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Taner

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT) which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU) runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand. PMID:24194684

  9. Coherence bandwidth characterization in an urban microcell at 62.4 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, M. G.; Hammoudeh, A. M.; Grindrod, E.

    2000-01-01

    variation of this coefficient with distance and in order to provide accurate estimates of the coherence bandwidth in the microcell, the correlation coefficient has to be measured over large sections. Two methods to calculate the coherence bandwidth are presented and compared. It is shown that estimating...

  10. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed hard/soft real-time fault-tolerant applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. We use the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling for the hard real-time tasks and the Constant Bandwidth Server (CBS) for the soft tasks. The bandwidth re...

  11. A wideband supply modulator for 20MHz RF bandwidth polar PAs in 65nm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, R.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; de Graauw, A.J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A wideband modulator for a 20MHz bandwidth polar modulated PA is presented which achieves a maximum efficiency of 87.5% and a small signal -3dB bandwidth of 285MHz. Realized in 65nm CMOS, it consists of a cascoded nested Miller compensated linear amplifier and a class D switching amplifier.

  12. High-Q Variable Bandwidth Passive Filters for Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of Software Defined Radio is the ability to define the bandwidth of the filter that selects the desired channel. This paper describes a technique for channel filtering, in which two passive filters are combined to obtain a variable bandwidth. Passive filters have the advantage of

  13. High-Q variable bandwidth passive filters for Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    An important aspect of Software Defined Radio is the ability to define the bandwidth of the filter that selects the desired channel. This paper describes a technique for channel filtering, in which two passive filters are combined to obtain a variable bandwidth. Passive filters have the advantage of

  14. Comparison of Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques in Packet-Switched Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Villa, Dimas; Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    of information regarding the available bandwidth in the transport network, as it could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. This paper provides a comparative study of three well known available bandwidth estimation techniques, i.e. TOPP, SLoPS and pathChirp, taking into account...

  15. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths...

  16. Construction and experimental testing of the constant-bandwidth constant-temperature anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, P

    2008-09-01

    A classical constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer enables the measurement of fast-changing flow velocity fluctuations, although its transmission bandwidth is a function of measured velocity. This may be a source of significant dynamic errors. Incorporation of an adaptive controller into the constant-temperature system results in hot-wire anemometer operating with a constant transmission bandwidth. The construction together with the results of experimental testing of a constant-bandwidth hot-wire anemometer prototype are presented in this article. During the testing, an approximately constant transmission bandwidth of the anemometer was achieved. The constant-bandwidth hot-wire anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows characterized by a wide range of velocity changes.

  17. High Performance self-injection locked 524 nm green laser diode for high bitrate visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok

    2018-03-05

    First demonstration of self-injection locking on 524 nm visible laser diode is presented. Enhancement by ~440 MHz (~30%) in modulation bandwidth, ~7 times reduction in lasing linewidth, and ~10 dB improvement in SMSR is achieved.

  18. Fixed tile rate codec for bandwidth saving in video processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dinh, Chon-Tam Le; Le, Dinh Kha; Wong, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an image compression circuit for bandwidth saving in video display processors. This is intra frame tile based compression algorithm offering visually lossless quality for compression rates between 1.5 and 2.5. RGB and YCbCr (4:4:4, 4:2:2 and 4:2:0) video formats are supported for 8/10 bits video signals. The Band Width Compressor (BWC) consists of Lossless Compressor (LC) and Quantization Compressor (QC) that generate output bit streams for tiles of pixels. Size of output bit stream generated for a tile by the LC may be less or greater than a required size of output memory block. The QC generates bit stream that always fits output memory block of the required size. The output bit stream generated by the LC is transmitted if its size is less than the required size of the output memory block. Otherwise, the output bit stream generated by the QC is transmitted. The LC works on pixel basis. A difference between original and predicted pixel's values for each pixel of a tile is encoded as prefix and suffix. The prefix is encoded by means of variable length code, and suffix is encoded as is. The QC divides a tile of pixels on a set of blocks and quantizes pixels of each block independently of the other blocks. The number of quantization bits for all pixels of a block depends on standard deviation calculated over the block. A difference between pixel's value and average value over the block is quantized and transmitted.

  19. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  20. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  1. Effect of latency and packet loss on achievable bandwidth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following an incident with a slow database replication between CERN's data centers, we discovered that even a very low rate packet loss in the network can induce significant penalties to long distance single stream TCP transfers. We explore the behaviour of multiple congestion control algorithms in a controlled loss environment in order to understand what is the achievable throughput of TCP data transfers between the Meyrin and Wigner data centres.

  2. High-Speed Operation of Interband Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Wright, Malcom W.; Farr, William H.; Yang, Rui Q.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Optical sources operating in the atmospheric window of 3-5 microns are of particular interest for the development of free-space optical communication link. It is more advantageous to operate the free-space optical communication link in 3-5-microns atmospheric transmission window than at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 m due to lower optical scattering, scintillation, and background radiation. However, the realization of optical communications at the longer wavelength has encountered significant difficulties due to lack of adequate optical sources and detectors operating in the desirable wavelength regions. Interband Cascade (IC) lasers are novel semiconductor lasers that have a great potential for the realization of high-power, room-temperature optical sources in the 3-5-microns wavelength region, yet no experimental work, until this one, was done on high-speed direct modulation of IC lasers. Here, highspeed interband cascade laser, operating at wavelength 3.0 m, has been developed and the first direct measurement of the laser modulation bandwidth has been performed using a unique, highspeed quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The developed laser has modulation bandwidth exceeding 3 GHz. This constitutes a significant increase of the IC laser modulation bandwidth over currently existing devices. This result has demonstrated suitability of IC lasers as a mid-IR light source for multi-GHz free-space optical communications links

  3. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  4. Knee implant imaging at 3 Tesla using high-bandwidth radiofrequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmidt, Theresa J; Sutter, Reto; Jakob, Peter M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Nittka, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of high-bandwidth radiofrequency (RF) pulses used in turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences or combined with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) on artifact reduction at 3 Tesla in the knee in the presence of metal. Local transmit/receive coils feature increased maximum B1 amplitude, reduced SAR exposition and thus enable the application of high-bandwidth RF pulses. Susceptibility-induced through-plane distortion scales inversely with the RF bandwidth and the view angle, hence blurring, increases for higher RF bandwidths, when SEMAC is used. These effects were assessed for a phantom containing a total knee arthroplasty. TSE and SEMAC sequences with conventional and high RF bandwidths and different contrasts were tested on eight patients with different types of implants. To realize scan times of 7 to 9 min, SEMAC was always applied with eight slice-encoding steps and distortion was rated by two radiologists. A local transmit/receive knee coil enables the use of an RF bandwidth of 4 kHz compared with 850 Hz in conventional sequences. Phantom scans confirm the relation of RF bandwidth and through-plane distortion, which can be reduced up to 79%, and demonstrate the increased blurring for high-bandwidth RF pulses. In average, artifacts in this RF mode are rated hardly visible for patients with joint arthroplasties, when eight SEMAC slice-encoding steps are applied, and for patients with titanium fixtures, when TSE is used. The application of high-bandwidth RF pulses by local transmit coils substantially reduces through-plane distortion artifacts at 3 Tesla. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optimization of Quantum-Dot Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Broad Spectral Bandwidth Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul

    2012-12-01

    The optimization of the key growth parameters for broad spectral bandwidth devices based on quantum dots is reported. A combination of atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence of test samples, and optoelectronic characterization of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is used to optimize the growth conditions to obtain high-quality devices with large spectral bandwidth, radiative efficiency (due to a reduced defective-dot density), and thus output power. The defective-dot density is highlighted as being responsible for the degradation of device performance. An SLD device with 160 nm of bandwidth centered at 1230 nm is demonstrated.

  6. Increasing the bandwidth of resonant gravitational antennas The case of Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, P; Bassan, M; Carelli, P; Cavallari, Giorgio; Coccia, E; Cosmelli, C; D'Antonio, S; Fafone, V; Fauth, A C; Federici, G; Giordano, G; Marini, A; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I; Modestino, G; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Pizzella, G; Quintieri, L; Rocchi, A; Ronga, F; Terenzi, R; Torrioli, G; Visco, M

    2003-01-01

    Resonant gravitational wave detectors with an observation bandwidth of tens of hertz are a reality: the antenna Explorer, operated at CERN by the ROG collaboration, has been upgraded with a new read-out. In this new configuration, it exhibits an unprecedented useful bandwidth: in over 55 Hz about its frequency of operation of 919 Hz the spectral sensitivity is better than 10^{-20} /sqrt(Hz) . We describe the detector and its sensitivity and discuss the foreseable upgrades to even larger bandwidths.

  7. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  8. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  9. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%.

  10. Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides for Integrated Fiber Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Yan

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic devices have attracted great interest from photonics community because of its compatibility with state-of-the-art CMOS fabrication processes and its potential of making energy efficient and low cost photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for high bandwidth optical interconnects and integrated optical sensors. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is already widely used in optical communications and is also of interest for optical sensors, providing advantages of low cost, and high speed compared with single wavelength approach. However, the cost and the bulkiness of WDM systems increase proportionally with the number of wavelengths if conventional external laser source is used. Therefore, low cost and compact laser source with stable and high line quality is of great interest for integrated sensors. In this thesis, we investigate the incorporation of silicon photonic devices as intracavity elements in fiber lasers for various applications. Therefore, the high flexibly and rich functionalities of fiber lasers can be directly used in the PIC. Also, high-speed feedback control of the cavity becomes possible. The possibility of applying nonlinear SOI waveguides to fiber lasers is investigated. We propose and demonstrate a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a nonlinear SOI waveguide. Such multiwavelength lasers are potentially suitable for WDM sensing. The wavelength selectivity was achieved by an intracavity Fabry-Perot comb filter. Making use of the nonlinearity of the SOI waveguide, a multiwavelength laser with six output wavelengths at 0.8 nm spacing was achieved. We study a passive mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a nonlinear SOI microring resonator (MRR). By using the MRR as the comb filter and the nonlinear medium, a stable mode-locked pulse train at 100 GHz was produced by filter-driven four-wave mixing. Such lasers can act as high repetition rate optical

  11. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Roger Alan [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining λ°; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  12. The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, S. P.; Bodner, S. E.; Colombant, D.; Gerber, K.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Mostovych, A. N.; Pronko, M. S.; Pawley, C. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Serlin, V.; Stamper, J. A.; Sullivan, C. A.; Dahlburg, J. P.; Gardner, J. H.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A. V.; Hardgrove, J.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-05-01

    Krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers are of interest to laser fusion because they have both the large bandwidth capability (≳THz) desired for rapid beam smoothing and the short laser wavelength (1/4 μm) needed for good laser-target coupling. Nike is a recently completed 56-beam KrF laser and target facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Because of its bandwidth of 1 THz FWHM (full width at half-maximum), Nike produces more uniform focal distributions than any other high-energy ultraviolet laser. Nike was designed to study the hydrodynamic instability of ablatively accelerated planar targets. First results show that Nike has spatially uniform ablation pressures (Δp/pNike laser in producing uniform illumination, and its performance in correspondingly uniform acceleration of targets.

  13. Construction of a Visible Diode Laser Source for Free Radical Photochemistry and Spectroscopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bronjelyn; Halpern, Joshua B.

    1997-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are reliable sources of narrow-band light and comparatively cheap. Optical feedback simplifies frequency tuning of the laser diodes. We are building an inexpensive diode laser system incorporating optical feedback from a diffraction grating. The external optical cavity can be used with lasers that emit between 2 and 100 mW, and will also work if they are pulsed, although this will significantly degrade the bandwidth. The diode laser output power and bandwidth are comparable to CW dye lasers used in kinetics and dynamics experiments. However, their cost and maintenance will be much less as will alignment time. We intend to use the diode lasers to investigate CN and C2 kinetics as well as to study dissociation dynamics of atmospherically important molecules.

  14. Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers based on synthesized planar Bragg grating fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Chaotan; Gates, J C; Holmes, C; Mennea, P L; Zervas, M N; Smith, P G R

    2013-09-01

    Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The integrated device is fabricated via a direct UV grating writing technique in a silica-on-silicon platform. The photonic Hilbert transformer operates at bandwidths of up to 2 THz (~16 nm) in the telecom band, a 10-fold greater bandwidth than any previously reported experimental approaches. Achieving this performance requires detailed knowledge of the system transfer function of the direct UV grating writing technique; this allows improved linearity and yields terahertz bandwidth Bragg gratings with improved spectral quality. By incorporating a flat-top reflector and Hilbert grating with a waveguide coupler, an ultrawideband all-optical single-sideband filter is demonstrated.

  15. Estimating individual listeners’ auditory-filter bandwidth in simultaneous and non-simultaneous masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Caminade, Sabine; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Frequency selectivity in the human auditory system is often measured using simultaneous masking of tones presented in notched noise. Based on such masking data, the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) of the auditory filters can be derived by applying the power spectrum model of masking....... Considering bandwidth estimates from previous studies based on forward masking, only average data across a number of subjects have been considered. The present study is concerned with bandwidth estimates in simultaneous and forward masking in individual normal-hearing subjects. In order to investigate...... the reliability of the individual estimates, a statistical resampling method is applied. It is demonstrated that a rather large set of experimental data is required to reliably estimate auditory filter bandwidth, particularly in the case of simultaneous masking. The poor overall reliability of the filter...

  16. Kernel bandwidth estimation for non-parametric density estimation: a comparative study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, CM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of conventional bandwidth estimators for non-parametric kernel density estimation on a number of representative pattern-recognition tasks, to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of these estimators in high...

  17. Bandwidth Controllable Tunable Filter for Hyper-/Multi-Spectral Imager, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal introduces a fast speed bandwidth controllable tunable filter for hyper-/multi-spectral (HS/MS) imagers. It dynamically passes a variable...

  18. Improvement of delay-bandwidth product in photonic crystal slow-light waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ran; Cassan, Eric; Le Roux, Xavier; Gao, Dingshan; Do Khanh, Van; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Zhang, Xinliang

    2010-08-02

    We report new results about the improvement of delay-bandwidth product in photonic crystal slow light waveguides. Previous studies have obtained large delay-bandwidth product at the price of small average group index. It is pointed out here that the radius and the distance between the two boundary rows of holes have a key contribution for delay-bandwidth product. We show the possibility of improving this factor of merit meanwhile maintaining the same group index. We succeed in improving normal delay-bandwidth product from 0.15 to 0.35, keeping at the same time the group index unchanged at high value of 90. This optimization approach may be applicable for previous flat band slow light devices.

  19. Ultra-low Noise, High Bandwidth, 1550nm HgCdTe APD, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the demands of future high-capacity free space optical communications links, a high bandwidth, near infrared (NIR), single photon sensitive optoelectronic...

  20. Single-channel labyrinthine metasurfaces as perfect sound absorbers with tunable bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chang, Huiting; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2017-08-01

    Perfect sound absorbers with a deep-subwavelength thickness are important to applications such as noise reduction and sound detection. But their absorption bandwidths are usually narrow and difficult to adjust. A recent solution for this problem relies on multiple-resonator metasurfaces, which are hard to fabricate. Here, we report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of a single-channel labyrinthine metasurface, which allows total sound absorption at resonant frequency when appropriate amounts of porous media (or critical sound losses) are introduced in the channels. The absorption bandwidth can be tuned by changing the cross-sectional areas of channels. A tradeoff is found between the absorption bandwidth and the metasurface thickness. However, large tunability in the relative absorption bandwidth (from 17% to 121%) is still attainable by such metasurfaces with a deep-subwavelength thickness (0.03-0.13λ).

  1. A 750MHz and a 8GHz High Bandwidth Digital FFT Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The scope of this project is to to develop a wide bandwidth, low power, and compact single board digital Fast Fourier Transform spectrometer (FFTS) optimized for the...

  2. Study of 2ω and 3/2ω harmonics in ultrashort high-intensity laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intense laser pulses from such laser systems may have many pre-pulses like picosecond ... ultrashort laser–matter interaction, as well as to control the source parameters. In situ monitoring of ultrashort ... central wavelength of 790 nm with a bandwidth of 16 ± 2 nm after the compressor. The picosecond intensity contrast ...

