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Sample records for incident crc cases

  1. Pickled meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC): a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Josh; Roebothan, Barbara; Buehler, Sharon; Sun, Zhuoyu; Cotterchio, Michelle; Younghusband, Ban; Dicks, Elizabeth; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2010-09-01

    Although a large body of epidemiological research suggests that red meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer, little is known regarding how such an association varies across populations and types of red meat. The objective of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the intakes of total red meat and pickled red meat and the risk of colorectal cancer in study subjects residing in Newfoundland and Labrador. This case-control study of 1,204 residents of Newfoundland and Labrador was part of a larger study on colorectal cancer. Personal history food frequency questionnaires were used to collect retrospective data from 518 individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 686 controls. Intakes were ranked and divided into tertiles. Logistic regression was used to examine the possible association between meat intakes and colorectal cancer diagnosis while controlling for possible confounding factors. A positive, but non-statistically significant, association between total red meat intake and CRC was observed in this study. Pickled red meat consumption was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of CRC (men, OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.37-3.15; women, OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.45-4.32), the odds ratios increasing with each tertile of consumption, suggesting a dose-response effect. Intake of pickled red meat appears to increase the risk of colorectal cancer in Newfoundland and Labrador.

  2. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  3. Slender CRC Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which current design guides can be used. The columns tested had a slenderness varying from 1.11 to 12.76 and a reinforcement ratio (area of rebar to area of concrete) ranging from 0 to 8.8 %. A total of 77 te...

  4. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  5. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    in standard fire conditions. The tests showed good correlation between test results and results calculated according to established deisgn guides. The fire tests demonstrate that the load capacity of slender columns can be reduced very quickly due to thermal stresses and a reduction of stiffness - also...... in cases where temperature at the rebar is still relatively low. However, guidelines for achieving acceptable fire resistance can be determined based on the test results....

  6. Tape Storage and CRC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 Petabytes of data is stored on several kind of physical support, namely disks and tapes. Data on any physical support or traveling on a data link (network, fibre channel...) can be subject to silent data corruption. A possible improvement is introducing end-to-end data integrity from the filesystem down to the tape layer. For the tape back-end it can be done by using Logical Block Protection, which computes and compares CRC checksum of every single block of data. During my work, I improved on-the-fly CRC calculation for the tape storage system, which was achieved by introducing a multithreaded implementation - a technique applicable to arbitrary CRC algorithm. Finally, I per...

  7. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  8. CRC handbook of modern telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Morreale, Patricia A

    2001-01-01

    This authoritative handbook, contributed to by a team of international experts, covers the most dynamic areas in the changing telecommunications landscape. Written for telecommunications specialists who implement the new technologies, The CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications is an excellent companion volume to the authors' The Telecommunications Handbook, but stands well on its own, as it extends the range of topics to include voice over Internet, traffic management, quality of service, and other dominant future trends. It is an indispensable reference for all professionals working in the

  9. Changing Therapeutic Paradigms: Predicting mCRC Lesion Response to Selective Internal Radionuclide Therapy (SIRT based on Critical Absorbed Dose Thresholds: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old male with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC in the liver was referred for selective internal radionuclide therapy (SIRT following a history of extensive systemic chemotherapy. 90Y PET imaging was performed immediately after treatment and used to confirm lesion targeting and measure individual lesion absorbed doses. Lesion dosimetry was highly predictive of eventual response in the follow-up FDG PET performed 8 weeks after therapy. The derived radiation dose map was used to plan a second SIRT procedure aiming to protect healthy liver by keeping absorbed dose below the critical dose threshold, whilst targeting the remaining lesions that had received sub-critical dosing. Again, 90Y PET was performed immediately post-treatment and used to derive absorbed dose measures to both lesions and healthy parenchyma. Additional followup FDG PET imaging again confirmed the role of the 90Y PET dose map as an early predictor of response, and a tool for safe repeat treatment planning.

  10. Disparities in incidence of early- and late-onset colorectal cancer between Hispanics and Whites: A 10-year SEER database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinski, Jenna; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine

    2018-04-01

    Racial disparities in incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) exist. In Hispanics, CRC was the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in 2012. We abstracted the national estimates for Hispanics/Whites with CRC using the SEER database between 2000 and 2010. Trends in incidence, mortality, gender and stage of disease were analyzed for early-onset (age50; LO - old) cases. The overall incidence of CRC increased by 48% in Hispanics. 38% increase in incidence of LO CRC and 80% increase in incidence of EO CRC was seen in this ethnic group. Hispanics and Whites showed higher percentage of distant tumors for both age groups. There was no deviation in overall trend between males and females. Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of CRC in Whites increase was seen in Hispanics. While incidence of EO CRC is increasing in both races, LO CRC incidence is increasing in Hispanics not in Whites. This data suggest that disparities in incidence of EO and LO CRC exist between Hispanics and Whites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally......This paper describes the CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration) modelling process for building product models. A product model is normally represented in an IT system which contains data, information and knowledge on industrial products and their life cycle properties e.g. manufacturing...

  12. CRC-cards to support development and maintenance of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2009-01-01

    and maintenance of PCSs. This procedure has since been applied in several configuration projects and further developed at the Centre for Product Modelling (CPM) at the Technical University of Denmark. However, the investigations of two companies that applies CRC cards to document the knowledge base of their PCSs...... showed that their CRC card layouts differ from the definitions by CPM in many respects. Therefore, this article proposes a new CRC card definition that incorporates the experiences from the studied cases together with other kinds of extensions. The proposed CRC-card definition improves the basis...

  13. Pseudomonas putida growing at low temperature shows increased levels of CrcZ and CrcY sRNAs, leading to reduced Crc-dependent catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein of Pseudomonas inhibits the expression of genes involved in the transport and assimilation of a number of non-preferred carbon sources when preferred substrates are available, thus coordinating carbon metabolism. Crc acts by binding to target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. In Pseudomonas putida, the amount of free Crc available is controlled by two sRNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, which bind to and sequester Crc. The levels of these sRNAs vary according to metabolic conditions. Pseudomonas putida grows optimally at 30°C, but can also thrive at 10°C. The present work shows that when cells grow exponentially at 10°C, the repressive effect of Crc on many genes is significantly reduced compared with that seen at 30°C. Total Crc levels were similar at both temperatures, but those of CrcZ and CrcY were significantly higher at 10°C. Therefore, Crc-mediated repression may, at least in part, be reduced at 10°C because the fraction of Crc protein sequestered by CrcZ and CrcY is larger, reducing the amount of free Crc available to bind its targets. This may help P. putida to face cold stress. The results reported might help understanding the behaviour of this bacterium in bioremediation or rhizoremediation strategies at low temperatures. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Operational Resilience Improving Criteria in case of Information Security Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Demin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience management system states and behavior are described with the use of fuzzy Petri net. Operational resilience improving criteria in case of information security incidents is defined. Information security incident response management model is introduced.

  15. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  16. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  17. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  18. Colorectal cancer predicted risk online (CRC-PRO) calculator using data from the multi-ethnic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brian J; Kattan, Michael W; Cooper, Gregory S; Jackson, Leila; Koroukian, Siran

    2014-01-01

    Better risk predictions for colorectal cancer (CRC) could improve prevention strategies by allowing clinicians to more accurately identify high-risk individuals. The National Cancer Institute's CRC risk calculator was created by Freedman et al using case control data. An online risk calculator was created using data from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study, which followed >180,000 patients for the development of CRC for up to 11.5 years through linkage with cancer registries. Forward stepwise regression tuned to the c statistic was used to select the most important variables for use in separate Cox survival models for men and women. Model accuracy was assessed using 10-fold cross-validation. Patients in the cohort experienced 2762 incident cases of CRC. The final model for men contained age, ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, alcoholic drinks per day, body mass index, years of education, regular use of aspirin, family history of colon cancer, regular use of multivitamins, ounces of red meat intake per day, history of diabetes, and hours of moderate physical activity per day. The final model for women included age, ethnicity, years of education, use of estrogen, history of diabetes, pack-years of smoking, family history of colon cancer, regular use of multivitamins, body mass index, regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and alcoholic drinks per day. The calculator demonstrated good accuracy with a cross-validated c statistic of 0.681 in men and 0.679 in women, and it seems to be well calibrated graphically. An electronic version of the calculator is available at http://rcalc.ccf.org. This calculator seems to be accurate, is user friendly, and has been internally validated in a diverse population.

  19. Structural changes induced by thermal annealing in Cr/C multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yuchun [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-structured Materials, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Zhu, Jingtao, E-mail: jtzhu@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-structured Materials, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Haochuan [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-structured Materials, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jonnard, Philippe; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Chen, Hong [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-structured Materials, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-structured Materials, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We reported experimental results on thermal effects of Cr/C multilayer. • The period thicknesses of Cr/C multilayers expand or contract with different carbon layer thickness ratios upon 600 °C annealing. • More chromium carbide formed at the interfaces after annealing. - Abstract: The structural changes induced by thermal annealing in Cr/C multilayers were investigated. Cr/C multilayers with period thickness of 5 nm and bi-layer number of 30 were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering, and characterized by using grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results suggest that the period thicknesses of Cr/C multilayers expand or contract with different carbon layer thickness ratios (the ratio of the carbon layer thickness to the multilayer period) upon annealing and the physical mechanism was explored in detail. Carbon layer in Cr/C multilayers become graphitized from amorphous state. Such graphitization of the carbon layer causes a decrease in its density, thus an increase in its thickness. The annealing process also causes a reduction in period due to the formation of denser carbide, which can be confirmed by the XPS results.

  20. The Crc/CrcZ-CrcY global regulatory system helps the integration of gluconeogenic and glycolytic metabolism in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Nogales, Juan; Rojo, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    In metabolically versatile bacteria, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) facilitates the preferential assimilation of the most efficient carbon sources, improving growth rates and fitness. In Pseudomonas putida, the Crc and Hfq proteins and the CrcZ and CrcY small RNAs, which are believed to antagonize Crc/Hfq, are key players in CCR. Unlike that seen in other bacterial species, succinate and glucose elicit weak CCR in this bacterium. In the present work, metabolic, transcriptomic and constraint-based metabolic flux analyses were combined to clarify whether P. putida prefers succinate or glucose, and to identify the role of the Crc protein in the metabolism of these compounds. When provided simultaneously, succinate was consumed faster than glucose, although both compounds were metabolized. CrcZ and CrcY levels were lower when both substrates were present than when only one was provided, suggesting a role for Crc in coordinating metabolism of these compounds. Flux distribution analysis suggested that, when both substrates are present, Crc works to organize a metabolism in which carbon compounds flow in opposite directions: from glucose to pyruvate, and from succinate to pyruvate. Thus, our results support that Crc not only favours the assimilation of preferred compounds, but balances carbon fluxes, optimizing metabolism and growth. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CRC standard curves and surfaces with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    von Seggern, David H

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Mathematica® has matured considerably and the computing power of desktop computers has increased greatly. This enables the presentation of more complex curves and surfaces as well as the efficient computation of formerly prohibitive graphical plots. Incorporating both of these aspects, CRC Standard Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica®, Second Edition is a virtual encyclopedia of curves and functions that depicts nearly all of the standard mathematical functions rendered using Mathematica. While the easy-to-use format remains unchanged from the previ

  2. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiujie Qu; Zhongkai Cao; Zhanjie Yang

    2013-01-01

    In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB) first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB) first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical...

  3. CrcZ and CrcX regulate carbon utilization in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important components of many regulatory pathways in bacteria and play key roles in regulating factors important for virulence. Carbon catabolite repression control is modulated by small RNAs (crcZ or crcZ and crcY) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. ...

  4. Incidence trends and age distribution of colorectal cancer by subsite in Guangzhou, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Dong, Hang; Gu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Hua-Zhang

    2015-08-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China. The incidence of CRC has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence trends and the age distribution of CRC by subsite in Guangzhou between 2000 and 2011. A total of 22,432 incident cases of CRC between 2000 and 2011 from Guangzhou Cancer Registry were identified. Crude incidence and age-standardized rates (ASRs), using the Segi's world standard population, were calculated for CRC and CRC subsites. The incidence trend was analyzed and the annual percentage change (APC) in incidence was calculated by using JoinPoint software. The crude incidence increased significantly from 23.4/10(5) in 2000 to 37.4/10(5) in 2011 for males and from 20.9/10(5) to 30.5/10(5) for females. The ASRs of CRC incidence stabilized during the period of 2000-2011 for both males and females. The ages at the onset of CRC for both males and females during 2010-2011 were significantly higher compared with those during 2000-2002 (males: t = 1.95, P = 0.05; females: t = 6.03, P 2000-2004 and by 1.68% annually (P = 0.03) during 2005-2011. For females aged 65 years and older, the CRC incidence increased by 5.77% annually (P = 0.03) during 2000-2004. There were no significant changes for the CRC incidences in males aged 49 and younger and 65 years and older and females aged 64 years and younger during 2000-2004, or for those in all females as well as males aged 49 years and younger and 65 years and older during 2005-2011. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly for both males and females between the periods of 2000-2002 and 2010-2011. The ASRs of descending colon and sigmoid colon cancer incidences increased significantly for females during 2005-2011 (APC, 5.51% and 1.08%, respectively, both P 2000 and 2011 because of the aging, whereas the ASRs kept stable. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly. Further surveillance

  5. Automatic Analysis of Critical Incident Reports: Requirements and Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, critical incident reports are used as a means to increase patient safety and quality of care. The entire potential of these sources of experiential knowledge remains often unconsidered since retrieval and analysis is difficult and time-consuming, and the reporting systems often do not provide support for these tasks. The objective of this paper is to identify potential use cases for automatic methods that analyse critical incident reports. In more detail, we will describe how faceted search could offer an intuitive retrieval of critical incident reports and how text mining could support in analysing relations among events. To realise an automated analysis, natural language processing needs to be applied. Therefore, we analyse the language of critical incident reports and derive requirements towards automatic processing methods. We learned that there is a huge potential for an automatic analysis of incident reports, but there are still challenges to be solved.

  6. The Rising Incidence of Younger Patients With Colorectal Cancer: Questions About Screening, Biology, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise C; Mota, José Mauricio; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Hoff, Paulo M

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cancer diagnosed globally and an important cause of cancer-related mortality. Of interest, while we have witnessed a declining incidence trend over the past few decades in the older population, incidence rates for adolescents and young adults have been increasing steadily. Several factors may well explain this apparent epidemic in the young, namely a lack of routine screening and emerging lifestyle issues such as obesity, lack of exercise, and dietary factors. It is known that both environmental and genetic factors can increase the likelihood of developing CRC. Although inherited susceptibility is associated with the most striking increases in risk, and must always be considered in a young patient with CRC, the majority of CRCs are in fact sporadic rather than familial. Early-onset CRC is a truly heterogeneous disease, with mounting evidence to suggest that this patient population has a distinctive molecular profile, very different to late-onset CRC cases. Currently, both younger and older patients with CRC are treated in essentially the same manner, but with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC in the young, we will have the opportunity to specifically tailor screening and clinical management strategies in this unique patient population in an effort to improve outcomes. The aim of this review is to outline our current knowledge of the distinguishing features of early-onset CRC, the ongoing research efforts, and the evolving evidence in this field.

  7. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  8. Incidence of Canine Hip Dysplasia : A Survey of 272 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Rao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 272 cases of hip dysplasia were reviewed. A review of clinical cases presented with the clinical signs of hip dysplasia were referred to Radiology Unit of Madras Veterinary College, from May 2007-April 2009 was taken for this study.The incidence was highest in young animals of age group over three months to one year (52.94 percent. The breed-wise incidence was more common in Labrador Retriever (36.76 percent. Male dogs were found to be more affected (59.55 percent than female dogs. Bilateral hip dysplasia was found to be more (88.60 percent than unilateral. Among the unilateral hip dysplasia, left side was found to be more (54.83 percent than right. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 219-220

  9. System applications CRC -Biomass + Coal; Aplicaciones Sistema CRC-Biomasa+Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Main object of Phase I of the project is to analyse the technical-economic feasibility of the combined use of biomass and coal for power generation in the Spanish region of Andalusia, by means of new medium-size independent power plants or using biomass as supplementary fuel in existing large coal power plants, including: -Analysis and classification of biomass and coal resources in the region -Technical-economic study of conventional alternatives using the steam cycle -Analysis of efficiency improvement provided by advanced Rankine-cycle technologies, like the SMR cycle -Analysis of alternatives based on parallel combined cycles using gas turbines, including advanced solutions, like the EAPI and CRC-EAPI systems. -Description and evaluation of different biomass drying systems. -Description and evaluation of the three main biomass gasification systems currently under development: atmospheric direct, atmospheric indirect and pressurized. Main objects of Phase II of the project are to analyse a specific application of the EAPI system to a real cogeneration plant project and to analyse the application of the CRC2 system to a commercial supercritical power plant, including technical-economic study of both applications. (Author)

  10. Neuropathic pain: A personal case reflection on a critical incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji P Duraisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a distressing symptom for the patient and a difficult symptom for the physician to treat. There is lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of malignant neuropathic pain. The case reflection is a personal account of what has been learnt from a critical incident in a particular patient in the management of neuropathic pain. Psychological issues are known to increase pain percetion and affect the quality of life. The case reflection explores problem areas, defines lacunae in knowledge, and demonstrates active learning of the management of neuropathic pain through reflective practice.

  11. Parasitic fibroid: case report and novel approach in reducing incidence of future cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sukainah S.; Nasir TK; Zulkifli K.; Roziana R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of parasitic fibroid which developed less than 1 year following laparoscopic myomectomy using power morcellation. Following this case, a novel approach in reducing the incidence of future parasitic fibroid is described. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000): 2836-2839

  12. Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) in daily practice: results of a survey in two Italian regions, Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandone, A; Berardo, R; Faggiuolo, R; Boglione, A; Bergnolo, P; Dal Canton, O; Di Napoli, A; Oliva, C; Bumma, C

    1998-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most important health problems in Western countries: it is the fourth cancer in terms of incidence and the second cause of cancer death. Surgery is the main therapeutic choice and there is broad consensus on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) after resection. Unfortunately, 50% of the patients will relapse and die of the disease. Palliative CT based on 5-fluorouracil (5FU) may induce a 9-48% response rate with a median survival of 11.5 months. At present there is no gold standard for CT In advanced CRC and the situation has become more complicated since the advent of new drugs (Raltitrexed, Irinotecan, Oxaliplatin). The aim of this study was the identification of the different approaches to treatment of advanced CRC among the clinicians (oncologists, radiologists, internal medicine specialists, surgeons) who practice CT. Forty-six clinicians from two Italian Regions (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta) were interviewed by telephone. 5FU modulated with Lederfolin according to the classic Machover scheme is the main option in daily practice. More sophisticated therapies are reserved to patients with a good performance status (PS) and are prescribed only in the larger centers. The planned therapies usually consist of six courses. Restaging may be performed after three or six courses. A marked difference has been recorded in the evaluation of a situation of no change (NC): 25.5% of the clinicians evaluate stable disease as a positive result. In the event of disease progression or relapse, 35% of the clinicians do not prescribe second-line CT. In case of further treatment, the options are totally subjective. A national survey on this issue is necessary under the auspices of AIOM (Associazione Italiana Oncologia Medica) and involving oncologists, epidemiologists and statisticians, in order to define the reasons for variations in therapy in advanced CRC and determine the differences between clinicians of different age, specialization and

  13. Colorectal cancer diagnosis in 2012: A new focus for CRC prevention--more serration, less inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    East, James E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of colorectal cancer (CRC) risks has been rebalanced in 2012. The 'serrated pathway' to CRC, exemplified by serrated polyposis syndrome, emphasizes the importance of serrated lesions. The dogma that patients with IBD are at high risk of CRC, however, might be overstated; optimizing CRC

  14. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  15. Evaluating and improving incident management using historical incident data : case studies at Texas transportation management centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The companion guidebook (0-5485-P2) developed as part of this study provides the procedures and : methodologies for effective use of historical incident data at Texas Transportation Management Centers : (TMCs). This research report documents the resu...

  16. Challenges of information security incident learning: An industrial case study in a Chinese healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    Security incidents can have negative impacts on healthcare organizations, and the security of medical records has become a primary concern of the public. However, previous studies showed that organizations had not effectively learned lessons from security incidents. Incident learning as an essential activity in the "follow-up" phase of security incident response lifecycle has long been addressed but not given enough attention. This paper conducted a case study in a healthcare organization in China to explore their current obstacles in the practice of incident learning. We interviewed both IT professionals and healthcare professionals. The results showed that the organization did not have a structured way to gather and redistribute incident knowledge. Incident response was ineffective in cycling incident knowledge back to inform security management. Incident reporting to multiple stakeholders faced a great challenge. In response to this case study, we suggest the security assurance modeling framework to address those obstacles.

  17. Critical Incident Analysis through Narrative Reflective Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge,…

  18. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in the province of Salamanca: comparison of two periods: 2004-2006 and 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Miguel Marcos-Prieto

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare incidence, mortality and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC in the province of Salamanca over two different periods: 2010-2012 and 2004-2006. Methods: Retrospective observational study. We include all diagnosed cases of CRC according to histopathological criteria from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2006 and from 01/01/2010 to 31/12/2012. The studied variables were sex, age, date of diagnosis and tumor location. Cumulative incidence and specific incidence in different age groups were measured and compared between the two periods. The age rates were adjusted to the standard world population so that the results could be compared with those of other populations. Results: We detected 38% more cases of CRC in the 2010-2012 period than in 2004-2006. Variables distribution (sex, age at diagnosis and location was similar in both groups. More than twice as many colonoscopies were performed in 2010-2012 than in 2004-2006. Population mortality due to CRC also increased, although much less importantly than the incidence of this condition. Conclusions: There has been a clear increase in CRC incidence in the province of Salamanca from 2004-2006 to 2010-2012 which is not related to the ageing of the population. The remarkable increase in colonoscopies may have been an important factor for the increased detection.

  19. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  20. Consumption of beer and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhong, Min

    2015-04-01

    Several meta-analyses and reports from the World Cancer Research Fund supported a risk association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association for beer consumption, the common type of alcoholic beverage, remains unclear. We identified studies by a literature search of PUBMED and EMBASE through 30 June 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their 95% CIs were calculated with a fixed or random effects model. Twelve case-control and nine cohort studies were included. Compared with non-alcohol drinkers or non-beer drinkers, any beer drinkers were associated with an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.06-1.37; p(heterogeneity) beer drinking was related to increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49), while light or moderate beer drinking was not. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that an increase of one drink per day in beer consumption was related to an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). There was evidence of a potential nonlinear association between beer intake and CRC incidence (p = 0.002 for nonlinearity). The results from this meta-analysis suggest that heavy (≥ 2 drinks/day) beer drinking may be associated with increased CRC risk. More researches with improved control of confounding and actual measurement of beer consumption are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Homocysteine, cysteine, and risk of incident colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative observational cohort123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley AA; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Song, Xiaoling; Brown, Elissa C; Zheng, Yingye; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Green, Ralph; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation underlies the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with inflammation and may be a risk marker for CRC. Cysteine is a metabolic product of homocysteine and a precursor of the antioxidant glutathione. It is unknown whether cysteine is associated with CRC. Objective: The objective was to assess the associations between homocysteine and cysteine and CRC incidence in postmenopausal women. Design: Associations between homocysteine and cysteine and incident CRC in the Women's Health Initiative observational cohort were assessed by using a nested case-control design. Cases and controls (n = 988/group) were matched for age (mean ± SD age: 67 ± 7 y), ethnicity (85.2% white, 8.9% black, 2.2% Hispanic/Latina, and 3.6% other), hysterectomy status, and date of blood draw. Homocysteine and cysteine were measured by HPLC with postcolumn fluorimetric detection. Results: Multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for CRC were 1.46 (1.05, 2.04) for the highest quartile of homocysteine (>9.85 μmol/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤6.74 μmol/L) (P = 0.02) and 0.57 (0.40, 0.82) for the highest quartile of cysteine (>309 μmol/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤260 μmol/L) (P = 0.01). The association with homocysteine was significant for proximal colon tumors (P = 0.008) but not for distal or rectal tumors, whereas the association with cysteine was significant for rectal tumors (P = 0.02), borderline for proximal tumors (P = 0.06), and not significant for distal tumors. The associations with both homocysteine and cysteine were significant for localized tumors (P ≤ 0.01) but not for metastases. Conclusion: High plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of CRC, whereas high cysteine is associated with decreased risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00000611. PMID:23426034

  2. Safety Incident Management Team Report for NIMLT Case 50796

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-01-17

    This is a report on the management of a patient safety incident involving BowelScreen and symptomatic colonoscopy services at Wexford General Hospital (WGH). The patient safety incident relates to the work of a Consultant Endoscopist (referred to as Clinician Y) employed by WGH who undertook screening colonoscopies on behalf of the BowelScreen Programme since the commencement of the screening programme in WGH in March 2013. Clinician Y also performed non-screening colonoscopies for the diagnosis of symptomatic patients as part of routine surgical service provision at WGH.\\r\

  3. Association of N-Linked Glycoprotein Acetyls and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette D Chandler

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins highlight the dynamic interaction between inflammation and oncogenesis. GlycA, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR inflammatory marker that identifies primarily circulating N-acetyl glycan groups attached to acute phase proteins, may be a future CRC risk biomarker.We examined the association between GlycA and incident CRC and mortality in two prospective cohorts (N = 34,320; Discovery cohort: 27,495 participants from Women's Health Study (WHS; Replication cohort: 6,784 participants from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Multivariable Cox models were adjusted for clinical risk factors and compared GlycA to acute phase proteins (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], fibrinogen, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1].In WHS (median follow-up 19 years, 337 cases, 103 deaths, adjusted HRs (95% CIs per SD increment of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35; p = 0.004 and 1.24 (1.00-1.55; p = 0.05, respectively. We replicated findings in MESA (median follow-up 11 years, 70 cases, 23 deaths; HRs (95% CIs per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.32 (1.06-1.65; p = 0.01 and 1.54 (1.06-2.23; p = 0.02, respectively, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pooled analysis, adjusted HR (95% CI per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality was 1.26 (1.15-1.39; p = 1 x 10-6. Other acute phase proteins (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and sICAM-1 had weaker or no association with CRC incidence, while only fibrinogen and GlycA were associated with CRC mortality.The clinical utility of GlycA to personalize CRC therapies or prevention warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov: WHS NCT00000479, MESA NCT00005487.

  4. Automated Generation of Traffic Incident Response Plan Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incident response plan, specifying response agencies and their responsibilities, can guide responders to take actions effectively and timely after traffic incidents. With a reasonable and feasible traffic incident response plan, related agencies will save many losses, such as humans and wealth. In this paper, how to generate traffic incident response plan automatically and specially was solved. Firstly, a well-known and approved method, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR, was introduced. Based on CBR, a detailed case representation and R5-cycle of CBR were developed. To enhance the efficiency of case retrieval, which was an important procedure, Bayesian Theory was introduced. To measure the performance of the proposed method, 23 traffic incidents caused by traffic crashes were selected and three indicators, Precision P, Recall R, and Indicator F, were used. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The method is practicable and accurate to generate traffic incident response plans. The method will promote the intelligent generation and management of traffic incident response plans and also make Traffic Incident Management more scientific and effective.

  5. Making Mathematics Placement Decisions for High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzyn, Amy; Hughes, Trudie

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study described the experiences of case managers making mathematics placement decisions for high school students with high incidence disabilities. Participants included three parents, three students, three case managers, three mathematics teachers, and three administrators from different high schools across rural, suburban and…

  6. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  7. Secular trends in incidence and 30-day case fatality of acute pancreatitis in North Jutland Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floyd, A.K.; Pedersen, L; Nielsen, GL

    2002-01-01

    Secular Trends in Incidence and 30-Day Case Fatality of Acute Pancreatitis in North Jutland County, Denmark: A Register-based Study from 1981-2000 A. Floyd, L. Pederson, G. Lauge Nielsen, O. Thorlacius-Ussing and H. T. Sorensen ‌   Background: The incidence rate of acute pancreatitis has been...... reported as having increased during recent decades in Western countries. Reported mortality lies around 10% and has improved during the past 20 years. The incidence rate and 30-day case fatality rate of acute pancreatitis in North Jutland County, Denmark were examined for the period 1981 to 2000. Methods......: Data were collected from the Hospital Discharge Registry of North Jutland County for the period 1981-2000. Sex- and age-standardized incidence rates and 30-day case fatality rate of a first attack of acute pancreatitis were calculated. Data on endoscopic procedures were assessed for the period 1992...

  8. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of socio-economic status on incidence of AIDS cases in Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Godoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted attention to the issue of the importance of social indicators in disease reduction. The objective of this paper is to analyze the statistical association between the reported AIDS cases and some socioeconomic variables. We analyzed a sample of 1,994 Brazilian municipalities with AIDS cases reported in 1991 and 2000. The variables analyzed are: AIDS incidence rate per capita, illiteracy rate, Gini Index, per capita income, access to electricity and television, life expectancy at birth. The approach used in this study was econometric panel data model. The results of this analysis show that socioeconomic variables are important for understanding the incidence of AIDS cases in Brazil, and are important for the design of public policies to combat the increasing incidence of HIV / AIDS, also show a distinct pattern to found in the literature for African countries.

  10. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Puerperous pulmonary thromboembolism: Incidence, clinical features, treatment and outcome, study of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang CAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical features, treatment and outcome of puerperium pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE. Methods  To count the cases of spontaneous labor and cesarean section, as well as the incidence of PTE, treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from Jan. 2006 to Nov. 2011, and retrospectively analyze the data of hospitalized parturients with PTE. Results  A total of 5052 cases of spontaneous delivery were collected at the obstetric ward, of which 2910 cases (57.6% were cesarean sections and 2142 cases (42.4% were vaginal delivery. On the duration of hospital stay, 13 cases (0.26% were diagnosed as puerperal PTE by CT pulmonary angiography, of which 11 cases occurred within 3 days after delivery. The incidence of puerperal PTE was significantly higher in cases with cesarean section than in those with vaginal delivery (0.38% vs0.09%, P=0.043. The most common symptoms of puerperal PTE were breathless (76.9%, cough (53.8%, pleuritic chest pain (23.1% and fever (30.8%. The clinical symptoms were improved by anticoagulation therapy (11 cases or thrombolysis (2 cases with zero mortality. Conclusions  The incidence of puerperal PTE in the hospital the authors served is 0.26%. Puerperal PTE should be considered especially to those parturients with sudden dyspnea, chest tightness or pleuritic chest pain within 3 days after cesarean section.

  12. Colorectal cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Cali, Colombia, 1962-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the colorectal cancer (CRC behavior in Cali, Colombia, during the 1963-2012 period using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Materials and methods. An ecological time series analysis to study the CRC incidence (1962-2007 and mortality (1984-2012 rate trends; and a survival analysis of CRC cases registered in Cali between 1995 and 2004 were conducted. The age-standardized temporal trend of incidence (I-ASR and mortality (M-ASR rates were studied using an annual percent change (APC. The 5-year relative survival was estimated and a multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results. During the 1962-2007 period, CRC TTIR increased in men and women living in Cali [APC= 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-3.0 and APC= 2.2% (95% CI 1.8-2.7, respectively]. In the 1984-2012 period, the TTMR remained stable in women but increased in men in all age groups [APC= 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-2.8]. The 5-year relative survival was independent of sex and increased from 29.7% in 1995-1999 to 39.8% in 2000- 2004. The risk of dying from CRC was higher in people of lower socio-economic status (SES vs higher SES [HR= 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.6], among people older than 70 years of age vs younger than 50 years [HR= 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9], and for the 1995-1999 period vs 2000-2004 period [HR= 1.5(95% CI 1.3-1.7]. Conclusion. CRC is beginning to take a prominent place among the most important cancers in Cali, Colombia.

  13. Imported dengue cases, weather variation and autochthonous dengue incidence in Cairns, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF outbreaks often arise from imported DF cases in Cairns, Australia. Few studies have incorporated imported DF cases in the estimation of the relationship between weather variability and incidence of autochthonous DF. The study aimed to examine the impact of weather variability on autochthonous DF infection after accounting for imported DF cases and then to explore the possibility of developing an empirical forecast system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDS: Data on weather variables, notified DF cases (including those acquired locally and overseas, and population size in Cairns were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics. A time-series negative-binomial hurdle model was used to assess the effects of imported DF cases and weather variability on autochthonous DF incidence. Our results showed that monthly autochthonous DF incidences were significantly associated with monthly imported DF cases (Relative Risk (RR:1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01-2.28, monthly minimum temperature ((oC (RR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.77-2.93, monthly relative humidity (% (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, monthly rainfall (mm (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.81 and monthly standard deviation of daily relative humidity (% (RR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.50. In the zero hurdle component, the occurrence of monthly autochthonous DF cases was significantly associated with monthly minimum temperature (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.67. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research suggested that incidences of monthly autochthonous DF were strongly positively associated with monthly imported DF cases, local minimum temperature and inter-month relative humidity variability in Cairns. Moreover, DF outbreak in Cairns was driven by imported DF cases only under favourable seasons and weather conditions in the study.

  14. Sensitivity of routine system for reporting patient safety incidents in an NHS hospital: retrospective patient case note review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ali Baba-Akbari; Sheldon, Trevor A; Cracknell, Alison; Turnbull, Alastair

    2007-01-13

    To evaluate the performance of a routine incident reporting system in identifying patient safety incidents. Two stage retrospective review of patients' case notes and analysis of data submitted to the routine incident reporting system on the same patients. A large NHS hospital in England. 1006 hospital admissions between January and May 2004: surgery (n=311), general medicine (n=251), elderly care (n=184), orthopaedics (n=131), urology (n=61), and three other specialties (n=68). Proportion of admissions with at least one patient safety incident; proportion and type of patient safety incidents missed by routine incident reporting and case note review methods. 324 patient safety incidents were identified in 230/1006 admissions (22.9%; 95% confidence interval 20.3% to 25.5%). 270 (83%) patient safety incidents were identified by case note review only, 21 (7%) by the routine reporting system only, and 33 (10%) by both methods. 110 admissions (10.9%; 9.0% to 12.8%) had at least one patient safety incident resulting in patient harm, all of which were detected by the case note review and six (5%) by the reporting system. The routine incident reporting system may be poor at identifying patient safety incidents, particularly those resulting in harm. Structured case note review may have a useful role in surveillance of routine incident reporting and associated quality improvement programmes.

  15. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-01-01

    The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study ...

  16. Cooperation of the site and public fire and safety services in case of an incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauch, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the cooperation between the site and the public fire and safety services in case of an incident. As an example, the measures and facilities of the Hoechst site of the Hoechst AG and the organisational and technical background are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Silencing SOX2 induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition and its expression predicts liver and lymph node metastasis of CRC patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    Full Text Available SOX2 is an important stem cell marker and plays important roles in development and carcinogenesis. However, the role of SOX2 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition has not been investigated. We demonstrated, for the first time, that SOX2 is involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT process as knock downof SOX2 in colorectal cancer (CRC SW620 cells induced a Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET process with recognized changes in the expression of key genes involved in the EMT process including E-cadherin and vimentin. In addition, we provided a link between SOX2 activity and the WNT pathway by showing that knock down of SOX2 reduced the WNT pathway activity in colorectal cancer (CRC cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 is involved in cell migration and invasion in vitro and in metastasis in vivo for CRC cells, and that the process might be mediated through the MMP2 activity. Finally, an IHC analysis of 44 cases of colorectal cancer patients suggested that SOX2 is a prognosis marker for metastasis of colorectal cancers.

  18. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  19. Relationship between protein complotypes and DNA variant haplotypes: complotype-RFLP constellations (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Truedsson, L; Marcus-Bagley, D; Awdeh, Z; Eisenbarth, G S; Brink, S J; Yunis, E J; Alper, C A

    1997-09-15

    From the study of 52 families and 15 homozygous typing cells, 234 MHC complement haplotypes were characterized for features in the DNA of the complotype region: C2/Sst I (2.75, 2.70, 2.65, and 2.40 kb), BF/Taq I (6.6 and 4.5 kb), C4 5'/Bgl II (15 and 4.5 kb), C4 5'/Taq I (7.0, 6.4, 6.0 and 5.4 kb) and C4 3'/Xba I/BamH I (11 and 4 + 7 kb) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP's), by the presence or absence of C4A, C4B, CYP21A and CYP21B genes and by duplications. Nineteen (of over 1000 theoretically possible) complotype-RFLP constellations (CRC's) were found. The 9 CRC's with two C4 and CYP21 genes were designated A through I. CRC's Bdup and Ddup were like B and D but had duplicated C4B-CYP21B genes. The remaining CRC's had deletions of C4 and/or CYP21 genes and were designated Bdel, Cdel and the like. Individual complement alleles and complotypes were nor randomly distributed among the CRC's. Some complotypes, such as SC01, SC02 and FIC30, were restricted to only 1 CRC; others, such as SC31, FC31, and SC30, were found in several CRC's. Some of the CRC's contained a single complotype, others contained several. Remarkably, there are about 30 CRC-specified complotypes with frequencies of .01 or higher and 14 of .02 or higher. A number of evolutionary origins of complement alleles and complotypes are suggested by the relationships among CRC's. Approximate normal frequencies of the undeleted CRC's were A = .27, B = .19, Bdup = .02, C = .17, D = .07, Ddup = .02, E = .06, F = .05, and G = .02. Thus, CRC's without deletions accounted for 88% of normal complotypes. Since the frequency of Bdel, with a deletion of C4A, was .12, 10 CRC's accounted for all observed normal caucasian MHC haplotypes.

  20. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Residential relocation by older adults in response to incident cardiovascular health events : A case-crossover analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovasi, G.; Richardson, J.M.; Rodriguez, C.J.; Kop, W.J.; Ahmed, A.; Brown, A.F.; Greenlee, H.; Siscovick, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We use a case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and residential relocation to a new home address. Methods. We conducted an ambidirectional case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and

  2. Cervical Radiculopathy: Incidence and Treatment of 1,420 Consecutive Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Venu M.; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Vargas, Samuel Romero; Riew, K. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To determine the incidence of cervical radiculopathy requiring operative intervention by level and to report on the methods of treatment. Overview of Literature Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain and can result in progressive neurological deficits. Although the pathology is well understood, the actual incidence of cervical radiculopathy at particular spinal levels ultimately requiring operative intervention is unknown. Methods A large consecutive series of patients operated on by a single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of cervical radiculopathy at each level was defined for every patient. Procedures used for operative treatment were noted. Health related quality of life (HRQL) scores were collected both pre-operatively and postoperatively. Results There were 1305 primary and 115 revision operations performed. The most common primary procedures performed were anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF, 50%) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF, 28%). The most commonly affected levels were C6 (66%) and C7 (62%). Reasons for revision were pseudarthrosis (27%), clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP, 63%), persistent radiculopathy (11%), and hardware-related (2.6%). The most common procedures performed in the revision group were posterior cervical decompression and fusion (PCDF, 42%) and ACDF (40%). The most commonly affected levels were C7 (43%) and C5 (30%). Among patients that had their index surgery at our institution, the revision rate was 6.4%. In both primary and revision cases there was a significant improvement in Neck Disability Index and visual analogue scale scores postoperatively. Postoperative HRQL scores in the revision cases were significantly worse than those in the primary cases (p cervical radiculopathy by level and operative outcomes in patients undergoing cervical decompression. The incidence of CASP was 4.2% in 3.3 years in this single

  3. The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in the male Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, Adela; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Carrato, Alfredo; Soto, José-Luís; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Guarinos, Carla; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel; Montenegro, Paola; Ochoa, Enrique; Lázaro, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I (TGFBR1) has been shown to increase the risk for kidney, ovarian, bladder, lung and breast cancers. Its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been established. The aims of this study were to assess the association of TGFBR1*Int7G24A variant with CRC occurrence, patient age, gender, tumour location and stage. We performed a case-control study with 504 cases of sporadic CRC; and 504 non-cancerous age, gender and ethnically matched controls. Genotyping analysis was performed using allelic discrimination assay by real time PCR. The Int7G24A variant was associated with increased CRC incidence in an additive model of inheritance (P for trend = 0.005). No significant differences were found between Int7G24A genotypes and tumour location or stage. Interestingly, the association of the Int7G24A variant with CRC risk was significant in men (odds ratio 4.10 with 95% confidence intervals 1.41-11.85 for homozygous individuals; P for trend = 0.00023), but not in women. We also observed an increase in susceptibility to CRC for individuals aged less than 70 years. Our data suggest that the Int7G24A variant represents a risk factor for CRC in the male Spanish population

  4. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  5. Uncertainty and variability in the exposure reconstruction of chemical incidents--the case of acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Daan; Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, Rik; van Rooij, Joost G M; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-12-15

    The application of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling combined with measured biomonitoring data, has a great potential to backtrack external exposure to chemicals during chemical incidents. So far, an important shortcoming of 'reversed dosimetry' is that uncertainty and variability in the model predictions are often neglected. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variation in predicted environmental air concentrations by means of reversed dosimetry as a result of uncertainty in chemical-specific input data and variability in physiological parameters. Human biomonitoring data (N-2-cyanoethylvaline in blood) from a chemical incident with acrylonitrile (ACN) combined with the BioNormtox PBPK model are used as a case to reconstruct the air concentration and uncertainty thereof at the time of the incident. The influence of uncertainty in chemical-specific properties and exposure duration, and interindividual variability in physiological parameters on the reconstructed air exposure concentrations were quantified via nested Monte Carlo simulation. The range in the reconstructed air concentrations of ACN during the incident was within a factor of 3. Uncertainty in the exact exposure duration directly after the chemical accident was found to have a dominant influence on the model outcomes. It was also shown that uncertainty can be further reduced by collecting human biomonitoring data as soon as possible after the incident. Finally, the collection of specific information about individual physiological parameters from the victims, such as body weight, may further reduce the variation by 5 to 20% in our case study. Future research should include the comparison of reversed dosimetry model outcomes with measured air and biological concentrations to further increase the confidence in the model approach and its implementation in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experience with S-1 in older Caucasian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Zubcevic, Kanita; Qvortrup, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    . In general, therapy was well tolerated; main non-hematological toxicities were fatigue and diarrhea. CONCLUSION: S-1 monotherapy, SOx and IRIS were well tolerated for older patients with mCRC and could become alternative regimens in older mCRC patients. These regimens are now further evaluated......BACKGROUND: An aging population will increase the number of older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, there is limited knowledge about treatment in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 is associated with a lower rate......) or irinotecan (IRIS) in older mCRC patients. Patients who received at least one cycle of S-1 (first-line therapy), SOx (mainly first-line therapy) or IRIS (second-line therapy) were included. RESULTS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 71 older patients received ≥1 cycle of either S-1 (n = 9), SOx (n = 44...

  7. Colorectal cancer incidence in path_MLH1 carriers subjected to different follow-up protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Toni; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy.......We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy....

  8. Metformin for primary colorectal cancer prevention in patients with diabetes: a case-control study in a US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehdev, Amikar; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Vekhter, Benjamin; Bissonnette, Marc B; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Polite, Blase N

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence from observational studies has suggested that metformin may be beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, to the authors' knowledge, none of these studies was conducted in a US population. Because environmental factors such as Western diet and obesity are implicated in the causation of CRC, a large case-control study was performed to assess the effects of metformin on the incidence of CRC in a US population. MarketScan databases were used to identify diabetic patients with CRC. A case was defined as having an incident diagnosis of CRC. Up to 2 controls matched for age, sex, and geographical region were selected for each case. Metformin exposure was assessed by prescription tracking within the 12-month period before the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple potential confounders and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs). The mean age of the study participants was 55 years and 57 years, respectively, in the control and case groups (P = 1.0). Approximately 60% of the study participants were male and 40% were female in each group. In the multivariable model, any metformin use was associated with a 15% reduction in the odds of CRC (AOR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.95 [P = .007]). After adjusting for health care use, the beneficial effect of metformin was reduced to 12% (AOR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.00 [P = .05]). The dose-response analyses demonstrated no significant association with metformin dose, duration, or total exposure. Metformin use appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC among diabetic patients in the United States. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  9. Incidence and risk factors for bumblefoot (pododermatitis) in rehabilitated raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lainz, A J; Hird, D W; Kass, P H; Brooks, D L

    1997-08-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 821 raptors of 12 representative species, admitted to the California Raptor Center (CRC), during 1980-1990. The incidence rate for bumblefoot was 52 cases per 100 bird-years at risk. Eagles and hawks (buteos) were more likely to develop bumblefoot, and did so earlier during their captivity than other species. Also, raptors admitted with a limb fracture had the greatest risk (OR = 4.2) of developing bumblefoot than any other condition on entry. Median time from admission to development of bumblefoot was 52 days, and median duration of bumblefoot was 23 days.

  10. The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E

    2009-11-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the international and the national level, an overview which necessarily has to be limited to some of the developments as a result of the implementation of the CRC. The first part of this paper will be devoted to the impact the CRC had and still has on the setting and development of the international agenda for the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of children. Special attention will given to developments, achievements, and remaining challenges at the international level with regard to protection of children in armed conflict; prevention and the protection of children from sexual exploitation; and from all forms of violence. This will include some information on the impact of these international developments and actions at the national level, for example, in the area of legislation. The second part will focus on the impact at the national level. Given the wide scope of the CRC this part will be limited to some of the General Measures of Implementation (law reform, national programmes, and independent monitoring) and the General Principles (non-discrimination, best interest, right to be heard) of the CRC. This will be based on reports of States on the implementation of the CRC submitted to the CRC Committee and the Concluding Observations of this Committee and on a number of studies. The conclusion will provide remarks on poverty as one of the major remaining challenges for the implementation of children's rights.

  11. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-21

    The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975-2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970-2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975-1979 to 2005-2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100,000 to 5.4/100,000. The largest increases occurred among those 70-79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100,000 to 33.6/100,000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100,000. MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Association of hormone therapy and incident gout: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Saskia G; Bodmer, Michael; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the odds of developing incident gout in association with the use of postmenopausal estrogen-progestogen therapy, according to type, timing, duration, and route of administration of estrogen-progestogen therapy. We conducted a retrospective population-based case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified women (aged 45 y or older) who had a first-time diagnosis of gout recorded between 1990 and 2010. We matched one female control with each case on age, general practice, calendar time, and years of active history in the database. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs (adjusted for confounders). The adjusted OR for gout with current use of oral formulations of opposed estrogens (estrogen-progestogen) was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.86) compared with never use. Current use was associated with a decreased OR for gout in women without renal failure (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87) and hypertension (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87) compared with never use. Tibolone was associated with a decreased OR for gout (adjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95) compared with never use. Estrogens alone did not alter the OR for gout. Current use of oral opposed estrogens, but not unopposed estrogens, is associated with a decreased OR for incident gout in women without renal failure and is more pronounced in women with hypertension. Use of tibolone is associated with a decreased OR for incident gout. The decreased OR for gout may be related to the progestogen component rather than the estrogen component.

  13. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within 1 year before MI index date. There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma before index date of MI, whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). Although inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared with those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57-6.44) without controlling for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84-2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12-4.82). Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  15. Efficient Data Integrity Verification Using CRC Based on HDFS in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yun-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data integrity verification is becoming a major challenge in cloud storage which can’t be ignored. This paper proposes an optimized variant of CRC (Checker Redundancy Cyclic verification algorithm based on HDFS to improve the efficiency of data integrity verification in cloud storage through the research of CRC checksum algorithm and data integrity verification mechanism of HDFS. A new method is formulated to establish the deformational optimization and to accelerate the algorithm by researching characteristics of generating and checking the algorithm. Moreover, this method optimizes the code to improve the computational efficiency according to data integrity verification mechanism of HDFS. A data integrity verification system based on Hadoop is designed to verify proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that proposed HDFS based CRC algorithm was able to improve the calculation efficiency and the utilization of system resource on the whole and outperformed well compared to existing models in terms of accuracy and time.

  16. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  17. Finite element analysis and experimental verification of Polymer reinforced CRC improved for close-in detonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Compact Reinforced Composite, CRC, is a high-strength cement-based composite that holds an enormous flexural and energy-absorbing capacity due to the close-spaced high strength steel reinforcement and a high-strength cement-based fiber DSP matrix. The material has been used in various constructions...... with the information and data needed to formulate a simple material model for High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Concrete suitable for predicting the responses of Polymer reinforced CRC under close-in detonations using the general purpose transient dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA....

  18. Sexual dimorphism in tuberculosis incidence: children cases compared to adult cases in Tuscany from 1997 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stival

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most countries, men seem to be more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB than women, but only few studies have investigated the reasons of this gender incidence difference. The effect of sexual hormones on immunity is possible. METHODS: Data from children and adults, living in Tuscany, hospitalized for TB in all the thirty-one regional hospitals from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2011, were analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. RESULTS: During the study period, 10,744 patients were hospitalized with TB diagnosis, precisely 279 (2.6% children [0-14 years], 205 (1.9% adolescents [15-18 years] and 10,260 (95.5% adults [≥ 18 years]. The male population ranged from 249 patients (51.4% in children and adolescents, to 6,253 (60.9% in adults. Pulmonary TB was the most common form both in children and adults. Men were more likely than women to have pulmonary TB after puberty, while no significant differences were found between males and females in the hospitalized children. The male gender also resulted the most affected for the extra-pulmonary disease sites, excluding the lymphatic system, during the reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a possible role of sexual hormones in the development of TB. No significant male-female difference was found in TB incidence among children, while a sex ratio significantly different from 1:1 emerged among reproductive age classes. An increased incidence difference also persisted in older men, suggesting that male-biased risk factors could influence TB progression. Some limitations of the study are the sample size, the method of discharge diagnosis which could be deficient in accuracy in some cases, the increasing number of immigrants and the lack of possible individual risk factors (smoke and alcohol. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible hormone-driven immune mechanisms determining the sexual dimorphism in TB.

  19. Is personality associated with cancer incidence and mortality? An individual-participant meta-analysis of 2156 incident cancer cases among 42,843 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Batty, G D; Hintsa, T; Elovainio, M; Hakulinen, C; Kivimäki, M

    2014-04-02

    The putative role of personality in cancer risk has been controversial, and the evidence remains inconclusive. We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies (British Household Panel Survey; Health and Retirement Study; Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia; Midlife in the United Survey; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate; and Sibling samples) for an individual-participant meta-analysis to examine whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were associated with the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality in 42,843 cancer-free men and women at baseline (mean age 52.2 years, 55.6% women). During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, there were 2156 incident cancer cases. In random-effects meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, none of the personality traits were associated with the incidence of all cancers or any of the six site-specific cancers included in the analysis (lung, colon, breast, prostate, skin, and leukaemia/lymphoma). In the three cohorts with cause-specific mortality data (421 cancer deaths among 21,835 participants), none of the personality traits were associated with cancer mortality. These data suggest that personality is not associated with increased risk of incident cancer or cancer-related mortality.

  20. On the Appropriateness of Incident Management Systems in Developing Countries: A Case from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Kamoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic incidents are eliciting growing public concerns due to their devastating social, economical, and environmental impacts. The severity of these random events is particularly alarming in developing countries, where the situation is just worsening. Recently, Incident Management Systems (IMSs have been proposed as powerful tools to enhance the coordination and management of rescue operations during traffic accidents. However, most of the available commercial IMS solutions are designed for large metropolitan cities and within the contexts of developed nations. This paper explores the issues of appropriateness and customization of IMS solutions in developing countries through an exploratory inquiry consisting of a case study from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The paper also explores the important issues related to managing the organizational changes that an IMS introduces to the operations of the command and control room. This contribution calls for the development of more comprehensive theoretical frameworks that can guide towards the implementation of appropriate IMS solutions in developing countries. Our research highlights the need for developing countries to acquire appropriate IMS solutions that are tailored to the local organizational work context in which these systems will be used. The experience reported herein can also inspire other public safety agencies in developing countries to consider the option of developing customized IMS solutions that best suit their needs.

  1. Leukaemia incidence among workers in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forand Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have indicated an excess of leukaemia in Broome County, New York, particularly in the Town of Union. Surveillance of cancer incidence data indicates that a large proportion of these cases occurred among males ages 65 and older. Shoe and boot manufacturing has been the largest single industry in this area throughout much of the past century. Occupational studies from Europe suggest a link between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. However, researchers have not found a positive association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe industry among workers in the United States. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between leukaemia incidence among males 65 and older and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. Thirty-six cases of leukaemia occurring between 1981–1990; among males age 65 and older; residing in the town of Union met the study case criteria. Death certificates were obtained for each of the cases. These were matched to death certificates of 144 controls on date of death and date of birth +/- 1 year. Death certificates were then examined to determine the employer and occupation of each study subject. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of leukaemia among those working in the industry. Results The risk of both leukaemia (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.70, 3.09 and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.33, 4.28 were elevated among those employed in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, however neither was statistically significant. Conclusion The results, though suggestive of an association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, were not statistically conclusive due mainly to limited study power. Several additional limitations may also have prevented the observance of more conclusive findings. Better exposure assessment, information on

  2. Burden and seasonality of testicular torsion in tropical Africa: Analysis of incident cases in a Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril O. Bello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children, adolescents and young adults in tropical Africa occasionally presents to the emergency department with testicular torsion. However, no estimates of the burden of the condition is available and there is also sparse evidence of a seasonal variation in incidence. Objective: To determine the incidence and seasonality of the condition in a Nigerian community. Subjects and methods: A retrospective review of incident cases of testicular torsion occurring in a typical tropical sub-Saharan African community between January 2011 and December 2016 was performed. Incidence rates were calculated and trend analysis performed to evaluate for seasonality. Results: Twenty-three patients were seen during the study period and the average annual incidence of testicular torsion among ‘at risk’ males (<40 years was 2.7/100,000. Testicular salvage rate was 81%. Cases occurred 91% higher than average during the cold season (November to January. Trend analysis revealed a significant seasonal difference in the number of cases seen (p = 0.045 and Post Hoc tests (Tukey further showed that this is attributable to the seasonal difference between the cold season and the warmer early rains period (p = 0.036. Conclusion: The burden of testicular torsion found in the studied tropical sub-Saharan community is comparable to other regions of the world and seasonal variation in incidence does occur with a significant increase in cases during the cold season. Keywords: Testicular torsion, Seasonality, Disease burden, Orchiopexy, Orchiectomy

  3. Fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer depending on fibre source, sex, tumour location and Tumour, Node, Metastasis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcan, Alexandra; Brändstedt, Jenny; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika

    2015-09-28

    Studies on fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate inverse associations. Differences by tumour stage have not been examined. We examined associations between fibre intake and its sources, and incidental CRC. Separate analyses were carried out on the basis of sex, tumour location and the Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based cohort study, including individuals aged 45-74 years. Dietary data were collected through a modified diet history method. The TNM classification was obtained from pathology/clinical records and re-evaluated. Among 27 931 individuals (60% women), we found 728 incident CRC cases during 428 924 person-years of follow-up. Fibre intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.026). Concerning colon cancer, we observed borderline interaction between fibre intake and sex (P = 0.052) and significant protective association restricted to women (P(trend) = 0.013). Intake of fruits and berries was inversely associated with colon cancer in women (P(trend) = 0.022). We also observed significant interactions between intakes of fibre (P = 0.048) and vegetables (P = 0.039) and sex on rectal cancer, but no significant associations were seen between intake of fibre, or its sources, in either of the sexes. Except for inverse associations between intake of fibre-rich cereal products and N0- and M0-tumours, we did not observe significant associations with different TNM stages. Our findings suggest different associations between fibre intake and CRC depending on sex, tumour site and fibre source. High fibre intake, especially from fruits and berries, may, above all, prevent tumour development in the colon in women. No clear differences by TNM classification were detected.

  4. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  5. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future.

  6. Genomic analysis of head and neck cancer cases from two high incidence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Perdomo

    Full Text Available We investigated how somatic changes in HNSCC interact with environmental and host risk factors and whether they influence the risk of HNSCC occurrence and outcome. 180-paired samples diagnosed as HNSCC in two high incidence regions of Europe and South America underwent targeted sequencing (14 genes and evaluation of copy number alterations (SCNAs. TP53, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, TP63 and CDKN2A were the most frequently mutated genes. Cases were characterized by a low copy number burden with recurrent focal amplification in 11q13.3 and deletion in 15q22. Cases with low SCNAs showed an improved overall survival. We found significant correlations with decreased overall survival between focal amplified regions 4p16, 10q22 and 22q11, and losses in 12p12, 15q14 and 15q22. The mutational landscape in our cases showed an association to both environmental exposures and clinical characteristics. We confirmed that somatic copy number alterations are an important predictor of HNSCC overall survival.

  7. 12 CFR 617.7305 - What is a CRC and who are the members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a CRC and who are the members? 617.7305 Section 617.7305 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Actions... least one of the qualified lender's farmer-elected board members. The loan officer involved in the...

  8. Trends in incidence, case-fatality and recurrence of myocardial infarction in the Danish MONICA population 1982-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, M; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing awareness of risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), continuous mass campaigns on lifestyle factors, increasing use of heart rehabilitation and improved treatment should imply decreases in the incidence, case-fatality and recurrence rates of MI. The purpose of the study......, Denmark. Fatal and non-fatal attacks classified as definite MI and non-fatal attacks classified as possible MI were included. The incidence rate was analysed by Poisson regression, the case-fatality rate by logistic regression, and the rate of recurrence by Cox regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were...

  9. Lactate and risk of incident diabetes in a case-cohort of the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available Oxidative capacity is decreased in type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity is a cause or consequence of diabetes is unknown. Our purpose is to evaluate whether lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, is associated with incident diabetes.We conducted a case-cohort study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study at year 9 of follow-up. We evaluated lactate's association with diabetes risk factors at baseline and estimated the hazard ratio for incident diabetes by quartiles of plasma lactate in 544 incident diabetic cases and 533 non-cases. Plasma lactate showed a graded positive relationship with fasting glucose and insulin (P<0.001. The relative hazard for incident diabetes increased across lactate quartiles (P-trend ≤0.001. Following adjustment for demographic factors, medical history, physical activity, adiposity, and serum lipids, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile was 2.05 times the hazard in the lowest quartile (95% CI: 1.28, 3.28. After including fasting glucose and insulin the association became non-significant.Lactate, an indicator of oxidative capacity, predicts incident diabetes independent of many other risk factors and is strongly related to markers of insulin resistance. Future studies should evaluate the temporal relationship between elevated lactate and impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance.

  10. Lessons Learnt from the Improvement of Customer Support Processes: A Case Study on Incident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Marko

    IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is the most widely used IT service management framework that provides guidelines how to create, manage and support IT services. Service support processes, such as incident management and problem management, are among the first ITIL processes that organizations start to implement. However, several challenges may exist in the process implementation. The research question of this study is: which issues are important in establishing an ITIL-based incident management process? The main contribution of this paper is to present lessons learnt from an ITIL-based process improvement project that focused on establishing an incident management process in an IS department of a university hospital. Our results show that key issues in implementing incident management are to 1) define the basic concepts of incident management with concrete examples and 2) define process interfaces between incident management and other support processes.

  11. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjonneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti......-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases...... and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624: 88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval...

  12. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    I. L. G. Farias; M. C. S. Araújo; J. G. Farias; L. V. Rossato; L. I. Elsenbach; S. L. Dalmora; N. M. P. Flores; M. Durigon; I. B. M. Cruz; V. M. Morsch; M. R. C. Schetinger

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Bloo...

  13. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of medically attended influenza infection and cases averted by vaccination, 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Kieke, Burney; McClure, David; Gaglani, Manjusha; Murthy, Kempapura; Malosh, Ryan; Monto, Arnold; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Flannery, Brendan; Thompson, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Background We estimated the burden of outpatient influenza and cases prevented by vaccination during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons using data from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (US Flu VE) Network. Methods We defined source populations of persons who could seek care for acute respiratory illness (ARI) at each of the five US Flu VE Network sites. We identified all members of the source population who were tested for influenza during US Flu VE influenza surveillance. Each influenza-positive subject received a sampling weight based on the proportion of source population members who were tested for influenza, stratified by site, age, and other factors. We used the sampling weights to estimate the cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza in the source populations. We estimated cases averted by vaccination using estimates of cumulative incidence, vaccine coverage, and vaccine effectiveness. Results Cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza ranged from 0.8% to 2.8% across sites during 2011/12 and from 2.6% to 6.5% during the 2012/13 season. Stratified by age, incidence ranged from 1.2% among adults 50 years of age and older in 2011/12 to 10.9% among children 6 months to 8 years of age in 2012/13. Cases averted by vaccination ranged from 4 to 41 per 1,000 vaccinees, depending on the study site and year. Conclusions The incidence of medically attended influenza varies greatly by year and even by geographic region within the same year. The number of cases averted by vaccination varies greatly based on overall incidence and on vaccine coverage. PMID:26271827

  15. Low Complexity List Decoding for Polar Codes with Multiple CRC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polar codes are the first family of error correcting codes that provably achieve the capacity of symmetric binary-input discrete memoryless channels with low complexity. Since the development of polar codes, there have been many studies to improve their finite-length performance. As a result, polar codes are now adopted as a channel code for the control channel of 5G new radio of the 3rd generation partnership project. However, the decoder implementation is one of the big practical problems and low complexity decoding has been studied. This paper addresses a low complexity successive cancellation list decoding for polar codes utilizing multiple cyclic redundancy check (CRC codes. While some research uses multiple CRC codes to reduce memory and time complexity, we consider the operational complexity of decoding, and reduce it by optimizing CRC positions in combination with a modified decoding operation. Resultingly, the proposed scheme obtains not only complexity reduction from early stopping of decoding, but also additional reduction from the reduced number of decoding paths.

  16. Assessing Religious Orientations: Replication and Validation of the Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex (CRC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Isaak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex (CRC model is a structural model of religious orientation that was designed to help organize and clarify measurement of foundational aspect of religiousness. The current study successfully replicated the CRC model using multidimensional scaling, and further evaluated the reliability, structure, and validity of their measures in both a university student sample (Study 1 and a nationally representative sample (Study 2. All 10 subscales of the Circumplex Religious Orientation Inventory (CROI demonstrated good reliability across both samples. A two-week test-retest of the CROI showed that the subscales are stable over time. A confirmatory factor analysis of the CROI in the representative adult sample demonstrated good model fit. Finally, the CROI’s validity was examined in relation to the Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Quest measures. Overall, the CROI appears to clarify much of the ambiguity inherent in the established scales by breaking down what were very broad orientations into very specific suborientations. The results suggest that the CRC model is applicable for diverse populations of adults. In addition, the CROI appears to be construct valid with good structural and psychometric properties across all 10 subscales.

  17. Incidence of social resistance in provincial mining legislation. The cases of Córdoba and Catamarca (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Christel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade in Argentina, the growth of open pit mining has faced strong social resistance and provincial laws prohibiting such activity. This work aims to analyse the ways in which the different subnational political regimes and economic systems impact upon the possibility of incidence of social resistance on provincial mining legislation, looking at the cases of Cordoba and Catamarca.

  18. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

  19. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, M.; Rericha, V.; Rericha, R.; Shore, D.L.; Sandler, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: → Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. → We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. → No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. → Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  20. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; R Degano, Irene; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-21

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Healthy dietary patterns decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in the Mecca Region, Saudi Arabia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Dietary habits are strongly associated with the inhibition or proliferation of malignancy. Therefore, this study is aiming to investigate the risks and protective benefits of dietary factors affecting CRC in the Mecca region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty-seven patients with colon and/or rectal cancer were recruited in the case group, while 164 healthy participants were recruited in the control group. A questionnaire was completed with the help of trained dietitians to study the effects of several dietary patterns on the risk of CRC. Results Dairy product intake of 1–5 servings/day, legume intake of 3–5 servings/week, leafy vegetables intake of 1–5 servings/week, olive oil intake of 1–5 servings/week, black tea intake of three or more cups/day, and coffee intake of one or more cups/day was found to decrease the risk of CRC in participants. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of changing dietary habits to decrease CRC incidence in the Mecca region.

  2. Quality of Service and Crime Incidents in Public Transport: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crime incident is one of the greatest endemic challenges in public transport system. This study examined the relationship between quality of public transport and crime incidents with the view to examine the sustainability of public transport system in an African mega-city-Lagos, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure and ...

  3. 'Incidence Of Dry Socket\\' In Benin City: Analysis Of 21 Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc oxide/Eugenol dressing was the mainstay of treatment after irrigation of the socket with normal saline. The low incidence of dry socket in this review shows that it is not a common complication of tooth extraction in our hospital. Keywords: Dry socket, incidence. Annals of Biomedical Science Vol. 2 (2) 2003: pp. 82-87 ...