  3. High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Han; Tu, Charng-Gan; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2017-02-01

    Besides lighting, LEDs can be used for indoor data transmission. Therefore, a large modulation bandwidth becomes an important target in the development of visible LED. In this regard, enhancing the radiative recombination rate of carriers in the quantum wells of an LED is a useful method since the modulation bandwidth of an LED is related to the carrier decay rate besides the device RC time constant To increase the carrier decay rate in an LED without sacrificing its output power, the technique of surface plasmon (SP) coupling in an LED is useful. In this paper, the increases of modulation bandwidth by reducing mesa size, decreasing active layer thickness, and inducing SP coupling in blue- and green-emitting LEDs are illustrated. The results are demonstrated by comparing three different LED surface structures, including bare p-type surface, GaZnO current spreading layer, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for inducing SP coupling. In a single-quantum-well, blue-emitting LED with a circular mesa of 10 microns in radius, SP coupling results in a modulation bandwidth of 528.8 MHz, which is believed to be the record-high level. A smaller RC time constant can lead to a higher modulation bandwidth. However, when the RC time constant is smaller than 0.2 ns, its effect on modulation bandwidth saturates. The dependencies of modulation bandwidth on injected current density and carrier decay time confirm that the modulation bandwidth is essentially inversely proportional to a time constant, which is inversely proportional to the square-root of carrier decay rate and injected current density.

  4. Achieving increased bandwidth for 4 degree of freedom self-tuning energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Smith, A. D.; Köhler, E.; Lundgren, P.; Folkow, P. D.; Enoksson, P.

    2018-04-01

    The frequency response of a self-tuning energy harvester composed of two piezoelectric cantilevers connected by a middle beam with a sliding mass is investigated. Measurements show that incorporation of a free-sliding mass increases the bandwidth. Using an analytical model, the system is explained through close investigation of the resonance modes. Resonance mode behavior further suggests that, by breaking the symmetry of the system, even broader bandwidths are achievable.

  5. Coarse-Grain Bandwidth Estimation Techniques for Large-Scale Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Jennings, Esther

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a top-down analysis and simulation approach to size the bandwidths of a store-andforward network for a given network topology, a mission traffic scenario, and a set of data types with different latency requirements. We use these techniques to estimate the wide area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the proposed Integrated Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Network.

  6. Coarse-grain bandwidth estimation techniques for large-scale network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Jennings, E.

    In this paper, we describe a top-down analysis and simulation approach to size the bandwidths of a store-and-forward network for a given network topology, a mission traffic scenario, and a set of data types with different latency requirements. We use these techniques to estimate the wide area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the proposed Integrated Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Network.

  7. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Robert; Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  8. Can abnormal returns be earned on bandwidth-bounded currencies? Evidence from a genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Godinho

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies about the Foreign Exchange market (Forex) analyse the behaviour of currencies that are allowed to float freely (or almost freely), but some currencies are still bounded by bandwidths (either disclosed or undisclosed). In this paper, I try to find out whether two bandwidth-bounded currencies, the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) and the Singapore dollar (SGD), present opportunities for abnormal returns. I consider a set of trading rules, and I use a genetic algorithm to optimise both...

  9. THE IMPROVEMENT OF COMPUTER NETWORK PERFORMANCE WITH BANDWIDTH MANAGEMENT IN KEMURNIAN II SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kanigoro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the improvement of computer network performance with bandwidth management in Kemurnian II Senior High School. The main issue of this research is the absence of bandwidth division on computer, which makes user who is downloading data, the provided bandwidth will be absorbed by the user. It leads other users do not get the bandwidth. Besides that, it has been done IP address division on each room, such as computer, teacher and administration room for supporting learning process in Kemurnian II Senior High School, so wireless network is needed. The method is location observation and interview with related parties in Kemurnian II Senior High School, the network analysis has run and designed a new topology network including the wireless network along with its configuration and separation bandwidth on microtic router and its limitation. The result is network traffic on Kemurnian II Senior High School can be shared evenly to each user; IX and IIX traffic are separated, which improve the speed on network access at school and the implementation of wireless network.Keywords: Bandwidth Management; Wireless Network

  10. On Bandwidth Characteristics of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope with Mechanically Coupled Sense Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfang Ni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode were investigated in this paper to provide some references for mechanical bandwidth design. The concept of sense mode mechanical coupling is introduced first. Theoretical frequency response analyses were then carried out on the mechanical part of the gyroscope. Equations representing the relationships between the differential output signal and the frequency of the input angular rate were deduced in full frequency range and further simplified in low frequency range. Based on these equations, bandwidth characteristics under ideal and non-ideal conditions are discussed. Analytical results show that under ideal conditions, the bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope are similar to those of a single mass micro-gyroscope, but under non-ideal conditions, especially when sense mass and/or stiffness are asymmetric, the bandwidth characteristics would be quite different because the in-phase mode would participate in the anti-phase vibration response. Experimental verifications were carried out on two micro-gyroscope prototypes designed in our laboratory. The deduced equations and analytical results can be used in guiding the mechanical bandwidth design of tuning fork micro-gyroscopes with mechanically coupled sense mode.

  11. Multi-granularity Bandwidth Allocation for Large-Scale WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ziyue; Gan, Chaoqin; Ni, Cuiping; Shi, Qiongling

    2017-12-01

    WDM (wavelength-division multiplexing)/TDM (time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) is being viewed as a promising solution for delivering multiple services and applications, such as high-definition video, video conference and data traffic. Considering the real-time transmission, QoS (quality of services) requirements and differentiated services model, a multi-granularity dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in both domains of wavelengths and time for large-scale hybrid WDM/TDM PON is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme achieves load balance by using the bandwidth prediction. Based on the bandwidth prediction, the wavelength assignment can be realized fairly and effectively to satisfy the different demands of various classes. Specially, the allocation of residual bandwidth further augments the DBA and makes full use of bandwidth resources in the network. To further improve the network performance, two schemes named extending the cycle of one free wavelength (ECoFW) and large bandwidth shrinkage (LBS) are proposed, which can prevent transmission from interruption when the user employs more than one wavelength. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. MPTCP Tunnel: An Architecture for Aggregating Bandwidth of Heterogeneous Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed and cellular networks are two typical access networks provided by operators. Fixed access network is widely employed; nevertheless, its bandwidth is sometimes not sufficient enough to meet user bandwidth requirements. Meanwhile, cellular access network owns unique advantages of wider coverage, faster increasing link speed, more flexible deployment, and so forth. Therefore, it is attractive for operators to mitigate the bandwidth shortage by bundling these two. Actually, there have been existing schemes proposed to aggregate the bandwidth of two access networks, whereas they all have their own problems, like packet reordering or extra latency overhead. To address this problem, we design new architecture, MPTCP Tunnel, to aggregate the bandwidth of multiple heterogeneous access networks from the perspective of operators. MPTCP Tunnel uses MPTCP, which solves the reordering problem essentially, to bundle multiple access networks. Besides, MPTCP Tunnel sets up only one MPTCP connection at play which adapts itself to multiple traffic types and TCP flows. Furthermore, MPTCP Tunnel forwards intact IP packets through access networks, maintaining the end-to-end TCP semantics. Experimental results manifest that MPTCP Tunnel can efficiently aggregate the bandwidth of multiple access networks and is more adaptable to the increasing heterogeneity of access networks than existing mechanisms.

  13. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by the big file size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing paths. In this paper, we present a CamShift based algorithm to compress the tracking of videos. Then we propose a bandwidth balancing strategy in which each sensor node is able to dynamically select the node for the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that each node merely maintains two parameters that contain its historical bandwidth varying trend and then predict its near future bandwidth capacity. Then, the forwarding node selects the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increases the data received by the sink node and decreases the delay on video transmission in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network environments.

  14. 280  GHz dark soliton fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y F; Guo, J; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y

    2014-06-15

    We report on an ultrahigh repetition rate dark soliton fiber laser. We show both numerically and experimentally that by taking advantage of the cavity self-induced modulation instability and the dark soliton formation in a net normal dispersion cavity fiber laser, stable ultrahigh repetition rate dark soliton trains can be formed in a dispersion-managed cavity fiber laser. Stable dark soliton trains with a repetition rate as high as ∼280  GHz have been generated in our experiment. Numerical simulations have shown that the effective gain bandwidth limitation plays an important role on the stabilization of the formed dark solitons in the laser.

  15. Research of a portable atmospheric laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen-feng; Li, Dong; Li, Shen-peng; Tan, Wei; Yi, Zhigang

    2013-08-01

    A kind of portable atmosphere laser communication system based on fiber technology is designed by using Ethernet transceiver terminal and video-audio transceiver terminal with diode laser module and PIN diode, while a flexible connection is built between the terminal and the optical antenna connected by laser fiber. The application of EDFA technology, which realizes the amplification of the power of the 1550nm laser diode module, brings forth a more stable structure and easier deployment and testing in wild environment, and the communication distance can reach 2 kilometers with a transmission bandwidth of 100 MBit/s. Prototype experiments prove the good communication performance of this system.

  16. All-metal frequency-selective absorber/emitter for laser stealth and infrared stealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Liu, Han; He, Zhihong; Dong, Shikui

    2018-03-10

    In this paper, an all-metal nanostructure is designed with a large frequency ratio (∼6) and a large bandwidth ratio (∼32), and consists of period slit-box cavities and nanodisk clusters. It is a nearly perfect absorber at 1.064 μm to achieve laser stealth, a frequency-selective emitter with low emissivity in wavelength ranges 3-5 and 8-14 μm to achieve infrared stealth, and also an emitter with near unity emissivity at 2.709 μm and 6.107 μm to compensate for the decrease of radiation heat transfer owing to the low emissivity. The absorption/emission peaks are all the Lorentzian shape, and the bandwidths, defined as full width at half-maximum, are 35, 408, and 1124 nm at 1.064, 2.709, and 6.107 μm, respectively. The electric and magnetic field distribution shows that the slit behaves like a capacitor, the box behaves like an inductance, and the nanodisk clusters can excite electric dipole resonance. Considering the solar irradiation, the nanostructure maintains middle-wavelength infrared signal reduction rates greater than 80% from 450 to 1000 K, and long-wavelength infrared signal reduction rates greater than 90% from room temperature to 1000 K. The laser and infrared stealth performances of our nanostructure at 473 K are also studied with different incident angles and polarization angles.

  17. Theory and Modeling of Petawatt Laser Pulse Propagation in Low Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadwick, Bradley A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kalmykov, S. Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-12-08

    Report describing accomplishments in all-optical control of self-injection in laser-plasma accelerators and in developing advanced numerical models of laser-plasma interactions. All-optical approaches to controlling electron self-injection and beam formation in laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) were explored. It was demonstrated that control over the laser pulse evolution is the key ingredient in the generation of low-background, low-phase-space-volume electron beams. To this end, preserving a smooth laser pulse envelope throughout the acceleration process can be achieved through tuning the phase and amplitude of the incident pulse. A negative frequency chirp compensates the frequency red-shift accumulated due to wake excitation, preventing evolution of the pulse into a relativistic optical shock. This reduces the ponderomotive force exerted on quiescent plasma electrons, suppressing expansion of the bubble and continuous injection of background electrons, thereby reducing the charge in the low-energy tail by an order of magnitude. Slowly raising the density in the pulse propagation direction locks electrons in the accelerating phase, boosting their energy, keeping continuous injection at a low level, tripling the brightness of the quasi-monoenergetic component. Additionally, propagating the negatively chirped pulse in a plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing continuous injection. As a side effect, oscillations of the pulse tail may be enhanced, leading to production of low-background, polychromatic electron beams. Such beams, consisting of quasi-monoenergetic components with controllable energy and energy separation, may be useful as drivers of polychromatic x-rays based on Thomson backscattering. These all-optical methods of electron beam quality control are critically important for the development of future compact, high-repetition-rate, GeV-scale LPA using 10 TW-class, ultra-high bandwidth pulses and mm-scale, dense

  18. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications

  19. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  20. A Characterization of Cirrus Cloud Properties That Affect Laser Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norquist, Donald C; Desrochers, Paul R; McNicholl, Patrick J; Roadcap, John R

    2008-01-01

    Future high-altitude laser systems may be affected by cirrus clouds. Laser transmission models were applied to measured and retrieved cirrus properties to determine cirrus impact on power incident on a target or receiver...

  1. Laser dynamics in sawtooth-like self-mixing signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teysseyre, Raphael; Bony, Francis; Perchoux, Julien; Bosch, Thierry

    2012-09-15

    In this Letter, we experimentally show that transient phenomenons in self-mixing signals from a moving target contain information about the target reflectivity and distance. These transient phenomenons are well explained with a dynamical model of the laser diode, which is used to trace an abacus giving the target reflectivity and distance from a measured high-bandwidth, self-mixing signal.

  2. Dispersion-managed semiconductor mode-locked ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resan, Bojan; Archundia, Luis; Delfyett, Peter J; Alphonse, Gerard

    2003-08-01

    A novel breathing-mode external sigma-ring-cavity semiconductor mode-locked laser is developed. Intracavity pulse compression and stretching produce linearly chirped pulses with an asymmetric exponential temporal profile. External dispersion compensation reduces the pulse duration to 274 fs (within 10% of the bandwidth limit).

  3. Density estimation and adaptive bandwidths: a primer for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Heather A; Shi, Xun; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne; Berke, Ethan M

    2010-07-23

    Geographic information systems have advanced the ability to both visualize and analyze point data. While point-based maps can be aggregated to differing areal units and examined at varying resolutions, two problems arise 1) the modifiable areal unit problem and 2) any corresponding data must be available both at the scale of analysis and in the same geographic units. Kernel density estimation (KDE) produces a smooth, continuous surface where each location in the study area is assigned a density value irrespective of arbitrary administrative boundaries. We review KDE, and introduce the technique of utilizing an adaptive bandwidth to address the underlying heterogeneous population distributions common in public health research. The density of occurrences should not be interpreted without knowledge of the underlying population distribution. When the effect of the background population is successfully accounted for, differences in point patterns in similar population areas are more discernible; it is generally these variations that are of most interest. A static bandwidth KDE does not distinguish the spatial extents of interesting areas, nor does it expose patterns above and beyond those due to geographic variations in the density of the underlying population. An adaptive bandwidth method uses background population data to calculate a kernel of varying size for each individual case. This limits the influence of a single case to a small spatial extent where the population density is high as the bandwidth is small. If the primary concern is distance, a static bandwidth is preferable because it may be better to define the "neighborhood" or exposure risk based on distance. If the primary concern is differences in exposure across the population, a bandwidth adapting to the population is preferred. Kernel density estimation is a useful way to consider exposure at any point within a spatial frame, irrespective of administrative boundaries. Utilization of an adaptive bandwidth

  4. An impact excitation system for repeatable, high-bandwidth modal testing of miniature structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediz, Bekir; Korkmaz, Emrullah; Burak Ozdoganlar, O.

    2014-06-01

    Miniature components and devices are increasingly seen in a myriad of applications. In general, the dynamic behavior of miniature devices is critical to their functionality and performance. However, modal testing of miniature structures poses many challenges. This paper presents a design and evaluation of an impact excitation system (IES) for repeatable, high-bandwidth, controlled-force modal testing of miniature structures. Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system is derived and experimentally validated to enable the identification of the system parameters that yield single-hit impacts with desired bandwidth and force magnitude. The system includes a small instrumented impact tip attached to a custom designed flexure-based body, an automated electromagnetic release mechanism, and various precision positioners. The excitation bandwidth and the impact force magnitude can be controlled by selecting the system parameters. The dynamic model of the system includes the structural dynamics of the flexure-based body, the electromagnetic force and the associated eddy-current damping, and the impact event. A validation study showed an excellent match between the model simulations and experiments in terms of impact force and bandwidth. The model is then used to create process maps that relate the system parameters to the number of hits (single vs. multiple), the impact force magnitudes and the excitation bandwidths. These process maps can be used to select system parameters or predict system response for a given set of parameters. A set of experiments is conducted to compare the performances of the IES and a (manual) miniature impact hammer. It is concluded that the IES significantly improves repeatability in terms of the impact bandwidth, location, and force magnitude, while providing a high excitation-bandwidth and excellent coherence values. The application of the IES is demonstrated through modal testing of a miniature contact-probe system.

  5. Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.

  6. Beyond the random phase approximation: Stimulated Brillouin backscatter for finite laser coherence times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a linear theory of backward stimulated Brillouin scatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally random laser beam relevant for laser fusion. Our analysis reveals a new collective regime of BSBS (CBSBS). Its intensity threshold is controlled by diffraction, once cT c exceeds a laser speckle length, with T c the laser coherence time. The BSBS spatial gain rate is approximately the sum of that due to CBSBS, and a part which is independent of diffraction and varies linearly with T c . The CBSBS spatial gain rate may be reduced significantly by the temporal bandwidth of KrF-based laser systems compared to the bandwidth currently available to temporally smoothed glass-based laser systems

  7. Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han

    2014-02-10

    A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display.

  8. Efficient laser performance of a cryogenic Yb:YAG laser pumped by fiber coupled 940 and 969 nm laser diodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Miura, Taisuke; Těsnohlídková, L.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), "015002-1"-"015002-6" ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cryogenic lasers * absorption * bandwidth * emission cross-section * absorption cross-section * diode pump ing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2015

  9. Maximum Bandwidth Enhancement of Current Mirror using Series-Resistor and Dynamic Body Bias Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niranjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.

  10. A Wide-Bandwidth, Low-Noise SIS Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Matthew; Blain, Andrew; Harris, Andrew; Hu, Robert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Miller, David; Rice, Frank; Weinreb, Sander; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    In principle, millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne receivers using state-of-the-art SIS detectors are capable of extremely large instantaneous bandwidths with noise temperatures within a few Kelvin of the quantum limit. We are applying modem design tools, such as 3D electromagnetic simulators and Caltech's SuperMix SIS analysis package, to develop a new generation of waveguide SIS mixers with very broad RF and IF bandwidths. Our initial design consists of a double-sideband mixer targeted for the 180- 300 GHz band that uses a single SIS junction excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output band, limited by the MMIC low-noise IF preamplifier, is 6-18 GHz, providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). The SIS mixer conversion loss is predicted to be no more than 1-2 dB (single-sideband) with mixer noise temperatures across the band within 10 Kelvin of the quantum limit. The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 Kelvin. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin in the summer of 2002, and a demonstration on the CSO should occur in the spring of 2003.

  11. Impact of modulation bandwidth on multiplexing using principal modes in MMF links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rohan; Appaiah, Kumar

    2018-01-22

    Multimode fibers (MMFs) are widely used for short fiber links. However, the data rates through MMFs is limited owing to modal dispersion. The so-called "principal modes" (PMs) permit transmission and multiplexing through the MMFs without modal dispersion for small modulation bandwidths. For larger modulation bandwidths, however, they lose their dispersion-free nature. In this paper, we model the impact of modulation bandwidth and mode coupling strength on the performance of PMs. We develop a simulator that characterizes the dispersion and cross-talk of the PMs of few-mode and large-core graded-index MMFs with mode-dependent losses (MDL). Simulations reveal that for fibers without MDL, for modulation frequencies beyond 10 GHz diminishes the PMs' frequency response by more than 1 dB for 100 m in large-core MMF links and 10 km few-mode fiber links. With MDL, simulations reveal that for modulation bandwidths beyond 2 GHz diminishes the frequency response by 3 dB for a 1 km few-mode fiber and by more than 4 dB for a 1 km large-core multimode fiber. While multiplexing using PMs in large-core MMFs with MDL, we find that for modulation bandwidths beyond 3 GHz, the cross-talk is 20 dB in 1 km large-core MMF links, thereby limiting system performance.

  12. Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kent A G; England, Duncan G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-04-05

    The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion.

  13. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-24

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities.

  14. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  15. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE GAM EX5ALN MINIATURE LINE-NARROWED KRF EXCIMER LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ABSTRACT The scope of this effort was to determine how the GAM Ex5ALN Line-Narrowed Ruggedized KrF Excimer Laser operates compared to the manufacturer’s... High -power, high -repetition rate excimer lasers are available from several US manufacturers. These systems are specifically designed for materials...to utilize high -power high -repetition rate laser systems for spectroscopy applications, where small bandwidth is important, has resulted in a need

  16. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (cavity DFB laser to output another stable wavelength beam with a narrow bandwidth of 0.27 nm. A frequency difference for dual-wavelength operation of 0.88 THz was achieved and an output power of up to 415 mW was obtained. The external-cavity DFB laser showed a stable dual-wavelength operation over the practical current and temperature ranges.

  17. Low-Bandwidth Channel Quality Indication for OFDMA Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank; Pokhariyal, Akhilesh

    2007-01-01

     In this paper, we study methods for lowering the bandwidth needed for the UE to transmit channel quality indication (CQI) for time and frequency domain scheduling (FDPS) in OFDMA. We consider smart compression methods, such as threshold based indication, to only include scheduler-relevant inform...... In this paper, we study methods for lowering the bandwidth needed for the UE to transmit channel quality indication (CQI) for time and frequency domain scheduling (FDPS) in OFDMA. We consider smart compression methods, such as threshold based indication, to only include scheduler......-relevant information in the CQI. We find that a 60-70% CQI bandwidth reduction is possible with less than 5-10% impact on scheduling performance. Further, we consider the impact of lowering the CQI reporting rate on both mobility performance and increased measuring accuracy due to longer averaging interval. We find...

  18. THz-bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers based on fiber Bragg gratings in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, María R; Wang, Lixian; Carballar, Alejandro; Burla, Maurizio; Azaña, José; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    THz-bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers (PHTs) are implemented for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. To increase the practical bandwidth limitation of FBGs (typically <200  GHz), a superstructure based on two superimposed linearly-chirped FBGs operating in transmission has been employed. The use of a transmission FBG involves first a conversion of the non-minimum phase response of the PHT into a minimum-phase response by adding an anticipated instantaneous component to the desired system temporal impulse response. Using this methodology, a 3-THz-bandwidth integer PHT and a fractional (order 0.81) PHT are designed, fabricated, and successfully characterized.

  19. Nonlinear Evolution Equations for Broader Bandwidth Wave Packets in Crossing Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Debsarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coupled nonlinear equations are derived describing the evolution of two broader bandwidth surface gravity wave packets propagating in two different directions in deep water. The equations, being derived for broader bandwidth wave packets, are applicable to more realistic ocean wave spectra in crossing sea states. The two coupled evolution equations derived here have been used to investigate the instability of two uniform wave trains propagating in two different directions. We have shown in figures the behaviour of the growth rate of instability of these uniform wave trains for unidirectional as well as for bidirectional perturbations. The figures drawn here confirm the fact that modulational instability in crossing sea states with broader bandwidth wave packets can lead to the formation of freak waves.

  20. Wide Bandwidth Microwave Absorbers of Ferrite-Rubber Composites with Square-Rod Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one way of shape control for the wide bandwidth in microwave absorbers, a square-rod structure of ferrite composite is proposed. Microwave absorbance of the square-rod absorber is analyzed by the transmission line approximation which provides the reflection loss as a function of material parameters and dimension of the structure. In particular, the absorption bandwidth is greatly dependent upon the size of the square rod, which has been identified in both composites of Ni-Zn ferrite and Co2Z hexagonal ferrites. With a controlled geometry of square rod in those composites, a wide bandwidth (about 6 GHz with respect to – 20 dB reflection loss has been predicted.

  1. An Open Slot Antenna with Bandwidth Extension for WLAN/UWB Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ya Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An open slot antenna with extended bandwidth for WLAN and UWB applications is proposed. The radiating structure is composed of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna exciting an L-shaped slot etched on the ground plane. The feed position is optimized to get better impedance match for the higher range of the UWB spectrum, while a step in the slot, realized in the ground plane, is employed to extend the lower limit of the bandwidth so as to cover the 2.4 GHz WLAN frequency band. Using these design solutions the antenna bandwidth is successfully extended to 140% so as to cover both the WLAN and the UWB spectrum.

  2. Dynamic Online Bandwidth Adjustment Scheme Based on Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwook

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a cost effective method to provide integrated multimedia services. Usually heterogeneous multimedia data can be categorized into different types according to the required Quality of Service (QoS). Therefore, VPN should support the prioritization among different services. In order to support multiple types of services with different QoS requirements, efficient bandwidth management algorithms are important issues. In this paper, I employ the Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) for the development of an adaptive bandwidth adjustment algorithm. In addition, to effectively manage the bandwidth in VPNs, the proposed control paradigm is realized in a dynamic online approach, which is practical for real network operations. The simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the system performances.

  3. Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of Patch Antenna with Stacked Parasitic Strips Based on LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact patch antenna with stacked parasitic strips (SPSs based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology is presented. By adding three pairs of SPSs above the traditional patch antenna, multiple resonant modes are excited to broaden the bandwidth. At the same time, the SPSs act as directors to guide the antenna radiation toward broadside direction to enhance the gain. The measured results show that the prototype antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 16% for S11<-10 dB (32.1–37.9 GHz and a maximum gain of about 8 dBi at 35 GHz. Furthermore, the radiation patterns and gain are relatively stable within the operating bandwidth. The total volume of the antenna is only 8 × 8 × 1.1 mm3.

  4. Bandwidth Optimization of Normal Equation Matrix in Bundle Block Adjustment in Multi-baseline Rotational Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new bandwidth optimization method of normal equation matrix in bundle block adjustment in multi-baseline rotational close range photography by image index re-sorting is proposed. The equivalent exposure station of each image is calculated by its object space coverage and the relationship with other adjacent images. Then, according to the coordinate relations between equivalent exposure stations, new logical indices of all images are computed, based on which, the optimized bandwidth value can be obtained. Experimental results show that the bandwidth determined by our proposed method is significantly better than its original value, thus the operational efficiency, as well as the memory consumption of multi-baseline rotational close range photography in real-data applications, is optimized to a certain extent.

  5. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  6. Analysis of Blocking Rate and Bandwidth Usage of Mobile IPTV Services in Wireless Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes.

  7. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  8. Analysis of blocking rate and bandwidth usage of mobile IPTV services in wireless cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes.

  9. Measurement of Coherence Bandwidth in UHF Radio Channels for Narrowband Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Sadowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of investigation on the coherence bandwidth of narrowband radio channels in 430 MHz band. The coherence bandwidth values were estimated from a power delay profile obtained by recording CDMA2000 forward channel signals during real-field measurements in various environments: medium city, flat terrain, and hilly terrain in northern Poland. The results of measurements are compared with characteristic parameters of UHF radio channel models defined for exemplary narrowband digital system from the TETRA standard. In all of the tested environments, the coherence bandwidth values during most of an observation time were much higher than 25 kHz. Therefore, the fading in tested UHF narrowband channels should be classified as flat fading.

  10. Microwave photonic single-passband filter with highly flexible tunability of bandwidth and frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enming; Han, Xiuyou

    2017-01-01

    A microwave photonic single-passband filter with highly flexible tunability of bandwidth and frequency is proposed and demonstrated. Two different light waves with their polarizations aligned with two principal axes of a polarization modulator are modulated, and two phase-modulated signals with opposite phase modulation indices are generated. Two different lower parts of the lower sidebands are removed by a fiber Bragg grating to convert two phase-modulated signals into two intensity-modulated signals. Two high-pass frequency responses with different cut-off frequencies are realized. Since the two converted intensity-modulated signals are out of phase, the overlapped frequency responses are cancelled, and a single-passband filter is realized. The bandwidth and the central frequency can be tuned independently by properly adjusting the two wavelengths simultaneously. Furthermore, both the bandwidth and the central frequency can be simultaneously tuned by adjusting one of the two wavelengths.

  11. Three-Dimensional Single-Port Labyrinthine Acoustic Metamaterial: Perfect Absorption with Large Bandwidth and Tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials are engineered materials which exhibit fascinating properties unreachable by traditional materials. Here, we report on the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a three-dimensional single-port labyrinthine acoustic metamaterial. By using curled perforations with one end closed and with appropriate loss inside, the metamaterial can perfectly absorb airborne sounds in a low-frequency band. Both the position and the relative width of the band can be tuned flexibly. A trade-off is uncovered between the relative absorption bandwidth and thickness of the metamaterial. When the relative absorption bandwidth is as high as 51%, the requirement of deep-subwavelength thickness (0.07 λ ) can still be satisfied. We emphasize that the perfect absorption with large tunability in relative bandwidth (from 9% to >180 % ) was not attainable previously and may find applications ranging from noise reduction to sound imaging.

  12. Bayesian Bandwidth Selection for a Nonparametric Regression Model with Mixed Types of Regressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a sampling algorithm for bandwidth estimation in a nonparametric regression model with continuous and discrete regressors under an unknown error density. The error density is approximated by the kernel density estimator of the unobserved errors, while the regression function is estimated using the Nadaraya-Watson estimator admitting continuous and discrete regressors. We derive an approximate likelihood and posterior for bandwidth parameters, followed by a sampling algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed approach typically leads to better accuracy of the resulting estimates than cross-validation, particularly for smaller sample sizes. This bandwidth estimation approach is applied to nonparametric regression model of the Australian All Ordinaries returns and the kernel density estimation of gross domestic product (GDP growth rates among the organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD and non-OECD countries.

  13. MHBCDA: Mobility and Heterogeneity aware Bandwidth Efficient Cluster based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Data Aggregation (MHBCDA) algorithm for the randomly distributed nodes. It considers the mobile sink based packet aggregation for the heterogeneous WSN. It uses predefined region for the aggregation at cluster head to minimize computation and communication cost. The MHBCDA is energy and bandwidth......Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) offers a variety of novel applications for mobile targets. It generates the large amount of redundant sensing data. The data aggregation techniques are extensively used to reduce the energy consumption and increase the network lifetime, although it has the side effect...... of reduced reliability. In the mobile environment, it is necessary to consider the techniques which minimize the communication cost with efficient bandwidth utilization by decreasing the packet count reached at the sink. This paper proposes the mobility and heterogeneity aware bandwidth efficient Cluster-based...

  14. Bandwidth efficient cluster-based data aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    the available bandwidth efficiently. The proposed Bandwidth Efficient Cluster- based Data Aggregation (BECDA) algorithm presents the solution for the effective data gathering with in-network aggregation. It considers the network with heterogeneous nodes in terms of energy and mobile sink to aggregate the data......A fundamental challenge in the design of Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) is the proper utilization of resources that are scarce. The critical challenge is to maximize the bandwidth utilization in data gathering and forwarding from sensor nodes to the sink. The main design objective is to utilize...... packets. The optimal approach is achieved by intra and inter-cluster aggregation on the randomly distributed nodes with the variable data generation rate. The proposed algorithm uses the correlation of data within the packet for applying the aggregation function on the data generated by nodes. BECDA shows...

  15. Metamaterial composite bandpass filter with an ultra-broadband rejection bandwidth of up to 240 terahertz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Lorenzen, Dennis Lund

    2014-01-01

    We present a metamaterial, consisting of a cross structure and a metal mesh filter, that forms a composite with greater functional bandwidth than any terahertz (THz) metamaterial to date. Metamaterials traditionally have a narrow usable bandwidth that is much smaller than common THz sources......, such as photoconductive antennas and difference frequency generation. The composite structure shown here expands the usable bandwidth to exceed that of current THz sources. To highlight the applicability of this combination, we demonstrate a series of bandpass filters with only a single pass band, with a central...... frequency (f) that is scalable from 0.86–8.51 THz, that highly extinguishes other frequencies up to >240 THz. The performance of these filters is demonstrated in experiment, using both air biased coherent detection and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), as well as in simulation. We present...

  16. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  17. Weighted Measurement Fusion Quantized Filtering with Bandwidth Constraints and Missing Measurements in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the estimation problem of a dynamic stochastic variable in a sensor network, where the quantization of scalar measurement, the optimization of the bandwidth scheduling, and the characteristic of transmission channels are considered. For the imperfect channels with missing measurements in sensor networks, two weighted measurement fusion (WMF quantized Kalman filters based on the quantized measurements arriving at the fusion center are presented. One is dependent on the known message of whether a measurement is received. The other is dependent on the probability of missing measurements. They have the reduced computational cost and same accuracy as the corresponding centralized fusion filter. The approximate solution for the optimal bandwidth-scheduling problem is given under a limited bandwidth constraint. Furthermore, the vector measurement case is also discussed. The simulation research shows the effectiveness.

  18. Optimization of Single-Sensor Two-State Hot-Wire Anemometer Transmission Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligęza, Paweł

    2008-10-28

    Hot-wire anemometric measurements of non-isothermal flows require the use of thermal compensation or correction circuitry. One possible solution is a two-state hot-wire anemometer that uses the cyclically changing heating level of a single sensor. The area in which flow velocity and fluid temperature can be measured is limited by the dimensions of the sensor's active element. The system is designed to measure flows characterized by high velocity and temperature gradients, although its transmission bandwidth is very limited. In this study, we propose a method to optimize the two-state hot-wire anemometer transmission bandwidth. The method is based on the use of a specialized constanttemperature system together with variable dynamic parameters. It is also based on a suitable measurement cycle paradigm. Analysis of the method was undertaken using model testing. Our results reveal a possible significant broadening of the two-state hot-wire anemometer's transmission bandwidth.