  4. Active Case Finding Among Homeless People as a Means of Reducing the Incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaszko, J; Siemaszko, A; Bodzioch, M; Buciński, A; Doboszyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) declined more than two-fold, compared with the national average, in the northeastern region of Poland in the period of 2003-2012. During that time, four programs of active case finding of TB were conducted as part of which a total of 944 homeless individuals were examined and 21 cases of active TB were detected. The objective of the present study was to find out whether the observed beneficial epidemiological trend could be a result of those programs. We addressed the issue of how the active case finding programs in the homeless community affected the TB incidence in the general population using a modified crisscross SIS-type (Susceptible - Infected - Susceptible) model which describes the dynamics of TB spread between the homeless and non-homeless populations. The values calculated from our model proved highly congruent with the actual epidemiological data. Our analysis showed a significant decline in TB incidence within 1 year of completion of each active case finding program. The model shows that each identified and cured case in the homeless community reduced the number of new cases in the general population by 3-4 within 1 year and by up to 20 within 5 years.

  5. Colorectal cancer in the course of familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (“de novo” pathogenic mutation of APC gene): case report, review of the literature and genetic commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Stec, Rafał; Pławski, Andrzej; Synowiec, Agnieszka; Mączewski, Michał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumours in Poland. Annually approximately 11 000 new cases of CRC are diagnosed, while the number of deaths caused by CRC approaches 8 000. Five-year survival does not exceed 20%. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is responsible for about 1% of new cases of CRC. The risk of CRC in FAP syndrome is 100%, and the average age of CRC development is 39 years. Early colectomy is the most effective method of CRC prevention. We report an a...

  6. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  7. How should an incident case of atopic dermatitis be defined? A systematic review of primary prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Eric L; Keck, Laura E; Chalmers, Joanne R; Williams, Hywel C

    2012-07-01

    Eczema prevention is now an active area of dermatologic and allergy research. Defining an incident case is therefore a prerequisite for such a study. We sought to examine how an incident case of atopic dermatitis was defined in previous atopic dermatitis prevention studies in order to make recommendations on a standard definition of new atopic dermatitis cases for use in future prevention trials. We conducted a systematic review of controlled interventional atopic dermatitis prevention studies by using searches of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies published from 1980 to the end of January 2011. Studies that included atopic dermatitis as a secondary outcome, such as asthma prevention trials, were included. One hundred two studies were included in the final analysis, of which 27 (26.5%) did not describe any criteria for defining an incident case of atopic dermatitis. Of the remaining 75 studies with reported disease criteria, the Hanifin-Rajka criteria were the most commonly used (28 studies). A disease definition unique to that particular study (21 studies) was the second most commonly used disease definition, although the sources for such novel definitions were not cited. The results from this systematic review highlight the need for improved reporting and standardization of the definition used for an incident case in atopic dermatitis prevention studies. Most prevention studies have used disease definitions such as the Hanifin-Rajka criteria that include disease chronicity. While acceptable for cumulative incidence outcomes, inclusion of disease chronicity precludes the precise measurement of disease onset. We propose a definition based on existing scientific studies that could be used in future prospective studies. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the Crc regulator on the hierarchical use of carbon sources from a complete medium in Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Behrends, Volker; Williams, Huw D; Bundy, Jacob G; Rojo, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The Crc protein, together with the Hfq protein, participates in catabolite repression in pseudomonads, helping to coordinate metabolism. Little is known about how Crc affects the hierarchy of metabolite assimilation from complex mixtures. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we carried out comprehensive metabolite profiling of culture supernatants (metabolic footprinting) over the course of growth of both Pseudomonas putida and P. aeruginosa, and compared the wild-type strains with deletion mutants for crc. A complex metabolite consumption hierarchy was observed, which was broadly similar between the two species, although with some important differences, for example in sugar utilization. The order of metabolite utilization changed upon inactivation of the crc gene, but even in the Crc-null strains some compounds were completely consumed before late metabolites were taken up. This suggests the presence of additional regulatory elements that determine the time and order of consumption of compounds. Unexpectedly, the loss of Crc led both species to excrete acetate and pyruvate as a result of unbalanced growth during exponential phase, compounds that were later consumed in stationary phase. This loss of carbon during growth helps to explain the contribution of the Crc/Hfq regulatory system to evolutionary fitness of pseudomonads. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Precision Medicine for CRC Patients in the Veteran Population: State-of-the-Art, Challenges and Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Shyam S; Batra, Surinder K; Bharadwaj, Srinivas; Bouvet, Michael; Cosman, Bard; Goel, Ajay; Jogunoori, Wilma; Kelley, Michael J; Mishra, Lopa; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mohapatra, Subhra; Patel, Bhaumik; Pisegna, Joseph R; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Rao, Shuyun; Roy, Hemant; Scheuner, Maren; Singh, Satish; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; White, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for ~9% of all cancers in the Veteran population, a fact which has focused a great deal of the attention of the VA's research and development efforts. A field-based meeting of CRC experts was convened to discuss both challenges and opportunities in precision medicine for CRC. This group, designated as the VA Colorectal Cancer Cell-genomics Consortium (VA4C), discussed advances in CRC biology, biomarkers, and imaging for early detection and prevention. There was also a discussion of precision treatment involving fluorescence-guided surgery, targeted chemotherapies and immunotherapies, and personalized cancer treatment approaches. The overarching goal was to identify modalities that might ultimately lead to personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the findings of this VA field-based meeting, in which much of the current knowledge on CRC prescreening and treatment was discussed. It was concluded that there is a need and an opportunity to identify new targets for both the prevention of CRC and the development of effective therapies for advanced disease. Also, developing methods integrating genomic testing with tumoroid-based clinical drug response might lead to more accurate diagnosis and prognostication and more effective personalized treatment of CRC.

  10. Trends in Stroke Incidence and 28-Day Case Fatality in a Nationwide Stroke Registry of a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuen Seng; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Tan, Pei Zheng; Chan, Bernard P L; Tang, Kok-Foo; Ahmad, Aftab; Kong, Keng He; Chang, Hui Meng; Chow, Khuan Yew; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated trends in stroke incidence and case fatality overall and according to sex, age, ethnicity, and stroke subtype in a multiethnic Asian population. The Singapore Stroke Registry identifies all stroke cases in all public hospitals using medical claims, hospital discharge summaries, and death registry data. Age-standardized incidence rates and 28-day case-fatality rates were calculated for individuals aged ≥15 years between 2006 and 2012. To estimate the annual percentage change of the rates, a linear regression model was fitted to the log rates, and a Wald test was performed to test for trend. P values Chinese (-2.64; 95% CI, -3.15 to -2.13), Indians (-3.78; 95% CI, -5.93 to -1.58), and others (-12.73; 95% CI, -18.93 to -6.06) compared with Malays (2.58; 95% CI, 1.17 to 4.02); and in ischemic stroke subtype (ischemic: -2.43; 95% CI, -3.13 to -1.73; hemorrhagic: -1.02; 95% CI, -2.04 to 0.01). Subgroup-specific findings for case fatality were similar. This is the first countrywide hospital-based registry study in a multiethnic Asian population, and it revealed marked overall reductions in stroke incidence and case fatality. However, it also identified important population groups with less favorable trends, especially younger adults and those of Malay ethnicity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. BRAFV600E mutation analysis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC in daily clinical practice: correlations with clinical characteristics, and its impact on patients' outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharenia Saridaki

    Full Text Available To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of the BRAFV600E mutation detection in daily clinical practice in patients with metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC.504 mCRC patients treated with systemic chemotherapy ± biologics were analyzed.A statistically significant higher incidence of the BRAF mutation was observed in patients with ECOG-PS 2 (p=0.001, multiple metastatic sites (p=0.002,> 65 years old (p=0.004, primary tumors located in the colon (p<0.001, high-grade tumors (p=0.001 and in those with mucinous features (p=0.037. Patients with BRAFV600E mutated tumors had a statistically significantly reduced progression-free survival (PFS compared to wild-type (wt ones (4.1 and 11.6 months, respectively; p<0.001 and overall survival (OS (14.0 vs. 34.6 months, respectively; p<0.001. In the multivariate analysis the BRAFV600E mutation emerged as an independent factor associated with reduced PFS (HR: 4.1, 95% CI 2.7-6.2; p<0.001 and OS (HR: 5.9, 95% CI 3.7-9.5; p<0.001. Among the 273 patients treated with salvage cetuximab or panitumumab, the BRAFV600E mutation was correlated with reduced PFS (2.2 vs. 6.0 months; p<0.0001 and OS (4.3 vs. 17.4 months; p<0.0001.The presence of BRAFV600E-mutation in mCRC characterizes a subgroup of patients with distinct biologic, clinical and pathological features and is associated with very poor patients' prognosis.

  12. Non-invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix: Incidence and Report of Four Cases among 512 Appendectomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Tumors of the vermiform appendix are relatively rare. More than 50% of appendiceal tumors are carcinoid tumors. The author reviewed 512 consecutive pathological specimens of appendectomies in last ten years in our pathology laboratory in search for appendiceal tumors. As the results, 4 cases (incidence: 0.8%) of non-invasive adenocarcinoma were found. No other tumors including carcinoid tumors were recognized. The age of the 4 patients with adenocarcinoma was 48, 39, 84 and 86 years, respectively. Male to female ratio was 3:1. The clinical diagnoses were acute appendicitis in 2 cases and suspected malignancy in 2 cases. The post-operative outcome was good without metastasis, recurrence, and pseudomyxoma peritonei. Pathologically, all the 4 tumors were non-invasive adenocarcinomas: 2 cases were flat type adenocarcinoma, 1 case was papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, expression of p53 protein was observed in all the 4 cases, and Ki-67 labeling ranged from 40% to 90%. The results suggest that incidence of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was 0.8% of all appendectomies, and that non-invasive adenocarcinoma of the appendix shows variable morphologies, and that postoperative clinical outcome of non-invasive appendiceal tumor is good. PMID:27942282

  13. A study of cases reported as incidents in a public hospital from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Santos, Maria do Livramento Gomes Dos; Carvalho, Paloma Aparecida; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing incidents reported in a public hospital in the Federal District, Brasilia, according to the characteristics and outcomes involving patients. A descriptive and retrospective study of incidents reported between January 2011 and September 2014. 209 reported incidents were categorized as reportable occurrences (n = 22, 10.5%), near misses (n = 16, 7.7%); incident without injury (n = 4, 1.9%) and incident with injury (adverse events) (n = 167, 79.9%). The average age of patients was 44 years and the hospitalization time until the moment of the incident was on average 38.5 days. Nurses were the healthcare professionals who most reported the incidents (n = 55, 67%). No outcomes resulted in death. Incidents related to blood/hemoderivatives, medical devices/equipment, patient injuries and intravenous medication/fluids were the most frequent. Standardizing the reporting processes and enhancing participation by professionals in managing incidents is recommended. Analisar os incidentes notificados em um hospital público do Distrito Federal, segundo as características e os desfechos quando envolveram pacientes. Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo dos incidentes notificados entre janeiro de 2011 e setembro de 2014. Notificados 209 incidentes categorizados em ocorrência comunicável (n = 22, 10,5%), quase evento (n = 16, 7,7%), incidente sem dano (n = 4, 1,9%) e incidente com dano (eventos adversos) (n = 167, 79,9%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 44 anos e o tempo da internação até o momento do incidente teve média de 38,5 dias. Os enfermeiros foram os que mais notificaram (n = 55, 67%). Nenhum desfecho resultou em morte. Os incidentes relacionados a sangue/hemoderivados, dispositivos/equipamento médico, acidentes do doente e medicação/fluidos endovenosos foram os mais frequentes. Recomenda-se padronizar os processos de notificação e potencializar a participação dos profissionais no manejo dos incidentes.

  14. Ten-year incidence of colorectal cancer following a negative screening sigmoidoscopy: an update from the Colorectal Cancer Prevention (CoCaP) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria-Rose, V Paul; Levin, Theodore R; Palitz, Albert; Conell, Carol; Weiss, Noel S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) following a negative screening sigmoidoscopy. Cohort study. An integrated healthcare delivery organisation in California, USA. 72,483 men and women aged 50 years and above who had a negative screening sigmoidoscopy between 1994 and 1996. Those at elevated risk of CRC due to inflammatory bowel disease, prior polyps or CRC, or a strong family history of CRC were excluded. Incidence rates of distal and proximal CRC. Standardised Incidence Ratios were used to compare annual incidence rates of distal and proximal CRC in the cohort to expected rates based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Additionally, rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) comparing the incidence rate of distal CRC in years 6+ postscreening with that in years 1-5 were calculated. Incidence rates of distal CRC were lower than those in the San Francisco Bay area population at large during each of the first 10 years postsigmoidoscopy screening. However, the incidence of distal CRC rose steadily, from 3 per 100,000 in the first year of follow-up to 40 per 100,000 in the 10th year. During the second half of follow-up, the rate of distal CRC was twice as high as in the first half (RR 2 .08, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.16; RD 14 per 100,000 person-years, 95% CI 6 to 22). Though still below population levels, the incidence of CRC during years 6-10 following a negative sigmoiodoscopy is appreciably higher than during the first 5 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertruida J van Woudenbergh

    Full Text Available In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a European population.The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centers in 8 European countries and consists of a total of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,835 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Country-specific Hazard Ratios (HR for incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors using a Cox regression adapted for a case-cohort design. Subsequently, country-specific HR were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Tea consumption was studied as categorical variable (0, >0-<1, 1-<4, ≥ 4 cups/day. The dose-response of the association was further explored by restricted cubic spline regression. Country specific medians of tea consumption ranged from 0 cups/day in Spain to 4 cups/day in United Kingdom. Tea consumption was associated inversely with incidence of type 2 diabetes; the HR was 0.84 [95%CI 0.71, 1.00] when participants who drank ≥ 4 cups of tea per day were compared with non-drinkers (p(linear trend = 0.04. Incidence of type 2 diabetes already tended to be lower with tea consumption of 1-<4 cups/day (HR = 0.93 [95%CI 0.81, 1.05]. Spline regression did not suggest a non-linear association (p(non-linearity = 0.20.A linear inverse association was observed between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes. People who drink at least 4 cups of tea per day may have a 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers.

  16. Short Text Messages (SMS) as an Additional Tool for Notifying Medical Staff in Case of a Hospital Mass Casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Dariusz; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Gałązkowski, Robert; Szarpak, Łukasz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of short text messages (short message service, or SMS) as an additional notification tool in case of fire or a mass casualty incident in a hospital. A total of 2242 SMS text messages were sent to 59 hospital workers divided into 3 groups (n=21, n=19, n=19). Messages were sent from a Samsung GT-S8500 Wave cell phone and Orange Poland was chosen as the telecommunication provider. During a 3-month trial period, messages were sent between 3:35 PM and midnight with no regular pattern. Employees were asked to respond by telling how much time it would take them to reach the hospital in case of a mass casualty incident. The mean reaction time (SMS reply) was 36.41 minutes. The mean declared time of arrival to the hospital was 100.5 minutes. After excluding 10% of extreme values for declared arrival time, the mean arrival time was estimated as 38.35 minutes. Short text messages (SMS) can be considered an additional tool for notifying medical staff in case of a mass casualty incident.

  17. Time until institutionalization in incident dementia cases--results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Weber, Stephan; Matschinger, Herbert; Glaesmer, Heide; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2008-01-01

    Information on the time until institutionalization and its predictors in demented subjects has so far been based on studies with selected samples or prevalent dementia cases. Thus, the aim of the study is to analyze the time until institutionalization and associated patient-related factors in incident dementia cases. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+), a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the time until institutionalization. Factors associated with time until institutionalization were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. One hundred and nine subjects with incident dementia who resided in a private home setting at the time of the dementia diagnosis were identified. Fifty-two (47.7%) of these subjects had become residents of a nursing home by the end of the study. The median time until institutionalization was 1,005 days (95% CI = 808-1,202). Being widowed/divorced (compared to being married) was associated with a significantly shorter time until institutionalization (univariate model: HR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.09-18.57). Being without a spouse seems to be an important factor for a shorter time until institutionalization in incident dementia cases. Tailored interventions for these subjects at risk are required. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells that subvert normal host cell functions to the benefit of the pathogen, and results in serious infections. T3SS in P. aeruginosa is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways. In this study, we described that Crc, an RNA-binding protein, exerts a positive impact on T3SS in P. aeruginosa, as evidenced by promoter activity assays of several key T3SS genes, transcriptomics, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting in crc mutant. We further demonstrated that the regulatory function of Crc on the T3SS was mediated through the T3SS master regulator ExsA and linked to the Cbr/Crc signaling system. Expression profiling of the crc mutant revealed a downregulation of flagship T3SS genes as well as 16 other genes known to regulate T3SS gene expression in P. aeruginosa. On the basis of these data, we proposed that Crc may exert multifaceted control on the T3SS through various pathways, which may serve to fine-tune this virulence mechanism in response to environmental changes and nutrient sources. PMID:23292701

  19. IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN LONG-TERM SURVIVORS OF COLORECTAL CANCER (CRC) WITH COLOSTOMIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K.; Altschuler, Andrea; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of a colostomy in colorectal (CRC) cancer patients results in a loss of control over bowel evacuation. The only way to re-establish some control is through irrigation, a procedure that involves instilling fluid into the bowel to allow for gas and fecal output. This article reports on irrigation practices of participants in a large, multi-site, multi-investigator study of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in long term CRC survivors. Questions about irrigation practices were identified in open-ended questions within a large HR-QOL survey and in focus groups of men and women with high and low HR-QOL. Descriptive data on survivors were combined with content analysis of irrigation knowledge and practices. Patient education and use of irrigation in the United States has decreased over the years, with no clear identification of why this change in practice has occurred. Those respondents who used irrigation had their surgery longer ago, and spent more time in colostomy care than those that did not irrigate. Reasons for the decrease in colostomy irrigation are unreported and present priorities for needed research. PMID:23022935

  20. Using the National Death Index to Identify Duplicate Cancer Incident Cases in Florida and New York, 1996–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Brad; Qiao, Baozhen; MacKinnon, Jill A.; Schymura, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cancer registries link incidence data to state death certificates to update vital status and identify missing cases; they also link these data to the National Death Index (NDI) to update vital status among patients who leave the state after their diagnosis. This study explored the use of information from NDI linkages to identify potential duplicate cancer cases registered in both Florida and New York. Methods The Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR) linked incidence data with state and NDI death records from 1996 through 2005. Information for patients whose death occurred in the reciprocal state (the death state) was exchanged. Potential duplicate cases were those that had the same diagnosis and the same or similar diagnosis date. Results NDI identified 4,657 FCDS cancer patients who died in New York and 2,740 NYSCR cancer patients who died in Florida. Matching identified 5,030 cases registered in both states; 508 were death certificate-only (DCO) cases in the death state’s registry, and 3,760 (74.8%) were potential duplicates. Among FCDS and NYSCR patients who died and were registered in the registry of the reciprocal state, more than 50% were registered with the same cancer diagnosis, and approximately 80% had similar diagnosis dates (within 1 year). Conclusion NDI identified DCO cases in the death state’s cancer registry and a large proportion of potential duplicate cases. Standards are needed for assigning primary residence when multiple registries report the same case. The registry initiating the NDI linkage should consider sharing relevant information with death state registries so that these registries can remove erroneous DCO cases from their databases. PMID:25254985

  1. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF URBAN FIRE INCIDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF NANJING, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013 dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  2. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Fire Incidents: a Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Zhang, X.

    2016-06-01

    Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013) dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  3. Incidence of Candida Albicans in Pregnent Women: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the incidence of Candida albicans among pregnant women of varied age range/occupation, within any of the three trimesters, and attending antenatal clinic in Ekpoma and its environs. A total of 100 high vagina swab- samples were collected from women and then transported to the Medical Laboratory ...

  4. Genetic influences on incidence and case-fatality of infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic susceptibility contributes to familial aggregation of infectious diseases or to death from infections. We estimated genetic and shared environmental influences separately on the risk of acquiring an infection (incidence) and on dying from...

  5. Incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma in presumed morcellation cases: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana M; Asoglu, Mehmet R; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Tan, Alai; Borahay, Mostafa A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the incidence of uterine leiomyosarcoma in patients with leiomyomas following laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy procedures. For this study, we analyzed records of 13,964 women aged 25-64 years who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies or myomectomies for leiomyomas from 2002 to 2011 using Clinformatics DataMart. Patient records were divided into two groups: history of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and history of myomectomy. Subjects were tracked to identify diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma within 1 year of the procedure. We analyzed data from the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets. Evidence was obtained from a cohort study from national private insurance claims in the US. Our results showed the incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following supracervical hysterectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 9.8, 10.7, and 33.4 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 13.1 per 10,000. The incidence rate of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following myomectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 0.0, 33.8, and 90.1 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 17.3 per 10,000. Our analysis shows the overall risk of being diagnosed with occult leiomyosarcoma is 12.9 per 10,000 in laparoscopic-assisted supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy for patients younger than 49. There is no evidence of occult leiomyosarcoma 1 year after operation for patients younger than 40 who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.

  7. Measuring the association between artemisinin-based case management and malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Thuan, Phung Duc; Britton, Amadea; Nguyen, Tran Dang; Wolbers, Marcel; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Buckee, Caroline O; Boni, Maciej F

    2015-04-01

    In addition to being effective, fast-acting, and well tolerated, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are able to kill certain transmission stages of the malaria parasite. However, the population-level impacts of ACTs on reducing malaria transmission have been difficult to assess. In this study on the history of malaria control in Vietnam, we assemble annual reporting on malaria case counts, coverage with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), and drug purchases by provincial malaria control programs from 1991 to 2010 in Vietnam's 20 southern provinces. We observe a significant negative association between artemisinin use and malaria incidence, with a 10% absolute increase in the purchase proportion of artemisinin-containing regimens being associated with a 29.1% (95% confidence interval: 14.8-41.0%) reduction in slide-confirmed malaria incidence, after accounting for changes in urbanization, ITN/IRS coverage, and two indicators of health system capacity. One budget-related indicator of health system capacity was found to have a smaller association with malaria incidence, and no other significant factors were found. Our findings suggest that including an artemisinin component in malaria drug regimens was strongly associated with reduced malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, whereas changes in urbanization and coverage with ITN or IRS were not. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Modr?, Helena; Svobodov?, Zde?ka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution.

  9. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-06-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution.

  10. A Case Control Study of Incident Rheumatological Conditions Following Acute Gastroenteritis During Military Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A case–control study of incident rheumatological conditions following acute gastroenteritis during military deployment Kathryn H DeYoung,1,2 Mark S...following acute gastroenteritis during military deployment. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003801. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013- 003801 ▸ Prepublication history for this...population may include individuals with reactive arthritis (ReA) from deployment-related infectious gastroenteritis . Design: This case–control

  11. Protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. Hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Pac, Agnieszka; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Galas, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Current epidemiologic studies investigating the effect of fish intake on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between fish consumption and CRC risk. This hospital-based case-control study was performed in 548 CRC patients (Surgery Clinic, University Hospital in Krakow, Poland) between November 2000 and May 2008. Histological findings, information on anatomic location and stage of cancer were available for all the patients enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 745 patients of the same hospital with no history of cancer admitted for treatment of non-neoplastic conditions. During the 5-year study period, the food frequency questionnaire used focused on the reference period that was defined as 1-5 years prior to CRC diagnosis for the CRC cases and the date of hospital admission for the controls. The crude odds ratio (OR) was inversely related to fish consumption (z for trend in quartiles of intake= -2.31, p=0.021; OR=0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.81-0.98). The risk of CRC increased with intake of stewed or cooked meat (z for trend in quartiles of intake=2.14; p=0.032; OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86). All multivariate statistical models employed in the analysis considered potential confounders, such as demographic characteristics of subjects, body mass index, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, energy consumption and intake of meat products. The study results indicate that increased fish intake may have a preventive effect on CRC and modulate the effect of meat consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first large epidemiologic study on dietary habits and CRC incidence in Eastern Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism and its determinants from 2012 to 2014 in Shadegan, Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Keshavarzian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the major causes of preventable mental retardation in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CH in Shadegan, Khuzestan Province, Iran from 2012 to 2014 and to identify the risk factors associated with CH. METHODS: A total of 203 cases were confirmed from 2012 to 2014 in Shadegan, with 66, 86, and 51 patients reported in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. A total of 3,900, 3,991, and 4,050 live births occurred in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. The controls (n=657 were selected using a random number table, and a case-control study was carried out to determine the risk factors for neonatal CH, including demographic, environmental, and medical factors. RESULTS: The incidence of CH was 17.0 per 1,000 live births in 2012, 21.5 per 1,000 live births in 2013, and 12.6 per 1,000 live births in 2014. This study showed that the likelihood of CH in children born to parents with a history of consanguineous marriage was 2.41 times greater than in children born to parents with no such history (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 3.53. This study also found that CH was 3.4 times more likely (95% CI, 2.29 to 5.20 in infants born in urban settings than in infants born in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CH in Shadegan from 2012 to 2014 was approximately 17 times greater than the expected incidence in Iran. CH was associated with a history of consanguineous marriage and urbanization.

  13. A case-control study to examine the influence of maternal perinatal behaviors on the incidence of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Marshall, J R; Zielezny, M; Lance, P

    1996-01-01

    This case-control study, which examines maternal perinatal characteristics and behaviors during pregnancy, was an initial step to determine whether an association exists between breast feeding, oral contraceptive use, smoking habits during pregnancy, and the incidence of Crohn's disease. The population studied was mothers whose children were diagnosed with Crohn's disease before the age of 22. Population controls were selected by each case mother, who solicited two friends or neighbors with a child of similar age. Case mothers differed significantly on the variables of allergies (p = .05) and family history of inflammatory bowel disease (p = .001). No significant differences were found regarding feeding, oral contraceptives, or smoking. Using a forward step-wise logistic regression method, only family history remained in the equation.

  14. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  15. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  16. Measures of Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Incident Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Matched Case-Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekavich, Carolyn L; Barksdale, Debra J; Wu, Jia-Rong; Neelon, Virginia; Crandell, Jamie; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence continues to demonstrate increasing prevalence, cost, and mortality implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but clearly defined parameters that distinguish between control subjects and HFpEF have not been established. This study was designed to detect differences in markers associated with Ventricular-arterial coupling and HFpEF when comparing matched case and control groups. A study cohort of case (incident patients with HFpEF; n = 155) and matched control (patients with no prior heart failure; n = 155) groups was retrospectively identified. Matching criteria included race, sex, age, and date of echocardiography (within 1 year). Physiologic and echocardiographic markers were collected from previously acquired transthoracic echocardiograms. These echocardiographic images were reanalyzed, and measures of ventricular-arterial coupling were calculated. Using conditional logistic regression and controlling for covariates, models were fitted to detect differences in HFpEF markers between case and control subjects. Statistically significant differences in markers that reflect ventricular elastance (Ees; P = .007) and left atrial diameter (LAdiam; P = .04) were detected when comparing the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression analyses suggested a 40% higher odds of being in the case group with every 1-unit increase in Ees (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.79) and a 2.92 times higher odds of being in the case group for every 1 cm increase in LAdiam (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.064-7.994). Ees and LAdiam are easily measurable echocardiographic markers that may have a role in identifying and tracking the progression toward incident HFpEF without increasing cost or risk to the patient. Prospective studies are indicated to explore the use of Ees and LAdiam as predictors of impending HFpEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  18. Report from Mongolia – How much do we know about the incidence of rare cases in less developed countries: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dünser Martin W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Case reports are important instruments to describe rare disease conditions and give a rough estimation of their global incidence. Even though collected in international databases, most case reports are published by clinicians from industrialized nations and little is known about the incidence of rare cases in less developed countries, which are home to 75% of the world's population. Case presentation We present seven patients who suffered from diseases which are either considered to be rare or have not yet been described before according to international databases, but occurred during a 5-month period in one intensive care unit of a less developed country. During the observation period, patients with a spontaneous infratentorial subdural hematoma (Asian, female, 41 years, general exanthema and acute renal failure after diesel ingestion (Asian, male, 30 years, transient cortical blindness complicating hepatic encephalopathy (Asian, female, 49 years, Fournier gangrene complicating acute necrotizing pancreatitis (Asian, male, 37 years, acute renal failure due to acetic acid intoxication (Asian, male, 42 years, haemolytic uremic syndrome following septic abortion (Asian, female, 45 years, and a metal needle as an unusual cause of chest pain (Asian, male, 41 years were treated. According to the current literature, all seven disease conditions are considered either rare or have so far not yet been reported. Conclusion The global incidence of rare cases may be underestimated by contemporary international databases. Diseases which are currently considered to be rare in industrialized nations may occur at a higher frequency in less developed countries. Reasons may not only be a geographically different burden of certain diseases, limited diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, but also a relevant publication bias.

  19. Local needs and preparedness for WMD incidents : a case study from Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.H. [Rutgers State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2003-07-01

    A survey was conducted in four regions of the state of Kentucky in the early fall of 2002 as part of a counter-terrorism effort. The objective was to find out what responsible professionals think about the current level of preparedness regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents, and to ask them what they think is needed to improve the level of preparedness within their organization. Confidential responses were provided by individuals in fire and police departments, emergency medical and emergency management organizations, health agencies, hospitals, private physicians, corporate/university safety and health officials, and others. The four critical areas of emergency response were covered by the survey, namely: communication, incident command, on-scene capability and needs, and off-site capabilities and needs. Needs were found to be high or very high while the level of preparedness was low. Survey respondents emphasized that creating and training well equipped hazardous materials response teams is a major factor in evaluating the level of preparedness. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

  20. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries: The case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, Allen; Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries-all of which are typically major problems-they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel-both directly and via bus transportation-would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated.

  1. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  2. First-Ever Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Incidence and 30-Day Case-Fatality Rates in a Population-Based Study in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahit, M Cecilia; Coppola, Mariano L; Riccio, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological data about stroke are scarce in low- and middle-income Latin-American countries. We investigated annual incidence of first-ever stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 30-day case-fatality rates in a population-based setting in Tandil, Argentina....... METHODS: We prospectively identified all first-ever stroke and TIA cases from overlapping sources between January 5, 2013, and April 30, 2015, in Tandil, Argentina. We calculated crude and standardized incidence rates. We estimated 30-day case-fatality rates. RESULTS: We identified 334 first-ever strokes.......1% (95% CI, 14.2-36.6) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.8) for TIA. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first prospective population-based stroke and TIA incidence and case-fatality estimate in Argentina. First-ever stroke incidence was lower than that reported in previous Latin...

  3. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  4. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ...

  5. Thiopurine Therapy Reduces the Incidence of Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis. Data from the ENEIDA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Jordi; Cabré, Eduard; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Ricart, Elena; Ber-Nieto, Yolanda; Márquez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Ponferrada, Ángel; Vera, Isabel; Gisbert, Javier P; Barrio, Jesús; Esteve, Maria; Merino, Olga; Muñoz, Fernando; Domènech, Eugeni

    2015-12-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but recent studies suggest a lower risk than previously reported. The aim was to evaluate the incidence of dysplasia, CRC and related risk factors in UC patients from a Spanish nationwide database. All UC patients were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Clinical-epidemiological data and the finding of dysplasia and/or CRC were collected. A total of 831 UC patients were included. Twenty-six cases of CRC in 26 patients and 29 cases of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in 24 patients were found, accounting for 55 diagnoses of advanced neoplasia (AN = CRC and/or HGD) in 45 patients (33% of them within the first 8 years after UC diagnosis). The cumulative risk of AN was 2, 5.3 and 14.7% at 10, 20 and 30 years, respectively. Concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (odds ratio [OR] 10.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.75-31.76, p < 0.001), extensive UC (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.01-4.38, p = 0.048), UC diagnosis at an older age (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03-4.83, p = 0.043) and appendectomy prior to UC diagnosis (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.06-6.71, p = 0.038) were independent risk factors for AN. Use of thiopurines (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.74, p = 0.015) and being in a surveillance colonoscopy programme (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16-0.67; p = 0.002) were independent protective factors for AN. The risk of AN among UC patients is lower than previously reported but steadily increases from the time of UC diagnosis. The widespread use of thiopurines may have influenced this reduced incidence of UC-related neoplasias. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  8. Incidence of Japanese encephalitis among acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Adhikary, Srima; Mondal, Saiantani; Konar, Jayashree; Dawar, Nidhi; Biswas, Asit; Bhattacharya, Nemai

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  9. An Anesthetist’s Experience and the Incidence of Critical Cases in Ambulatory Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Bolshedvorov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of experience on the quality of anesthesia in ambulatory surgery. Materials and methods. The authors undertook a study of the role of experience and specialization on the occurrence of complications in ambulatory anesthesia care. By using the internal audit and calculating the frequency of critical cases, they examined the results of the work of two groups of anesthetists: 1 medical beginners after 2-year adjunct practice and 2 one-day hospital specialists having an at least 7-year practice length. Results. In the beginner group, the number of critical cases per operation was twice higher than that in the experienced specialists. The paper shows the detrimental pattern of the residual principle in selecting anesthetists for work at a one-day hospital and provides evidence that specialization is required in the area under discussion. Key words: ambulatory anesthesiology, role of an anesthetist’s experience, critical cases.