  19. The Benefits of Increased Sensation Level and Bandwidth for Spatial Release From Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakien, Kasey M; Kampel, Sean D; Gordon, Samuel Y; Gallun, Frederick J

    Spatial release from masking (SRM) can increase speech intelligibility in complex listening environments. The goal of the present study was to document how speech-in-speech stimuli could be best processed to encourage optimum SRM for listeners who represent a range of ages and amounts of hearing loss. We examined the effects of equating stimulus audibility among listeners, presenting stimuli at uniform sensation levels (SLs), and filtering stimuli at two separate bandwidths. Seventy-one participants completed two speech intelligibility experiments (36 listeners in experiment 1; all 71 in experiment 2) in which a target phrase from the coordinate response measure (CRM) and two masking phrases from the CRM were presented simultaneously via earphones using a virtual spatial array, such that the target sentence was always at 0 degree azimuth angle and the maskers were either colocated or positioned at ±45 degrees. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the impacts of SL, age, and hearing loss on SRM. Experiment 2 also assessed the effects of stimulus bandwidth on SRM. Overall, listeners' ability to achieve SRM improved with increased SL. Younger listeners with less hearing loss achieved more SRM than older or hearing-impaired listeners. It was hypothesized that SL and bandwidth would result in dissociable effects on SRM. However, acoustical analysis revealed that effective audible bandwidth, defined as the highest frequency at which the stimulus was audible at both ears, was the best predictor of performance. Thus, increasing SL seemed to improve SRM by increasing the effective bandwidth rather than increasing the level of already audible components. Performance for all listeners, regardless of age or hearing loss, improved with an increase in overall SL and/or bandwidth, but the improvement was small relative to the benefits of spatial separation.

  20. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G.; Subach, Fedor V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2009-01-01

    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (~480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting “fine-tuning” of excitation wavelength to particular probes. PMID:19072836

  1. Dynamic wave field synthesis: enabling the generation of field distributions with a large space-bandwidth product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Edwin N; Heine, Julian; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2015-11-02

    We present a novel approach for the design and fabrication of multiplexed computer generated volume holograms (CGVH) which allow for a dynamic synthesis of arbitrary wave field distributions. To achieve this goal, we developed a hybrid system that consists of a CGVH as a static element and an electronically addressed spatial light modulator as the dynamic element. We thereby derived a new model for describing the scattering process within the inhomogeneous dielectric material of the hologram. This model is based on the linearization of the scattering process within the Rytov approximation and incorporates physical constraints that account for voxel based laser-lithography using micro-fabrication of the holograms in a nonlinear optical material. In this article we demonstrate that this system basically facilitates a high angular Bragg selectivity on the order of 1°. Additionally, it allows for a qualitatively low cross-talk dynamic synthesis of predefined wave fields with a much larger space-bandwidth product (SBWP ≥ 8.7 × 10(6)) as compared to the current state of the art in computer generated holography.

  2. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.

    2010-01-01

    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...

  3. A TorPath to TorCoin: Proof-of-Bandwidth Altcoins for Compensating Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    incentive scheme for Tor relying on two novel concepts. We introduce TorCoin, an “altcoin” that uses the Bitcoin protocol to re- ward relays for...or altcoin, based on the Bitcoin protocol [8]. Unlike Bitcoin , its proof-of-work scheme is based on bandwidth rather than computation. To “mine” a...concepts. We introduce TorCoin, an altcoin" that uses the Bitcoin protocol to re- ward relays for contributing bandwidth. Relays mine" TorCoins, then

  4. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG......) scheduling, which provides latency and bandwidth guarantees in accessing a shared media, e.g. a physical link shared between a number of virtual channels. ALG overcomes the drawbacks of existing scheduling disciplines, in particular the coupling between latency and bandwidth guarantees. A 0.12 &956;m CMOS...

  5. 1978 annual report on laser fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported for each of the following topics: (1) spherical shell fuel containers, (2) polymer research, (3) cryogenic technology, (4) fabrication technology, (5) implosion physics, (6) fast ion measurements of laser-produced spherical plasmas, (7) absorbed energy measurements, (8) diagnostics, (9) fast ion energy loss in dense plasmas, (10) electron transport, (11) ionization equation of state, (12) profile modification by pondermotive forces, (13) pondermotive potential effects on Ohm's law, (14) effect of flux-limited thermal transport on critical surface jump conditions, (15) spherical rarefaction shocks, (16) explosively heated Gaussian objects, (17) bandwidth broadening, (18) frequency doubling experiments, (19) advanced laser candidates, (20) glass laser operation, and (21) 2TW laser upgrade. (MOW)

  6. 1978 annual report on laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported for each of the following topics: (1) spherical shell fuel containers, (2) polymer research, (3) cryogenic technology, (4) fabrication technology, (5) implosion physics, (6) fast ion measurements of laser-produced spherical plasmas, (7) absorbed energy measurements, (8) diagnostics, (9) fast ion energy loss in dense plasmas, (10) electron transport, (11) ionization equation of state, (12) profile modification by pondermotive forces, (13) pondermotive potential effects on Ohm's law, (14) effect of flux-limited thermal transport on critical surface jump conditions, (15) spherical rarefaction shocks, (16) explosively heated Gaussian objects, (17) bandwidth broadening, (18) frequency doubling experiments, (19) advanced laser candidates, (20) glass laser operation, and (21) 2TW laser upgrade

  7. Liquid Atomization Induced by Pulse Laser Reflection underneath Liquid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro; Nakahara, Motonao

    2009-05-01

    We observed a novel effect of pulse laser reflection at the interface between transparent materials with different refractive indices. The electric field intensity doubles when a laser beam is completely reflected from a material with a higher refractive index to a material with a lower index. This effect appreciably reduces pulse laser ablation threshold of transparent materials. We performed experiments to observe the entire ablation process for laser incidence on the water-air interface using pulse laser shadowgraphy with high-resolution film; the minimum laser fluence for laser ablation at the water-air interface was approximately 12-16 J/cm2. We confirmed that this laser ablation occurs only when the laser beam is incident on the water-air interface from water. Many slender liquid ligaments extend like a milk crown and seem to be atomized at the tip. Their detailed structures can be resolved only by pulse laser photography using high-resolution film.

  8. Design optimization for 25 Gbit/s DML InGaAlAs/InGaAsP/InP SL-MQW laser diode incorporating temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Cheng; Li, Xun; Xi, Yanping; Yu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a detailed carrier dynamics model for quantum well lasers is used to study the modulation bandwidth of the directly modulated strained-layer multiple quantum well (SL-MQW) laser. The active region of the directly modulated laser (DML) is optimized in terms of the number of QWs and barrier height. To compromise the device dynamic performance at different operating temperatures, we present an overall optimized design for a 25 Gbps DML under an ambient temperature ranging from 25 to 85°C. To further enhance the modulation bandwidth, we have also proposed a mixed QWs design that increases the 3 dB bandwidth by almost 44% compared to the one without undergoing optimization. The experimental results show that the 3 dB bandwidth of the optimized DML can reach 19 GHz. A clear eye diagram with a bit rate of 25 Gbps was observed at 25°C.

  9. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroli, S.; Cazzorla, A.; Checcucci, B.; Mazza, G.; Moschitta, A.; Servoli, L.

    2011-06-01

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  10. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroli, S., E-mail: Stefano.Meroli@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Cazzorla, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Checcucci, B. [Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Mazza, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Torino (Italy); Moschitta, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Servoli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  11. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroli, S.; Cazzorla, A.; Checcucci, B.; Mazza, G.; Moschitta, A.; Servoli, L.

    2011-01-01

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  12. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  13. Understanding the Theory and Practice of Molecular Spectroscopy: The Effects of Spectral Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Steer, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    The near-UV spectrum of benzene is used to illustrate the effects of variations in instrument spectral bandwidth on absorbance and molar absorptivity measurements and on the independence of values of quantities such as the oscillator strength that are based on integrated absorptivity. Excel-based computer simulations are provided that help develop…

  14. COST-EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH PROVISIONING IN MICROWAVE WIRELESS NETWORKS UNDER UNRELIABLE CHANNEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jaumard

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cost-effective planning and dimensioning of backhaul microwave networks under unreliable channel conditions remains a relatively underexplored area in the literature. In particular, bandwidth assignment requires special attention as the transport capacity of microwave links is prone to variations due to, e.g., weather conditions. In this paper, we formulate an optimization model that determines the minimum cost bandwidth assignment of the links in the network for which traffic requirements can be fulfilled with high probability. This model also aims to increase network reliability by adjusting dynamically traffic routes in response to variations of link capacities induced by channel conditions. Experimental results show that 45% of the bandwidth cost can be saved compared to the case where a bandwidth over-provisioning policy is uniformly applied to all links in the network planning. Comparisons with previous work also show that our solution approach, based on column generation technique, is able to solve much larger instances in significantly shorter computing times (i.e., few minutes for medium-size networks, and up to 2 hours for very large networks, unsolved so far by previous models/algorithms, with a comparable level of reliability.

  15. A Wideband Supply Modulator for 20MHz RF Bandwidth Polar PAs in 65nm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, R.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; de Graauw, Anton; Nauta, Bram

    2009-01-01

    Polar modulated RF amplifiers have the potential to enhance efficiency while achieving sufficient linearity for a signal having non-constant envelope. However, switching modulators used in such architectures to generate the envelope signal are difficult to implement because of the high bandwidth and

  16. A fluid model analysis of streaming media in the presence of time-varying bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Bosman (Joost); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper is motivated by the increasing popularity of streaming media applications that are offered via the Internet. Packet streams generated by media application servers are distorted due to variability in the available bandwidth; at the receiving end, a play-out buffer compensates

  17. Low Profile Antenna Performance Study. Part 1. Efficiency and Bandwidth Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    summary of the current state-of-the- art . In addition, several recent designs and tecnni ues which may improve the per- formance of small antennas will be...the inuitance of the input element of the L-net- work as described in the Appendix. For the series input L-network, there is no bandwidth advantage to

  18. Model-Based Evaluation Of System Scalability: Bandwidth Analysis For Smartphone-Based Biosensing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Madsen, Jan; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    -engineering efforts for scaling a system specification efficaciously. We demonstrate the value of our methodology by investigating a smartphone-based biosensing instrumentation platform. Specifically, we carry out scalability analysis for the system’s bandwidth specification: the maximum analog voltage waveform...

  19. A high performance long-reach passive optical network with a novel excess bandwidth distribution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, I.-Fen; Zhang, Tsung-Min

    2015-06-01

    Long-reach passive optical networks (LR-PONs) have been considered to be promising solutions for future access networks. In this paper, we propose a distributed medium access control (MAC) scheme over an advantageous LR-PON network architecture that reroutes the control information from and back to all ONUs through an (N + 1) × (N + 1) star coupler (SC) deployed near the ONUs, thereby overwhelming the extremely long propagation delay problem in LR-PONs. In the network, the control slot is designed to contain all bandwidth requirements of all ONUs and is in-band time-division-multiplexed with a number of data slots within a cycle. In the proposed MAC scheme, a novel profit-weight-based dynamic bandwidth allocation (P-DBA) scheme is presented. The algorithm is designed to efficiently and fairly distribute the amount of excess bandwidth based on a profit value derived from the excess bandwidth usage of each ONU, which resolves the problems of previously reported DBA schemes that are either unfair or inefficient. The simulation results show that the proposed decentralized algorithms exhibit a nearly three-order-of-magnitude improvement in delay performance compared to the centralized algorithms over LR-PONs. Moreover, the newly proposed P-DBA scheme guarantees low delay performance and fairness even when under attack by the malevolent ONU irrespective of traffic loads and burstiness.

  20. Dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yu, Ying; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-03-01

    As the bitrate of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system is continuously increasing, how to effectively allocate the system bandwidth among the huge number of optical network units (ONUs) is one of the key problems before OFDM-PON can be practical deployed. Unlike traditional bandwidth allocation scheme, in this paper, the transmission performance of single ONU is for the first time taken into consideration and optimized. To reduce the manufacturing complexity and fully utilize the processing ability of the receivers, the system bandwidth is equally distributed to the ONUs. Bit loading is used to allocate the total transmission capacity, and power loading is used to guarantee the ONUs have balanced transmission performance even if they operate at different bitrate. In this way, a dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems can be realized. At last, an experimental system is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the influence that the scheme brings to the whole system is also analyzed.

  1. Experimental demonstration of an improved EPON architecture using OFDMA for bandwidth scalable LAN emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    , there is no need to change the existing EPON architecture. Only one receiver at each optical network unit (ONU) is required to detect both LAN traffic and EPON downstream traffic, which makes the proposed system simple and cost-effective. Moreover, flexible assignment of LAN traffic bandwidth is realized...

  2. Note: Expanding the bandwidth of the ultra-low current amplifier using an artificial negative capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Liu, Yan; Li, XiaoPing; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Hanlu

    2016-04-01

    The bandwidth and low noise characteristics are often contradictory in ultra-low current amplifier, because an inevitable parasitic capacitance is paralleled with the high value feedback resistor. In order to expand the amplifier's bandwidth, a novel approach was proposed by introducing an artificial negative capacitor to cancel the parasitic capacitance. The theory of the negative capacitance and the performance of the improved amplifier circuit with the negative capacitor are presented in this manuscript. The test was conducted by modifying an ultra-low current amplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results show that the maximum bandwidth was expanded from 18.7 Hz to 3.3 kHz with more than 150 times of increase when the parasitic capacitance (∼0.17 pF) was cancelled. Meanwhile, the rise time decreased from 18.7 ms to 0.26 ms with no overshot. Any desired bandwidth or rise time within these ranges can be obtained by adjusting the ratio of cancellation of the parasitic and negative capacitance. This approach is especially suitable for the demand of rapid response to weak current, such as transient ion-beam detector, mass spectrometry analysis, and fast scanning microscope.

  3. Towards Bandwidth Scalable Transceiver Technology for Optical Metro-Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spolitis, Sandis; Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs; Wagner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment is creating a challenge for telecommunications network operators: exponential increase of the power consumption at the central offices and a never ending quest for equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. In this paper, we report on flexible...

  4. An Extremely Wide Bandwidth, Low-Noise SIS Heterodyne Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Matthew; Blain, Andrew; Harris, Andrew; Hu, Robert; Rice, Frank; LeDuc, H. G.; Weinreb, Sander; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne receivers using state-of-the-art SIS detectors are capable of extremely large instantaneous bandwidths with noise temperatures within a few Kelvin of the quantum limit. We present the design for a broadband, sensitive, heterodyne spectrometer under development for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The 180-300 GHz double-sideband design uses a single SIS device excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output frequency (limited by the MMIC low noise IF preamplifier) is 6-18 GHz, providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). The SIS mixer conversion loss should be no more than 1-2 dB with mixer noise temperatures across the band within 10 K of the quantum limit. The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 K. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin in the summer of 2002, and the first use on the CSO should occur in the spring of 2003.

  5. An Extremely Wide Bandwidth, Low Noise SIS Heterodyne Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Our group has designed a heterodyne submillimeter receiver that offers a very wide IF bandwidth of 12 GHz, while still maintaining a low noise temperature. The 180-300 GHz double-sideband design uses a single SI5 device excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output frequency (limited by the MMIC low noise IF preamplifier) is 6-18 GHz. providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). Intensive simulations predict that the junction will achieve a conversion loss better than 1-2 dB and a mixer noise temperature of less than 20 K across the band (twice the quantum limit). The single sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 K. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical and environmental observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin this summer, and first light on the CSO should be in the Spring of 2003. At the CSO, we plan to use receiver with WASP2, a wideband spectrometer, to search for spectral lines from SCUBA sources. This approach should allow us to rapidly develop a catalog of redshifts for these objects.

  6. High-bandwidth and flexible tracking control for precision motion with application to a piezo nanopositioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhao; Ling, Jie; Ming, Min; Xiao, Xiao-Hui

    2017-08-01

    For precision motion, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking are the two important issues for significant performance improvement. Iterative learning control (ILC) is an effective feedforward control method only for systems that operate strictly repetitively. Although projection ILC can track varying references, the performance is still limited by the fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, especially for triangular waves tracking commonly used in a piezo nanopositioner. In this paper, a wavelet transform-based linear time-varying (LTV) Q-filter design for projection ILC is proposed to compensate high-frequency errors and improve the ability to tracking varying references simultaneously. The LVT Q-filter is designed based on the modulus maximum of wavelet detail coefficients calculated by wavelet transform to determine the high-frequency locations of each iteration with the advantages of avoiding cross-terms and segmenting manually. The proposed approach was verified on a piezo nanopositioner. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can locate the high-frequency regions accurately and achieve the best performance under varying references compared with traditional frequency-domain and projection ILC with a fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, which validates that through implementing the LTV filter on projection ILC, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking can be achieved simultaneously by the proposed approach.