  10. Developing tools to counteract and prevent suicide bomber incidents : A case study in value sensitive design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, L.; Steen, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber

  11. Identifying incident colorectal and lung cancer cases in health service utilisation databases in Australia: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsbury, David; Weber, Marianne; Yap, Sarsha; Banks, Emily; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen

    2017-02-27

    Data from centralised, population-based statutory cancer registries are generally considered the 'gold standard' for confirming incident cases of cancer. When these are not available, or more current information is needed, hospital or other routinely collected population-level data may be feasible alternative sources. We aimed to determine the validity of various methods using routinely collected administrative health data for ascertaining incident cases of colorectal or lung cancer in participants from the 45 and Up Study in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. For 266,844 participants in the 45 and Up Study (recruited 2006-2009) ascertainment of incident colorectal or lung cancers was assessed using diagnosis and treatment records in linked administrative health datasets (hospital, emergency department, Medicare and pharmaceutical claims, death records). This was compared with ascertainment via the NSW Cancer Registry (NSWCR, the 'gold standard') for a period for which both data sources were available for participants. A total of 2253 colorectal and 1019 lung cancers were recorded for study participants in the NSWCR over the period 2006-2010. A diagnosis of primary cancer recorded in the statewide Admitted Patient Data Collection identified the majority of NSWCR colorectal and lung cancers, with sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV) of 95% and 91% for colorectal cancer and 81% and 85% for lung cancer, respectively. Using additional information on lung cancer deaths from death records increased sensitivity to 84% (PPV 83%) for lung cancer, but did not improve ascertainment of colorectal cancers. Hospital procedure codes for colorectal cancer surgery identified cases with sensitivity 81% and PPV 54%. No other individual indicator had sensitivity >50% or PPV >65% for either cancer type and no combination of indicators increased both the sensitivity and PPV above that achieved using the hospital cancer diagnosis data. All specificities were close to 100

  12. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and interaction with dietary and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CRC (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.60; P = 0.02 (gene-dose model); IRR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.01-1.51; P = 0.04 (recessive model)). Del-carriers of the NFKB1/rs28362491 polymorphism had a 17% (95%CI: 1.03-1.34; P = 0.02) increased risk of CRC compared to homozygous carriers of the ins-allele. However, none of these risk estimates withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to CRC risk.

  13. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and interaction with dietary and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Iskov Kopp

    Full Text Available Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CRC (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.05-1.60; P = 0.02 (gene-dose model; IRR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.01-1.51; P = 0.04 (recessive model. Del-carriers of the NFKB1/rs28362491 polymorphism had a 17% (95%CI: 1.03-1.34; P = 0.02 increased risk of CRC compared to homozygous carriers of the ins-allele. However, none of these risk estimates withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to CRC risk.

  14. Forecasting of Information Security Related Incidents: Amount of Spam Messages as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Anton; Okamoto, Eiji

    With the increasing demand for services provided by communication networks, quality and reliability of such services as well as confidentiality of data transfer are becoming ones of the highest concerns. At the same time, because of growing hacker's activities, quality of provided content and reliability of its continuous delivery strongly depend on integrity of data transmission and availability of communication infrastructure, thus on information security of a given IT landscape. But, the amount of resources allocated to provide information security (like security staff, technical countermeasures and etc.) must be reasonable from the economic point of view. This fact, in turn, leads to the need to employ a forecasting technique in order to make planning of IT budget and short-term planning of potential bottlenecks. In this paper we present an approach to make such a forecasting for a wide class of information security related incidents (ISRI) — unambiguously detectable ISRI. This approach is based on different auto regression models which are widely used in financial time series analysis but can not be directly applied to ISRI time series due to specifics related to information security. We investigate and address this specifics by proposing rules (special conditions) of collection and storage of ISRI time series, adherence to which improves forecasting in this subject field. We present an application of our approach to one type of unambiguously detectable ISRI — amount of spam messages which, if not mitigated properly, could create additional load on communication infrastructure and consume significant amounts of network capacity. Finally we evaluate our approach by simulation and actual measurement.

  15. Furazolidone in chicken: case study of an incident of widespread contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, R J; Kennedy, D G

    2013-01-01

    1. Furazolidone, a nitrofuran antibiotic, was prohibited from the use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) in 1997. In 2002, the EU restricted the import of poultry meat and aquaculture species from countries where furazolidone residues had been detected. 2. By 2004, however, residues of the side-chain metabolite, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) of furazolidone, were detected in chicken meat produced in Northern Ireland. 3. With the random spread of positive results across farms of a single integrated organisation, including organically reared flocks, it seemed unlikely that the source of residues was due to illegal use of the drug, but more likely caused by a source of contamination. 4. Potential sources investigated were as follows: furazolidone contamination of feedstuffs, a "hot spot" of furazolidone in poultry houses, contamination occurring within breeding stocks and transferred with the birds to broiler growing houses, and furazolidone contamination of the water supply. 5. Furazolidone contamination was associated with birds reared in houses more than 10 years old. 6. Contamination was traced to the water supply of poultry houses, where un-dissolved furazolidone, legally administered prior to 1997, had settled to the bottom of water storage tanks. It remained un-disturbed until 2004 when the integrator changed the procedure for cleaning water tanks between crops of birds. 7. The use of Proxitane, a hydrogen peroxide disinfectant, caused effervescence within the tank such that small quantities of furazolidone were dissolved, delivered to birds via drinkers and subsequently caused residues in the broiler meat. 8. The environmental impact of the contamination was investigated by testing soil and grass from land adjacent to an organic poultry house to which birds had access. 9. Mechanisms of contamination and how residues may be spread throughout a large integrated poultry system are not restricted to furazolidone. Incidents of contamination are

  16. Short-Term Air Pollution and Incident Pneumonia. A Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Cheryl S; Jones, Barbara E; VanDerslice, James A; Zhang, Yue; Paine, Robert; Dean, Nathan C

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between air pollution and pneumonia is poorly understood. To examine relationships between short-term air pollution exposure and number and severity of pneumonia cases along the Wasatch Front in Utah, a region with periodic high levels of outdoor air pollution. We applied time-stratified case-crossover analyses with distributed lag to patients presenting to seven emergency departments with pneumonia over a 2-year period. We compared levels of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at patient residences with emergency department cases, hospitalizations, objectively defined severe pneumonia, and mortality. We calculated direct cost impacts of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter reduction. We evaluated 4,336 pneumonia cases in seven hospitals. Among adults aged 65 years and older, we found consistently positive associations between particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter within 6 days of presentation and instances of pneumonia (Lag Day 1 adjusted odds ratio, 1.35 per 10 μg/m 3 over 12 μg/m 3 ; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.57), severe pneumonia (Lag Day 1 adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80), and inpatient mortality (Lag Day 5 adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.16). Smaller associations were found between nitrogen dioxide exposure and pneumonia occurrence, severity, and inpatient and 30-day mortality. Ozone exposure was modestly associated with increased instance and severity of pneumonia in younger adults. Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter and nitrogen dioxide effects were greatest in colder months, and ozone effects were greatest in warmer months. Reduction of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter levels to less than 12.0 mg/m 3 could prevent 76-112 cases of pneumonia per year in these

  17. Anti-VEGF agents in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC: are they all alike?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif MW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif Saif GI Oncology Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, a key player in the angiogenesis pathway. Despite benefits of bevacizumab in cancer therapy, it is clear that the VEGF pathway is complex, involving multiple isoforms, receptors, and alternative ligands such as VEGF-B, and placental growth factor, which could enable escape from VEGF-A-targeted angiogenesis inhibition. Recently developed therapies have targeted other ligands in the VEGF pathway (eg, aflibercept, known as ziv-aflibercept in the United States, VEGF receptors (eg, ramucirumab, and their tyrosine kinase signaling (ie, tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The goal of the current review was to identify comparative preclinical data for the currently available VEGF-targeted therapies. Sources were compiled using PubMed searches (2007 to 2012, using search terms including, but not limited to: “bevacizumab,” “aflibercept,” “ramucirumab,” and “IMC-18F1.” Two preclinical studies were identified that compared bevacizumab and the newer agent, aflibercept. These studies identified some important differences in binding and pharmacodynamic activity, although the potential clinical relevance of these findings is not known. Newer antiangiogenesis therapies should help further expand treatment options for colorectal and other cancers. Comparative preclinical data on these agents is currently lacking. Keywords: aflibercept, antiangiogenesis, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF

  18. CD133 expression is not selective for tumor initiating or radioresistant cell populations in the CRC line HCT-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Dietrich, Antje; Wondrak, Marit; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of certain subpopulations of cancer cells with stem-cell like characteristics that might be responsible for treatment resistance and recurrence of disease is still challenging and under quite controversial discussion. In most studies, surrogate cell surface antigens such as the 92-110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 (human Prominin-1) were labeled to isolate particular small cancer cell populations for studying their tumorigenic potential. In colorectal carcinomas (CRC) for example, a small CD133 positive (CD133 + ) cell population has recently been described to be enriched for tumor-initiating/cancer stem cells (TIC/CSC) as compared to the CD133 negative (CD133) population. Furthermore, it was documented that the CD133 + subpopulation could exclusively be maintained in culture as spheres under serum-free conditions. Addition of serum resulted in cell differentiation, growth in 2-D and downregulation of CD133 expression. This would imply that established colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines that have been grown under adherent, serum-supplemented conditions for years should be devoid of CD133 + cells and TIC/CSC, respectively, which seems contradictory to the finding that many CRC lines produce tumors in nude mice models. In order to gain insight into this paradox, we studied the expression of CD133 in numerous established CRC lines under standard culture conditions and chose one particular cell line based on its expression pattern to study the behavior of CD133 + / CD133 - subpopulations

  19. Determinants of the incidence of childhood asthma: a two-stage case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Rey, Evelyne; Malo, Jean-Luc; Perreault, Sylvie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Forget, Amélie; Blais, Lucie

    2009-01-15

    Extensive literature exists on potential risk factors for childhood asthma. To the authors' knowledge, no investigators have yet attempted to disentangle the effects of those determinants within a single study setting. The authors aimed to evaluate the independent effects of 47 potential determinants (from the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods) of asthma development in children within the first 10 years of life. From a Canadian birth cohort of 26,265 children (1990-2002), a 2-stage case-control study was conducted. In the first stage, 20 controls per case were selected from 3 administrative databases. In the second stage, selected mothers were mailed questionnaires for assessment of additional determinants. Increased risks of childhood asthma were found for > or =1 previous diagnosis of bronchopulmonary disease and atopic dermatitis in the child, oxygen administration after birth, prescription of antibiotics within the first 6 months of life, male gender, asthma during pregnancy, use of antibiotics during pregnancy, maternal receipt of social aid, paternal asthma, and asthma in siblings. Protective effects included use of intranasal corticosteroids during pregnancy, having a wood-burning fireplace, having pets in the home prior to the index date, breastfeeding, and day-care attendance. This study allowed the authors to identify, within a single setting, the most influential determinants of childhood asthma among 47 predictors assessed for the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods.

  20. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

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    Orriols Ramon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease.

  1. Making the Case for Investment in Rural Cancer Control: An Analysis of Rural Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Funding Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Moss, Jennifer L; Gaysynsky, Anna; Srinivasan, Shobha; Croyle, Robert T

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of those living in rural counties vary from 46.2 to 59 million, or 14% to 19% of the U.S. Rural communities face disadvantages compared with urban areas, including higher poverty, lower educational attainment, and lack of access to health services. We aimed to demonstrate rural-urban disparities in cancer and to examine NCI-funded cancer control grants focused on rural populations. Estimates of 5-year cancer incidence and mortality from 2009 to 2013 were generated for counties at each level of the rural-urban continuum and for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan counties, for all cancers combined and several individual cancer types. We also examined the number and foci of rural cancer control grants funded by NCI from 2011 to 2016. Cancer incidence was 447 cases per 100,000 in metropolitan counties and 460 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan counties ( P investment is needed to disentangle the effects of individual-level SES and area-level factors to understand observed effects of rurality on cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 992-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15-39 Years in Western Australia 1982-2007: Examination of Colonoscopy History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeung, Lakkhina; Sodhi-Berry, Nita; Martini, Angelita; Malacova, Eva; Ee, Hooi; O'Leary, Peter; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Preen, David B

    2017-01-01

    To examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and colonoscopy history in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 years in Western Australia (WA) from 1982 to 2007. Descriptive cohort study using population-based linked hospital and cancer registry data. Five-year age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of CRC were calculated for all AYAs and by sex. Temporal trends in CRC incidence were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis. The annual percentage change (APC) in CRC incidence was calculated to identify significant time trends. Colonoscopy history relative to incident CRC diagnosis was examined and age and tumor grade at diagnosis compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy. CRC-related mortality within 5 and 10 years of incident diagnosis were compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy using mortality rate ratios (MRRs) derived from negative binomial regression. Age-standardized CRC incidence among AYAs significantly increased in WA between 1982 and 2007, APC = 3.0 (95% CI 0.7-5.5). Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy was uncommon among AYAs (6.0%, 33/483) and 71% of AYAs were diagnosed after index (first ever) colonoscopy. AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy were older at CRC diagnosis (mean 36.7 ± 0.7 years) compared to those with no prior colonoscopy (32.6 ± 0.2 years), p  < 0.001. At CRC diagnosis, a significantly greater proportion of AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy had well-differentiated tumors (21.2%) compared to those without (5.6%), p  = 0.001. CRC-related mortality was significantly lower for AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy compared to those without, for both 5-year [MRR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.75), p  = 0.045] and 10-year morality [MRR = 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.83), p  = 0.043]. CRC incidence among AYAs in WA has significantly increased over the 25-year study period. Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy is associated with lower tumor grade at CRC diagnosis

  3. Increasing Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15–39 Years in Western Australia 1982–2007: Examination of Colonoscopy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhina Troeung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AimsTo examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and colonoscopy history in adolescents and young adults (AYAs aged 15–39 years in Western Australia (WA from 1982 to 2007.DesignDescriptive cohort study using population-based linked hospital and cancer registry data.MethodFive-year age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of CRC were calculated for all AYAs and by sex. Temporal trends in CRC incidence were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis. The annual percentage change (APC in CRC incidence was calculated to identify significant time trends. Colonoscopy history relative to incident CRC diagnosis was examined and age and tumor grade at diagnosis compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy. CRC-related mortality within 5 and 10 years of incident diagnosis were compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy using mortality rate ratios (MRRs derived from negative binomial regression.ResultsAge-standardized CRC incidence among AYAs significantly increased in WA between 1982 and 2007, APC = 3.0 (95% CI 0.7–5.5. Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy was uncommon among AYAs (6.0%, 33/483 and 71% of AYAs were diagnosed after index (first ever colonoscopy. AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy were older at CRC diagnosis (mean 36.7 ± 0.7 years compared to those with no prior colonoscopy (32.6 ± 0.2 years, p < 0.001. At CRC diagnosis, a significantly greater proportion of AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy had well-differentiated tumors (21.2% compared to those without (5.6%, p = 0.001. CRC-related mortality was significantly lower for AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy compared to those without, for both 5-year [MRR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27–0.75, p = 0.045] and 10-year morality [MRR = 0.43 (95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.043].ConclusionCRC incidence among AYAs in WA has significantly increased over the 25-year study period. Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy is associated

  4. Automated classification of free-text pathology reports for registration of incident cases of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhet, V; Defossez, G; Burgun, A; le Beux, P; Levillain, P; Ingrand, P; Claveau, V

    2012-01-01

    Our study aimed to construct and evaluate functions called "classifiers", produced by supervised machine learning techniques, in order to categorize automatically pathology reports using solely their content. Patients from the Poitou-Charentes Cancer Registry having at least one pathology report and a single non-metastatic invasive neoplasm were included. A descriptor weighting function accounting for the distribution of terms among targeted classes was developed and compared to classic methods based on inverse document frequencies. The classification was performed with support vector machine (SVM) and Naive Bayes classifiers. Two levels of granularity were tested for both the topographical and the morphological axes of the ICD-O3 code. The ability to correctly attribute a precise ICD-O3 code and the ability to attribute the broad category defined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) for the multiple primary cancer registration rules were evaluated using F1-measures. 5121 pathology reports produced by 35 pathologists were selected. The best performance was achieved by our class-weighted descriptor, associated with a SVM classifier. Using this method, the pathology reports were properly classified in the IARC categories with F1-measures of 0.967 for both topography and morphology. The ICD-O3 code attribution had lower performance with a 0.715 F1-measure for topography and 0.854 for morphology. These results suggest that free-text pathology reports could be useful as a data source for automated systems in order to identify and notify new cases of cancer. Future work is needed to evaluate the improvement in performance obtained from the use of natural language processing, including the case of multiple tumor description and possible incorporation of other medical documents such as surgical reports.

  5. Incidence and risk factors for postoperative lingual neuropraxia following airway instrumentation: A retrospective matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kai Su

    Full Text Available Lingual nerve injury or neuropraxia is a rare but potentially serious perioperative complication following airway instrumentation during general anesthesia. This study explored the the incidence and perioperative risk factors for lingual nerve injury in patients receiving laryngeal mask (LMA or endotracheal (ETGA general anesthesia in a single center experience.All surgical patients in our hospital who received LMA or ETGA from 2009 to 2013 were included, and potential perioperative risk factors were compared. Matched controls were randomly selected (in 1:5 ratio from the same database in non-case patients. A total of 36 patients in the records had reported experiencing tongue numbness after anesthesia in this study. Compared with the non-case surgical population (n = 54314, patients with tongue numbness were significantly younger (52.2±19.5 vs 42.0±14.5; P = 0.002 and reported lower ASA physical statuses (2.3±0.7 vs 1.6±0.6; P<0.001. Patient gender, anesthesia technique used, and airway device type (LMA or ETGA did not differ significantly across the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of patients underwent operations of the head-and-neck region (38.9 vs 15.6%; P = 0.002 developed tongue numbness after anesthesia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that head-and-neck operations remained the most significant independent risk factor for postoperative lingual nerve injury (AOR 7.63; 95% CI 2.03-28.70.The overall incidence rate of postoperative lingual neuropraxy was 0.066% in patients receiving general anesthesia with airway device in place. Young and generally healthy patients receiving head-and-neck operation are at higher risk in developing postoperative lingual neuropraxy. Attention should be particularly exercised to reduce the pressure of endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask on the tongue during head-and-neck operation to avert the occurrence of postoperative lingual neuropraxy.

  6. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema of the Intestine: Case Report, Incidence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management

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    Gavin Oudit

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of fosinopril-induced angioedema of the intestine with a chronic course accompanied by multiple acute exacerbations is described. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema of the intestine (AIAI occurs in a minority of patients taking an ACE inhibitor. The clinical presentation encompasses acute abdominal symptoms, pronounced bowel edema and ascites with occasional facial and/or oropharyngeal swelling. AIAI is diagnosed based on the temporal relationship between the symptomatic presentation and drug use, absence of alternative diagnoses including other causes of angioedema, and the prompt resolution of symptoms upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Prompt radiological investigation (abdominal computerized tomography and/or ultrasound is critical in making an early diagnosis and in preventing unnecessary surgical intervention. There is a female predominance of AIAI, which may reflect the interaction of estradiol with the various pathways involved in the pathophysiology of AIAI. Management of AIAI consists mainly of conservative measures and discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be considered as appropriate alternatives. Awareness and knowledge of AIAI are important because of the increasing use of ACE inhibitors, current delays in making the diagnosis, obvious management strategies once the diagnosis is made and the dysutility of alternative diagnoses, which may lead to considerable morbidity. AIAI must be considered in patients taking ACE inhibitors who develop gastrointestinal complaints irrespective of the duration of the therapy.

  7. Identification of gene expression changes from colitis to CRC in the mouse CAC model.

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    Xin Li

    Full Text Available A connection between colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammation is well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Chemically induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC is an outstanding mouse model for studying the link between inflammation and cancer. Additionally, the CAC model is used for examining novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers for use in clinical practice. Here, a CAC model was established in less than 100 days using azoxymethane (AOM with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS in BALB/c mice. We examined the mRNA expression profiles of three groups: control untreated mice (K, DSS-induced chronic colitis mice (D, and AOM/DSS-induced CAC (AD mice. We identified 6301 differentially expressed genes (DEGs among the three groups, including 93 persistently upregulated genes and 139 persistently downregulated genes. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the most persistent DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic or inflammatory components in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, several associated DEGs were identified as potential DEGs by protein-protein interaction (PPI network analysis. We selected 14 key genes from the DEGs and potential DEGs for further quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR verification. Six persistently upregulated, 3 persistently downregulated DEGs, and the other 3 genes showed results consistent with the microarray data. We demonstrated the regulation of 12 key genes specifically involved in Wnt signaling, cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions, homeostasis, and tumor-associated metabolism during colitis-associated CRC. Our results suggest that a close relationship between metabolic and inflammatory mediators of the tumor microenvironment is present in CAC.

  8. Calibration of the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator for 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, L.; Reinhard, M.I.; Davies, J.B.; Alexiev, D.; Baldock, C.

    2006-01-01

    Primary standardisation was performed on a solution of 18 F using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting efficiency-tracing extrapolation method with 60 Co used as a tracer nuclide. The result was used to calibrate the ANSTO secondary standard ionisation chamber which is used to disseminate Australian activity standards for gamma emitters. Using the secondary activity standard for 18 F, the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quality Control (QC) Section was calibrated. The dial setting number recommended by the manufacturer for the measurement of the activity of 18 F is 439. In this work, the dial setting numbers for the activity measurement of the solution of 18 F in Wheaton vials were experimentally determined to be 443+/-12, 446+/-12, 459+/-11, 473+/-15 for 0.1, 1, 4.5 and 9ml solution volumes, respectively. The uncertainties given above are expanded uncertainties (k=2) giving an estimated level of confidence of 95%. The activities determined using the manufacturer recommended setting number 439 are 0.8%, 1.4%, 4.0% and 6.5% higher than the standardised activities, respectively. It is recommended that a single dial setting number of 459 determined for 4.5ml is used for 0.1-9ml solution in Wheaton vials in order to simplify the operation procedure. With this setting the expended uncertainty (k=2) in the activity readout from the Capintec dose calibrator would be less than 6.2%

  9. Peters Anomaly in Twins: A Case Report of a Rare Incident with Novel Comorbidities

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    Hashem S. Almarzouki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peters anomaly is a rare developmental malformation involving the anterior segment of the eye, which culminates in amblyopia or congenital blindness. Multiple ocular and/or systemic malformations have been observed with this anomaly, and novel comorbidities continue to be reported. Case Presentation: The probands were monozygotic twin boys (twin I and twin II born to consanguineous parents at 36 weeks of gestation. Coarse facial features and deep-seated eyes were noted at birth. At 6 months, ophthalmic examination revealed that both twins were unable to blink in response to light, or to fixate and follow a moving object. Both twins had prominent horizontal nystagmus. Slit-lamp examination demonstrated varying degrees of central leukoma (corneal opacity associated with iridocorneal adhesion, which is characteristic of type I Peters anomaly. No cataractous changes were observed. Normal intraocular pressure and disorganized retina were observed. Pupillary abnormalities included bilaterally underdeveloped pupils and bilateral absence of pupils was noted. Ocular MRI showed bilateral microphthalmia and optic nerve hypoplasia, with a small optic chiasm in both twins. At this age, the diagnosis of Peters anomaly was made. At 16 months of age, both twins developed deep venous thrombosis and purpuric skin lesions. Investigations revealed a hereditary thrombophilia secondary to a homozygous mutation causing protein C deficiency, which is a rare thrombotic condition. Ocular ultrasonography revealed bilateral vitreous hemorrhaging linked to altered coagulation. One twin developed bilateral inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism. Conclusion: The novel concordance of Peters anomaly in these monozygotic twins sharing a mutation in PROC gene provides further evidence that this anomaly has a genetic basis. Hypoplasia of the optic nerves and optic chiasm, along with severe protein C deficiency and bilateral absence of the pupils, are associated

  10. Shift work and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Turner, Michelle C; Alonso-Aguado, Maria Henar; Martin, Vicente; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pozo, Benito Mirón; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone M; Peiro, Rosana; Tardon, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; García-Palomo, Andrés; Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan; Ierssen, Trinidad; Ederra, Maria; Amiano, Pilar; Pollan, Marina; Moreno, Victor; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Shift work that involves circadian disruption has been associated with a higher cancer risk. Most epidemiological studies to date have focused on breast cancer risk and evidence for other common tumors is limited. We evaluated the risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to shift work history in a population-based case-control study in Spain. Methods This analysis included 1626 incident CRC cases and 3378 randomly selected population controls of both sexes, enrolled in 11 regions of Spain. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was assessed in face-to-face interviews. Shift work was assessed in detail throughout lifetime occupational history. We estimated the risk of colon and rectal cancer associated with rotating and permanent shift work (ever, cumulative duration, age of first exposure) using unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Results Having ever performed rotating shift work (morning, evening and/or night) was associated with an increased risk for CRC [odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.43], as compared to day workers. Having ever worked permanent night shifts (≥3 nights/month) was not associated with CRC risk (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). OR increased with increasing lifetime cumulative duration of rotating shift work (P-value for trend 0.005) and were highest among subjects in the top quartiles of exposure (3 rd quartile, 20-34 years, OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.06-1.81; 4 th quartile, ≥35 years, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.79). Conclusions These data suggest that rotating shift work may increase the risk of CRC especially after long-term exposures.

  11. Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango, Yessenia M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits. We assessed the association between diet and the risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed colorectal polyps among 2,818 subjects who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in 2 cohort studies: the AHS-1 in 1976 and the AHS-2 from 2002-2005. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps; 441 cases of colorectal polyps were identified. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps.

  12. [The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Rachel; Tennant, Ingrid; James, Brian; Augier, Richard; Crawford-Sykes, Annette; Ehikhametalor, Kelvin; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Harding-Goldson, Hyacinth

    2014-01-01

    Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. 145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%). Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8%) children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7±10.8min for non-agitated children; p<0.001). Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p=0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6) and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p<0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0). Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n=1), and surgical site bleeding (n=3). Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence, characteristics, and long-term follow-up of sternoclavicular injuries: An epidemiologic analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Wech, Margit; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Bukaty, Adam; Huf, Wolfgang; Fialka, Christian; Greitbauer, Manfred; Platzer, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The majority of published studies concerning sternoclavicular injuries are case series or systematic reviews. Prospective studies on the subject are hindered by the low incidence of these lesions. The aims of the present study were to provide an overview of this rare entity compared with those described in the literature and to present the long-term clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective data analysis of all sternoclavicular injuries treated at a single Level I trauma center from 1992 to 2011. Long-term clinical outcome was assessed using the ASES [American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons], SST [Simple Shoulder Test], UCLA [University of California-Los Angeles] Shoulder Scale, and VAS [Visual Analog Scale] at latest follow-up. We detected an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions. Ninety-two patients (52 males and 40 females) with a mean (SD) age of 39.2 (19.5) years (median, 41 years; range, 4-92 years) were included in this study. The main trauma mechanism was fall. Classification was performed according to Allman, the time point of treatment after initial trauma, and the direction of the dislocation. Nine patients of the 15 Grade III lesions were treated conservatively by closed reduction and immobilization, while four patients were treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation. Forty-nine percent of the patients were available for long-term follow-up at a median of 11.3 years (range, 5.3-22.6 years) with a mean ASES score of 96.21, SST score of 11.69, UCLA score of 31.89, and VAS score of 0.47. We found an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular joint injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions and of 1.1% related to all dislocations, which is slightly lower compared with those described in the literature. Furthermore, we observed a high number of physeal sternoclavicular injuries with a percentage of 16% and overall good-to-excellent results at long-term follow-up. Epidemiologic

  14. Incidence, Carriage and Case-Carrier Ratios for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutangni, Thibaut; Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To facilitate the interpretation of meningococcal meningitis epidemiology in the “African meningitis belt”, we aimed at obtaining serogroup-specific pooled estimates of incidence, carriage and case-carrier ratios for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt and describe their variations across the endemic, hyperendemic and epidemic context. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis monthly incidence and carriage in the same population and time period. Epidemiological contexts were defined as endemic (wet season, no epidemic), hyperendemic (dry season, no epidemic), and epidemic (dry season, epidemic). Findings Eight studies reporting a total of eighty pairs of serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis incidence and carriage estimates were included in this review. For serogroup A, changes associated with the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence and from hyperendemic to epidemic incidence were 15-fold and 120-fold respectively. Changes in carriage prevalence associated with both transitions were 1-fold and 30-fold respectively. 
For serogroup W and X, the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence involved a 4-fold and 1•1-fold increase respectively. Increases in carriage prevalence for the later transition were 7-fold and 1•7-fold respectively. No data were available for the hyperendemic-epidemic transition for these serogroups. Our findings suggested that the regular seasonal variation in serogroup A meningococcal meningitis incidence between the rainy and the dry season could be mainly driven by seasonal change in the ratio of clinical cases to subclinical infections. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in transmission and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio. Conclusion Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage

  15. Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; White, Emily

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published eight recommendations regarding body weight, physical activity, and dietary behaviors aimed at reducing cancer incidence worldwide. In this paper, we assess whether meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations is associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence; evaluate whether particular recommendations are most strongly associated with lower CRC incidence; and assess whether associations differ by sex. We operationalized six of the recommendations (related to body weight, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, red and processed meat, and alcohol) and examined their association with CRC incidence over 7.6 years of follow-up in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle Study cohort. Participants included 66,920 adults aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) with no history of CRC and with complete data for the recommendations evaluated. Incident colorectal cancers (n = 546) were tracked through 2009. Compared with meeting no recommendations, meeting 1-3 recommendations was associated with 34-45 % lower CRC incidence, and meeting 4-6 was associated with 58 % lower incidence (95 % CI 34 %, 74 %) in fully adjusted analyses. The recommendations most strongly associated with lower CRC risk for women were related to body fatness and red and processed meat, while for men these were alcohol intake and red and processed meat. Differences by sex were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the recommendations related to body weight and to alcohol. Meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly those related to alcohol, body weight, and red and processed meat, could substantially reduce CRC incidence; however, associations differ by sex.

  16. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  17. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  18. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  19. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  20. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  1. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  2. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  3. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  4. Risk of second primary colorectal cancer among colorectal cancer cases: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha P Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5 as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6 and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4 with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0 and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6. Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

  5. The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells that subvert normal host cell functions to the benefit of the pathogen, and results in serious infections. T3SS in P. aeruginosa is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways. In this study, we described that Crc, an RNA-binding protein, exerts a positive impact on T3SS in P. aeruginosa, as evidenced by prom...

  6. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Patrick

    2010-11-25

    Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5\\' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate

  7. Ovarian metastasis in colorectal cancer: retrospective review of 180 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omranipour R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Routine oophorectomy in women with colorectal cancer is under debate, the aim of this study is to determine incidence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of ovarian involvement in primary colorectal cancer (CRC and to clear the role of prophylactic oophorectomy."n"nMethods: Data from primary CRC women treated between years 1990 and 2004 were retrieved and clinical and pathologic features of those who had undergone oophorectomy during CRC surgery were reviewed."n"nResults: One hundred eighty cases (mean age 47.5 years were included. In 120(66.6%, ovaries were preserved and 60(33.3% cases underwent bilateral oophorectomy in addition to primary CRC resection. Reasons for oophorectomy were prophylactic in 22(36.6%, abnormal morphology in 35(58.3%, and undetermined in 3(5% cases. There were five metastatic carcinomas, eight primary ovarian tumors and 47 normal ovaries in pathologic evaluation. No complication directly related to oophorectomy was noted. Patients with ovarian metastases had higher stages of tumor. Ovarian metastases were not related to menstrual status, CRC location, size, differentiation, and mucin production, as well as abnormal morphology of ovary. The global prevalence of

  8. Acute cerebrovascular incident in a young woman: Venous or arterial stroke? – Comparative analysis based on two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleiman, Katarzyna; Zimny, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edyta; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological disorders. Most of them are arterial strokes, mainly ischemic, less often of hemorrhagic origin. Changes in the course of cerebral venous thrombosis are less common causes of acute cerebrovascular events. Clinical and radiological presentation of arterial and venous strokes (especially in emergency head CT) may pose a diagnostic problem because of great resemblance. However, the distinction between arterial and venous stroke is important from a clinical point of view, as it carries implications for the treatment and determinates patient’s prognosis. In this article, we present cases of two young women (one with an acute venous infarction, the second with an arterial stroke) who presented with similar both clinical and radiological signs of acute vascular incident in the cerebral cortex. We present main similarities and differences between arterial and venous strokes regarding the etiology, clinical symptoms and radiological appearance in various imaging techniques. We emphasize that thorough analysis of CT (including cerebral vessels), knowledge of symptoms and additional clinical information (e.g. risk factors) may facilitate correct diagnosis and allow planning further diagnostic imaging studies. We also emphasize the importance of MRI, especially among young people, in the differential diagnosis of venous and arterial infarcts

  9. Is Progestin an Independent Risk Factor for Incident Venous Thromboembolism? A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Michel K.; Heit, John A.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Bailey, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Because the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with progestin is uncertain, we tested oral contraceptives, estrogen and progestin as independent VTE risk factors. Materials and Methods Using longitudinal, population-based Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we identified all Olmsted County, MN women with objectively-diagnosed incident VTE over the 13-year period, 1988–2000 (n=726) and one to two Olmsted County women per case matched on age, event year and duration of prior medical history (n=830), and reviewed their complete medical history in the community for previously-identified VTE risk factors (i.e., hospitalization with or without surgery, nursing home confinement, trauma/fracture, leg paresis, active cancer, varicose veins and pregnancy/postpartum), and oral contraceptive, oral estrogen, and oral or injectable progestin exposure. Using conditional logistic regression we tested these hormone exposures as VTE risk factors, both unadjusted and after adjusting for previously-identified VTE risk factors. Results In unadjusted models, oral contraceptives, progestin alone, and estrogen plus progestin were significantly associated with VTE. Individually adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and previously-identified VTE risk factors, these effects remained essentially unchanged except that progestin alone was not associated with VTE after adjusting for active cancer. Considering only case-control pairs without active cancer, progestin alone was positively but non-significantly associated with VTE (OR=2.49; p=0.16). Adjusting for BMI and previously-identified VTE risk factors including active cancer, oral contraceptives, estrogen alone, and progestin with or without estrogen were significantly associated with VTE. Conclusions Oral contraceptives, estrogen alone, estrogen plus progestin, and progestin with or without estrogen are independent VTE risk factors. PMID:20833412

  10. Case-control study to investigate variables associated with incidents and adverse events in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Jamie; Yeoh, Michael; Richardson, Jo; Blunt, Andrew; Davey, Peter; Taylor, David; Ugoni, Antony

    2017-04-01

    To detect and analyse incidents (Is) and adverse events (AEs) in the ED. We hypothesised that I/AE are associated with patient load. We undertook a case-control study in a tertiary level hospital ED (from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013). Three percent of patients were randomly selected and screened for I/AEs. I/AEs were adjudicated by consensus of four FACEMs. Controls were matched to cases 2:1. Logistic regression was used to analyse the data. We sampled 2167 patients. After exclusions, 217 I/AEs were detected and analysed. The I and AE rates were 6.0 and 4.1%, respectively. The serious AE rate was 0.8% and 30 day mortality was 0.1%. Diagnostic error occurred in 3.7% of all patients and adverse drug reactions in 2.5%. Seventy-seven percent of the I/AEs were judged preventable. ED occupancy of 46 patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.1). Higher hospital occupancy (90-99%) was a protective factor for sustaining an I/AE (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.92, P = 0.02). I/AEs are common in the ED and a large proportion is preventable. Strategies for prevention are required. The relationship with patient load needs further clarification, since our data suggests increased I/AE rates with higher occupancy but not highest occupancy. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during 1989-2003 and predicted new cases 2005-20: a multicentre prospective registration study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patterson, Christopher C; Dahlquist, Gisela G; Gyürüs, Eva

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes in children younger than 15 years is increasing. Prediction of future incidence of this disease will enable adequate fund allocation for delivery of care to be planned. We aimed to establish 15-year incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes...... in European centres, and thereby predict the future burden of childhood diabetes in Europe. METHODS: 20 population-based EURODIAB registers in 17 countries registered 29 311 new cases of type 1 diabetes, diagnosed in children before their 15th birthday during a 15-year period, 1989-2003. Age-specific log...... distribution across age-groups than at present (29%, 37%, and 34%, respectively). Prevalence under age 15 years is predicted to rise from 94 000 in 2005, to 160 000 in 2020. INTERPRETATION: If present trends continue, doubling of new cases of type 1 diabetes in European children younger than 5 years...

  12. The role of metformin and statins in the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in type 2 diabetes: a cohort and nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpilainen, E; Marttila, M; Hautakoski, A; Arffman, M; Sund, R; Ilanne-Parikka, P; Arima, R; Kangaskokko, J; Puistola, U; Läärä, E; Hinkula, M

    2018-02-07

    To obtain evidence of the effects of metformin and statins on the incidence of ovarian cancer in women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study. The data were obtained from a diabetes database (FinDM) combining information from several nationwide registers. A cohort of 137 643 women over 40 years old and diagnosed with T2D during 1996-2011 in Finland. In full cohort analysis Poisson regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) in relation to ever use of metformin, insulin other oral anti-diabetic medication or statins. In the nested case-control analysis 20 controls were matched to each case of ovarian cancer. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate HRs in relation to medication use and cumulative use of different medications. The estimates were adjusted for age and duration of T2D. Incidence of ovarian cancer. In all, 303 women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer during the follow up. Compared with other forms of oral anti-diabetic medication, metformin (HR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.72-1.45) was not found to be associated with the incidence of ovarian cancer. Neither was there evidence for statins to affect the incidence (HR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.78-1.25). In nested case-control analysis the results were essentially similar. No evidence of an association between the use of metformin or statins and the incidence of ovarian cancer in women with T2D was found. No evidence found for metformin or statins reducing the incidence of ovarian cancer. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Atrophic Gastritis and the Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812

  14. Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Koulman, A.; Sharp, S.J.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2

  15. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001-2008. A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001-December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001-December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (PSaudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93-6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001-2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.

  16. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Kuijsten, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2

  17. Incidence of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis in Japan: review of cases from 1992 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasoh M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikio Sasoh,1,2 Hitoshi Mizutani,3 Hisashi Matsubara,1 Motoyasu Furuta,4 Yoshitsugu Matsui,1 Kei-ichi Yamanaka,3 Mineo Kondo11Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, 2Local Independent Administrative Institution, Mie Prefectural General Medical Center, Yokkaichi, 3Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, 4Japanese Red Cross Ise Hospital, Ise, Mie, JapanPurpose: The present study aims to investigate the number and characteristics of retinal detachment with atopic dermatitis (AD in these 20 years, and the number of the first visit AD outpatients in almost the same period.Methods: A retrospective review of 101 consecutive surgically treated retinal detachments with AD patients from 1992 to 2011 was conducted. Retinal detachments were divided into two groups: eyes operated on from 1992 to 2001 (former AD group, n=63 and eyes operated on from 2002 to 2011 (recent AD group, n=38. We also reviewed the records of the first visit AD outpatients from 1993 to 2011 except 1998.Results: The percentage of bilateral detachment was significantly higher in the former AD group (14/63 than that in the recent AD group (0/38 (P=0.0002. In addition, patients in the recent AD group were significantly older than those in the former AD group (P=0.0084. The annual cases with non-AD retinal detachment remained invariant for 20 years. The ratio of the retinal detachment with AD for the total retinal detachment was significantly lower in the recent (38/847 AD group than that in the former (63/796 AD group (P=0.0038. The number of the first visit AD outpatients linearly decreased in these 19 years (153 cases in 1993 and 65 cases in 2011.Conclusion: Our study indicates an apparent decrease in retinal detachment with AD in the recent 10 years, and might suggest the importance of dermatitis control for prevention of retinal detachment with AD.Keywords: atopic dermatitis, incidence, ocular

  18. Performance of the colorectal cancer screening marker Sept9 is influenced by age, diabetes and arthritis: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Mai-Britt Worm; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2015-01-01

    Background Annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is diagnosed in >1.4 million subjects worldwide and incidence is increasing. Much effort has therefore been focused on screening, which has proven to reduce cancer-related mortality. The Sept9 DNA-methylation assay is among the most well studied blood......-based screening markers. However, earlier reported performances may be misleading: the Sept9 test was recently examined in two screening based cohorts and yielded performances lower than expected. We hypothesize that comorbidities and/or demographic characteristics affect the results of the Sept9 test. Methods...... Using a retrospective nested case–control study design, we studied plasma from 150 cancer and 150 controls selected from a well-characterized cohort of 4698 subjects referred for diagnostic colonoscopy due to CRC-related symptoms. The cases and controls were matched on age and gender, and moreover cases...

  19. Impact of a partial smoke-free legislation on myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case-fatality in a population-based registry: the REGICOR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Agüero

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death, and smoking its strongest modifiable risk factor. Our aim was to determine the impact of the Spanish 2006 partial smoke-free legislation on acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence, hospitalization and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in Girona, Spain.Using a population-based registry (the REGICOR Study, we compared population incidence, hospitalization, and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in the pre- and post-ban periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2008, respectively by binomial regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors. We also analyzed the ban's impact on the outcomes of interest using the AMI definitions of the American Heart Association (AHA/European Society of Cardiology (ESC and the World Health Organization (WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases (MONICA.In the post-ban period, AMI incidence and mortality rates significantly decreased (relative risk [RR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.97 and RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71-0.94, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates decreased in both sexes, especially in women, and in people aged 65-74 years. Former and non-smokers (passive smokers showed diminished incidence rates. Implementation of the ban was not associated with AMI case-fatality. Models tended to be more significant with the WHO-MONICA than with the AHA/ESC definition.The 2006 Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was associated with a decrease in population AMI incidence and mortality, particularly in women, in people aged 65-74 years, and in passive smokers. These results clarify the association between AMI mortality and the enactment of a partial smoke-free legislation and reinforce the effectiveness of smoking regulations in preventing CHD.

  20. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0

  1. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with Allergic Rhinitis and Effect of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccillo Giovita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression. The aim of our study is to investigate history of allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for asthma and the potential effect of allergen immunotherapy in attenuating the incidence of asthma. Hospital-referred non-asthmatic adults, aged 18–40 years between 1990 and 1991, were retrospectively followed up until January and April 2000. At the end of follow up, available subjects were clinically examined for asthma diagnosis and history of allergen specific immunotherapy, second-hand smoking and the presence of pets in the household. A total of 436 non-asthmatic adults (332 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 104 with no allergic rhinitis nor history of atopy were available for final analyses. The highest OR (odds ratio associated with a diagnosis of asthma at the end of follow-up was for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at baseline (OR, 7.8; 95%CI, 3.1–20.0 in the model containing the covariates of rhinitis diagnosis, sex, second-hand smoke exposure, presence of pets at home, family history of allergic disorders, sensitization to Parietaria judaica; grass pollen; house dust mites; Olea europea: orchard; perennial rye; and cat allergens. Female sex, sensitization to Parietaria judaica and the presence of pets in the home were also significantly predictive of new onset asthma in the same model. Treatment with allergen immunotherapy was significantly and inversely related to the development of new onset asthma (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.32–0.86. In the present study we found that allergic rhinitis is an important independent risk factor for asthma. Moreover, treatment with allergen immunotherapy lowers the risk of the development of new asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis.

  2. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with Allergic Rhinitis and Effect of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Russo, Cristina; Piccillo, Giovita; Sarvà, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression. The aim of our study is to investigate history of allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for asthma and the potential effect of allergen immunotherapy in attenuating the incidence of asthma. Hospital-referred non-asthmatic adults, aged 18–40 years between 1990 and 1991, were retrospectively followed up until January and April 2000. At the end of follow up, available subjects were clinically examined for asthma diagnosis and history of allergen specific immunotherapy, second-hand smoking and the presence of pets in the household. A total of 436 non-asthmatic adults (332 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 104 with no allergic rhinitis nor history of atopy) were available for final analyses. The highest OR (odds ratio) associated with a diagnosis of asthma at the end of follow-up was for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at baseline (OR, 7.8; 95%CI, 3.1–20.0 in the model containing the covariates of rhinitis diagnosis, sex, second-hand smoke exposure, presence of pets at home, family history of allergic disorders, sensitization to Parietaria judaica; grass pollen; house dust mites; Olea europea: orchard; perennial rye; and cat allergens). Female sex, sensitization to Parietaria judaica and the presence of pets in the home were also significantly predictive of new onset asthma in the same model. Treatment with allergen immunotherapy was significantly and inversely related to the development of new onset asthma (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.32–0.86). In the present study we found that allergic rhinitis is an important independent risk factor for asthma. Moreover, treatment with allergen immunotherapy lowers the risk of the development of new asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis. PMID:16381607

  3. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  4. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-03-26

    Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  5. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  6. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom...... 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0......·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective...

  7. YKL-40 is a novel biomarker for predicting hypertension incidence among prehypertensive subjects: A population-based nested case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian; Zhong, Chongke; Wang, Aili; Guo, Zhirong; Bu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Yipeng; Tian, Yunfan; HuangFu, Xinfeng; Zhu, Zhengbao; Zhang, Yonghong

    2017-09-01

    The previous study suggested that Human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (YKL-40) was positively associated with hypertension incidence in certain high-risk groups of hypertension. We aimed to investigate that whether YKL-40 is an effective biomarker for predicting hypertension incidence among prehypertensive subjects. In a 1:1 matched case-control study of 700 pairs with available YKL-40 levels nested in a prospective cohort of initially healthy Chinese subjects, 294 pairs additionally have matched baseline BP status (prehypertensive or normotensive). Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (95% confidential intervals) of hypertension associated with higher levels of YKL-40 in both prehypertensive and normotensive subgroups, respectively. In the prehypertensive subgroup, the subjects in the highest quartile of plasma YKL-40 levels had a significantly higher risk of hypertension incidence, compared with those in the lowest quartile. The odds ratio (95% confidential intervals) is 2.01 (1.05-3.85). A positive association between YKL-40 levels and hypertension incidence was found (P for trend40 levels at baseline were positively associated with hypertension incidence among prehypertensive subjects. YKL-40 may represent a novel biomarker for predicting hypertension risk in prehypertension population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The KRAS Strip Assay for detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC): A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Kader, Y.; Safwat, E.; Kassem, H.A.; Kassem, N.M.; Emera, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream factors KRAS and BRAF are mutated in several types of cancer, affecting the clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain predict sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefltinib and erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma, while activating point mutations in KRAS and BRAF confer resistance to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab in colorectal cancer. The development of new generation methods for systematic mutation screening of these genes will allow more appropriate therapeutic choices. Purpose: Detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Methods: Examination of 20 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is done to detect KRAS mutations by KRAS Strip Assay. For the Strip Assay, a mutant-enriched PCR was followed by hybridization to KRAS-specific probes bound to a nitrocellulose strip. Results: Among 20 patients, KRAS mutations were identified in 80% of patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that KRAS Strip Assay is an alternative to protocols currently in use for KRAS mutation detection

  9. Number of incident cases of the main eye diseases of ageing in the UK Biobank cohort, projected over a 25-year period from time of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parul; Minassian, Darwin C; Reidy, Angela; Allen, Naomi; Sudlow, Cathie

    2018-02-06

    To estimate the number of new cases of age-related macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma accruing in the UK Biobank cohort, over a period of 25 years from time of recruitment. Our secondary objective was to assess the statistical power of nested case-control studies of these eye diseases. We aimed to provide quantitative information relevant to UK Biobank's eye disease case ascertainment efforts and to the potential for UK Biobank-based research into the causes of eye disease. We constructed a Markov discrete-time state transition model to simulate the population dynamics of the eye disorders within the UK Biobank cohort, using prevalence data from population-based epidemiological studies to derive incidence, and Office for National Statistics data on mortality and migration overseas. By 2023, >900 new cases of each of 'wet' (neovascular) and 'dry' age-related macular degeneration, >1200 cases of primary open angle glaucoma and almost 15 000 cases of cataracts are expected to have accrued in the subcohort of 68 500 participants who had ocular assessment at baseline, with around seven times as many cases of each disease in the whole cohort of 500 000 participants. These predicted incident case numbers generate good or substantial statistical power for a range of nested case-control studies of potential genetic, lifestyle and environmental determinants of disease. Over the next few years, UK Biobank is expected to generate sufficient numbers of new cases for statistically well-powered studies of the determinants of the major causes of sight loss: age-related macular degeneration, vision-impairing cataract and glaucoma. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Long-term incidence trends of HPV-related cancers, and cases preventable by HPV vaccination: a registry-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Campbell, Suzanne; Nygård, Mari

    2018-02-23

    Examine long-term incidence trends of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer in Norway, and estimate the number of cancer cases preventable by vaccines against HPV 16/18 or HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58. Observational registry-based study. We extracted incident cases of HPV-related cancer during 1953-2015 from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Tumour HPV prevalence estimates from large international meta-analyses or from Norway were used to estimate the protective potential of HPV vaccines. The Norwegian population. Incidence trend analyses during 1953-2015 for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, anus and penis, and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Additionally, the number of cancer cases preventable by HPV vaccination. Among women, incidences of SCC of the anus, oropharynx, vulva and cervical adenocarcinoma increased, while vaginal SCC showed no trend. For these cancers combined, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) during 1953-2015 was 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6). The incidence of cervical SCC generally decreased during 1976-2004 and remained stable thereafter. Among men, incidences of SCC of the anus, oropharynx and penis increased. The AAPC during 1953-2015 combined for all male HPV-related cancer was 1.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.5). A vaccine against HPV 16/18 might yearly prevent 402 (95% CI 382 to 420) cancers. A vaccine against HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 might yearly prevent 478 (95% CI 464 to 490) cancers, of which 206 (95% CI 202 to 209) occur in non-cervical organs, and 113 (95% CI 110 to 115) occur among men. The incidences of HPV-related cancers that are not effectively prevented by screening have generally increased during 1953-2015. HPV vaccination can prevent a substantial number of cancers in Norway, in cervical and non-cervical organs, among women and men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  11. Conflict reporting in the High North. Signs of peace journalism in Norwegian media representations of Russians? Case study. The Elektron incident

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Lene

    2017-01-01

    The case study of this thesis is the incident with the Russian trawler Elektron in 2005. The trawler was fishing illegally in the Barents Sea, and escaped from Norwegian authorities with two Norwegian fisheries inspectors on board. The event stirred up the military, governments and the news media. The aim of this analysis is to look at how Russian actors are framed in the Norwegian media. The concept of Peace Journalism has provided the theoretical framework. By doing a media analysis through...

  12. Incidence and predictors of osteoporotic fractures in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Drake, M T; Schleck, C D; Johnson, M L; Alexander, J A; Katzka, D A; Iyer, P G

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are inconsistently associated with osteoporotic fractures. Barrett's oesophagus (BO) patients are treated with high PPI doses for prolonged periods, but there are limited data on the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in this group pf patients. To estimate the incidence of (and risk factors for) low bone mass (osteoporosis and/or osteopenia) related fractures in a population-based BO cohort. All subjects with BO and a diagnosis of osteoporosis and fractures were identified using Rochester Epidemiology Project resources. The incidence rates of all and osteoporotic fractures in these subjects were compared to an age- and gender similar population in Olmsted County to determine standardised incidence ratios (SIR). Predictors were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Five hundred and twenty-one patients were included (median [IQR] age 61 [52, 72] years; 398 [76%] men) of whom 113 (21.7%) had fractures, and 46 (8.8%) had osteoporotic fractures. The incidence of all fractures and osteoporotic fractures was comparable to that of an age- and gender-matched population (SIR 1.09; 95% CI 0.92-1.29: SIR 1.05; 95% CI 0.85-1.29). PPI use, dose or duration of use was not associated with osteoporotic fracture risk (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.12-6.39). Independent risk factors for osteoporotic fractures included older age, female gender and higher co-morbidity index. The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was not increased in BO patients compared to the general population. In addition, PPI use was not associated with increased fracture risk regardless of the duration of therapy or dose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Traumatic graft rupture after primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: retrospective analysis of incidence and risk factors in 2915 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Michael; Schuster, Philipp; Schulz, Martin; Immendörfer, Micha; Mayer, Philipp; Bartholomä, Jochen; Richter, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    To determine incidence and risk factors for traumatic graft rupture following primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. All cases of isolated ACL reconstructions (primary or revision) performed at our institution between January 2007 and December 2010 were included. From this group of 2467 primary reconstructions (32.4 ± 12.2 years) and 448 revision reconstructions (33.0 ± 10.4 years), we identified all patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction following traumatic graft rupture in further course and all patients who underwent contralateral primary ACL reconstruction until January 2014. Age, gender, time from index procedure and graft diameter (for hamstring autografts) were analysed in terms of being a potential risk factor for graft rupture. Within a follow-up period of 5.0 ± 1.1 years (3.0-7.0), a total of 82 traumatic graft ruptures were identified, resulting in an incidence of 2.8 %. Seventy-three cases were seen following primary reconstructions (3.0 %), and nine cases following revision reconstructions (2.0 %), respectively (n.s.). Age younger than 25 years was identified as a risk factor for both groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008; odds ratio 6.0 and 6.4, respectively). In primary reconstruction, male patients had a higher risk of graft rupture compared with females (3.7 vs. 1.6 %; p = 0.005), and the first year after index procedure was associated with a higher risk of graft rupture compared with the following (p < 0.001). Graft diameter did not influence the risk of graft rupture. Incidence of contralateral ACL rupture was 3.1 %, which was not different to the incidence of graft rupture ipsilaterally (n.s.). No statistically significant differences were seen between graft rupture incidence of primary and revision ACL reconstructions. Young age (<25 years) and short time to the index procedure (especially within the first year) were confirmed as risk factors for graft rupture in both groups. Male

  14. Postmodern Investigations: The Case of Christopher Boone in "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocia, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Mark Haddon's "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time", the first novel to be published simultaneously for the UK adult and children's market, exemplifies the phenomenon of crossover literature better perhaps than the "Harry Potter" series, whose appeal to a dual-aged audience had caught the publishing industry by…

  15. From robbery to renewal--a case study: realizing security opportunities in the wake of a critical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Jason T

    2009-01-01

    The robbery of an employee on her way to work may be a more common occurrence in some hospitals, but it was a rarity for a hospital in Western Colorado. In this article, the author describes how Security, working with Facilities Management, sought the root causes of the incident, and the steps that were taken to remove those factors that made it possible.

  16. Impact of treatment on hepatitis C virus transmission and incidence in Egypt: A case for treatment as prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, H H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2017-06-01

    Egypt has launched a hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment programme using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Our aim was to assess the impact of five plausible programme scale-up and sustainability scenarios for HCV treatment as prevention in Egypt. We developed and analysed a mathematical model to assess programme impact using epidemiologic, programming and health economics measures. The model was parametrized with current and representative natural history, HCV prevalence and programme data. HCV incidence in Egypt is declining, but will persist at a considerable level for decades unless controlled by interventions. Across the five programme scenarios, 1.75-5.60 million treatments were administered by 2030. Reduction in incidence (annual number of new infections) by 2030 ranged between 29% and 99%, programme-attributed reduction in incidence rate (new infections per susceptible person per year) ranged between 18% and 99%, number of infections averted ranged between 42 393 and 469 599, and chronic infection prevalence reached as low as 2.8%-0.1%. Reduction in incidence rate year by year hovered around 7%-15% in the first decade of the programme in most scenarios. Treatment coverage in 2030 ranged between 24.9% and 98.8%, and number of treatments required to avert one new infection ranged between 9.5 and 12.1. Stipulated targets for HCV by 2030 could not be achieved without scaling-up treatment to 365 000 per year and sustaining it for a decade. In conclusion, DAA scale-up will have an immense and immediate impact on HCV incidence in Egypt. Elimination by 2030 is feasible if sufficient resources are committed to programme scale-up and sustainability. HCV treatment as prevention is a potent and effective prevention approach. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Monitoring CO2 injection with a buried geophone array: Stage 2C of CO2CRC Otway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, M.; Gurevich, B.; Pevzner, R.; Tertyshnikov, K.; Shulakova, V.; Glubokovskikh, S.; Popik, D.; Kepic, A.; Robertson, M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Singh, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Stage 2 of the CO2CRC project involves injection of a small quantity of CO2, 15 Kt, into the Paaratte formation, a saline aquifer located at a depth of around 1500 m in the Otway basin, Victoria, Australia. The project aims to investigate the limits of time lapse seismic methodologies in order to devise an optimal monitoring program. That includes time lapse signal and noise prediction, time lapse data acquisition design and finally data analysis. The strength of the time lapse (TL) seismic is governed by the magnitudes of both the time lapse signal and time lapse noise. They are in turn both dependent on numerous factors which need to be addressed through modelling studies and data acquisition technologies. Geological information is used to build a detailed 3D static model for the dynamic reservoir simulations and analysis of CO2 plume distribution for small quantities of CO2 injected into the deepest Paaratte member. Various lithological scenarios and variations in permeability distribution are tested until arriving at the "most likely" solution. The final model is used initially for 1D and subsequently for the full 3D time lapse modelling. These time lapse modelling results, combined with field tests and noise analysis, show clearly that small quantities of CO2 injected into a relatively thin (~20 m in thickness) saline aquifer would benefit from utilizing a permanent 3D seismic array to achieve desired repeatability, that is reduction in time lapse seismic noise. Buried receiver array was designed and deployed at the CO2CRC Otway during January and February. The array comprises 908 high-sensitivity geophones deployed at 4 m depth below the surface. Baseline 3D was acquired in March 2015. Some 3003 shots were acquired by a crew of 7 people over 9 days. Benchmark tests show a significant improvement in data quality compared to surface geophones. With this approach there are no cables or other seismic infrastructure on the surface. This significantly reduces

  18. Female breast cancer in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in 1999–2012. New cases and the incidence of invasive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszkiewicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women in Poland. In 2012 invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 17,000 Polish women. The effective fight against breast cancer is based on activities to prevent its occurrence or to enable early detection of the disease and then its effective treatment (cure. Aim of the research: To assess the prevalence of invasive breast cancer in women in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in 1999–2012. Material and methods: A total of 6079 new female invasive breast cancer cases were analysed. Crude rates (CRs and age-standarised rates (ASRs per 100,000 population were calculated. The total value of incidence rates was analysed for all ages (0–85+ and in separate age groups (15–49, 50–69, and 70–85+. Results : In 1999–2012 in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship 6079 new invasive female breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Fifty-three percent of them were in the age group of 50–69 years, 25.0% in the age group 70–85+, and 21.5% in the age group 15–49 years. The incidence of BC in general (0–85+ increased from 41.2/105 in 1999 to 43.8/105 in 2012. In the women aged 15–49 years the value of ASRs of incidence increased. In the age group of 50–69 years the value of ASRs increased from 146.6/105 in 1999 to 163.5/105 in 2012. The increase in the incidence of breast cancer was reported among women in perimenopausal age and in premenopausal women. The decrease in breast cancer cases was observed among young, premenopausal women (15–49 years as well as among women over 70 years of age. Conclusions: Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is a region in Poland with moderate risk of breast cancer.

  19. Imposition of Antidumping Duty (BAMD Towards China’s Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Pratiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Steel industry is a strategic sector in the economy of a country. Steel industry in Indonesia has not been able to fulfill their domestic demand that is still necessary to import steel product. However, many of these imported products are sold at dumping prices, especially those from china giving rise to unfair trade. One of trade remedy measures as a result of unfair trade remedies can recover trough the imposition of antidumping duty. In 2013, Indonesia imposes antidumping duty for Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S from China and other countries. Imposition of antidumping duty will be analyzed descriptively with the antidumping agreement conformity. While, it cannot be denied that political factors also determine imposition of antidumping duty. It is need to use analytical theory of justice in order to enforce fair-trade

  20. Incidence of insignificant prostate cancer using free/total PSA: results of a case-finding protocol on 14,453 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, P; Aragona, F

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate prostate cancer (PCa) detection and incidence of pathologically insignificant PCa (pIPCa) tumour using percent-free PSA (%f-PSA) in patients with total PSA ≤ 10 ng ml(-1). From February 2002 to October 2009, 14,453 patients (median 60.5 years) were enrolled in a case-finding protocol for the early diagnosis of PCa. Indications to biopsy were suspicious digital rectal examination; PSA >10 ng ml(-1); PSA ≤ 2.5 ng ml(-1), included between 2.6-4 and 4.1-10 ng ml(-1) with %f-PSA <15, <20 and <25%, respectively. A median of 18 and 26 cores in case of primary and repeated biopsy were determined; 2123 men underwent prostate biopsy, of whom 1589 (74.8%) had a PSA ≤ 10 ng ml(-1). A PCa was found in 777 (36.6%) and in 35 (23.3%) patients at primary and repeated biopsy: 459 and 26 men had PSA ≤ 10 ng ml(-1) and 419 and 26 patients underwent surgery, respectively, 244 (58.3%) and 18 (69.2%) had an organ-confined PCa with a pIPCa incidence equal to 1.4 and 7.7%, respectively. Cancer detection rate of 28.8% in patients with PSA ≤ 10 ng ml(-1) associated with a low incidence of pIPCa should induce to introduce %f-PSA in screening programmes to reduce the risk of overdiagnosis.

  1. Acute incident rapid response at a mass-gathering event through comprehensive planning systems: a case report from the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başdere, Mehmet; Ross, Colleen; Chan, Jennifer L; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George

    2014-06-01

    Planning and execution of mass-gathering events involves various challenges. In this case report, the Chicago Model (CM), which was designed to organize and operate such events and to maintain the health and wellbeing of both runners and the public in a more effective way, is described. The Chicago Model also was designed to prepare for unexpected incidents, including disasters, during the marathon event. The model has been used successfully in the planning and execution stages of the Bank of America Shamrock Shuffle and the Bank of America Chicago Marathon since 2008. The key components of the CM are organizational structure, information systems, and communication. This case report describes how the organizers at the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle used the key components of the CM approach in order to respond to an acute incident caused by a man who was threatening to jump off the State Street Bridge. The course route was changed to accommodate this unexpected event, while maintaining access to key health care facilities. The lessons learned from the incident are presented and further improvements to the existing model are proposed.

  2. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  3. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Waly, Mostafa I; Jriesat, Sahar; Al Khafajei, Ahmed; Sallam, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated dietary pattern and lifestyle characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan. The case-control study included 220 recently diagnosed CRC cases and 220 age and gender matched healthy subjects as a control group. The participating CRC cases had lower dietary intake of fibre, folate, vitamin B12, β-carotene, vitamin C and selenium as compared to controls (P<0.05). The frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was also lower among CRC cases, while the frequency of consumption of red meat and saturated fat was higher and positively associated with CRC risk. Furthermore, family history for CRC played a positive role and the majority of CRC cases and controls had a low physical activity level. A sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in fruits and vegetables, and high in animal red meat and saturated fat, appeared associated with CRC among the studied Jordanian subjects. This is consistent with the reported CRC studies in developed nations indicating global causal effects for this tumour type.

  4. Incidence and clinical characteristics of unexpected uterine sarcoma after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids: a retrospective study of 10,248 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao WC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Cheng Zhao,1 Fang-Fang Bi,1 Da Li,2 Qing Yang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Center of Reproductive Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Uterine fibroids often require a hysterectomy or myomectomy via laparotomy or laparoscopy. Morcellation is often necessary to perform a laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of unexpected uterine sarcomas (UUSs after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids and to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs by analyzing their characteristics.Methods: Women who had a hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine fibroids in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between November 2008 and November 2014 were selected for the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed.Results: During the period, 48 UUSs were found in 10,248 cases, and the overall incidence was 0.47%. There was no statistical difference (P=0.449 regarding the incidence (0.50% vs 0.33% between 42 UUSs in 8,456 cases undergoing laparotomy and six UUSs in 1,792 cases undergoing laparoscopy. Most of the UUSs were stage I (89.58%, which occurred more commonly (56.25% in women aged 40–49. Abnormal uterine bleeding (39.58% was the main clinical manifestation. Rapidly growing pelvic masses (12.5%, rich blood flow signals (18.75%, and degeneration of uterine fibroids (18.75% prompted by ultrasonography may suggest the possibility of UUSs. The margins of most UUSs (93.75% were regular, which may cause UUSs to be misdiagnosed as uterine fibroids. Fifteen cases underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Approximately 73.33% showed heterogeneous and hypointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and 80% showed intermediate-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with necrosis and hemorrhage in 40% of cases. After contrast administration, 80% presented early heterogeneous

  5. The effect of banning MDPV on the incidence of MDPV-positive findings among users of illegal drugs and on court decisions in traffic cases in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Rintatalo, Janne; Pihlainen, Katja; Hurme, Jukka; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we sought to determine what impact the banning of 3, 4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) had on the incidence of MDPV-positive findings and on user profiles in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and postmortem (PM) investigations in Finland. All MDPV-positive cases and a selection of corresponding court cases between 2009 and 2012 were examined. The median serum concentration of MDPV in DUID cases was 0.030 mg/L and in PM blood 0.12 mg/L. The number of MDPV-positive cases decreased both in DUID and PM investigations after the drug was banned. The decrease in the mean monthly numbers of MDPV-positive DUID cases was 51.1%. In court cases, MDPV was rarely mentioned until banned and frequently mentioned thereafter. Of the convicted, 37% were without a fixed abode, 98% had other charges besides that of DUID, and 13% appeared in the study material more than once. In MDPV-positive PM cases, the proportion of suicides was very high (24%). Research on new psychoactive substances is required not only to support banning decisions but more importantly to be able to provide a scientific assessment of the risks of these new substances to the public and potential users.