  7. Enhancement of the Modulation Bandwidth for surface Plasmon coupled LEDs for Visible Light Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The modulation bandwidth of surface plasmon coupled GaN-based LEDs is increased by ~1.2 times to 434.5 MHz compared with normal LED by applying Ag nanoparticles. These findings will help for the industrialization of VLC system....

  8. Note: Expanding the bandwidth of the ultra-low current amplifier using an artificial negative capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kai, E-mail: kaixie@mail.xidian.edu.cn; Liu, Yan; Li, XiaoPing [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, Lixin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Zhang, Hanlu [School of Communication & Information Engineering, Xi’an University of Posts & Telecommunication, Xi’an 710121 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The bandwidth and low noise characteristics are often contradictory in ultra-low current amplifier, because an inevitable parasitic capacitance is paralleled with the high value feedback resistor. In order to expand the amplifier’s bandwidth, a novel approach was proposed by introducing an artificial negative capacitor to cancel the parasitic capacitance. The theory of the negative capacitance and the performance of the improved amplifier circuit with the negative capacitor are presented in this manuscript. The test was conducted by modifying an ultra-low current amplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results show that the maximum bandwidth was expanded from 18.7 Hz to 3.3 kHz with more than 150 times of increase when the parasitic capacitance (∼0.17 pF) was cancelled. Meanwhile, the rise time decreased from 18.7 ms to 0.26 ms with no overshot. Any desired bandwidth or rise time within these ranges can be obtained by adjusting the ratio of cancellation of the parasitic and negative capacitance. This approach is especially suitable for the demand of rapid response to weak current, such as transient ion-beam detector, mass spectrometry analysis, and fast scanning microscope.

  9. Speeding up the Algorithm for Finding Optimal Kernel Bandwidth in Spike Train Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šanda, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 73-75 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) SVV-2010-265-513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neural coding * kernel bandwidth estimation * parallel computing Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. High-bandwidth and flexible tracking control for precision motion with application to a piezo nanopositioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhao; Ling, Jie; Ming, Min; Xiao, Xiao-Hui

    2017-08-01

    For precision motion, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking are the two important issues for significant performance improvement. Iterative learning control (ILC) is an effective feedforward control method only for systems that operate strictly repetitively. Although projection ILC can track varying references, the performance is still limited by the fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, especially for triangular waves tracking commonly used in a piezo nanopositioner. In this paper, a wavelet transform-based linear time-varying (LTV) Q-filter design for projection ILC is proposed to compensate high-frequency errors and improve the ability to tracking varying references simultaneously. The LVT Q-filter is designed based on the modulus maximum of wavelet detail coefficients calculated by wavelet transform to determine the high-frequency locations of each iteration with the advantages of avoiding cross-terms and segmenting manually. The proposed approach was verified on a piezo nanopositioner. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can locate the high-frequency regions accurately and achieve the best performance under varying references compared with traditional frequency-domain and projection ILC with a fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, which validates that through implementing the LTV filter on projection ILC, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking can be achieved simultaneously by the proposed approach.

  11. Interaction between a bubble and a metal target for underwater laser propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Han, Bing; Pan, Yunxiang; Zhang, Hongchao; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2017-04-10

    Optical beam deflection and high-speed photographic methods are employed to investigate the interaction mechanism between a laser-induced bubble and a metal target for underwater laser propulsion. A preliminary theory is proposed to reveal the step increases of the kinetic energy transferred to the target during the process of increasing the incident laser energy. This theory also helps to explain the increasing coupling efficiency with incident laser energy for underwater laser propulsion.

  12. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  13. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  14. III-V/SOI vertical cavity laser structure for 120 Gbit/s speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort-cavity structure for III-V/SOI vertical cavity laser with light output into a Si waveguide is proposed, enabling 17 fJ/bit efficiency or 120 Gbit/s speed. Experimentally, 27-GHz bandwidth is demonstrated at 3.5 times of threshold. © 2015 OSA.......Ultrashort-cavity structure for III-V/SOI vertical cavity laser with light output into a Si waveguide is proposed, enabling 17 fJ/bit efficiency or 120 Gbit/s speed. Experimentally, 27-GHz bandwidth is demonstrated at 3.5 times of threshold. © 2015 OSA....

  15. Power scaling of cryogenic Yb:LiYF(4) lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E; Ripin, Daniel J; Fan, Tso Yee

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a cryogenically cooled Yb:LiYF(4) (Yb:YLF) laser with 224W linearly polarized output power (pump-power limited) and a slope efficiency of 68%. The beam quality is characterized by an M(2) approximately 1.1 at 60W output and M(2) approximately 2.6 at 180W output. This level of average laser power is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than demonstrated previously in cryogenic Yb:YLF. Yb:YLF is attractive for femtosecond pulse generation because of its wide gain bandwidth, and this demonstration shows the potential for high-average-power subpicosecond pulse lasers.

  16. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG Power in Normal Subjects with Closed Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the low-level laser (LLL stimulation at the palm with a frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects with opened eyes. However, the electroencephalography (EEG changes to LLL stimulation in subjects with closed eyes have not been studied. In the present study, the laser array stimulator was applied to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm of the tested subjects with closed eyes (the laser group. The EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The EEG amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band at 19 locations were calculated. These power data were then analyzed by SPSS software using repeated-measure ANOVAs and appropriate posthoc tests. We found a pronounced decrease in the EEG power in alpha-bandwidth during laser simulation and then less decrease in the EEG power in delta-bandwidth in normal subjects with laser stimulation. The EEG power in beta-bandwidth in the right occipital area also decreased significantly in the laser group. We suggest that LLL stimulation might be conducive to falling into sleep in patients with sleep problems.

  17. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  18. Orientation masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS): implications for estimates of filter bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Tim S; Holmes, David J

    2010-10-01

    Most contemporary models of spatial vision include a cross-oriented route to suppression (masking from a broadly tuned inhibitory pool), which is most potent at low spatial and high temporal frequencies (T. S. Meese & D. J. Holmes, 2007). The influence of this pathway can elevate orientation-masking functions without exciting the target mechanism, and because early psychophysical estimates of filter bandwidth did not accommodate this, it is likely that they have been overestimated for this corner of stimulus space. Here we show that a transient 40% contrast mask causes substantial binocular threshold elevation for a transient vertical target, and this declines from a mask orientation of 0° to about 40° (indicating tuning), and then more gently to 90°, where it remains at a factor of ∼4. We also confirm that cross-orientation masking is diminished or abolished at high spatial frequencies and for sustained temporal modulation. We fitted a simple model of pedestal masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS) to our data and those of G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson (1984) and found the dependency of orientation bandwidth on spatial frequency to be much less than previously supposed. An extension of our linear spatial pooling model of contrast gain control and dilution masking (T. S. Meese & R. J. Summers, 2007) is also shown to be consistent with our results using filter bandwidths of ±20°. Both models include tightly and broadly tuned components of divisive suppression. More generally, because XOS and/or dilution masking can affect the shape of orientation-masking curves, we caution that variations in bandwidth estimates might reflect variations in processes that have nothing to do with filter bandwidth.

  19. Dependency of human neck reflex responses on the bandwidth of pseudorandom anterior-posterior torso perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; de Bruijn, Edo; Schouten, Alfred C; van der Helm, Frans C T; Happee, Riender

    2013-04-01

    The vestibulocollic (VCR) and cervicocollic (CCR) reflexes are essential to stabilize the head-neck system and to deal with unexpected disturbances. This study investigates how neck reflexes contribute to stabilization and modulate with perturbation properties. We hypothesized that VCR and CCR modulate with the bandwidth of the perturbation and that this modulation is maintained across amplitudes and influenced by the eyes being open or closed. Seated subjects were perturbed in an anterior-posterior direction. The perturbations varied in bandwidth from 0.3 Hz to a maximum of 1.2, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 Hz, at three amplitudes, and with eyes open and closed. Frequency response functions of head kinematics and neck muscle EMG demonstrated substantial changes with bandwidth and vision and minor changes with amplitude, which through closed-loop identification were attributed to neural (reflexive) modulation. Results suggest that both reflexes were attenuated when perturbations exceeded the system's natural frequency, thereby shifting from a head-in-space to a head-on-trunk stabilization tendency. Additionally, results indicate that reflexive and mechanical stiffness marginally exceed the negative stiffness due to gravity; a stabilization strategy which minimizes effort. With eyes closed, reflexes were attenuated further, presumably due to a reduced ability to discriminate self-motion, driving the system to a head-on-trunk stabilization strategy at the highest bandwidth. We conclude that VCR and CCR modulate with perturbation bandwidth and visual feedback conditions to maintain head-upright posture, but are invariant across amplitude changes.

  20. Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ams, Martin; Dekker, Peter; Marshall, Graham D; Withford, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    A femtosecond-laser-written monolithic waveguide laser (WGL) oscillator based on a distributed-feedback architecture and fabricated in ytterbium-doped phosphate glass is reported. The device lased at 1033 nm with an output power of 102 mW and a bandwidth of less than 2 pm when bidirectionally pumped at 976 nm. The WGL device was stable and operated for 50 h without degradation. This demonstration of a high-performance WGL opens the possibility for creating a variety of narrow-linewidth laser designs in bulk glasses.

  1. All-optical characterization of large-signal modulation bandwidth of a monolithically integrated DFB-EA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    We use an all-optical method to characterize the modulation bandwidth of a DFB-EA designed for 100 Gb/s Ethernet. In a large-signal wavelength conversion set-up, we show the device has an all-optical bandwidth of 83 GHz....

  2. Laser treatment for pigmented lesions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina E; Nouri, Keyvan

    2006-03-01

    Just a few decades ago, before lasers were introduced into dermatologic practice, many cutaneous lesions were untreatable. Since the introduction of lasers in dermatology in the 1960s and its revolution by Anderson and Parrish in the 1980s based on the selective photothermolysis theory, lasers have become a main component of many dermatology practices. With the advent of these selective lasers and their constant technological advancements, many lesions can now be easily removed with a low incidence of complications, creating a high demand for laser surgery. Aims This paper will review current laser systems used for pigmented lesions. An English-language literature search and review through Medline from January 1994 to October 2004. Review of the latest techniques and lasers used in treating pigmentary disorders and possible future applications and treatment options. Laser technique and technology has greatly advanced producing more effacious treatment with minimal complications.

  3. Control over high peak-power laser light and laser-driven X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhen; Banerjee, Sudeep; Yan, Wenchao; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Jun; Golovin, Grigory; Liu, Cheng; Fruhling, Colton; Haden, Daniel; Chen, Shouyuan; Umstadter, Donald

    2018-04-01

    An optical system was demonstrated that enables continuous control over the peak power level of ultrashort duration laser light. The optical characteristics of amplified and compressed femtosecond-duration light from a chirped-pulse amplification laser are shown to remain invariant and maintain high-fidelity using this system. When the peak power was varied by an order-of-magnitude, up to its maximum attainable value, the phase, spectral bandwidth, polarization state, and focusability of the light remained constant. This capability led to precise control of the focused laser intensity and enabled a correspondingly high level of control over the power of an all-laser-driven Thomson X-ray light source.

  4. Source parameters and effects of bandwidth and local geology on high- frequency ground motions observed for aftershocks of the northeastern Ohio earthquake of 31 January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmoyer, G.; Borcherdt, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A 10-station array (GEOS) yielded recordings of exceptional bandwidth (400 sps) and resolution (up to 96 dB) for the aftershocks of the moderate (mb???4.9) earthquake that occurred on 31 January 1986 near Painesville, Ohio. Nine aftershocks were recorded with seismic moments ranging between 9 ?? 1016 and 3 ?? 1019 dyne-cm (MW: 0.6 to 2.3). The aftershock recordings at a site underlain by ???8m of lakeshore sediments show significant levels of high-frequency soil amplification of vertical motion at frequencies near 8, 20 and 70 Hz. Viscoelastic models for P and SV waves incident at the base of the sediments yield estimates of vertical P-wave response consistent with the observed high-frequency site resonances, but suggest additional detailed shear-wave logs are needed to account for observed S-wave response. -from Authors

  5. Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Hansson, Tobias; Viktorov, Evgeny A.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Most mode-locking techniques introduced in the past focused mainly on increasing the spectral bandwidth to achieve ultrashort, sub-picosecond-long coherent light pulses. By contrast, less importance seemed to be given to mode-locked lasers generating Fourier-transform-limited nanosecond pulses, which feature the narrow spectral bandwidths required for applications in spectroscopy, the efficient excitation of molecules, sensing and quantum optics. Here, we demonstrate a passively mode-locked laser system that relies on simultaneous nested cavity filtering and cavity-enhanced nonlinear interactions within an integrated microring resonator. This allows us to produce optical pulses in the nanosecond regime (4.3 ns in duration), with an overall spectral bandwidth of 104.9 MHz—more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previous realizations. The very narrow bandwidth of our laser makes it possible to fully characterize its spectral properties in the radiofrequency domain using widely available GHz-bandwidth optoelectronic components. In turn, this characterization reveals the strong coherence of the generated pulse train.

  6. Banded all-optical OFDM super-channels with low-bandwidth receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Binhuang; Zhu, Chen; Corcoran, Bill; Zhuang, Leimeng; Lowery, Arthur James

    2016-08-08

    We propose a banded all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) transmission system based on synthesising a number of truncated sinc-shaped subcarriers for each sub-band. This approach enables sub-band by sub-band reception and therefore each receiver's electrical bandwidth can be significantly reduced compared with a conventional AO-OFDM system. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we synthesise 6 × 10-Gbaud subcarriers in both conventional and banded AO-OFDM systems. With a limited receiver electrical bandwidth, the experimental banded AO-OFDM system shows 2-dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) benefit over conventional AO-OFDM at the 7%-overhead forward error correction (FEC) threshold. After transmission over 800-km of single-mode fiber, ≈3-dB improvement in Q-factor can be achieved at the optimal launch power at a cost of increasing the spectral width by 14%.

  7. Terahertz bandwidth all-optical Hilbert transformers based on long-period gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Reza; Azaña, José

    2012-07-01

    A novel, all-optical design for implementing terahertz (THz) bandwidth real-time Hilbert transformers is proposed and numerically demonstrated. An all-optical Hilbert transformer can be implemented using a uniform-period long-period grating (LPG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile, incorporating a single π-phase shift in the middle of the grating length. The designed LPG-based Hilbert transformers can be practically implemented using either fiber-optic or integrated-waveguide technologies. As a generalization, photonic fractional Hilbert transformers are also designed based on the same optical platform. In this general case, the resulting LPGs have multiple π-phase shifts along the grating length. Our numerical simulations confirm that all-optical Hilbert transformers capable of processing arbitrary optical signals with bandwidths well in the THz range can be implemented using feasible fiber/waveguide LPG designs.

  8. Extremely large bandwidth and ultralow-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides with magnetically controllability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Shengli; Wang, Haotian; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    of the lattice and the light speed in vacuum, respectively). Simultaneously, the normalized delay-bandwidth product is relatively large and almost invariant with magnetic field strength. It is indicated that using magnetic fluid as one of the constitutive materials of the photonic crystal structures can enable......A line-defect waveguide within a two-dimensional magnetic-fluid-based photonic crystal with 45o-rotated square lattice is presented to have excellent slow light properties. The bandwidth centered at $$ \\lambda_{0} $$ = 1,550 nm of our designed W1 waveguide is around 66 nm, which is very large than...... the magnetically fine tunability of the slow light in online mode. The concept and results of this work may give a guideline for studying and realizing tunable slow light based on the external-stimulus-responsive materials....

  9. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  10. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz Bandwidth, 8192 Channel, Polyphase Digital Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters, (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga-sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. the implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as, potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  11. A HIGH BANDWIDTH BIPOLAR POWER SUPPLY FOR THE FAST CORRECTORS IN THE APS UPGRADE*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ju; Sprau, Gary

    2017-06-25

    The APS Upgrade of a multi-bend achromat (MBA) storage ring requires a fast bipolar power supply for the fast correction magnets. The key performance requirement of the power supply includes a small-signal bandwidth of 10 kHz for the output current. This requirement presents a challenge to the design because of the high inductance of the magnet load and a limited input DC voltage. A prototype DC/DC power supply utilizing a MOSFET H-bridge circuit with a 500 kHz PWM has been developed and tested successfully. The prototype achieved a 10-kHz bandwidth with less than 3-dB attenuation for a signal 0.5% of the maximum operating current of 15 amperes. This paper presents the design of the power circuit, the PWM method, the control loop, and the test results.

  12. Influence of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Effective Absorption Bandwidth Shift of Hybrid Absorbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ameer

    Full Text Available The magnetic nanoparticle composite NiFe2O4 has traditionally been studied for high-frequency microwave absorption with marginal performance towards low-frequency radar bands (particularly L and S bands. Here, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanohybrids using large-diameter graphene oxide (GO sheets are prepared via solvothermal synthesis for low-frequency wide bandwidth shielding (L and S radar bands. The synthesized materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR and microwave magneto dielectric spectroscopy. The dimension of these solvothermally synthesized pristine particles and hybrids lies within 30-58 nm. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy was performed in the low-frequency region in the 1 MHz-3 GHz spectrum. The as-synthesized pristine nanoparticles and hybrids were found to be highly absorbing for microwaves throughout the L and S radar bands ( 4 GHz with limited selective bandwidth.

  13. Atomic Faraday filter with equivalent noise bandwidth less than 1 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentile, Mark A; Whiting, Daniel J; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate an atomic bandpass optical filter with an equivalent noise bandwidth less than 1 GHz using the D1 line in a cesium vapor. We use the ElecSus computer program to find optimal experimental parameters and find that, for important quantities, the cesium D1 line clearly outperforms other alkali metals on either D-lines. The filter simultaneously achieves a peak transmission of 77%, a passband of 310 MHz, and an equivalent noise bandwidth of 0.96 GHz, for a magnetic field of 45.3 G and a temperature of 68.0°C. Experimentally, the prediction from the model is verified. The experiment and theoretical predictions show excellent agreement.

  14. High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-08-25

    III-nitride LEDs are fundamental components for visible-light communication (VLC). However, the modulation bandwidth is inherently limited by the relatively long carrier lifetime. In this letter, we present the 405 nm emitting superluminescent diode (SLD) with tilted facet design on semipolar GaN substrate, showing a broad emission of ∼9 nm at 20 mW optical power. Owing to the fast recombination (τ<0.35 ns) through the amplified spontaneous emission, the SLD exhibits a significantly large 3-dB bandwidth of 807 MHz. A data rate of 1.3 Gbps with a bit-error rate of 2.9 × 10 was obtained using on-off keying modulation scheme, suggesting the SLD being a high-speed transmitter for VLC applications.

  15. Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-03-14

    We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.

  16. Analysis of mobile fronthaul bandwidth and wireless transmission performance in split-PHY processing architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun; Otaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-25

    We analyze the mobile fronthaul (MFH) bandwidth and the wireless transmission performance in the split-PHY processing (SPP) architecture, which redefines the functional split of centralized/cloud RAN (C-RAN) while preserving high wireless coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission/reception performance. The SPP architecture splits the base stations (BS) functions between wireless channel coding/decoding and wireless modulation/demodulation, and employs its own CoMP joint transmission and reception schemes. Simulation results show that the SPP architecture reduces the MFH bandwidth by up to 97% from conventional C-RAN while matching the wireless bit error rate (BER) performance of conventional C-RAN in uplink joint reception with only 2-dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) penalty.

  17. BHCDA: Bandwidth Efficient Heterogeneity aware Cluster based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental challenge in the design of Wireless sensor Network (WSNs) is proper utilization of resources which are scare. One of the critical challenges is to maximize the bandwidth utilization in data gathering from sensor nodes and forward to sink. The main design objective of this paper...... is to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently with reduced packet delivery ratio and throughput. BHCDA presents the solution for effective data gathering with in-network aggregation. It considers the network with heterogeneous nodes in terms of energy and mobile sink to aggregate the data packets....... It embodies the optimal approach by Intra and inter-cluster aggregation on the randomly distributed nodes with variable data generation rate while routing data to sink. It uses the correlation of data within the packet for applying the aggregation function on data generated by nodes. BHCDA shows significant...

  18. High-fidelity polarization storage in a gigahertz bandwidth quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, D G; Michelberger, P S; Champion, T F M; Reim, K F; Lee, K C; Sprague, M R; Jin, X-M; Langford, N K; Kolthammer, W S; Nunn, J; Walmsley, I A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a dual-rail optical Raman memory inside a polarization interferometer; this enables us to store polarization-encoded information at GHz bandwidths in a room-temperature atomic ensemble. By performing full process tomography on the system, we measure up to 97 ± 1% process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process. At longer storage times, the process fidelity remains high, despite a loss of efficiency. The fidelity is 86 ± 4% for 1.5 μs storage time, which is 5000 times the pulse duration. Hence, high fidelity is combined with a large time-bandwidth product. This high performance, with an experimentally simple setup, demonstrates the suitability of the Raman memory for integration into large-scale quantum networks. (paper)

  19. Highly-efficient 1-GHz-repetition-frequency femtosecond Yb3+:KY(WO42 laser for super-continuum generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leburn C.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 1.024-GHz-repetition-rate femtosecond Yb3+:KY(WO42 laser with 61% optical-to-optical efficiency and 69% slope efficiency, generating a supercontinuum of bandwidth 400 nm in silica photonic-crystal fibre. RIN measurements of the laser yielded values <0.1%.

  20. Potential Upgrade of the CMS Tracker Analog Readout Optical Links Using Bandwidth Efficient Digital Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dris, Stefanos; Foudas, Costas; Gill, Karl; Grabit, Robert; Ricci, Daniel; Troska, Jan; Vasey, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The potential application of advanced digital communication schemes in a future upgrade of the CMS Tracker readout optical links is currently being investigated at CERN. We show experimentally that multi-Gbit/s data rates are possible over the current 40 MSamples/s analog optical links by employing techniques similar to those used in ADSL. The concept involves using one or more digitally-modulated sinusoidal carriers in order to make efficient use of the available bandwidth.

  1. 300 nm bandwidth adiabatic SOI polarization splitter-rotators exploiting continuous symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socci, Luciano; Sorianello, Vito; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-07-27

    Adiabatic polarization splitter-rotators are investigated exploiting continuous symmetry breaking thereby achieving significant device size and losses reduction in a single mask fabrication process for both SOI channel and ridge waveguides. A crosstalk lower than -25 dB is expected over 300nm bandwidth, making the device suitable for full grid CWDM and diplexer/triplexer FTTH applications at 1310, 1490 and 1550nm.

  2. ICE-Based Custom Full-Mesh Network for the CHIME High Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Cliche, J. F.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Ittah, D.; Mena Parra, J.; Smecher, G.

    2016-03-01

    New generation radio interferometers encode signals from thousands of antenna feeds across large bandwidth. Channelizing and correlating this data requires networking capabilities that can handle unprecedented data rates with reasonable cost. The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) correlator processes 8-bits from N=2,048 digitizer inputs across 400MHz of bandwidth. Measured in N2× bandwidth, it is the largest radio correlator that is currently commissioning. Its digital back-end must exchange and reorganize the 6.6terabit/s produced by its 128 digitizing and channelizing nodes, and feed it to the 256 graphics processing unit (GPU) node spatial correlator in a way that each node obtains data from all digitizer inputs but across a small fraction of the bandwidth (i.e. ‘corner-turn’). In order to maximize performance and reliability of the corner-turn system while minimizing cost, a custom networking solution has been implemented. The system makes use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) transceivers to implement direct, passive copper, full-mesh, high speed serial connections between sixteen circuit boards in a crate, to exchange data between crates, and to offload the data to a cluster of 256 GPU nodes using standard 10Gbit/s Ethernet links. The GPU nodes complete the corner-turn by combining data from all crates and then computing visibilities. Eye diagrams and frame error counters confirm error-free operation of the corner-turn network in both the currently operating CHIME Pathfinder telescope (a prototype for the full CHIME telescope) and a representative fraction of the full CHIME hardware providing an end-to-end system validation. An analysis of an equivalent corner-turn system built with Ethernet switches instead of custom passive data links is provided.

  3. Investigating a reduced size real-time transport protocol for low-bandwidth networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kakande, JN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available , low- bandwidth, multimedia streaming, RTP I. INTRODUCTION Multimedia applications today comprise one of the key classes of Internet traffic. However, the Internet is a best- effort transmission platform with no quality of service (Qo...S) guarantees, which creates several challenges for real- time multimedia streaming. The major hurdles are fluctuating throughput and other QoS-related issues including packet loss, jitter and delay. In the developing world, limited-capacity Internet...

  4. Single passband microwave photonic filter with wideband tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Minasian, Robert

    2012-11-15

    A new and simple structure for a single passband microwave photonic filter is presented. It is based on using an electro-optical phase modulator and a tunable optical filter and only requires a single wavelength source and a single photodetector. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a single passband, flat-top radio-frequency filter response without free spectral range limitations, along with the capability of tuning the center frequency and filter bandwidth independently.

  5. Earthquake probability at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant, Japan, assessed using bandwidth optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C. B.; Connor, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    On July 16, 2007, a strong 6.8 magnitude earthquake occurred on Japan's west coast, rocking the nearby Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant, the largest nuclear power station on Earth. Shaking during this event produced ground accelerations of ~680 gal, exceeding the plant seismic design specification of 273 gal. This occurrence renews concerns regarding seismic hazards at nuclear facilities located in regions with persistent earthquake activity. Seismic hazard assessments depend upon an understanding of the spatial distribution of earthquakes to effectively assess future earthquake hazards. Earthquake spatial density is best estimated using kernel density functions based on the locations of past seismic events. Two longstanding problems encountered when using kernel density estimation are the selection of an optimal smoothing bandwidth and the quantification of the uncertainty inherent in these estimates. Currently, kernel bandwidths are often selected subjectively and the uncertainty in spatial density estimation is not calculated. As a result, hazards with potentially large consequences for society are poorly estimated. We solve these two problems by employing an optimal bandwidth selector algorithm to objectively identify an appropriately sized kernel bandwidth based on earthquake locations from catalog databases and by assessing uncertainty in the spatial density estimate using a modified smoothed bootstrap technique. After applying these methods to the Kashiwazaki Kariwa site, the calculated probability of one or more Mw 6-7 earthquakes within 10 km of the site during a 40 yr facility lifetime is between 0.005 and 0.02 with 95 percent confidence. This result is made more robust by calculating similar probabilities using alternative databases of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The objectivity and quantitative robustness of these techniques make them extremely beneficial for seismic hazard assessment.

  6. Potential Upgrade of the CMS Tracker Analog Readout Optical Links using Bandwidth Efficient Digital Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dris, Stefanos; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Ricci, D; Troska, J; Vasey, F

    2007-01-01

    The potential application of advanced digital communication schemes in a future upgrade of the CMS Tracker readout optical links is currently being investigated at CERN. We show experimentally that multi-Gbit/s data rates are possible over the current 40 MSamples/s analog optical links by employing techniques similar to those used in ADSL. The concept involves using one or more digitally-modulated sinusoidal carriers in order to make efficient use of the available bandwidth.

  7. Robustness and Actuator Bandwidth of MRP-Based Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Sung-Woong

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve non-singular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in pre-determined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.

  8. Relating 2f1 −f2 distortion product otoacoustic emission and equivalent rectangular bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the extent of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) toward low frequencies we measured in 21 normal-hearing human subjects its dependence on the ratio between evoking stimulus frequencies, f1 and f2, at 2f1-f2 distortion frequencies 88, 176 and 264 Hz. The "optimal" ratio evo...... evoking the largest DPOAE level is frequency dependent but well-guided by 1.52 equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB)....

  9. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  10. Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Laser Resurfacing Uses for Laser Resurfacing Learn more ...

  11. SiGe HBT cryogenic preamplification for higher bandwidth donor spin read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Single-shot read-out of a donor spin can be performed using the response of a single-electron-transistor (SET). This technique can produce relatively large changes in current, on the order of 1 (nA), to distinguish between the spin states. Despite the relatively large signal, the read-out time resolution has been limited to approximately 100 (kHz) of bandwidth because of noise. Cryogenic pre-amplification has been shown to extend the response of certain detection circuits to shorter time resolution and thus higher bandwidth. We examine a SiGe HBT circuit configuration for cryogenic preamplification, which has potential advantages over commonly used HEMT configurations. Here we present 4 (K) measurements of a circuit consisting of a Silicon-SET inline with a Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT). We compare the measured bandwidth with and without the HBT inline and find that at higher frequencies the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the HBT inline exceeds the SNR without the HBT inline. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Investigation of the effects of bandwidth and time delay on helicopter roll-axis handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausder, Heinz-Juergen; Blanken, Chris L.

    1993-01-01

    Several years of cooperative research conducted under the U.S./German Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in helicopter flight control has recently resulted in a successful handling qualities study. The focus of this cooperative research has been the effects on handling qualities due to time delays in combination with a high bandwidth vehicle. The jointly performed study included the use of U.S. ground-based simulation and German in-flight simulation facilities. The NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) was used to develop a high bandwidth slalom tracking task which took into consideration the constraints of the facilities. The VMS was also used to define a range of the test parameters and to perform initial handling qualities evaluations. The flight tests were conducted using DLR's variable-stability BO 105 S3 Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System (ATTHeS). Configurations included a rate command and an attitude command response system with added time delays up to 160 milliseconds over the baseline and bandwidth values between 1.5 and 4.5 rad/sec. Sixty-six evaluations were performed in about 25 hours of flight time during ten days of testing. The results indicate a need to more tightly constrain the allowable roll axis phase delay for the Level 1 and Level 2 requirements in the U.S. Army's specification for helicopter handling qualities, ADS-33C.

  13. Generalized Chirp Scaling Combined with Baseband Azimuth Scaling Algorithm for Large Bandwidth Sliding Spotlight SAR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tianzhu; He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Mnaqing

    2017-05-29

    This paper presents an efficient and precise imaging algorithm for the large bandwidth sliding spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The existing sub-aperture processing method based on the baseband azimuth scaling (BAS) algorithm cannot cope with the high order phase coupling along the range and azimuth dimensions. This coupling problem causes defocusing along the range and azimuth dimensions. This paper proposes a generalized chirp scaling (GCS)-BAS processing algorithm, which is based on the GCS algorithm. It successfully mitigates the deep focus along the range dimension of a sub-aperture of the large bandwidth sliding spotlight SAR, as well as high order phase coupling along the range and azimuth dimensions. Additionally, the azimuth focusing can be achieved by this azimuth scaling method. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of the GCS-BAS algorithm to process the large bandwidth sliding spotlight SAR data. It is proven that great improvements of the focus depth and imaging accuracy are obtained via the GCS-BAS algorithm.

  14. A Study on the Bandwidth Characteristics of Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Versluys

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleated pneumatic artificial muscles have interesting properties that can be of considerable significance in robotics and automation. With a view to the potential use of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles as actuators for a fatigue test bench (high forces and small displacements, the bandwidth characteristics of a muscle-valve system were investigated. Bandwidth is commonly used for linear systems, as the Bode plot is independent of the amplitude of the input signal. However, due to the non-linear behaviour of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles, the system's gain becomes dependent on the amplitude of the input sine wave. As a result, only one Bode plot is insufficient to clearly describe or identify a non-linear system. In this study, the bandwidth of a muscle-valve system was assessed from two perspectives: a varying amplitude and a varying offset of the input sine wave. A brief introduction to pneumatic artificial muscles is given. The concept of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles is explained. Furthermore, the different test methods and experimental results are presented.

  15. Ultrasensitive and Wide-Bandwidth Thermal Measurements of Graphene at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chung Fong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available At low temperatures, the electron gas of graphene is expected to show both very weak coupling to thermal baths and rapid thermalization, properties which are desirable for use as a sensitive bolometer. We demonstrate an ultrasensitive, wide-bandwidth measurement scheme based on Johnson noise to probe the thermal-transport and thermodynamic properties of the electron gas of graphene, with a resolution of 2  mK/sqrt[Hz] and a bandwidth of 80 MHz. We have measured the electron-phonon coupling directly through energy transport, from 2–30 K and at a charge density of 2×10^{11}  cm^{-2}. We demonstrate bolometric mixing and utilize this effect to sense temperature oscillations with a period of 430 ps and determine the heat capacity of the electron gas to be 2×10^{-21}  J/(K·μm^{2} at 5 K, which is consistent with that of a two-dimensional Dirac electron gas. These measurements suggest that graphene-based devices, together with wide-bandwidth noise thermometry, can generate substantial advances in the areas of ultrasensitive bolometry, calorimetry, microwave and terahertz photo-detection, and bolometric mixing for applications in fields such as observational astronomy and quantum information and measurement.