  6. Trends in adult chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence, incidence and urethral discharge case reporting in Mongolia from 1995 to 2016 – estimates using the Spectrum-STI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrakh, Jugderjav; Zayasaikhan, Setsen; Jagdagsuren, Davaalkham; Enkhbat, Erdenetungalag; Jadambaa, Narantuya; Munkhbaatar, Sergelen; Taylor, Melanie; Rowley, Jane; Mahiané, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate Mongolia’s prevalence and incidence trends of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women and men 15–49 years old to inform control of STIs and HIV, a national health sector priority. Methods We applied the Spectrum-STI estimation model, fitting data from two national population surveys (2001 and 2008) and from routine gonorrhoea screening of pregnant women in antenatal care (1997 to 2016) adjusted for diagnostic test performance, male/female differences and missing high-risk populations. Prevalence and incidence estimates were then used to assess completeness of national case reporting. Results Gonorrhoea prevalence was estimated at 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.6–3.9%) in women and 2.9% (1.6–4.1%) in men in 2016; chlamydia prevalence levels were 19.5% (17.3–21.9%) and 15.6% (10.0–21.2%), respectively. Corresponding new incident cases in women and men in 2016 totalled 60 334 (36 147 to 121 933) and 76 893 (35 639 to 254 913) for gonorrhoea and 131 306 (84 232 to 254 316) and 148 162 (71 885 to 462 588) for chlamydia. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence declined by an estimated 33% and 11%, respectively from 2001 to 2016. Comparing numbers of symptomatic and treated cases estimated by Spectrum with gonorrhoea case reports suggests that 15% of symptomatic treated gonorrhoea cases were reported in 2016; only a minority of chlamydia episodes were reported as male urethral discharge cases. Discussion Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence are estimated to have declined in Mongolia during the early 2000s, possibly associated with syndromic management in primary care facilities and improving treatment coverage since 2001 and scale up of HIV/STI prevention interventions since 2003. However, prevalence remains high with most gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases not treated or recorded in the public health system. PMID:29487760

  7. Genus beta human papillomaviruses and incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of skin: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagas, Margaret R; Waterboer, Tim; Li, Zhongze; Nelson, Heather H; Michael, Kristina M; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Perry, Ann E; Spencer, Steven K; Daling, Janet; Green, Adele C; Pawlita, Michael

    2010-07-08

    To investigate the association between genus beta human papillomaviruses and the incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancer in the general population. Population based case-control study. New Hampshire, USA. 2366 skin cancer cases and controls from the general population aged 25 to 74 years (663 squamous cell carcinoma, 898 basal cell carcinoma, 805 controls), with plasma samples tested for L1 antibodies to 16 genus beta human papillomaviruses by multiplex serology. Odds ratios for squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma associated with seropositivity to beta human papillomaviruses. Squamous cell carcinoma, but not basal cell carcinoma, cases had a higher prevalence of each of the individual beta human papillomaviruses assayed compared with controls. The odds ratios for squamous cell carcinoma increased with the number of beta types positive (odds ratio for one type positive 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.74 to 1.33); two to three types positive 1.44 (1.03 to 2.01); four to eight types positive 1.51 (1.03 to 2.20); more than eight types positive 1.71 (1.12 to 2.62); P for trend (categorical)human papillomavirus infection and the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in the general population, as well as potential enhancement of risk by immunosuppression.

  8. Tuberculosis case finding for vaccine trials in young children in high-incidence settings: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A.; Geiter, L.; Hatherill, M.; Workman, L.; Ontong, C.; Msemburi, W.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Mulenga, H.; Snowden, M. A.; Hanekom, W. A.; Hussey, G.; Mahomed, H.

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden rural area in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To compare TB case yield and disease profile among bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated children using two case-finding strategies from birth until 2 years of age. DESIGN: BCG-vaccinated infants were enrolled within

  9. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  10. Putting the cart before the horse - the case against a new regime covering radioactive incidents during transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1960's, international nuclear liability law has served four core purposes: to protect the public through enhancing nuclear safety and preventing nuclear incidents, to compensate victims damage, to protect the viability of nuclear industry and in particular suppliers of nuclear safety equipment and technology, and harmonizing legislation in participating countries, thereby promoting the safer use of nuclear energy through common principles. Eight international nuclear liability regimes currently exist that reflect these core purposes. With the exception of the Maritime convention these treaties incorporate six well-accepted principles, which have also been incorporated into the domestic nuclear laws in many countries. These principles include: adjudicating all claims resulting from a covered nuclear incident in a single forum; channeling liability for claims to the nuclear installation operator; strict liability of the operator for nuclear damage; liability of the operator limited in time and in amount; mandatory insurance or other financial security for all operators corresponding to its liability; installation state is ultimately responsible for any shortfall and non discrimination against victims, based upon nationality, domicile or residence. These treaties however do not cover shipment of nuclear among and between nuclear power generating states located in North America, eastern Europe and Asia and consequently this field has to be improved. (N.C.)

  11. Tuberculosis case finding for vaccine trials in young children in high-incidence settings: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, S; Verver, S; Hawkridge, A; Geiter, L; Hatherill, M; Workman, L; Ontong, C; Msemburi, W; Tameris, M; Geldenhuys, H; Mulenga, H; Snowden, M A; Hanekom, W A; Hussey, G; Mahomed, H

    2012-02-01

    A high tuberculosis (TB) burden rural area in South Africa. To compare TB case yield and disease profile among bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated children using two case-finding strategies from birth until 2 years of age. BCG-vaccinated infants were enrolled within 2 weeks of birth and randomised to 3-monthly home visits for questionnaire-based TB screening plus record surveillance of TB registers, hospital admission and X-ray lists at health facilities for TB suspects and cases (Group 1), or record surveillance (as above) only (Group 2). Both groups received a close-out visit after 2 years. Participants were evaluated for suspected TB disease using standardised investigations. A total of 4786 infants were enrolled: 2392 were randomised to Group 1 and 2394 to Group 2. The case-finding rate was significantly greater in Group 1 (2.2/100 py) than in Group 2 (0.8/100 py), with a case-finding rate ratio of 2.6 (95%CI 1.8-4.0, P surveillance detected significantly more cases than record surveillance with a single study-end visit. The TB case profile did not differ significantly between the two groups.

  12. The reported incidence of campylobacteriosis modelled as a function of earlier temperatures and numbers of cases, Montreal, Canada, 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Robert; Plante, Céline; Garnier, Céline; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have detected an effect of earlier temperatures on the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans, but without adjustment for earlier numbers of cases of the disease. We estimated the effect of temperature on the number of cases notified by week in Montreal, Canada, from 1 January 1990 to 26 March 2006, simultaneously with the effect of the numbers of cases notified in the preceding weeks. The current campylobacteriosis count (week 0) was modelled by negative binomial regression, with earlier weekly average temperatures and earlier counts as predictors. Secular trends were accounted for by cubic spline functions and seasonal variations by sine-cosine functions. Indicator variables identified weeks with fewer than 5 working days. In the final statistical model, a 1°C increase in temperature above 10°C during any of weeks -1 to -6 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: 0.3% to 1.3%) increase in the current count. For each additional notified case during any of weeks -1 to -5 or -9 to -12, the increase in the current count was approximately 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.0%). Thus, earlier temperatures and earlier counts have independent effects, that of temperatures being the larger one. The temperature effect is too small to require short term public health planning. However, in Montreal, an increase in average temperature of the order of 4.5°C, forecast by some for 2055, could produce a 23% increase in incidence, resulting in about 4,000 excess cases per year.

  13. Anchoring wind turbine towers in steel using construction elements of concrete and CRC; Compact reinforced composite; Forankring af vindmoelletaarne i staal ved anvendelse af konstruktionselementer i beton og CRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-07-15

    During the past 25 to 30 years extensive R and D projects within concrete technology have been carried out. The result of this work is high-strength concrete that consists of fibres and reinforced materials. Traditionally wind turbine towers are fastened to the foundation using an embedded steel ring with a flange ring in the top surface. The maximum tower diameter of 4.5 m, set on the grounds of road transport, is now playing a significant role in this connection. This report presents results from a study of the possibilities for using a connecting piece made from concrete anchored directly in the turbine foundations' base and placed on top of the foundation bolted to the towers' bottom flange. High-strength concrete has been studied as an alternative to ordinary concrete. the results show that anchoring the tower in the foundation using reinforcement passively anchored in the bottom of the foundation and supported by a concrete/CRC connecting piece has a number of advantages compared to traditional solutions. (BA)

  14. Spatial Inequalities in the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Factors in the Neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran: Bayesian Spatial Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansori, Kamyar; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Motlagh, Ali Ganbary; Salehi, Masoud; Delavari, Alireza; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry. The Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model was used to identify factors associated with the spatial distribution of CRC incidence. The software programs OpenBUGS version 3.2.3, ArcGIS 10.3, and GeoDa were used for the analysis. The Moran index was statistically significant for all the variables studied (p<0.05). The BYM model showed that having a women head of household (median standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.53), living in a rental house (median SIR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96), not consuming milk daily (median SIR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) and having greater household health expenditures (median SIR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.68) were associated with a statistically significant elevation in the SIR of CRC. The median (interquartile range) and mean (standard deviation) values of the SIR of CRC, with the inclusion of all the variables studied in the model, were 0.57 (1.01) and 1.05 (1.31), respectively. Inequality was found in the spatial distribution of CRC incidence in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Paying attention to this inequality and the factors associated with it may be useful for resource allocation and developing preventive strategies in atrisk areas.

  15. Spatial Inequalities in the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Factors in the Neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran: Bayesian Spatial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Mansori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. Methods This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry. The Besag-York-Mollié (BYM model was used to identify factors associated with the spatial distribution of CRC incidence. The software programs OpenBUGS version 3.2.3, ArcGIS 10.3, and GeoDa were used for the analysis. Results The Moran index was statistically significant for all the variables studied (p<0.05. The BYM model showed that having a women head of household (median standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.53, living in a rental house (median SIR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96, not consuming milk daily (median SIR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94 and having greater household health expenditures (median SIR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.68 were associated with a statistically significant elevation in the SIR of CRC. The median (interquartile range and mean (standard deviation values of the SIR of CRC, with the inclusion of all the variables studied in the model, were 0.57 (1.01 and 1.05 (1.31, respectively. Conclusions Inequality was found in the spatial distribution of CRC incidence in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Paying attention to this inequality and the factors associated with it may be useful for resource allocation and developing preventive strategies in atrisk areas.

  16. Breast cancer in kurdish women of northern Iraq: incidence, clinical stage, and case control analysis of parity and family risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Banaz M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in the Middle-East occurs in relatively young women and frequently presents as advanced disease. A protective effect of multiparity is not apparent, and high familial risk is reported in some countries. This study investigates breast cancer rates and clinical stage related to age in the Kurdish region of Iraq and evaluates risk associated with parity and family history. Findings are compared with nearby countries and the West. Methods Sulaimaniyah Directorate of Health records identified 539 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2006-2008. Clinical survey forms were completed on 296 patients and on 254 age-matched controls. Age specific incidence rates were calculated from Directorate of Health population estimates. Results Average patient age was 47.4 ± 11 years and 59.5% were pre-menopausal. Diagnosis was at clinical stage 1 for 4.1%, stage 2 for 43.5%, stage 3 for 26.0%, and stage 4 for 8.1% of patients. For 18.2%, stage was unknown. Annual breast cancer incidence rates per 100,000 women peaked at 168.9 at age 55 to 59 and declined to 57.3 at 60 and above. Patients had an average of 5.0 ± 3.3 children compared to 5.4 ± 3.5 for controls, P = 0.16. A first degree family member had breast cancer among 11.1% of patients and 2.1% of controls (P 50% of these patients and controls being ≥50 years old. No statistically significant relationship was found between tumor stage and age, P = 0.59. Conclusions In Kurdish Iraq, breast cancer is predominantly a disease of pre-menopausal women having multiple pregnancies. For younger patients, breast cancer incidence was similar to the West and possibly higher than many Middle-Eastern countries, but unlike the West, the estimated rates declined markedly in the elderly. The familial breast cancer risk for both older and younger women was within the general population risk of Western countries. Clinical stages were advanced and indicated delays in diagnosis that were

  17. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen J.; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M.; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjønneland, Anne; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991–1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19–0.29) adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27–0.50) further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0

  18. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L; Huerta, José M; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J M; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nick J

    2017-10-01

    Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19-0.29) adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27-0.50) further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0.05 each). Limitations include potential

  19. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D has not been evaluated.We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998 and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]. The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained 16.1% of the overall variability of the 27 fatty acids. Based on country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analysis, the FA-pattern score was associated with lower incident T2D. Comparing the top to the bottom fifth of the score, the hazard ratio of incident T2D was 0.23 (95% CI 0.19-0.29 adjusted for potential confounders and 0.37 (95% CI 0.27-0.50 further adjusted for metabolic risk factors. The association changed little after adjustment for individual fatty acids or fatty acid subclasses. In cross-sectional analyses relating the FA-pattern score to metabolic, genetic, and dietary factors, the FA-pattern score was inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, a genetic score representing insulin resistance, and dietary intakes of soft drinks and alcohol and was positively associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and intakes of polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and coffee (p < 0.05 each. Limitations

  20. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Buchanan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37% individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02. For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004 after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes.A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  1. Using Web Crawler Technology for Geo-Events Analysis: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Social networking and network socialization provide abundant text information and social relationships into our daily lives. Making full use of these data in the big data era is of great significance for us to better understand the changing world and the information-based society. Though politics have been integrally involved in the hyperlinked world issues since the 1990s, the text analysis and data visualization of geo-events faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis. Though automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have been explored and built recently, the data mining and information collection are not comprehensive enough because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness, and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency, and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident were studied by using web crawler technology and the text analysis. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios, and dissemination flow graph, based on the crawled information and data processing not only highlight the characteristics of geo-event itself, but also implicate many interesting phenomenon and deep-seated problems behind it, such as related topics, theme vocabularies, subject contents, hot countries, event bodies, opinion leaders, high-frequency vocabularies, information sources, semantic structure, propagation paths, distribution of different attitudes, and regional difference of net citizens’ response in the Huangyan Island incident. Furthermore, the text analysis of network information with the help of focused web crawler is able to express the time-space relationship of crawled information and the information characteristic of semantic network to the geo-events. Therefore, it is a useful tool to

  2. Role of exogenous and endogenous sources of estrogen on the incidence of breast fibroadenoma: case-control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Eftekhari, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Breast fibroadenoma (FAD) is the most common benign mammary condition among women but the environmental risk factors have not identified yet. As the role of long term estrogen exposure in the incidence of FAD has been remained controversial; we have decided to investigate the possible role of endogenous and exogenous sources of estrogens in present study. Women less than 45 years old who underwent surgery from June 2009 to June 2010 were matched with controls by age and hospital. From reproductive factors, lack of breast feeding (p< 0.001, 8.76 CI95% 3.79-20.24), Nulliparity (p=0.001, OR=8.09, CI95% 3.505-18.67), Lack of parity (p=0.001, OR=6.64, CI 95% 2.56-16.31) and Hormonal dysfunction (p=0.016, OR=4.66, CI 95% 1.26- 17.28) were considered as the most important ones. Adiposity and abnormal weight gain after 18 years were considered as major background factor which induce FAD and may be contributed to the level of endogenous estrogen. Out of evaluated exogenous sources of estrogen, lower age at first OCP consumption (20.76_+3.87 vs. 22.85_+3.88, p=0.046) and living near Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) producing factories (p< 0.001, OR=3.7, CI95%1.61-7.94), were considered as the main sources of exposure to xenestrogens in FAD patients but FAD showed inverse association with cigarette smoking because of antiestrogenic activities of cigarette smoking . This study concludes that the incidence and development of FAD could be associated with the reproductive history of women, activity of ovarian hormones as well as environmental factors.

  3. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of the incidence of Campylobacter cases and patients with general diarrhea in a Danish county, 1995–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonsen Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter infections are the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Denmark. While primarily foodborne, Campylobacter infections are also to some degree acquired through other sources which may include contact with animals or the environment, locally contaminated drinking water and more. We analyzed Campylobacter cases for clustering in space and time for the large Danish island of Funen in the period 1995–2003, under the assumption that infections caused by 'environmental' factors may show persistent clustering while foodborne infections will occur randomly in space. Input data were geo-coded datasets of the addresses of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter cases and of the background population of Funen County. The dataset had a spatial extent of 4.900 km2. Data were aggregated into units of analysis (so-called features of 5 km by 5 km times 1 year, and the Campylobacter incidence calculated. We used a modified form of local Moran's I to test if features with similar incidence rates occurred next to each other in space and time, and compared the observed clusters with simulated clusters. Because clusters may be caused by a high tendency among local GPs to submit stool samples, we also analyzed a dataset of all submitted stool samples for comparison. The results showed a significant persisting clustering of Campylobacter incidence rates in the Western part of Funen. Results were visualized using the Netlogo software. The underlying causes of the observed clustering are not known and will require further examination, but may be partially explained by an increased rate of stool samples submissions by physicians in the area. We hope, by this approach, to have developed a tool which will allow for analyses of geographical clusters which may in turn form a basis for further epidemiological examinations to cast light on the sources of infection.

  4. Distribution of illegal incident characteristics: cases of bank fraud and embezzlement, computer-related crime, and insider theft from drug manufacturers and distributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineke, J M

    1979-10-01

    Three data sets were used to estimate joint and conditional probability distributions between various variables of interest in bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) cases of $10,000 dollars or more, computer-related crime cases of various types, and cases of insider theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. This report describes in tabular form the information contained in the three rather extensive data sets from industries facing insider threats which, in one or more dimensions, are analogous to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The data in Tables 1 through 29 were computed from the 313 cases of bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) representing losses of $10,000 or more reported to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for the period 1977 to 1978. The data in Tables 30 through 64 were computed from the 461 cases of computer-related crime obtained from SRI International for the period 1958 to 1978. These incidents include inventory manipulations designed to hide errors, phony entries used to cover embezzlements, schemes used to penetrate a system and surreptitiously bring about a system crash, and sabotage. The data in Tables 65 through 67 were computed from data reported by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) for the period 1973 to 1978. These data, though limited, provided several interesting insights into the insider-threat problem.

  5. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP): novel insights into the incidence, vaccination-associated epidemiological factors and a potential genetic predisposition for clinical and subclinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasius, W; Weikard, R; Kromik, A; Wolf, C; Müller, K; Kühn, C

    2014-06-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a haemorrhagic disease of newborn calves elicited by colostrum from specific cows. Two studies have indicated that BNP-inducing colostrum might be associated with alloantibodies directed against MHC class I in response to vaccination with a distinct inactivated viral vaccine. However, the proportion of alloantibody-producing individuals by far exceeds the proportion of clinical BNP cases in the vaccinated population. This raises the question about the incidence of subclinical, unrecognised cases and also suggests further factors involved in BNP pathogenesis, e.g., genetic predisposition. Our results on neonatal calves from a closely monitored resource population confirmed the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition for clinical BNP and suggest that the predisposition is also involved in subclinical BNP-cases. No indication was obtained for a higher frequency of subclinical BNP-cases compared with clinical cases. Neither time point nor frequency of vaccination was a relevant factor for BNP in our resource population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sidedness and TP53 mutations impact OS in anti-EGFR but not anti-VEGF treated mCRC - an analysis of the KRAS registry of the AGMT (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Florian; Thaler, Josef; Piringer, Gudrun; Hackl, Hubert; Pleyer, Lisa; Hufnagl, Clemens; Weiss, Lukas; Greil, Richard

    2018-01-03

    In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the localization of the primary tumour has been shown to be of prognostic as well as predictive relevance. With the aim to investigate clinical and molecular disease characteristics with respect to sidedness in a real-world cohort, we analyzed 161 mCRC patients included in the KRAS Registry of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie (AGMT) between January 2006 and October 2013. Right-sided mCRC displayed a worse median overall survival (OS) in comparison to left-sided disease (18.1 months [95%-CI: 14.3-40.7] versus 32.3 months [95%-CI: 25.5-38.6]; HR: 1.63 [95%-CI: 1.13-2.84]; p = 0.013). The choice of the biological agent in front-line therapy had a statistically significant impact on median OS in patients with right-sided tumours (anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR): 10.6 months [95%-CI: 5.2-NA]; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): 26.2 months [95%-CI: 17.9-NA]; HR: 2.69 [95%-CI: 1.30-12.28]; p = 0.015) but not in patients with left-sided tumours (anti-EGFR: 37.0 months [95%-CI: 20.2-56.6]; anti-VEGF: 32.3 months [95%-CI: 23.6-41.1]; HR: 0.97 [95%-CI: 0.56-1.66]; p = 0.905). When evaluating molecular characteristics of tumour samples, we found a clinically meaningful trend towards an inferior OS in TP53 mutant mCRC treated with anti-EGFR based therapy compared to anti-VEGF based therapy (17.1 months [95%-CI: 8.7-NA] versus 38.3 months [95%-CI: 23.6-48.0], HR = 1.95 [95%-CI: 0.95-5.88]; p = 0.066), which was not significantly dependent on sidedness. This was not the case in patients with TP53 wild-type tumours. Therefore we evaluated the combined impact of sidedness and TP53 mutation status in the anti-EGFR treated cohort and patients with left-sided/TP53 wild-type mCRC showed the longest median OS (38.9 months) of all groups (right-sided/TP53 mutant: 12.1 months; right-sided/TP53 wild-type: 8.9 months; left-sided/TP53 mutant: 18.4 months; p = 0.020). TP53

  7. Incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in children whose fathers underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with epididymal sperm aspiration: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; Marchi, Patricia Leme de; Mafra, Fernanda Abani; Cavalcanti, Viviane; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60). Y-chromosome microdeletions research was performed by polymerase chain reaction on fathers and children, evaluating 20 regions of the chromosome. The results showed no Y-chromosome microdeletions in any of the studied subjects. The incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa recovered by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration did not differ between the groups, and there was no difference between control subjects born from natural pregnancies or population incidence in fertile men. We found no association considering microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome and assisted reproduction. We also found no correlation between these Y-chromosome microdeletions and vasectomies, which suggests that the assisted reproduction techniques do not increase the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions. Avaliar a incidência de microdeleções do cromossomo Y em indivíduos nascidos de pais vasectomizados submetidos à reversão de vasectomia ou fertilização in vitro com recuperação de espermatozoides por aspiração do epidídimo (aspiração percutânea de espermatozoides do epidídimo). Estudo caso-controle que compreende crianças do sexo masculino de casais em que o homem havia sido previamente vasectomizado e escolheu revers

  8. Prediction of injuries caused by explosive events: A case study of a hand grenade incident in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whyte, TN

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available injuries when the subject is in very close proximity to the explosive charge is still unknown. Further such case studies and research into injury mechanisms and injury criteria are necessary to enable injuries caused by explosive events to be accurately...

  9. Using Web Crawler Technology for Text Analysis of Geo-Events: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Ge, Y. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the social networking and network socialisation have brought more text information and social relationships into our daily lives, the question of whether big data can be fully used to study the phenomenon and discipline of natural sciences has prompted many specialists and scholars to innovate their research. Though politics were integrally involved in the hyperlinked word issues since 1990s, automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have explored and built recently, the information collection and data visualisation of geo-events have always faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident is studied here by combining web crawler technology and the text analysis method. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios and dissemination flow graph based on the data collection and processing not only highlight the subject and theme vocabularies of related topics but also certain issues and problems behind it. Being able to express the time-space relationship of text information and to disseminate the information regarding geo-events, the text analysis of network information based on focused web crawler technology can be a tool for understanding the formation and diffusion of web-based public opinions in political events.

  10. Incidence of intracranial bleeds in new users of low-dose aspirin: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, L; Gaist, D; Soriano-Gabarró, M; García Rodríguez, L A

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Intracranial bleeds (ICB) are serious clinical events that have been associated with aspirin use. Incidence rates of ICB were calculated among new-users of low-dose aspirin in the UK (2000-2012). Over a median follow-up of 5.58 years, the incidence of ICB was 0.08 per 100 person-years. Our estimates are valuable for inclusion in risk-benefit assessments of low-dose aspirin use. Background Low-dose aspirin protects against both ischemic cardiovascular (CV) events and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, low-dose aspirin may be associated with a slightly increased risk of intracranial bleeds (ICBs). Objectives To obtain the incidence rates of ICBs overall and by patient subgroups among new users of low-dose aspirin. Patients/Methods Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK primary-care database (2000-2012), we identified a cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin aged 40-84 years (N = 199 079; mean age at start of follow-up, 63.9 years) and followed them for up to 14 years (median 5.58 years). Incident ICB cases were identified and validated through linkage to hospitalization data and/or review of THIN records with free-text comments. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Eight hundred and eighty-one incident ICBs cases were identified: 407 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 283 cases of subdural hematoma (SDH), and 191 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Incidence rates per 100 person-years were 0.08 (95% CI 0.07-0.08) for all ICBs, 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.04) for ICH, 0.03 (95% CI 0.02-0.03) for SDH, and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.02) for SAH. The ICB incidence rates per 100 person-years for individuals with an indication of primary CV disease prevention were 0.07 (95% CI 0.06-0.07) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.08-0.10) for secondary CV disease prevention. Incidence rates were higher in men for SDH, and higher in women for ICH and SAH. Conclusions Our results provide valuable estimates of the absolute ICB risk for

  11. CD133 expression is not selective for tumor-initiating or radioresistant cell populations in the CRC cell lines HCT-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittfeld, Claudia; Dietrich, Antje; Peickert, Susann; Hering, Sandra; Baumann, Michael; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: CD133 is controversially discussed as putative (surrogate) marker for cancer stem/tumor-initiating cell populations (CSC/TIC) in epithelial tumors including colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). We studied CD133 expression in established CRC cell lines and examined in vitro behavior, radioresponse and in vivo tumor formation of CD133 +/- subpopulations of one cell line of interest. Materials and methods: Ten CRC cell lines were analyzed for CD133 expression using flow cytometry and Western blotting. CD133 + and CD133 - HCT-116 subpopulations were separated by FACS and studied in 2-D and 3-D culture and colony formation assays after irradiation. Subcutaneous xenograft formation was monitored in NMRI (nu/nu) mice. Results and conclusions: CRC cell lines could be classified into three groups: (i) CD133 - , (ii) CD133 + and (iii) those with two distinct CD133 + and CD133 - subpopulations. Isolated CD133 +/- HCT-116 subpopulations were studied relative to the original fraction. No difference was found in 2-D growth, spheroid formation or radioresponse in vitro. Also, tumor formation and growth rate did not differ for the sorted subpopulations. However, a subset of xenografts originated from CD133 - HCT-116 showed a striking enrichment in the CD133 + fraction. Our data show that CD133 expression is not selective for sphere forming, tumor-initiating or radioresistant subpopulations in the HCT-116 CRC cell lines. This implies that CD133 cannot be regarded as a CSC/TIC marker in all CRC cell lines and that functional measurements of tumor formation have to generally accompany CSC/TIC-directed mechanistic or therapeutic studies.

  12. The incidence of ototoxicity in child malignancy cases that received carboplatin therapy with otoacoustic emission (OAE) examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, J. K.; Zizlavsky, S.; Suwento, R.; Sjakti, H. A.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Malignancy is a significant public health problem, both globally and in Indonesia. Chemotherapy is one of the modality in malignancy cases. Carboplatin (cis-diammine-cyclobutanedi-carboxylato platinum) is a second-generation platinum compound that has often been used in the management of cases of malignancies. On the other hand, side effects of cytotoxic drugs need to be considered, especially ototoxic effects. Ototoxicity is dysfunction and damage to the structure of the inner ear that has been caused by drugs or other certain chemicals. The aim of this study is to assess ototoxic effects due to the influence of carboplatin in the cases of children with malignancy. This study uses a serial cross-sectional design to evaluate otoacoustic emission (OAE) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) change as a result of ototoxic effects and risk factors due to the use of ototoxic carboplatin in the Division of Hematology-Oncology of the Department of Pediatrics at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital in Jakarta, where two of 52 studies’ subjects experienced ototoxicity. In the group were receiving chemotherapy, two (5%) of the 40 subjects has experienced ototoxic events characterized by SNR values less than six, whereas SNR values were not less than six in the group that had not received chemotherapy. Risk factors such as gender, age, carboplatin dose, and cycles of chemotherapy did not have a statistically significant relationship to ototoxity.

  13. Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Ansa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC incidence rates have declined in recent years for people of all races/ethnicities; however, the extent to which the decrease varies annually by demographic and disease-related characteristics is largely unknown. This study examines trends and annual percent change (APC in the incidence among persons diagnosed with CRC in the United States of America from 2000–2014. The data obtained from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program were analyzed, and all persons (N = 577,708 with malignant CRC recorded in the SEER 18 database from 2000 to 2014 were characterized according to sex, race, age at diagnosis, disease site and stage. Incidence rates and APC were calculated for the entire study period. Overall, the incidence rate of CRC decreased from 54.5 in 2000 to 38.6 per 100,000 in 2014, with APC = −2.66 (p < 0.0001. Decline in rates was most profound between 2008 and 2011 from 46.0 to 40.7 per 100,000 (APC = −4.04; p < 0.0001. Rates were higher for males (vs. females; rate ratio (RR = 1.33 and for blacks (vs. whites; RR = 1.23. Proximal colon cancers at the localized stage were the predominant cancers. An increase in rate was observed among people younger than 50 years (6.6 per 100,000, APC= 1.5. The annual rate of CRC has decreased over time. However, the development and implementation of interventions that further reduce the disparities among demographic and disease-related subgroups are warranted.

  14. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  15. Incidence of blood transfusion requirement and factors associated with transfusion following liver lobectomy in dogs and cats: 72 cases (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kayla R; Pigott, Armi M; J Linklater, Andrew K

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of blood transfusion, mortality rate, and factors associated with transfusion in dogs and cats undergoing liver lobectomy. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9-client owned cats that underwent liver lobectomy at a specialty veterinary practice from August 2007 through June 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding dog and cat signalment, hematologic test results before and after surgery, surgical method, number and identity of lobes removed, concurrent surgical procedures, hemoabdomen detected during surgery, incidence of blood transfusion, and survival to hospital discharge (for calculation of mortality rate). Variables were compared between patients that did and did not require transfusion. RESULTS 11 of 63 (17%) dogs and 4 of 9 cats required a blood transfusion. Mortality rate was 8% for dogs and 22% for cats. Pre- and postoperative PCV and plasma total solids concentration were significantly lower and mortality rate significantly higher in dogs requiring transfusion than in dogs not requiring transfusion. Postoperative PCV was significantly lower in cats requiring transfusion than in cats not requiring transfusion. No significant differences in any other variable were identified between dogs and cats requiring versus not requiring transfusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs and cats undergoing liver lobectomy had a high requirement for blood transfusion, and a higher requirement for transfusion should be anticipated in dogs with perioperative anemia and cats with postoperative anemia. Veterinarians performing liver lobectomies in dogs and cats should have blood products readily available.

  16. Civil liability versus state liability in case of a nuclear incident - some thoughts inspired by the Vienna Convention revision exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1992-01-01

    The juridical reconstruction involved in the current work in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is not simply a matter of re-surfacing the edifice of private law liability. It has also led certain architects to draw up plans for the foundations of a regime of State responsibility in this field, based on the strict liability of States to compensate for transfrontier damage. Following the post-Chernobyl stocktaking by the author and Otto von Busckist for the Tokyo Congress in 1989, this report sets out to analyse the question of the implementation of States' liability in the case of a nuclear accident, from the viewpoints of positive law, the work of the International Law Commission and specific aspects linked to the nuclear risk. It also examines the proposals in this regard deposited with the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. (author)

  17. Long-term risk of incident type 2 diabetes and measures of overall and regional obesity: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Langenberg

    Full Text Available Waist circumference (WC is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future diabetes by WC at different levels of body mass index (BMI.The prospective InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centres in eight European countries and consists of 12,403 incident T2D cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We used Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods to estimate hazard ratios for T2D. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of T2D were calculated. BMI and WC were each independently associated with T2D, with WC being a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Risk increased across groups defined by BMI and WC; compared to low normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-22.4 kg/m(2 with a low WC (102/88 cm. Among the large group of overweight individuals, WC measurement was highly informative and facilitated the identification of a subgroup of overweight people with high WC whose 10-y T2D cumulative incidence (men, 70 per 1,000 person-years; women, 44 per 1,000 person-years was comparable to that of the obese group (50-103 per 1,000 person-years in men and 28-74 per 1,000 person-years in women.WC is independently and strongly associated with T2D, particularly in women, and should be more widely measured for risk stratification. If targeted measurement is necessary for reasons of resource scarcity, measuring WC in overweight individuals may be an effective strategy, since it identifies a high-risk subgroup of individuals who could benefit from individualised preventive action.

  18. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  19. Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vidal Insua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection of tumor relapse is crucial for determining the most appropriate therapeutic management. In clinical practice, computed tomography (CT is routinely used, but small tumor changes are difficult to visualize, and reliable blood-based prognostic and monitoring biomarkers are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate a gene expression panel (composed of GAPDH, VIL1, CLU, TIMP1, TLN1, LOXL3 and ZEB2 for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs as prognostic and predictive tool in blood samples from 94 metastatic CRC (mCRC patients. Patients with higher gene panel expression before treatment had a reduced progression-free survival (PFS and overall-survival (OS rates compared with patients with low expression (p = 0.003 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively. Patients with increased expression of CTCs markers during treatment presented PFS and OS times of 8.95 and 11.74 months, respectively, compared with 14.41 and 24.7 for patients presenting decreased expression (PFS; p = 0.020; OS; p ≤ 0.001. Patients classified as non-responders by CTCs with treatment, but classified as responders by CT scan, showed significantly shorter survival times (PFS: 8.53 vs. 11.70; OS: 10.37 vs. 24.13; months. In conclusion, our CTCs detection panel demonstrated efficacy for early treatment response assessment in mCRC patients, and with increased reliability compared to CT scan.

  20. Assessment of Deployment-Related Exposures on Risk of Incident Mental Health Diagnoses Among Air Force Critical Care Providers: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M; Fouts, Brittany L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deployment-related occupational/environmental exposures and incident postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in a defined population of military health care professionals working in the deployed critical care environment. A nested case-control study compared cohort members with a PDMH condition (cases, N = 146) with those without a PDMH condition (controls, N = 800) in terms of deployment-related exposures as ascertained using Postdeployment Health Assessment DD 2796 questionnaire data. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios. Nonphysician career fields (i.e., nurses and medical technicians), exposure to dead bodies or people killed/wounded, history of a vehicular accident/crash, exposure to sand/dust, exposure to lasers, and use of mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) overgarments were associated with increased likelihood for a PDMH condition. The infrequent exposures (i.e., vehicular accident/crash, lasers, and MOPP overgarments) were the exposures most strongly associated with subsequent PDHM conditions. For military health care providers returning from the deployed environment, several exposures are useful for predicting those at increased risk for a PDMH condition. However, there are likely many other important risk factors beyond those captured on the DD 2796 questionnaire. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Association between isotretinoin use and central retinal vein occlusion in an adolescent with minor predisposition for thrombotic incidents: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labiris Georgios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an adolescent boy with minimal pre-existing risk for thromboses who suffered central retinal vein occlusion associated with isotretinoin use for acne. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented case of this association. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 17-year-old white man who was treated with systemic isotretinoin for recalcitrant acne was referred with central retinal vein occlusion in one eye. Although a detailed investigation was negative, DNA testing revealed that the patient was a heterozygous carrier of the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene. Despite the fact that this particular mutation is thought to represent only a minor risk factor for thromboses, it is probable that isotretinoin treatment greatly increased the risk of a vaso-occlusive incident in this patient. Conclusion Isotretinoin use may be associated with sight- and life-threatening thrombotic adverse effects even in young patients with otherwise minimal thrombophilic risk. Physicians should be aware of such potential dangers.

  2. Anti-wear properties of Cr-C and Ni-Co alloy coatings as substitutes for conventional nanocrystalline Cr coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhixiang; Zhang Junyan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Co, amorphous Cr-C alloy and nanocrystalline Cr-C coatings were electrodeposited from 'environmentally acceptable' electrolytes as potential substitutes for conventional nanocrystalline Cr coatings electrodeposited from noxious hexavalent chromium. The structure, morphology and hardness of coatings are investigated using a transmission electron microscope, a scanning electronic microscope and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. Anti-wear properties are tested on a pin-on-plate vibrant wear tester. The correlation between the wear resistance, hardness, brittleness and the lubricated state is investigated. The results show that the wear behaviour of specimens significantly depends on their lubricated state, hardness and brittleness. Under the lubricated sliding condition, abrasive wear is the primary wear mechanism for all specimens. With respect to the abrasive wear mechanism, both the elastic and plastic deformations play important roles during the lubricated sliding process. Thus, the amorphous and nanocrystalline Cr-C alloy coatings, with both high brittleness and high hardness, exhibit a lower wear rate than the conventional Cr and Ni-Co coatings. On the other hand, under the dry sliding condition, the annealed Ni-Co coating, with an excellent compromise between high hardness and toughness, exhibits an abrasive wear mechanism and a relatively low wear rate; in contrast, the brittle Cr-matrix coatings exhibit a severe fatigue/delamination wear mechanism and high wear rate

  3. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interactions with diet (red meat, fish, fiber, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and smoking status) were assessed in a case-cohort study of 928 CRC cases...

  4. Serum uric acid and coronary heart disease in 9,458 incident cases and 155,084 controls: prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy G Wheeler

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested throughout the past fifty years that serum uric acid concentrations can help predict the future risk of coronary heart disease (CHD, but the epidemiological evidence is uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report a "nested" case-control comparison within a prospective study in Reykjavik, Iceland, using baseline values of serum uric acid in 2,456 incident CHD cases and in 3,962 age- and sex-matched controls, plus paired serum uric acid measurements taken at baseline and, on average, 12 y later in 379 participants. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of 15 other prospective studies in eight countries conducted in essentially general populations. Compared with individuals in the bottom third of baseline measurements of serum uric acid in the Reykjavik study, those in the top third had an age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio for CHD of 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.58 which fell to 1.12 (CI, 0.97-1.30 after adjustment for smoking and other established risk factors. Overall, in a combined analysis of 9,458 cases and 155,084 controls in all 16 relevant prospective studies, the odds ratio was 1.13 (CI, 1.07-1.20, but it was only 1.02 (CI, 0.91-1.14 in the eight studies with more complete adjustment for possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum uric acid levels is unlikely to enhance usefully the prediction of CHD, and this factor is unlikely to be a major determinant of the disease in general populations.

  5. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  6. Incidence and Pattern of Cranio-Maxillofacial Injuries: A 22 year Retrospective Analysis of Cases Operated at Major Trauma Hospitals/Centres in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Kiran S; Halli, Rajshekhar; Joshi, Samir; Ramanojam, Shandilya; Gadre, Pushkar K; Kunchur, Ranjit; Bhosale, Gururaj; Kaul, Deepak

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to retrospectively analyze the incidence and pattern of cranio-maxillofacial injuries in the developing world in a hope to emphasize on authorities the need of improvising infrastructural facilities, medical and other. Hospital medical records with available radiographs of 6,872 patients treated for cranio-maxillofacial injuries at major trauma centres in Pune, India over a 22 year period (from July 1989 to June 2010) were reviewed. Relevant data pertaining to patients' age, sex, cause of injury, sites of injury, associated injuries, anaesthesia, various treatment modalities and complications were recorded and analyzed statistically. A total of 6,872 patients sustained maxillofacial injuries of which 5,936 (86.4 %) were caused by road traffic accidents (RTA), followed by fall in 608 cases. Distribution pattern of sex revealed male predominance (M:F-2.5:1) and the third decade age group (2,416) sustained maximum cranio-maxillofacial injuries. Of 12,503 cranio-maxillofacial sites involved, mandible (6,456) predominated, while there was middle third involvement in 5,024 cases. Most of the patients (4,856) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation without maxillo-mandibular fixation and complications were noted in 320 patients. In comparison to similar recent studies reported in the literature, our findings show that RTA remains the most common cause of cranio-maxillofacial injuries with male preponderance. Also RTA remains the major preventable etiological factor of cranio-maxillofacial injuries, which should prompt authorities to take "Herculean effort" to implement rules and educate people.

  7. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelle L. Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py] were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000. The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000 in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000 in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000 in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000. Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low.

  8. Direct comparison of first-contact versus longitudinal register-based case finding in the same population : early evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia may be three times higher than commonly reported

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, S. J.; van Hemert, A. M.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Susser, E.; Hoek, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The incidence of schizophrenia is commonly estimated by screening for psychosis among subjects presenting to psychiatric services. This approach (using a first-contact sampling frame) cannot account for cases that did not meet criteria for schizophrenia at first contact. We compared the

  9. Identifying Factors and Root Causes Associated With Near-Miss or Safety Incidents in Patients Treated With Radiotherapy: A Case-Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Gregory D; Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Tracton, Gregg; Marks, Lawrence B; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors associated with a near-miss or safety incident (NMSI) in patients undergoing radiotherapy and identify common root causes of NMSIs and their relationship with incident severity. We retrospectively studied NMSIs filed between October 2014 and April 2016. We extracted patient-, treatment-, and disease-specific data from patients with an NMSI (n = 200; incident group) and a similar group of control patients (n = 200) matched in time, without an NMSI. A root cause and incident severity were determined for each NMSI. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine which specific factors were contributing to NMSIs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine root causes of NMSIs and their relationship with incident severity. NMSIs were associated with the following factors: head and neck sites (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; P = .01), image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (OR, 3; P = .009), daily imaging (OR, 7; P importance of a strong reporting system to support a safety culture.

  10. Effects of the lactase 13910 C/T and calcium-sensor receptor A986S G/T gene polymorphisms on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal cancer in Hungarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budai Barna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggested the chemopreventive role of higher calcium intake in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined genetic polymorphisms that might influence calcium metabolism: lactase (LCT gene 13910 C/T polymorphism causing lactose intolerance and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR gene A986S polymorphism as a responsible factor for the altered cellular calcium sensation. Methods 538 Hungarian subjects were studied: 278 patients with colorectal cancer and 260 healthy controls. Median follow-up was 17 months. After genotyping, the relationship between LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms as well as tumor incidence/progression was investigated. Results in patient with colorectal cancer, a significantly higher LCT CC frequency was associated with increased distant disease recurrence (OR = 4.04; 95% CI = 1.71–9.58; p = 0.006. The disease free survival calculated from distant recurrence was reduced for those with LCT CC genotype (log rank test p = 0.008. In case of CaSR A986S polymorphism, the homozygous SS genotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 4.01; 95% CI = 1.33–12.07; p = 0.014. The number of LCT C and CaSR S risk alleles were correlated with tumor incidence (p = 0.035. The CCSS genotype combination was found only in patients with CRC (p = 0.033. Conclusion LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms may have an impact on the progression and/or incidence of CRC.

  11. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  12. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ.

    2013-01-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba 133 , Cs 137 , Co 60 and Co 57 . The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co 57 of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba 133 1.00, relative to Co 57 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable

  13. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L; Huerta, José M; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J M; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated.

  14. Incidence of chemotherapy- and chemoradiotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with stage II/III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juefeng; Gai, Ya; Li, Guichao; Tao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young individuals are increasing. There has been a significant improvement in overall survival in CRC because of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy over the past decades. However, these procedures may compromise the function of the reproductive system, and ovarian failure and premature menopause may occur. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence of long-term amenorrhea (≥ 12 months) in women with CRC aged 40 years and younger after adjuvant treatment. The authors identified 162 premenopausal women with CRC aged 40 years or younger who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to December 2012. One hundred twenty-three patients met all eligibility criteria and had sufficient follow-up for evaluation. The median age at diagnosis in patients with colon and rectal cancers was, respectively, 36 and 35 years (range, 17-40 and 24-40 years). All patients had regular menses before treatment; 3 patients with colon cancer (4.2%) experienced long-term amenorrhea, and 48 patients with rectal cancer (94.1%) experienced long-term amenorrhea. The incidence of amenorrhea was significantly lower in patients with colon cancer (4.2%; 3 of 72) than in patients with rectal cancer (94.1%; 48 of 51) (P amenorrhea in patients with colon and rectal cancers was 4.2% and 94.1%, respectively. We believe our data support the fact that young female patients with CRC, especially those with rectal cancer who are scheduled to undergo pelvic irradiation, should be counseled regarding fertility preservation options, including ovarian transposition and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, embryo, or oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hyponatremia associated with SSRI/NRSI: Descriptive and comparative epidemiological study of the incidence rates of the notified cases from the data of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database and the French National Health Insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, R; Rault, C; Polard, E; Bellet, F; Guy, C

    2017-12-14

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) are frequently prescribed. These antidepressants can potentially induce serious hyponatremia through the SIADH syndrome. That seems to concern all molecules of these classes but the individual risk of each molecule is not well known. The aims of the study were to compare the incidence rate of each molecule in order to identify the existence of molecules more at risk of inducing hyponatremia and to characterize a profile of patients at risk for hyponatremia during a treatment with a SSRI or a SNRI. The cases of hyponatremia under SSRI/SNRI were extracted from the French pharmacovigilance database (BPNV). The exposition to the different SSRIs/SNRIs in the French population was estimated from the French National Health Insurance database (SNIIRAM) using a sampled database (Echantillon Généralistes des Bénéficiaires). The study ran from 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2013. The primary study endpoint was the incidence rate of notifications of the hyponatremia cases in patients treated by SSRI/SNRI and recorded into the BNPV database, related to the average annual number of corresponding treatments initiated during the same period. The number of cases of hyponatremia included in the study was 169 for 3 749 800 adult patients initiating treatment. The incidence rate of cases was 1.64 for 100 000 persons per year (PY). The standardized incidence rates between the different molecules showed no difference except for duloxetine (2.79/100 000 PY p > 0.03). Identified risk factors were age, with a large increase of incidence rate from 75 years old (incidence 12.5 higher) and female gender. Comparison of the incidence rates from spontaneous reports indicates a greater risk of hyponatremia for duloxetine for 2011-2013. This result needs to be confirmed by other studies. The advanced age and female sex are risk factors, irrespective of the molecule. Copyright © 2017 L

  16. Investigating the association between weather conditions, calendar events and socio-economic patterns with trends in fire incidence: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; Higgs, Gary; Rohde, David; Chhetri, Prem

    2011-06-01

    Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and socio-economic characteristics in South-East Queensland, Australia using innovative technique termed the quad plot. Analysing trends in five fire incident types, including malicious false alarms (hoax calls), residential buildings, secondary (outdoor), vehicle and suspicious fires, results suggest that risk associated with all is greatly increased during school holidays and during long weekends. For all fire types the lowest risk of incidence was found to occur between one and six a.m. It was also found that there was a higher fire incidence in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and there was some evidence to suggest that there may be a compounding impact of high temperatures in such areas. We suggest that these findings may be used to guide the operations of fire services through spatial and temporal targeting to better utilise finite resources, help mitigate risk and reduce casualties.

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake among Jordanians: results from a case-control study of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S; Bawadi, Hiba A; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis D

    2014-10-01

    Diets that include fruits and vegetables have been suggested as one way to reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between consuming fruits and vegetables and CRC risk is not clear. The objective of the present study is to compare fruit and vegetable intake between 2 groups of Jordanians and further investigate this possible relationship. A history of fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained from 220 people with CRC and 281 healthy controls, all of whom were from Jordan. Both groups were matched for age, sex, occupation, and marital status. Fruit and vegetable consumption was quantified for the previous 12 months in both groups. Total vegetable intake was associated with the risk of developing CRC. Consuming 5 servings of vegetables a day decreased the risk of developing CRC when compared with no more than 1 serving a day (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.97). A significant direct relationship between CRC risk and consuming cauliflower and cabbage was found; however, no association was found for raw or cooked leafy vegetable and other vegetable types. Consuming several types of fruits also revealed no association with risk of CRC, although an increased intake of dates and figs was associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC. The ORs for the highest intake of servings compared with the lowest intake were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.27-0.87; P = .004) for dates and 0.604 (95% CI: 0.35-1.06; P = .003) for figs. Consuming fruits and vegetables did not significantly correlate with a lowered incidence of CRC. However, a trend of protection was detected for several types of fruits and vegetables.

  18. Two /sup 238/Pu inhalation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of /sup 238/Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B (/sup 238/PuNO/sub 3/) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A (/sup 238/PuO/sub 2/) received no therapy.

  19. The mediating effect of Mediterranean diet on the relation between smoking and colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Niki; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Soupos, Nick; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Linos, Athena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    The protective role of Mediterranean diet (MD) and the detrimental effect of smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC) have already been shown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential mediating effect of MD on the association between the aforementioned factor (smoking) and CRC. It is a case-control study. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with CRC (63 ± 12 years, 59% males) and 250 age-sex group-matched controls, both from the area of Attica, were studied. Various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle (including detailed smoking habits) and dietary characteristics were measured. Adherence to the MD was evaluated using the MedDietScore (theoretical range 0-55). Each unit increase in the MedDietScore was associated with 13% lower likelihood of CRC (P dietary pattern with regards to CRC morbidity and mortality.

  20. Early-Onset Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. While a decline has been observed in the older population, the occurrence of CRC in the adolescent and young adult (AYA population has increased over the past two decades. The histopathologic characteristics and clinical behavior of CRC in AYA patients have been shown to be distinct from those of CRC in older adults. The rarer subtypes of CRC such as mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma are associated with a poorer prognosis compared to the more common subtypes. Here we report a case of a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with stage IVB (T4 N2 M1, with peritoneal carcinomatosis signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the colon. The scarcity of information on these rarer subtypes merits further study and investigation.

  1. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  2. Determination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ species by FIA-CRC-ICP-MS in Antarctic ice samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spolaor, A; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Gabrieli, J

    2012-01-01

    contexts depends strongly on its oxidation state. Solubility in water and the capacity to form complexes are just two important characteristics that are species dependent. Distinguishing between the two iron species, Fe(II) and Fe(III), is necessary to evaluate bioavailability, as Fe(II) is more soluble......Iron is an element of great interest due to its role in primary production and in oceanic carbon cycle regulation, such that past changes in iron deposition may have influenced oceanic sequestration of atmospheric CO2 on millennial time scales. The behavior of iron in biological and environmental...... and therefore more readily available for phytoplankton uptake and growth. Here, we present a novel analytical method for iron speciation analysis using Collision Reaction Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS) and apply it to ice core samples from Talos Dome, Antarctica. The method...

  3. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, S.J.; Koulman, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas

  4. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes : The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J.; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B.; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L.; Huerta, José María; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M.; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas

  5. Colorectal cancer liver metastases - a population-based study on incidence, management and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Jennie; Nilsson, Henrik; Strömberg, Cecilia; Jonas, Eduard; Freedman, Jacob

    2018-01-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths with liver metastases developing in 25-30% of those affected. Previous data suggest a survival difference between right- and left-sided liver metastatic CRC, even though left-sided cancer has a higher incidence of liver metastases. The aim of the study was to describe the liver metastatic patterns and survival as a function of the characteristics of the primary tumour and different combinations of metastatic disease. A retrospective population-based study was performed on a cohort of patients diagnosed with CRC in the region of Stockholm, Sweden during 2008. Patients were identified through the Swedish National Quality Registry for Colorectal Cancer Treatment (SCRCR) and additional information on intra- and extra-hepatic metastatic pattern and treatment were retrieved from electronic patient records. Patients were followed for 5 years or until death. Factors influencing overall survival (OS) were investigated by means of Cox regression. OS was compared using Kaplan-Meier estimations and the log-rank test. Liver metastases were diagnosed in 272/1026 (26.5%) patients within five years of diagnosis of the primary. Liver and lung metastases were more often diagnosed in left-sided colon cancer compared to right-sided cancer (28.4% versus 22.1%, p = 0.029 and 19.7% versus 13.2%, p = 0.010, respectively) but the extent of liver metastases were more extensive for right-sided cancer as compared to left-sided (p = 0.001). Liver metastatic left-sided cancer, including rectal cancer, was associated with a 44% decreased mortality risk compared to right-sided cancer (HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.79) with a 5-year OS of 16.6% versus 4.3% (p < 0.001). In liver metastatic CRC, the presence of lung metastases did not significantly influence OS as assessed by multivariate analysis (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.80-1.53). The worse survival in liver metastatic right-sided colon cancer could possibly be

  6. High incidence of osteochondral lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced ankle fractures: Medium-term follow-up of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Marc; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Hamurcu, Ahmet; Vettorazzi, Eik; Behzadi, Cyrus; Hoffmann, Michael; Großterlinden, Lars G; Fensky, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Weiser, Lukas; Rueger, Johannes M; Spiro, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) in association with displaced ankle fractures has only been examined in two previous studies. In both studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Because MRI may overdiagnose or overestimate the extent of OCLs in an acute trauma setting the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of OCLs after ORIF of displaced ankle fractures using MRI at medium-term follow-up, and to analyse if the severity of fracture or the clinical outcome correlates with the incidence of OCLs. Following institutional review board approval a total of 100 patients (mean age, 41.3 years; range, 17.9-64.3 years) with a displaced ankle fracture who had undergone ORIF according to the AO principles were included in this study. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used to quantify the clinical outcome and MR images were evaluated for OCLs of the talus and distal tibia after a mean of 34.5 months (range, 17.5-54.1 months). OCLs were found in 40.4% of the patients. Logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between the severity of fracture and the incidence of OCLs. Patients with a trimalleolar fracture (p=0.04) or an ankle fracture dislocation (p=0.003) had a significantly higher risk for developing an OCL compared to those with a type B fracture. Logistic regression also demonstrated a significant correlation between the clinical outcome (AOFAS score) and the incidence of OCLs (p=0.01). The risk for developing an OCL increases up to 5.6% when the AOFAS score decreases by one point. OCLs were frequently found in association with acute ankle fractures at medium-term follow-up, and the severity of fracture was associated with an increased number of OCLs. Considering the disadvantages of MRI including the high cost and limited availability, the results of this study may help to explain why anatomic surgical realignment of displaced

  7. Predictive performance of a genetic risk score using 11 susceptibility alleles for the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in a general Japanese population: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, A; Noda, M; Goto, M; Yasuda, K; Mizoue, T; Yamaji, T; Sawada, N; Iwasaki, M; Inoue, M; Tsugane, S

    2018-02-14

    To assess the predictive ability of a genetic risk score for the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in a general Japanese population. This prospective case-control study, nested within a Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study, included 466 participants with incident Type 2 diabetes over a 5-year period (cases) and 1361 control participants, as well as 1463 participants with existing diabetes and 1463 control participants. Eleven susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms, identified through genome-wide association studies and replicated in Japanese populations, were analysed. Most single nucleotide polymorphism loci showed directionally consistent associations with diabetes. From the combined samples, one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2206734 at CDKAL1) reached a genome-wide significance level (odds ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.40; P = 1.8 × 10 -8 ). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2206734 in CDKAL1, rs2383208 in CDKN2A/B, and rs2237892 in KCNQ1) were nominally associated with incident diabetes. Compared with the lowest quintile of the total number of risk alleles, the highest quintile had a higher odds of incident diabetes (odds ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.59-3.46) after adjusting for conventional risk factors such as age, sex and BMI. The addition to the conventional risk factor-based model of a genetic risk score using the 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly improved predictive performance; the c-statistic increased by 0.021, net reclassification improved by 6.2%, and integrated discrimination improved by 0.003. Our prospective findings suggest that the addition of a genetic risk score may provide modest but significant incremental predictive performance beyond that of the conventional risk factor-based model without biochemical markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia; Control de precision y exactitud del calibrador de dosis: CAPINTEC CRC 12 del Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia del Instituto de Medicina Nuclear Sucre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ., E-mail: nuclear_sre@entelnet.bo, E-mail: ehuancasardinas@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcetorrez@hotmail.com, E-mail: maritavas@yahoo.es, E-mail: alfzambrana@gmail.com [Universidad Mayor Real y Pontifica de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Radiofarmacia - Instituto de Medicina Nuclear de Sucre. Hospital Santa Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba{sup 133} , Cs{sup 137} , Co{sup 60} and Co{sup 57}. The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co{sup 57} of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba{sup 133} 1.00, relative to Co{sup 57} 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable.

  9. Meat and fiber intake and interaction with pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR10) in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective, case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Tjonneland, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Meat and dietary fiber are associated with increased and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate the intestinal immune response in a complex interplay between the mucosal epithelium and the microbiota and may therefore be important...... modulators of diet-induced CRC together with other inflammatory mediators. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association between functional TLR polymorphisms and risk of CRC and the interaction with dietary factors. Additionally, interactions with previously studied polymorphisms in IL10, IL1B, PTGS2......, and NFKB1 were assessed in order to examine possible biological pathways in meat-induced CRC. Design: A nested case-cohort study of 897 CRC cases and 1689 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using Cox...

  10. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  11. Is the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer increased in patients with thyrotropin-secreting adenomas? Report of three cases from a large consecutive series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, Francesca; Pigliaru, Francesca; Mariotti, Stefano; Deiana, Luca; Furlani, Lino; Mortini, Pietro; Losa, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Patients with a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) are exposed to unregulated and inappropriately high levels of thyrotropin (TSH). Given the rarity of this condition, it is not known whether this chronic TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland might represent a risk factor for the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We analyzed the incidence of DTC in a large cohort of patients with TSHomas. The study population consisted of all consecutive patients who underwent neurosurgery for a TSHoma between 1990 and 2013. Criteria for the diagnosis of TSHoma in patients without previous thyroid ablative procedures included elevated free thyroid hormones and normal/high serum TSH concentrations, presence of a lesion at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and abnormal response of TSH to at least one dynamic test. Patients who had received thyroid ablative procedures were required to have a pituitary lesion on MRI and TSH levels not suppressed while on levothyroxine therapy at doses causing elevation of free thyroid hormone levels. Sixty-two patients (32 females, 30 males) underwent surgery for a TSHoma at our center. Among them, 3 patients had a coexistent diagnosis of DTC with an estimated incidence of 4.8%. In 2 patients, DTC was diagnosed during the evaluation for suspected TSH-dependent hyperthyroidism, whereas in the third patient, diagnosis of DTC preceded the detection of the pituitary tumor. The elevated incidence of DTC in patients with TSHoma suggests a possible role of TSH hypersecretion in the development of thyroid tumors. A formal high-resolution ultrasound of the thyroid is recommended in patients diagnosed with a TSHoma, especially if a long history of the pituitary tumor is suspected. Moreover, suspicion about the presence of TSHoma should be raised by the lack of suppression of TSH levels despite adequate doses of levothyroxine after thyroidectomy for DTC.

  12. Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation as a cause of transition radiation anomalous intensity in case of electron grazing incidence on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of the Vavilov-Cherenkov effect the anomaly in the transition radiation (TR) spectrum is explained which has been first observed by Boersch for grazing particle incidence on the silver surface. The contribution of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to the angle distribution of photons of the TR is estimated. Special attention is drawn to a possibility of the nonthreshold character of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in such a medium as silver, and to a necessity of creating a complete theory of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation for absorbing media

  13. AML with 11q23/MLL abnormalities as defined by the WHO classification: incidence, partner chromosomes, FAB subtype, age distribution, and prognostic impact in an unselected series of 1897 cytogenetically analyzed AML cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Claudia; Schnittger, Susanne; Klaus, Mirjam; Kern, Wolfgang; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten

    2003-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases with 11q23 abnormalities involving the MLL gene comprise one category of recurring genetic abnormalities in the WHO classification. In an unselected series of 1897 AML cases, 54 patients with an 11q23/MLL rearrangement were identified, resulting in an incidence of 2.8%. The incidence of AML with MLL rearrangement was significantly higher in therapy-related AML (t-AML) than in de novo AML (9.4% vs 2.6%, P FAB) subtypes (P <.0001). Compared with AML with intermediate karyotype, AML with 11q23/MLL rearrangement had a worse outcome, which was rather comparable with AML with unfavorable karyotype. Compared with t-AML, the median overall survival (OS) of de novo AML with MLL rearrangement was significantly better (2.5 vs 10 months, P =.0143). No significant differences in median OS were observed between cases with t(9;11) compared with all other MLL rearrangements (10.0 vs 8.9 months, P =.36). In conclusion, the category AML with 11q23/MLL abnormalities accounts for 2.8% of unselected AML, is closely associated with monocytic differentiation, and has a dismal prognosis. (

  14. Incidence of retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal in cases of severe eye injuries operated during the 25th of January Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Abdel Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The routine use of silicone tamponade in complicated cases such as those with penetrating trauma, even if RD was not identified beforehand and the usage of an encircling bands in difficult cases with RD, may increase the success rate after SOR.

  15. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  16. Metropolitan transportation management center : a case study : Boston Central Artery/Tunnel Integrated Project control system : responding to incidents rapidly and effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of the Boston Central Artery/Tunnel Integration Project Control System (IPCS) operations control center. It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Ce...

  17. Viscous flow solutions for slender bodies of revolution at incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.

    1991-01-01

    Flow over slender prolate spheroids at incidence is examined. The incidence angle is chosen high enough to cause streamwise separation of the flow in addition to crossflow separation generally observed at lower incidence angles. The freestream Mach number for the cases investigated here is subsonic, thus precluding the use of parabolized procedures. Laminar, transitional and turbulent flow cases are investigated.

  18. Low incidence of colonization and no cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (DMAC in Brazilian AIDS patients in the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Gadelha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.

  19. Low incidence of colonization and no cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (DMAC in Brazilian AIDS patients in the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadelha Ângela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.

  20. Incidence of scabies in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAPEERE, H.; NAEYAERT, J.-M.; De WEERT, J.; De MAESENEER, J.; BROCHEZ, L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A prospective survey on scabies in Ghent, Belgium was performed in 2004. Sixty-four individual cases were reported, corresponding to a crude incidence rate of 28/100 000 inhabitants. The incidence was higher in the elderly (51/100 000 in persons aged >75 years) and a higher incidence was also found in immigrants (88/100 000). More than 40% of the registered scabies patients had symptoms for more than 4 weeks at the time of presentation. In 54% of the consultations, the patient had already consulted a physician for his/her skin problem. Of this group, 44% had not yet received any scabicidal treatment, indicating that scabies was not yet diagnosed or that an inappropriate treatment was prescribed. The observations suggest that the diagnosis and/or treatment of scabies in this region can still be improved. PMID:17506916

  1. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  2. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  3. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  4. Relationship between Genetic Polymorphisms in MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and their Haplotypes) and the Incidence Of Breast Cancer among Jordanian Females--Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Nemah; Yousef, Al-Motassem; Abuhaliema, Ali; Abdalla, Ihab; Yousef, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Jordan and worldwide. Abnormality of DNA methylation is a possible mechanism for the development of cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in DNA methylation. Our aim was to study the association between genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR at two sites (C677T and A1298C) and their haplotypes and the risk of breast cancer among Jordanian females. A case-control study involving 150 breast cancer cases and 150 controls was conducted. Controls were age-matched to cases. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sequencing were conducted to determine the genotypes. There was a significant difference in genotype frequency of C677T in the 41-60 year age category [cases: CC (37.4%), CT (49.5%) and TT (13.2%); controls: CC (56.3%), CT (35.6%) and TT (8%), p=0.04; ORTT vs. CC: 2.5, 95% CI: (0.9-6.9); ORat least on T: 2.1, 95%CI: (1.2-3.9)]. There was no significant difference in genotype frequency of A1298C between cases and controls [cases: AA (46.6%), AC (41.8%) and CC (11.6%); controls: AA (43%), AC (47.4%) and CC (9.6%); p=0.6]. There was a significant difference of MTHFR genetic polymorphism haplotypes among breast cancer cases and controls [cases/control: CA: 38.3/45.4%; CC: 28.9/25.2%; TA: 29.2/21; TC: 3.6/8.3; p value=0.01; ORTA vs. CA=1.6; 95% CI (1.1-2.5); p=0.02]. Genetic polymorphism of MTHFR C677T may modulate the risk of breast cancer especially in the 41-60 year age group. Additionally, TA haplotype amends the risk of breast cancer. Future studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate the role of MTHFR genetic polymorphisms in breast cancer.