  16. Signal Processing Algorithm for Controlling Dynamic Bandwidth of Fiber Optic Accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hyun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing algorithm to control the dynamic bandwidth of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) dynamic sensor system. An accelerometer is a representative SDF sensor system. In this paper, a moire-fringe-based fiber optic accelerometer is newly used for the test of the algorithm. The accelerometer is composed of one mass, one damper and one spring as a SDF dynamic system. In order to increase the dynamic bandwidth of the accelerometer, it is needed to increase the spring constant or decrease the mass. However, there are mechanical difficulties of this adjustment. Therefore, the presented signal processing algorithm is very effective to overcome the difficulties because it is just adjustment in the signal processing software. In this paper, the novel fiber optic accelerometer is introduced shortly, and the algorithm is applied to the fiber optic accelerometer to control its natural frequency and damping ratio. Several simulations and experiments are carried out to prove the performance of the algorithm. As a result, it is shown that the presented signal processing algorithm is a good way to broaden the dynamic bandwidth of the fiber optic accelerometer

  17. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L-C; Huang, Y-T; Chang, P-B

    2006-01-01

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed

  18. Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-09-22

    We propose a rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber with bandwidth tuning from 50 MHz to 4 GHz at less than 15-MHz resolution. The rectangular shape of the filter is precisely achieved utilizing digital feedback control of the comb-like pump spectral lines. The passband ripple is suppressed to ~1 dB by mitigating the nonlinearity influences of the comb-like pump lines generated in electrical and optical components and fibers. Moreover a fiber with a single Brillouin peak is employed to further reduce the in-band ripple and the out-of-band SBS gain at the same time. Finally, we analyze the noise performance of the filter at different bandwidth cases and demonstrate the system performance of the proposed filter with 2.1-GHz bandwidth and 19-dB gain by amplifying a 2-GHz orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) on each subscriber.

  19. Automatic high-bandwidth calibration and reconstruction of arbitrarily sampled parallel MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Aelterman

    Full Text Available Today, many MRI reconstruction techniques exist for undersampled MRI data. Regularization-based techniques inspired by compressed sensing allow for the reconstruction of undersampled data that would lead to an ill-posed reconstruction problem. Parallel imaging enables the reconstruction of MRI images from undersampled multi-coil data that leads to a well-posed reconstruction problem. Autocalibrating pMRI techniques encompass pMRI techniques where no explicit knowledge of the coil sensivities is required. A first purpose of this paper is to derive a novel autocalibration approach for pMRI that allows for the estimation and use of smooth, but high-bandwidth coil profiles instead of a compactly supported kernel. These high-bandwidth models adhere more accurately to the physics of an antenna system. The second purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a parameter-free reconstruction algorithm that combines autocalibrating pMRI and compressed sensing. Therefore, we present several techniques for automatic parameter estimation in MRI reconstruction. Experiments show that a higher reconstruction accuracy can be had using high-bandwidth coil models and that the automatic parameter choices yield an acceptable result.

  20. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In our framework, we propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as an amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are used to support PUs to achieve their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. More specifically, CUs acts as relays for the PUs and gain some spectrum as long as they respect a specific power budget and primary quality-of-service constraints. In this context, we first derive closed-form expressions for optimal transmit power allocated to PUs and CUs in order to maximize the cognitive objective. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal relay amplification gains and optimal cognitive released bandwidths as well. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed algorithm for different utility metrics and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance.

  1. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Bo [PENN STATE UNIV.; Vasudevan, Sudarshan [UNIV OF MASS AMHERST; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan [PENN STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  2. Secure Fusion Estimation for Bandwidth Constrained Cyber-Physical Systems Under Replay Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Ho, Daniel W C; Hu, Guoqiang; Yu, Li

    2017-07-03

    State estimation plays an essential role in the monitoring and supervision of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), and its importance has made the security and estimation performance a major concern. In this case, multisensor information fusion estimation (MIFE) provides an attractive alternative to study secure estimation problems because MIFE can potentially improve estimation accuracy and enhance reliability and robustness against attacks. From the perspective of the defender, the secure distributed Kalman fusion estimation problem is investigated in this paper for a class of CPSs under replay attacks, where each local estimate obtained by the sink node is transmitted to a remote fusion center through bandwidth constrained communication channels. A new mathematical model with compensation strategy is proposed to characterize the replay attacks and bandwidth constrains, and then a recursive distributed Kalman fusion estimator (DKFE) is designed in the linear minimum variance sense. According to different communication frameworks, two classes of data compression and compensation algorithms are developed such that the DKFEs can achieve the desired performance. Several attack-dependent and bandwidth-dependent conditions are derived such that the DKFEs are secure under replay attacks. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  4. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    treatments, including port-wine stain and tattoo removal, diag- nostic measurements, lithotripsy, activation of photosensitive drugs for photodynamic therapy, etc. In the field of medical applications, dye lasers have potential advantages over other lasers. Dye lasers are unique sources of tunable coherent radiation, from the ...

  5. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  6. Mirrorless lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wavelength of operation thereby tuning the laser. Another way of ... of operation. Considering the crucial role of mirrors in a laser, the phrase 'mirrorless lasers' seems to be a paradoxical one. However, in what follows, we will see how one can indeed ..... A possible military application is to have a small area in a person's.

  7. Lasers (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1969-01-01

    A laser is an instrument that produces an enormously intense pencil-thin beam of light. In this booklet we shall learn what there is about the laser that gives it so much promise. We shall investigate what it is, how it works, and the different kinds of lasers there are.

  8. Microchip Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    USA E-mail: zayhowski@ll.mit.edu Abstract Microchip lasers are a rich family of solid-state lasers defined by their small size, robust integration...reliability, and potential for low-cost mass production. Continuous-wave microchip lasers cover a wide range of wavelengths, often operate single

  9. Frequency Noise Properties of Lasers for Interferometry in Nanometrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Číp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we focus on laser frequency noise properties and their influence on the interferometric displacement measurements. A setup for measurement of laser frequency noise is proposed and tested together with simultaneous measurement of fluctuations in displacement in the Michelson interferometer. Several laser sources, including traditional He-Ne and solid-state lasers, and their noise properties are evaluated and compared. The contribution of the laser frequency noise to the displacement measurement is discussed in the context of other sources of uncertainty associated with the interferometric setup, such as, mechanics, resolution of analog-to-digital conversion, frequency bandwidth of the detection chain, and variations of the refractive index of air.

  10. Detecting modulated lasers in the battlefield and determining their direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2009-05-01

    Many different lasers are deployed in the battlefield for range finding, target designation, communications, dazzle, location of targets, munitions guidance, and destruction. Laser warning devices on military systems detect and identify lasers striking them in order to assess their threat level and plan avoidance or retaliation. Types of lasers and their characteristics are discussed: power, frequency, coherence, bandwidth, direction, pulse length and modulation. We describe three approaches for laser warning devices from which specific cases may be tailored: simultaneous estimation of direction and wavelength with a grating, wavefront direction only estimation for low light levels with lenses, absolute simultaneous wavelength only estimation with a Fizeau interferometer. We investigate the feasibility and compare the suitability of these approaches for different applications.

  11. Influence of vertical coupling on the lasing operation of quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the consequence of vertical coupling among multi-stack InAs quantum dash (Qdash) laser structure on the lasing bandwidth. The developed model is based on multi-population carrier-photon rate equation and incorporates inhomogeneous broadening due to dash size or composition fluctuation, homogeneous broadening of optical gain, and the multi-longitudinal photon modes. In addition, the effect of Qdash layers emitting at different wavelength, and the carrier coupling (tunneling) between adjacent stacks, are also accounted for. The results predict a direct relation between the lasing bandwidth and the barrier thickness and hence enhanced lasing bandwidth could be achieved by decoupling the Qdash layers (large barrier thickness). Moreover, the model further affirms the non-equilibrium distribution of carriers among Qdash layers in a multi-stack laser structure.

  12. Deep modulation of second-harmonic light by wavelength detuning of a laser diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Power modulated visible lasers are interesting for a number of applications within areas such as laser displays and medical laser treatments. In this paper, we present a system for modulating the second-harmonic light generated by single-pass frequency doubling of a distributed feedback (DFB....... The bandwidth of the modulation is limited by the electronics. This method has the potential to decrease the size as well as cost of modulated visible lasers. The achievable optical powers will increase as DFB MOPAs are further developed. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  13. Wideband laser locking to an atomic reference with modulation transfer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negnevitsky, V; Turner, L D

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate that conventional modulated spectroscopy apparatus, used for laser frequency stabilization in many atomic physics laboratories, can be enhanced to provide a wideband lock delivering deep suppression of frequency noise across the acoustic range. Using an acousto-optic modulator driven with an agile oscillator, we show that wideband frequency modulation of the pump laser in modulation transfer spectroscopy produces the unique single lock-point spectrum previously demonstrated with electro-optic phase modulation. We achieve a laser lock with 100 kHz feedback bandwidth, limited by our laser control electronics. This bandwidth is sufficient to reduce frequency noise by 30 dB across the acoustic range and narrows the imputed linewidth by a factor of five.

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  15. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  16. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  17. An order of magnitude improvement in optical fiber bandwidth using spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) in conjunction with orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed; Alanzi, Saud; Hridoy, Arnob; Lovell, Greg; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Bilas

    2014-09-01

    Spatial Domain Multiplexing/Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) can increase the bandwidth of existing and futuristic optical fibers by an order of magnitude or more. In the SDM technique, we launch multiple single mode pigtail laser sources of same wavelength into a carrier fiber at different angles. The launching angles decide the output of the carrier fiber by allocating separate spatial locations for each channel. Each channel follows a helical trajectory while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies. In this endeavor we launch light from five different single mode pigtail laser sources at different angles (with respect to the axis of the carrier fiber) into the carrier fiber. Owing to helical propagation we get five distinct concentric donut shaped rings with negligible crosstalk at the output end of the fiber. These SDM channels also exhibit Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM), thereby adding an extra degree of photon freedom. We present the experimental data of five spatially multiplexed channels and compare them with simulated results to show that this technique can potentially improve the data capacity of optical fibers by an order of magnitude: A factor of five using SDM and another factor of two using OAM.

  18. Combining spatial domain multiplexing and orbital angular momentum of photon-based multiplexing to increase the bandwidth of optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed; Alanzi, Saud; Hridoy, Arnob; Lovell, Gregory L.; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Bilas

    2016-06-01

    Spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) can increase the bandwidth of existing and futuristic optical fibers by an order of magnitude or more. In the SDM technique, we launch multiple single-mode pigtail laser sources of the same wavelength into a carrier multimode fiber at different angles. The launching angles decide the output of the carrier fiber by allocating separate spatial locations for each channel. Each channel follows a helical trajectory while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies. We launch light from five different single-mode pigtail laser sources (of same wavelength) at different angles (with respect to the axis of the carrier fiber) into the carrier fiber. Owing to helical propagation, five distinct concentric donut-shaped rings with negligible crosstalk at the output end of the fiber were obtained. These SDM channels also exhibit orbital angular momentum (OAM), thereby adding an extradegree of photon freedom. We present the experimental data of five spatially multiplexed channels and compare them with simulated results to show that this technique can potentially improve the data capacity of optical fibers by an order of magnitude: A factor of five using SDM and another factor of two using OAM.

  19. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  20. Structured pellet design for laser fusion: a numerical determination of the optimum mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroscio, M.A.

    1977-10-01

    Structured pellets for laser fusion have been suggested in the past few years. Herein, numerical simulations are presented which demonstrate a departure from purely elastic collisions and illustrate the significance of temporal shaping of the incident laser energy

  1. Multimode laser emission from dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... doped fibre is a highly efficient medium for laser source with narrow pulse width and wide tunable range as well as for optical amplifier with high gain, high power conversion and broad spectral bandwidth [6]. In this paper we report the fabrication and observation of lasing modes from hollow cylindrical ...

  2. Gain-switched all-fiber lasers and quasi-continuous wave supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper

    The extreme broadening phenomenon of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fibers is the basis of SC laser sources. These sources have numerous applications in areas, such as spectroscopy and microscopy due to the unique combination of extremely broad spectral bandwidths, high spectral power ...

  3. Broadband Fourier domain mode-locked laser for optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    , enable acquisition of densely sampled three-dimensional datasets covering a wide field of view. However, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs)-the typical laser gain media for swept sources-for the 1060nm band could until recently only provide relatively low output power and bandwidth. We have...

  4. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  5. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  6. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  7. Applications of high power lasers in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisky, Yehoshua

    2009-09-01

    Laser weapon is currently considered as tactical as well as strategic beam weapons, and is considered as a part of a general layered defense system against ballistic missiles and short-range rockets. This kind of weapon can disable or destroy military targets or incoming objects used by small groups of terrorists or countries, at the speed of light. Laser weapon is effective at long or short distances, owing to beam's unique characteristics such as narrow bandwidth, high brightness, coherent both in time and space, and it travels at the speed of light. Unlike kinetic weapon, laser weapon converts the energy stored in an electromagnetic laser beam into a large amount of heat aimed on a small area spot at the skin of the missile, usually close to the liquid fuel storage tank, warhead case or engine area, following by a temperature increase and finally-catastrophic failure by material ablation or melt. The usefulness of laser light as a weapon has been studied for decades but only in recent years became feasible. There are two types of lasers being used: gas lasers and solid state lasers, including fiber lasers. All these types of lasers will be discussed below.

  8. Integrated laser-target interaction experiments on the RAL petawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P K; Key, M H; Mackinnon, A J

    2005-01-01

    We review a recent experimental campaign to study the interaction physics of petawatt laser pulses incident at relativistic intensities on solid targets. The campaign was performed on the 500 J sub-picosecond petawatt laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. An extensive suite of optical, x-ray, and particle diagnostics was employed to characterise the processes of laser absorption, electron generation and transport, thermal and K-alpha x-ray generation, and proton acceleration

  9. The development of novel Ytterbium fiber lasers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bai

    The aim of my Ph.D. research is to push the fundamental limits holding back the development of novel Yb fiber lasers with high pulse energy and short pulse duration. The purpose of developing these lasers is to use them for important applications such as multiphoton microscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. My first project was to develop a short-pulse high-energy ultrafast fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy. To achieve high multiphoton efficiency and depth resolved tissue imaging, ultrashort pulse duration and high pulse energy are required. In order to achieve this, an all-normal dispersion cavity design was adopted. Output performances of the built lasers were investigated by varying several cavity parameters, such as pump laser power, fiber length and intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. It was found that the length of the fiber preceding the gain fiber is critical to the laser performance. Generally, the shorter the fiber is, the broader the output spectrum is. The more interesting parameter is the intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. Counter intuitively, laser cavities using narrower bandwidth spectral filters generated much broader spectra. It was also found that fiber lasers with very narrow spectral filters produced laser pulses with parabolic profile, which are referred to as self-similar pulses or similaritons. This type of pulse can avoid wave-breaking and is an optimal approach to generate pulses with high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse duration. With a 3nm intra-cavity spectral filter, output pulses with about 20 nJ pulse energy were produced and compressed to about 41 fs full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. Due to the loss in the compression device, the peak power of the compressed pulses is about 250 kW. It was the highest peak power generated from a fiber oscillator when this work was published. This laser was used for multiphoton microscopy on living tissues like Drosophila larva and fruit fly wings. Several

  10. Plasma Sensor for High Bandwidth Mass-Flow Measurements at High Mach Numbers with RF Link, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is aimed at the development of a miniature high bandwidth (1 MHz class) plasma sensor for flow measurements at high enthalpies. This device uses a...

  11. Small-angle scattering of polychromatic X-rays: effects of bandwidth, spectral shape and high harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sen; Luo, Sheng Nian

    2018-03-01

    Polychromatic X-ray sources can be useful for photon-starved small-angle X-ray scattering given their high spectral fluxes. Their bandwidths, however, are 10-100 times larger than those using monochromators. To explore the feasibility, ideal scattering curves of homogeneous spherical particles for polychromatic X-rays are calculated and analyzed using the Guinier approach, maximum entropy and regularization methods. Monodisperse and polydisperse systems are explored. The influence of bandwidth and asymmetric spectra shape are explored via Gaussian and half-Gaussian spectra. Synchrotron undulator spectra represented by two undulator sources of the Advanced Photon Source are examined as an example, as regards the influence of asymmetric harmonic shape, fundamental harmonic bandwidth and high harmonics. The effects of bandwidth, spectral shape and high harmonics on particle size determination are evaluated quantitatively.

  12. Small-angle scattering of polychromatic X-rays: effects of bandwidth, spectral shape and high harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sen; Luo, Sheng-Nian (Jiaotong); (Peac)

    2018-02-16

    Polychromatic X-ray sources can be useful for photon-starved small-angle X-ray scattering given their high spectral fluxes. Their bandwidths, however, are 10–100 times larger than those using monochromators. To explore the feasibility, ideal scattering curves of homogeneous spherical particles for polychromatic X-rays are calculated and analyzed using the Guinier approach, maximum entropy and regularization methods. Monodisperse and polydisperse systems are explored. The influence of bandwidth and asymmetric spectra shape are exploredviaGaussian and half-Gaussian spectra. Synchrotron undulator spectra represented by two undulator sources of the Advanced Photon Source are examined as an example, as regards the influence of asymmetric harmonic shape, fundamental harmonic bandwidth and high harmonics. The effects of bandwidth, spectral shape and high harmonics on particle size determination are evaluated quantitatively.

  13. A multiprocessor computer simulation model employing a feedback scheduler/allocator for memory space and bandwidth matching and TMR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. B.; Irwin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation model for a multiprocessor computer is developed that is useful for studying the problem of matching multiprocessor's memory space, memory bandwidth and numbers and speeds of processors with aggregate job set characteristics. The model assumes an input work load of a set of recurrent jobs. The model includes a feedback scheduler/allocator which attempts to improve system performance through higher memory bandwidth utilization by matching individual job requirements for space and bandwidth with space availability and estimates of bandwidth availability at the times of memory allocation. The simulation model includes provisions for specifying precedence relations among the jobs in a job set, and provisions for specifying precedence execution of TMR (Triple Modular Redundant and SIMPLEX (non redundant) jobs.

  14. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  15. Impact of bandwidth for various services in heterogeneous network and quality of service via communication technologies in Malaysian higher educational

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nazri ISMAIL; Abdullah Mohd ZIN

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on heterogeneous services and communication technologies for retrieving and sending information between students and lecturers in Malaysian higher educational institutes. It intends to investigate pattern and significant level of various services implementation, convergence of communication technologies and bandwidth capacity for last mile users (students and lecturers). It is designed to determine which communication technologies, services, bandwidth capacity and QoS will ...

  16. Impact of crystal orientation on the modulation bandwidth of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, M.; Rashidi, A.; Aragon, A. A.; Oh, S. H.; Rishinaramangalam, A. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Feezell, D.

    2018-01-01

    High-speed InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are needed for future gigabit-per-second visible-light communication systems. Large LED modulation bandwidths are typically achieved at high current densities, with reports close to 1 GHz bandwidth at current densities ranging from 5 to 10 kA/cm2. However, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN LEDs is quite low at high current densities due to the well-known efficiency droop phenomenon. Here, we show experimentally that nonpolar and semipolar orientations of GaN enable higher modulation bandwidths at low current densities where the IQE is expected to be higher and power dissipation is lower. We experimentally compare the modulation bandwidth vs. current density for LEDs on nonpolar (10 1 ¯ 0 ), semipolar (20 2 ¯ 1 ¯) , and polar (" separators="|0001 ) orientations. In agreement with wavefunction overlap considerations, the experimental results indicate a higher modulation bandwidth for the nonpolar and semipolar LEDs, especially at relatively low current densities. At 500 A/cm2, the nonpolar LED has a 3 dB bandwidth of ˜1 GHz, while the semipolar and polar LEDs exhibit bandwidths of 260 MHz and 75 MHz, respectively. A lower carrier density for a given current density is extracted from the RF measurements for the nonpolar and semipolar LEDs, consistent with the higher wavefunction overlaps in these orientations. At large current densities, the bandwidth of the polar LED approaches that of the nonpolar and semipolar LEDs due to coulomb screening of the polarization field. The results support using nonpolar and semipolar orientations to achieve high-speed LEDs at low current densities.

  17. Laser ablation of liquid surface in air induced by laser irradiation through liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro; Nakahara, Motonao

    2010-10-01

    The pulse laser ablation of a liquid surface in air when induced by laser irradiation through a liquid medium has been experimentally investigated. A supersonic liquid jet is observed at the liquid-air interface. The liquid surface layer is driven by a plasma plume that is produced by laser ablation at the layer, resulting in a liquid jet. This phenomenon occurs only when an Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength: 1064 nm) is focused from the liquid onto air at a low fluence of 20 J/cm2. In this case, as Fresnel’s law shows, the incident and reflected electric fields near the liquid surface layer are superposed constructively. In contrast, when the incident laser is focused from air onto the liquid, a liquid jet is produced only at an extremely high fluence, several times larger than that in the former case. The similarities and differences in the liquid jets and atomization processes are studied for several liquid samples, including water, ethanol, and vacuum oil. The laser ablation of the liquid surface is found to depend on the incident laser energy and laser fluence. A pulse laser light source and high-resolution film are required to observe the detailed structure of a liquid jet.

  18. Self-seeding scheme with gas monochromator for narrow-bandwidth soft X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-03-01

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim at reducing the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Bragg transmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. Here we consider a possible extension of this method to the soft X-ray range using a cell filled with resonantly absorbing gas as monochromator. The transmittance spectrum in the gas exhibits an absorbing resonance with narrow bandwidth. Then, similarly to the hard X-ray case, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. In fact, the FEL pulse forces the gas atoms to oscillate in a way consistent with a forward-propagating, monochromatic radiation beam. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the equivalent shot noise power in the electron bunch. Further on, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch and amplified in the second undulator. The proposed setup is extremely simple, and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the gas cell, to be filled with noble gas, and a short magnetic chicane. The installation of the magnetic chicane does not perturb the undulator focusing system and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. In this paper we assess the features of gas monochromator based on the use of He and Ne.We analyze the processes in the monochromator gas cell and outside it, touching upon the performance of the differential pumping system as well. We study the feasibility of using the proposed self-seeding technique to generate narrow bandwidth soft X-ray radiation in the LCLS-II soft X-ray beam line. We present conceptual design, technical implementation and expected performances of the gas monochromator self-seeding scheme. (orig.)

  19. AMELIORATE OF BANDWIDTH AND RETURN LOSS OF RECTANGULAR PATCH ANTENNA USING METAMATERIAL STRUCTURE FOR RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJESH SAHA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification is an emerging research topic to identify any object automatically and it has applications in many fields like manufacture industry, business, animal tracking, vehicle tracking etc. In automatic identification system, the main role of radio frequency identification system is radiation and detection. The reader and the tag are the important components in radio frequency identification technology. In radio frequency identification system, antenna plays very significant role to transmit and receive data in both direction (i.e., from reader to tag and vice versa. An antenna with high gain, high directivity, high bandwidth and more down in negative S11 (dB value works as an effective antenna. So design and optimization of an effective antenna is very necessary for any application. In this paper, firstly itdesigned a rectangular patch antenna and simulated through High Frequency Structure Simulator. In next step, it designed a metamaterial structure having U shape Split Ring Resonator with both one and two port, on the rectangular patch antenna to improve the return loss and bandwidth of patch antenna; so that the performance of the tag can be increased for the radio frequency identification system. By simulation it has been seen that, two port antenna provides maximum return loss and bandwidth of - 41.2dB and 870MHz respectively. Finally, the output parameters such as return loss, gain, directivity that are obtained from simulation of the metamaterial Split Ring Resonator structure antenna are compared with the network output of Artificial Neural Network to find the Mean Square Error between the simulated output and Artificial Neural Network output.

  20. Unique capabilities for ICF and HEDP research with the KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, Stephen; Bates, Jason; Chan, Lop-Yung; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Sethian, John; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, James; Oh, Jaechul; Jenkins, Bruce; Lehmberg, Robert; Hegeler, Frank; Terrell, Stephen; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Schmitt, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser provides the shortest wavelength, broadest bandwidth and most uniform target illumination of all developed high-energy lasers. For directly driven targets these characteristics result in higher and more uniform ablation pressures as well as higher intensity thresholds for laser-plasma instability. The ISI beam smoothing scheme implemented on the NRL Nike KrF facility allows easy implementation of focal zooming where the laser radial profile is varied during the laser pulse. The capability for near continuous zooming with KrF would be valuable towards minimizing the effects of cross beam energy transport (CBET) in directly driven capsule implosions. The broad bandwidth ISI beam smoothing that is utilized with the Nike KrF facility may further inhibit certain laser plasma instability. In this presentation we will summarize our current understanding of laser target interaction with the KrF laser and the benefits it provides for ICF and certain HEDP experiments. Status and progress in high-energy KrF laser technology will also be discussed. Work supported by the Deparment of Energy, NNSA.

  1. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  2. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  3. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  4. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  5. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  6. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  7. Ternary blend of conjugated polymers for broadening the absorption bandwidth of polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Benten, Hiroaki; Nishida, Takaya; Mori, Daisuke; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Ternary blend all-polymer solar cells are developed to broaden the absorption bandwidth of the photoactive layer. A wide-bandgap polymer with absorption in the visible region is introduced as a third polymer into a low-bandgap donor/acceptor binary polymer blend showing absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In the ternary blend solar cell, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is improved in the visible wavelength region, while retaining the excellent EQE of the host binary blend in t...

  8. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. © 2015.

  9. Design of Multiplier-less FIR filters with Simultaneously Variable Bandwidth and Fractional Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Illa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low complexity and reconfigurability are the key features in emerging communication applications in order to support multi-standards and operation modes. To obtain these features, an efficient implementation of finite impulse response (FIR filter, with Variable Bandwidth and Fractional Delay, is proposed in this paper. The reduction in the implementation complexity is achieved by converting the continuous filter coefficients to signed power of two (SPT space. This may lead to performance degradation. Hence, in this paper, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC optimization is deployed for finding the near optimal solution in the discrete space.

  10. JPL 2-to-the-20th-power channel 300 MHz bandwidth digital spectrum analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A million (two to the 20th power) channel, 300 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer was considered. The design, fabrication, and maintenance philosophy of the modular, pipelined, fast fourier transform (FFT) hardware are described. The spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the region from 1.4 GHz to 26 GHz for radio frequency interference which may be harmful to present and future tracking missions of the Deep Space Network. The design has application to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence signals and radio science phenomena.

  11. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gunter, D.; Tierney, B.; Allcock, B.; Bester, J.; Bresnahan, J.; Tuecke, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. From their work developing a scalable distributed network cache, the authors have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). The authors discuss several hardware and software design techniques, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. The authors describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  12. Structured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes with Bandwidth Efficient Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Divsalar, Dariush; Duy, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the performance of structured Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes together with bandwidth efficient modulations. We consider protograph-based LDPC codes that facilitate high-speed hardware implementations and have minimum distances that grow linearly with block sizes. We cover various higher- order modulations such as 8-PSK, 16-APSK, and 16-QAM. During demodulation, a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples into reliability information that feeds the binary LDPC decoder. We will compare various low-complexity demappers and provide simulation results for assorted coded-modulation combinations on the additive white Gaussian noise and independent Rayleigh fading channels.

  13. BANDWIDTH AND EFFICIENT ENCODING SCHEME COMBINING TCM-UGM TO STBC

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELMOUNAIM MOULAY LAKHDAR; MOHAMMED BELADGHAM; ABDESSELAM BASSOU,; MOHAMED BENAISSA

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a bandwidth efficient encoding scheme is proposed. It combines the modified version of trellis coded-modulation (called trellis coded-modulation with Ungerboeck-Gray mapping, TCM-UGM) to space-time block code (STBC). The performance of this encoding scheme is investigated over memoryless Rayleigh fading (MRF) channel for throughput 2 bits/s/Hz. The simulation result, using 2/3 rate 16-state TCM-UGM encoder, two transmit antennas and two receive antennas, shows clearly that the ...

  14. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; England, Duncan G; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-08-23

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics. These devices utilize nonclassical phenomena in the states of atoms, ions, and solid-state media as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate molecular states as a distinct alternative. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules. The THz-bandwidth molecular memory is used to store 100-fs pulses for durations up to ~1 ns, enabling ~10(4) operational time bins. The results demonstrate the promise of molecules for constructing compact ultrafast quantum photonic technologies.

  15. Reliable IoT Storage: Minimizing Bandwidth Use in Storage Without Newcomer Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Shen, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    This letter characterizes the optimal policies for bandwidth use and storage for the problem of distributed storage in Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios, where lost nodes cannot be replaced by new nodes as is typically assumed in Data Center and Cloud scenarios. We develop an information flow...... model that captures the overall process of data transmission between IoT devices, from the initial preparation stage (generating redundancy from the original data) to the different repair stages with fewer and fewer devices. Our numerical results show that in a system with 10 nodes, the proposed optimal...

  16. Development of the bandwidth-limiting neutron chopper prototype control system for CSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Ping; Wang Fangwei

    2012-01-01

    The time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometer in CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) will use a bandwidth-limiting (BWL) neutron chopper for choosing neutrons of certain band ranges. Its control system should synchronize the phase signal of BWL neutron chopper with the timing signal from accelerator, and monitor operation status of the neutron chopper. In this article, we describe the structure of control system, the control principle, and the software design. Test results of the controlling accuracy and operation stability of the control system are given, too. (authors)

  17. On the actual bandwidth of some dynamic fiber optic strain/temperature interrogators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preizler, Rotem R.; Davidi, R.; Motil, Avi; Botsev, Yakov; Hahami, Meir; Tur, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    The measurement accuracy of dynamic fiber-optic sensing interrogators, which use frequency scanning to determine the value of the measured, err as either the event bandwidth approaches half the instrument sampling frequency or when the event dynamic range comes close to the instrument designed value. One main source of error is the common practice of assigning sampling at a non-uniform grid to a uniform one. Harmonics higher than -20 dB are observed for signal frequencies exceeding 25% of the sampling rate and/or for signal amplitudes higher than 15% of the instrument dynamic range. These findings have applications to fiber-Bragg-grating and Brillouin interrogators.

  18. APEnet+: high bandwidth 3D torus direct network for petaflops scale commodity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2011-12-01

    We describe herein the APElink+ board, a PCIe interconnect adapter featuring the latest advances in wire speed and interface technology plus hardware support for a RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking; this design allows us to build a low latency, high bandwidth PC cluster, the APEnet+ network, the new generation of our cost-effective, tens-of-thousands-scalable cluster network architecture. Some test results and characterization of data transmission of a complete testbench, based on a commercial development card mounting an Altera® FPGA, are provided.

  19. CoZi: basic Coding for better Bandwidth Utilization in ZigBee Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salhi, Ismail; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine; Lohier, Stéphane; Livolant, Erwan

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes CoZi, a new packet scheduling mechanism for large scale ZigBee networks. CoZi aims at enhancing the reliability of the data delivery and the bandwidth utilization of the network. Based on simple network coding, instead of the classic packet forwarding, our algorithm takes advantage of the shared nature of the wireless medium as well as the cluster-tree topology of IEEE 802.15.4 networks to increase the global throughput and to reduce transmissions ...

  20. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Green, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    A continuing challenge for modern instrument pointing control systems is to meet the increasingly stringent pointing performance requirements imposed by emerging advanced scientific, defense, and civilian payloads. Instruments such as adaptive optics telescopes, space interferometers, and optical communications make unprecedented demands on precision pointing capabilities. A cost-effective method was developed for increasing the pointing performance for this class of NASA applications. The solution was to develop an attitude estimator that fuses star tracker and gyro measurements with a high-bandwidth angular rotation sensor (ARS). An ARS is a rate sensor whose bandwidth extends well beyond that of the gyro, typically up to 1,000 Hz or higher. The most promising ARS sensor technology is based on a magnetohydrodynamic concept, and has recently become available commercially. The key idea is that the sensor fusion of the star tracker, gyro, and ARS provides a high-bandwidth attitude estimate suitable for supporting pointing control with a fast-steering mirror or other type of tip/tilt correction for increased performance. The ARS is relatively inexpensive and can be bolted directly next to the gyro and star tracker on the spacecraft bus. The high-bandwidth attitude estimator fuses an ARS sensor with a standard three-axis suite comprised of a gyro and star tracker. The estimation architecture is based on a dual-complementary filter (DCF) structure. The DCF takes a frequency- weighted combination of the sensors such that each sensor is most heavily weighted in a frequency region where it has the lowest noise. An important property of the DCF is that it avoids the need to model disturbance torques in the filter mechanization. This is important because the disturbance torques are generally not known in applications. This property represents an advantage over the prior art because it overcomes a weakness of the Kalman filter that arises when fusing more than one rate