  5. PDGFRα/β and VEGFR2 polymorphisms in colorectal cancer: incidence and implications in clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez-Garcia, Purificacion; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Castaño, Angel; Martin, Ana C; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Iglesias, Joaquin; Muñoz-Galván, Sandra; Lopez-Calderero, Iker; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Pastor, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC). VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed. Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12): c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13): c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17): c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19): c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205), was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA) than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG) (51% vs 17%; p=0.073). Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029) was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060) or TNM stage (p<0.001). PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated

  6. PDGFRα/β and VEGFR2 polymorphisms in colorectal cancer: incidence and implications in clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevez-Garcia Purificacion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed. Results Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12: c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13: c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17: c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19: c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205, was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG (51% vs 17%; p=0.073. Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029 was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060 or TNM stage (p Conclusions PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated.

  7. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  8. A large proportion of esophageal cancer cases and the incidence difference between regions are attributable to lifestyle risk factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Zhang, Z.F.; Wang, X.S.; Gu, X.P.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-risk area (Dafeng) and a low-risk area (Ganyu) of Jiangsu province, China. In this analysis, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated to quantify the etiology of risk factors; the relative attributable risk (RAR) was

  9. The Use of Restorative Justice Practices in a School Community Traumatized by an Incident of Planned School Violence: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateer, Susan Carol

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, less than two years after the Columbine High School shootings, a plan to copycat the Columbine shooting in a junior high school was interrupted by police. This was one of the first documented cases of interrupted school violence and the school where this was to occur was traumatized both by the fact that students were planning violence…

  10. [A structured case analysis from the Critical Incident Reporting System of the German Medical Association and the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thomas; Tetzlaff, Laura; Löwe, Katharina; Schröder, Cornelia; Beck, Eberhard

    2018-03-19

    Reporting systems for near misses are necessary to improve patient safety. In Germany, different systems are publicly available on both a national and regional level or as systems related to various medical domains. In contrast with the British Registry, our reporting systems still lack systematic evaluation. Using the Open-Task-Process Model (OPT model) one case of CIRSmedical (www.cirsmedical.de) was selected for a systematic analysis. Case 148384 reports on a patient with a tentative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with an oxygen saturation of 71 %. The attending physician was ordered to leave the patient to participate in the daily team meeting. After 40minutes, the nurses transferred the patient from the emergency department to the ICU. The OPT model systematically checks the properties of all tasks in a given process and matches them to requirements or solving capacities of the task. The analysis manifests some structural problems: Although the case was not very difficult (high priority, but a frequent problem), the solving capacities were not adequate in order to avoid errors. Since the physician left the patient, the loyalty toward medical standards and the team error correction activity were low. The team did not intervene to prevent the doctor from leaving his patient. The OPT model allows for the analysis of both single cases and complete data sets of CIR systems and is able to disclose structural problems of clinical management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Cross-Curricular Teaching: The Case of Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kukovec

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge learners acquire at school has to be applicable in practice to ensure their motivation for learning. Both cross-curricular and interdisciplinary teaching provide a meaningful way in which students can use the knowledge acquired in one context as the basis for learning in other contexts in and out of school. By using interdisciplinary teaching, the instructor can present the topics in a holistic manner: this approach therefore allows us to activate more of the learners’ senses and intelligences. Since Mathematics is one of the least liked subjects by our students, and English one of the favorite ones, the article will demonstrate how we can integrate activities addressing all types of intelligences in a language learning class to achieve the whole range of Bloom’s levels of educational objectives on the basis of a novel which includes a wealth of references to mathematics: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon, which has recently been compulsory reading in all Slovene grammar school programs.

  12. [Incidence of painful neuroma after end-to-end nerve suture wrapped into a collagen conduit. A prospective study of 185 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, L; Schlur, C

    2013-10-01

    Three to 5% of the nerves directly and correctly sutured evolve towards significant neuropathy pain. The psychological, social and economic impact of such a consequence is very important. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of the occurrence of a trigger zone or a neuroma, at 6months of maximum follow-up after direct nervous suture bushed in a type 1 collagen tube. Every patient taken care for a traumatic nervous injury from November 2008 to March 2012 was included in the study. The exclusion criteria were any replantation, nervous tissue defect and any distal nervous stump which could not technically be wrapped around. The only conduct used was made of collagen type 1 (Revolnerv(®), Orthomed™). All patients were examined after one, three and sixmonths for a clinical evaluation made by the same surgeon. The apparition of a trigger zone or a real neuroma was clinically assessed. One hundred and seventy-four patients for a total of 197 sutured nerves were included in the study. At the 6 months follow-up, 163 patients were evaluated for a total of 185 nerves. No patient suffered from a neuroma at this time. As the treatment of neuroma is very difficult, considering the cost and the results, wrapping direct end-to-end sutures by a collagen type 1 tube seems helping to prevent the appearance of a neuroma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with colorectal cancer in the context of the Mediterranean diet: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Biondi, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Basile, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that increased adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) may prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between health-related characteristics and CRC in the context of the MD. This was a case-control study conducted on a sample of 338 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of CRC recruited in an urban facility in the city of Catania, southern Italy, and matched with 676 apparently healthy subjects without clinical symptoms or signs of any type of cancer. Data regarding sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics were collected, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was assessed using the MedDietScore. A significant association between a greater adherence to the MD and lower odds of having cancer (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.75) was found. Also, smoking status, family history of CRC, obesity, diabetes, physical activity, and high intake of alcohol were significantly associated with CRC, but only among subjects less adherent to the MD. MD was associated with a less detrimental effects of several health-related characteristics associated with CRC, suggesting potential benefits of adherence to this dietary pattern with regards to CRC risk factors.

  14. Institutionalization in incident dementia cases in comparison to age- and sex- matched controls: a 5-year follow-up from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jana; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Koller, Daniela; Hoffmann, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a main reason for nursing home admission. Information on institutionalization is often based on studies of limited methodological quality. We aimed to analyze time until nursing home admission since first coding of dementia diagnosis and factors associated with institutionalization in incident dementia patients compared to non-demented controls. We analyzed claims data of a German Health insurance company including a cohort of 1,440 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia and 6,988 age- and sex-matched controls aged 65 years and older. The follow-up was up to 5 years. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis for examining time until nursing home admission and cox regression for estimating crude and adjusted Hazard ratios. Dementia patients and controls were on average 78 years and about 55 % were males. The mean time to nursing home admission was 4.0 years in patients with dementia and 4.6 years for controls. After the 5-years observation-period 62.7 % (95 % CI 59.0-66.1) of dementia patients still lived in the community in comparison to 86.2 % (95 % CI 85.2-87.2) of controls. Cox regression models show that the risk for institutionalization is 3.45 (95 % CI 3.05-3.90) times higher in dementia patients in comparison to controls when adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidity. Our analysis shows a significant influence of dementia on institutionalization in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls, especially in the youngest age groups. Hence, the results add substantial information on the disease progression of dementia and are, therefore, of great importance for health-care as well as long-term care planning.

  15. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC. We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1 A-413T (rs2071746 was assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and interactions with diet (red meat, fish, fiber, cereals, fruit and vegetables and lifestyle (use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and smoking status were assessed in a case-cohort study of 928 CRC cases and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98–1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate. No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A-413T. HMOX1 A-413T was not associated with CRC risk and no interactions with diet or lifestyle were identified in this large, prospective cohort with high meat intake. The results reproduced the previous findings from the same cohort and did not support a link between heme or heme iron and colorectal cancer. These results should be sought and replicated in other well-characterized cohorts with high meat intake.

  16. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community. PMID:23339562

  17. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Bunker, Clare; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Vitonis, Allison F; Olson, Sara H; King, Melony; Chandran, Urmila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Webb, Penelope M; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goodman, Marc T; Terry, Kathryn L; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Brinton, Louise A; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ness, Roberta B; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in HIV-Infected Individuals in Comparison to HIV-Uninfected Individuals: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotpal, Ruchi; S, Krishna Prakash; Bhalla, Preena; Dewan, Richa; Kaur, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV infection attending the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in a teaching hospital and compare the prevalence with HIV-uninfected individuals. A case-control study was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals and an equal number of age-group and sex-matched HIV-uninfected individuals, and nasal swabs were collected from both the samples. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected through individual interviews. Ethical aspects were respected. A total of 100 individuals participated in the study, and 22 (44%) of the 50 HIV-infected cases were colonized by S aureus, including 19 (86.4%) methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) and 3 (13.6%) methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Only 12 (24%) strains were isolated from 50 HIV-uninfected individuals, with 11 being MSSA and 1 being MRSA. This difference in the isolation rate was statistically significant (P = .035). The 2 most commonly encountered risk factors in both the groups appeared to be history of tuberculosis and history of surgical procedures but none being statistically significant (P = .093 and P = .996). All the strains of S aureus were sensitive to mupirocin. The study concluded that HIV-infected individuals are at a higher risk of carriage as compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. By eliminating carriage in immunocompromised individuals, infections due to S aureus can also be minimized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE LA RESISTENCIA AL DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZACIÓN CATÓDICA MAGNETRÓN EFEITO DO CONTEÚDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECOBRIMENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZAÇÃO CATÓDICA MAGNETRÃO EFFECT OF THE CARBON CONTENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF CrC COATINGS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de carburo de cromo sobre acero son un buen candidato para aplicaciones de conformado y moldes de inyección. La alta resistencia mecánica, resistencia química y estabilidad a alta temperatura de la fase Cr3C2 pueden ser compatibles con el intenso desgaste abrasivo y la corrosión en tales operaciones de fabricación. En este trabajo se depositaron recubrimientos de CrC por pulverización catódica magnetrón RF, los cuales mostraron contenidos de carbono entre el 25 % y el 58 % por análisis EDS. Los valores de dureza de estos recubrimientos fueron entre 15 y 24 GPa; los más duros de las muestras tuvieron contenido de carbono en el rango de 39-53 %. El desgaste abrasivo de los recubrimientos se evaluó utilizando un equipo de disco abrasivo con polvo de diamante. El volumen de las huellas de abrasión se midió con las imágenes obtenidas en el microscopio interferométrico y además se corroboró con el cálculo del volumen geométrico basado en secciones medidas con el perfilómetro. El comportamiento al desgaste abrasivo mostró una marcada dependencia con el contenido de carbono. El desgaste abrasivo más bajo se obtuvo para los recubrimientos con el más alto contenido de carbono.Os recobrimentos de carburo de cromo sobre aço são um bom candidato para aplicações de conformado e moldes de injeção. A alta resistência mecânica, resistência química e estabilidade em alta temperatura da fase Cr3C2 podem ser compatíveis com o intenso desgaste abrasivo e a corrosão em tais operações de fabricação. Neste trabalho depositaram-se recobrimentos de CrC por pulverização catódica magnetrão RF, os quais mostraram conteúdos de carbono entre 25 % e 58 % por análise EDS. Os valores de dureza destes recobrimentos foram entre 15 e 24 GPa; os mais duros das mostras tiveram conteúdo de carbono na faixa de 39-53 %. O desgaste abrasivo dos recobrimentos avaliou-se utilizando uma equipe de disco abrasivo com pó de

  20. A Knowledge-based System for Estimating Incident Clearance Duration for Maryland : I-95 a Case Study for the Project of MD-17-SHA/UM/4-19 : “Development of a Traffic Management Decision Support Tool for Freeway Incident Traffic Management (FITM) Plan Deployment”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    For the incident response operations to be appreciated by the general public, it is essential that responsible highway agencies be capable of providing the estimated clearance duration of a detected incident at the level sufficiently reliable for mot...

  1. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: A matched case control study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeling, L.J.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable....... Injuries were recorded before mixing the horses into treatment groups, the day after mixing and four weeks later. Reactivity of horses to a moving novel object and the behaviour of a horse being removed from its group and the reactions of other group members towards this horse and the handler were...... evaluated. It was hypothesized that a more socially variable group composition has beneficial effects on behaviour, ease of handling and reducing reactivity whereas frequent changes in group composition has negative consequences, resulting in more injuries. We found that differences in treatment effects...

  2. Short-term effects of ambient particulates and gaseous pollutants on the incidence of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke: a case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedada Getahun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While several studies have investigated the effects of short-term air pollution on cardiovascular disease, less is known about its effects on cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of short-term variation in air pollutants on the onset of TIA and minor stroke. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data collected prospectively in the North West of England in a multi-centre study (NORTHSTAR of patients with recent TIA or minor stroke. A case - crossover study was conducted to determine the association between occurrence of TIA and the concentration of ambient PM10 or gaseous pollutants. Results A total of 709 cases were recruited from the Manchester (n = 335 and Liverpool (n = 374 areas. Data for the Manchester cohort showed an association between ambient nitric oxide (NO and risk of occurrence of TIA and minor stroke with a lag of 3 days (odds ratio 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.11, whereas negative association was found for the patients from Liverpool. Effects of similar magnitude, although not statistically significant, were generally observed with other pollutants. In a two pollutant model the effect of NO remained stronger and statistically significant when analysed in combination with CO or SO2, but was marginal in combination with NO2 or ozone and non-significant with PM10. There was evidence of effect modification by age, gender and season. Conclusions Our data suggest an association between NO and occurrence of TIA and minor stroke in Greater Manchester.

  3. Applying multilevel model to the relationship of dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: an ongoing case-control study in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto Rubén

    2012-09-01

    Scientific literature has consistently shown the effects of certain diets on health but regional variations of dietary habits, and their relationship colorectal cancer (CRC) has been poorly studied in Argentina. Our aims were to identify dietary patterns and estimate their effect on CRC occurrence and to quantify the association between family history of CRC and CRC occurrence by applying multilevel models to estimate and interpret measures of variation. Principal components factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns that were then used in a multilevel logistic regression applied to an ongoing case-control data about dietary exposure and CRC occurrence taking into account familiar clustering. Three dietary patterns were identified: "Southern Cone pattern" (red meat, wine, and starchy vegetables), "High-sugar drinks pattern", and "Prudent pattern". The study considered 41 cases and 95 controls. There was a significant promoting effects on CRC of "Southern Cone" (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2) and "High-sugar drinks" (OR 3.8, 95%CI 2.0-7.1) patterns, whereas "Prudent pattern" (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2-0.4) showed a significant protective effect at third tertile level. BMI, use of NSAIDs, and to have medical insurance showed significant effects. Variance of the random effect of family history of CRC was highly significant. This novel approach for Argentina showed that Southern Cone and High-sugar drinks patterns were associated with a higher risk of CRC, whereas the Prudent pattern showed a protective effect. There was a significant clustering effect of family history of CRC.

  4. [A case-control study for assessing the relation between the incidence of malignant lymphomas and environmental factors in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cai-Gang; Zheng, Su-Ping; Huang, Jie; Wu, Jin-Xu

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the relationships of malignant lymphoma (ML) and exposure factors, including environmental, drug using, socioeconomic level and life style etc. (1) Hospital-based case-control study with 1:2 matching was used; (2) 150 cases of ML and 300 controls were resulted; (3) logistic regression was used. (1) Adjust odds ratios (aOR) regarding contact to organic solvents were: benzene aOR = 2.78, P = 0.001;banana oil aOR = 2.28, P = 0.043; paint aOR = 1.96, P = 0.023; (2) aOR on pesticides contact: organic phosphorus aOR = 1.98, P = 0.034; chrysanthester aOR = 2.57, P = 0.013; organic nitride aOR = 2.55, P = 0.003; (3) aOR of using aspirin was 2.36, P = 0.005; (4) dog-raising: aOR = 1.76, P = 0.034; (5) the aORs of interval-term exposure to small dosage X-ray was 0.49, P = 0.015, and frequently catching cold was 0.67, P = 0.024; (6) the P-value of different occupations was more than 0.05; cigarette smoking OR = 1.01, P = 0.897; giving up smoking OR = 1.17, P = 0.073; alcohol-drinking aOR = 1.01, P = 0.414; hair-dyes OR = 1.06, P = 0.850; hair-perms OR = 1.26, P = 0.438; socioeconomic level OR = 1.00, P = 1.000 and with introversive character OR = 1.26, P = 0.266. (1) Factors that might increase the risk of suffering from malignant lymphomas would include direct contact to organic solvents and some pesticides (organic phosphorus, chrysanthester and organic nitride), intake of aspirin, as well as dog-raising. (2) Regular exposure to small dosage X-ray and frequently catching cold seemed to decrease the risk of suffering from ML. (3) Occupation, smoking, giving up smoking, alcohol-drinking, hair-dyes, hair-perms, socioeconomic level and introversive character showed no significant relations to the risk of suffering from ML in this study.

  5. Proposal of resolution to create an inquiry commission on the french nuclear power plants reliability in case or earthquakes and on the safety, information and warning procedures in case of incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This short paper presents the reasons of the creation of parliamentary inquiry commission of 30 members, on the reliability of the nuclear power plants in France in case of earthquakes and on the safety, information and warning procedures in case of accidents. (A.L.B.)

  6. [Treatment of gunshot fractures of the lower extremity: Part 1: Incidence, importance, case numbers, pathophysiology, contamination, principles of emergency and first responder treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Bieler, D; Wilms, A; Hentsch, S; Johann, M; Kollig, E

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot wounds are rare in Germany and are mostly the result of suicide attempts or improper handling of weapons. The resulting injuries involve extensive tissue damage and complications which are thus unique and require a differentiated approach. As trauma centers may be confronted with gunshot wounds at any time, treatment principles must be understood and regularly reevaluated. Due to Bundeswehr operations abroad and the treatment of patients from other crisis regions a total of 85 gunshot wounds in 64 patients were treated between 2005 and 2011. In the majority of cases the lower extremities were affected and we were able to carry out treatment to preserve the extremities. In this article we report on our experiences and the results of treatment of gunshot wounds to the lower extremities. This part of the article deals with the epidemiology and pathophysiology of gunshot wounds to the lower extremities. By means of an evaluation of microbiological findings in a subgroup of patients involved in a civil war (n=10), the problem of multidrug resistant pathogen contamination, colonization and infection is discussed. In addition to a description of initial and emergency treatment of gunshot wounds, measures required for further treatment and decontamination are presented. Finally, the results are discussed with reference to the literature in this field.

  7. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  8. Incidence of Inadvertent Dural Puncture During CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Interlaminar Epidural Corticosteroid Injections in the Cervical Spine: An Analysis of 974 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, T J; Parivash, S N; Gray, L; Kranz, P G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the rate of inadvertent dural puncture during CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection. In addition, in a subanalysis, we aim to assess the rate of inadvertent dural puncture superior to C5-C6 occurring during interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection using CT fluoroscopy guidance because such injections are not performed using conventional fluoroscopy. Images obtained from consecutive CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections conducted from November 2009 to November 2015 were reviewed. The following information was recorded: the presence of inadvertent dural puncture, the level of the cervical interlaminar space, approach laterality (left or right), anteroposterior spinal canal diameter, and the presence of a trainee. Two-tailed Fisher exact tests were used for assessment of categoric variables, and t tests were used for continuous variables. A total of 974 cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were identified in 728 patients. Inadvertent dural punctures were identified in association with 1.4% (14/974) of these injections; all punctures were recognized during the procedure. Needle placements were performed at every cervical level (C1-C2 through C7-T1). The highest rate of dural puncture (2.8%) occurred at C5-C6. No dural punctures occurred superior to C5-C6 (16.6% of cases). The complication rate was 0.4%. Only greater anteroposterior spinal canal diameter was associated with increased dural puncture rates (p = 0.049). CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were performed at all levels throughout the cervical spine. A very low complication rate and a minimal rate of inadvertent dural puncture were noted, similar to previously reported rates for conventional fluoroscopy-guided injections limited to the lower cervical spine only.

  9. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  10. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  11. Representative Incidents in the Adoption Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Jay A.; And Others

    This paper presents three case studies of innovation, based on interviews with six adoption agents. Key episodes and incidents which illustrate important principles are drawn from the experiences of these adoption agents. The case studies offer examples of both success and failure--by both internal and external adoption agents. They also emphasize…

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Regorafenib With 2/1 Schedule for Patients ≥ 75 Years With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) After Failure of 2 Lines of Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrioli, Roberto; Chirra, Martina; Messuti, Luciana; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Savelli, Vinno; Martellucci, Ignazio; Francini, Edoardo

    2018-02-21

    In the CORRECT (patients with metastatic COloRectal Cancer treated with REgorafenib or plaCebo after failure of standard Therapy) trial, regorafenib was proven to extend survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that progressed after all available therapies. Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred in 54% of patients, and data on the activity and tolerability of regorafenib in elderly patients were scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alternative schedule, 2-week-on treatment and 1 week-off (2/1 schedule), of regorafenib for elderly patients with mCRC. Patients ≥ 75 years with mCRC who progressed after oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy received regorafenib on a 2/1 schedule. Potentially frail subjects were identified by G8 screening tool and excluded. The 2-month disease-control rate was the primary endpoint, and the secondary endpoints included safety, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate. Between February 2014 and May 2017, 23 patients with mCRC were recruited at our institution. No partial or complete responses were observed, and the stable disease and disease-control rate were 52.2%. The median PFS was 4.8 months (95% confidence interval, 3.8-6.3 months), and the median OS was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval, 6.9-10.6 months). Adverse events were uncommon, and the most frequent grade 3 toxicity adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (9%) and fatigue (9%). Toxicity-related dose reductions and discontinuations occurred in 5 and 2 patients, respectively. Regorafenib administered with a modified 2/1 schedule to patients who were aged ≥ 75 years and non-frail with treatment-refractory mCRC seems to be tolerable and achieve encouraging results in terms of PFS and OS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Keigo; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Shomura, Hiroki; Homma, Shigenori; Hattori, Atsuo; Kazui, Keizo; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of many malignant tumors has been well documented, with an approximate incidence of one per 60,000-100,000 cancer patients. However, SR of colorectal cancer (CRC) is very rare, accounting for less than 2% of such cases. We report a case of SR of transverse colon cancer in an 80-year-old man undergoing outpatient follow-up after surgical treatment of early gastric cancer. Colonoscopy (CS) revealed a Borrmann type II tumor in the transverse colon measuring 30 × 30 mm. Because the patient underwent anticoagulant therapy, we did not perform a biopsy at that time. A second CS was performed 1 week after the initial examination and revealed tumor shrinkage to a diameter of 20 mm and a shift to the Borrmann type III morphology. Biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. One week after the second CS, we performed a partial resection of the transverse colon and D2 lymph node dissection. Histopathology revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis from the submucosal to muscularis propria layers in the absence of cancer cells, leading to pathological staging of pStage 0 (T0N0). The patient had an uneventful recovery, and CS performed at 5 months postoperatively revealed the absence of a tumor in the colon and rectum. The patient continues to be followed up as an outpatient at 12 months postoperatively, and no recurrence has been observed.

  14. The influence of the pre-hospital application of non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in the practice of emergency medical services in multiple and mass casualty incidents (MCI – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 a fire broke out in the Nursing Home (NH in the Henryszew village 5 km away from the district hospital in Żyrardów. At the time of the incident 52 residents and 16 staff members were present in the building. Due to a large number of casualties, the occurrence was classified as a potentially mass casualty incident (MCI. Troops of the State Fire Brigade, Paramedic Rescue Squads, choppers of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, the Police, and the NH staff took part in the rescue operation. The priority was given to the evacuation of the NH residents carried out by the NH staff and firefighters, extinguishing the fire, as well as to primary and secondary survey triage. Due to the pre-accident health state of the victims, the latter posed a considerable difficulty. A decisive role was played by the need to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in all the casualties, which then made it possible to adequately diagnose the patients and implement proper procedures. The rescue operation was correctly followed although it proved to be a serious logistical and technical undertaking for the participating emergency services. The residents were not found to be suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, therefore 46 of the residents safely returned to the building. The fact that all the Paramedic Rescue Squads were equipped with medical triage sets and were able to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin made it possible to introduce effective procedures in the cases of suspected carbon monoxide poisoning and abandon costly and complicated organisational procedures when they proved to be unnecessary. Med Pr 2014;65(2:289–295

  15. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  16. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  17. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  18. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  19. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  20. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  1. Familial colorectal cancer, can it be identified by microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability? - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Lone; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Soll-Johanning, Helle

    2009-01-01

    a family history, and 39 relatives to cases) were analysed for MSI and CIN. In this small case-control study, no significant differences in the frequencies of MSI and CIN were observed between cases with a family history and their controls without a family history. MSI+;CIN- was observed in 6/29 cases......-ploidy were obtained in 16/26, 16/26, and 14/25 families, respectively.Although MSI+;CIN- appeared to predict familial CRC with a high specificity, neither MSI, CIN, or MSI+;CIN- are likely to be sufficiently sensitive predictors of familial CRC....

  2. Serious incidents after death: content analysis of incidents reported to a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Donaldson, Liam J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives To describe serious incidents occurring in the management of patient remains after their death. Design Incidents occurring after patient deaths were analysed using content analysis to determine what happened, why it happened and the outcome. Setting The Strategic Executive Information System database of serious incidents requiring investigation occurring in the National Health Service in England. Participants All cases describing an incident that occurred following death, regardless of the age of the patient. Main outcome measures The nature of the incident, the underlying cause or causes of the incident and the outcome of the incident. Results One hundred and thirty-two incidents were analysed; these related to the storage, management or disposal of deceased patient remains. Fifty-four incidents concerned problems with the storage of bodies or body parts. Forty-three incidents concerned problems with the management of bodies, including 25 errors in postmortem examination, or postmortems on the wrong body. Thirty-one incidents related to the disposal of bodies, 25 bodies were released from the mortuary to undertakers in error; of these, nine were buried or cremated by the wrong family. The reported underlying causes were similar to those known to be associated with safety incidents occurring before death and included weaknesses in or failures to follow protocol and procedure, poor communication and informal working practices. Conclusions Serious incidents in the management of deceased patient remains have significant implications for families, hospitals and the health service more broadly. Safe mortuary care may be improved by applying lessons learned from existing patient safety work.

  3. Incidence, risk factors, clinico-microbiological profile, change in ventilator settings needed and outcome of 135 ventilator associated pneumonia cases in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a tertiary care centre in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manonita Manjhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is the second most common nosocomial infection diagnosed in mechanically ventilated patients with incidence of 20-36%, mainly caused by Gram-negative organisms in our country. Decrease in PaO2/FIO2 (arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen is an early marker of VAP. Impaired consciousness, re-intubation and continuous sedation are the most important risk factors of VAP. We aimed to study the incidence, risk factors, clinico-microbiological profile, change in ventilator settings needed and outcome of VAP in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a tertiary care centre in Eastern India.Methods: This retrospective, observational study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2017, including 300 patients. We diagnosed VAP using Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and analysed the data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® version 20.0.Results: Incidence of VAP was 45%, with higher incidence in infants with prolonged ventilation, use of continuous sedation and H2 blockers, re-intubation, presence of genetic syndromes and impaired consciousness. Gram-negative organisms (94% (P. aeruginosa [45.93%], K. pneumoniae [25.18%], E. coli [14.81%], Acinetobacter spp. [8.14%] outnumbered Gram-positive organisms (6% (S. aureus [2.96%], Enterococcus spp. [2.22%] and S. pneumoniae [0.7%]. Resistance to common antibiotics was found in many cases. Multivariate analysis identified nasogastric tube feeding (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.88; 95% CI = 0.8-2.3, use of H2-blockers (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 0.51-4.5, use of continuous sedation (adjusted OR = 2.779; 95% CI = 0.7-4.9, re-intubation (adjusted OR = 4.861; 95% CI = 1.6-17.8 and duration of ventilation > 1 week (adjusted OR = 5; 95% CI = 0.7-6.3 as the risk factors for VAP. Purulent tracheal secretions (p < 0.0001, positive tracheal aspirate culture (p < 0.0001 and a suggestive chest radiograph (p < 0

  4. Incidence of Second Primary Malignancies Following Colorectal Cancer: A Distinct Pattern of Occurrence Between Colon and Rectal Cancers and Association of Co-Morbidity with Second Primary Malignancies in a Population-Based Cohort of 98,876 Patients in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Teng, Chung-Jen; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Jen-Kou; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Wang, Huann-Sheng; Yang, Shung-Haur; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chen, Wei-Shone; Lin, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Shih-Ching; Chen, Ming-Huang; Teng, Hao-Wei; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yen, Chueh-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the features of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among patients with prior colorectal cancer (CRC) using a nationwide population-based dataset. Patients with CRC newly diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, and >1 year of follow-up were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs in patients with CRC were calculated. During the 16-year study period, 4259 SPMs developed among 98,876 CRC patients. The median duration of follow-up was 4.03 years. The SIR for all SPMs was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.17). Compared with the general population, a higher incidence of thyroid, prostate, ovarian, and hematologic malignancies developed among patients with colon cancer, whereas the risk for bone and soft tissue cancers increased among patients with rectal cancer. The risk for breast, bladder, kidney, lung, and uterine cancers was significantly higher in patients with colon and rectal cancers than the general population. The risk for liver and biliary tract cancers declined in patients with rectal cancer. Based on multivariate analysis among patients with CRC, age ≥70 years, men, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cirrhosis, and dyslipidemia were independent predictors of an SPM. In conclusion, patients with CRC were at increased risk for a second cancer. The pattern of SPMs was distinct between patients with colon and rectal cancer. Age, men, COPD, cirrhosis, and dyslipidemia were independent risk factors for SPMs. Surveillance and education should be provided for survivors with respect to risk for SPMs. PMID:26131831

  5. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...... of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100...

  6. Investigating the Link between self-citation and authors’ co-incidence with journal impact factors in Iran: Case study of Economic Journals indexed in Islamic Science Citation Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Attapour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   The present paper examines the links between self-citation and authors’ co-incidence with impact factors of economic journals indexed in ISC. It is essentially a scientometric research employing citation analysis and literature survey. Data was collected by querying ISC and leafing through the journals studied. Self-citation, authors’ co-incidence and impact factor of the journal studied formed the variables. Correlation analysis indicated that there is a significance between authors’ self-citations and co-incidence with impact factor of the journals studied. Significance was also found between authors’ co-incidence and self-citation of the journals studied.

  7. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  8. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  9. Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratiglioni, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the association of incident dementia and subtypes with age, sex, and geographic area in Europe. Incidence data from eight population-based studies carried out in seven European countries were compared and pooled. The pooled data included 835 mild to severe dementia cases and 42......,996 person-years of follow-up. In all studies a higher proportion of cases were diagnosed with AD (60 to 70% of all demented cases) than vascular dementia (VaD). The incidence of dementia and AD continued to increase with age up to age 85 years, after which rates increased in women but not men....... There was a large variation in VaD incidence across studies. In the pooled analysis, the incidence rates increased with age without any substantial difference between men and women. Surprisingly, higher incidence rates of dementia and AD were found in the very old in northwest countries than in southern countries...

  10. Pseudomyxoma peritonei of a mature ovarian teratoma caused by mismatch repair deficiency in a patient with Lynch syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohda, Yoshimasa; Noguchi, Rei; Horie, Tomoko; Igari, Toru; Nakamura, Harumi; Ohta, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Hatakeyama, Seira; Yusa, Nozomi; Furukawa, Yoichi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-12-09

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1-2 cases per million individuals per year. PMP is characterized by the accumulation of abundant mucinous or gelatinous fluid derived from disseminated tumorous cells. Most of the tumorous cells are originated from rupture of appendiceal neoplasms, but some are from the metastasis of cancer of the colon, ovary, fallopian tube, urachus, colorectum, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, lung and breast. Although frequent mutations in KRAS and/or GNAS genes have been reported, precise molecular mechanism underlying PMP remains to be elucidated. It is of note that mucinous tumour is one of the frequent histological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Lynch syndrome (LS), an autosomal dominantly inherited disease caused by a germline mutation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes including human mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), human mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), human mutS homolog 6 (MSH6), and postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2). Therefore, typical LS-associated tumours show mismatch repair instability. Although LS patients are most strongly predisposed to CRC, PMPs from mucinous CRC have not been reported in LS patients. In this report, we report a case of PMP originating from an ovarian teratoma in a LS patient. The patient had surgical treatment of PMP arising from an ovarian teratoma at the age of 38 years, and later developed a transverse colon cancer at the age of 40. The patient's family history fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria, and genetic analysis of the peripheral leukocytes identified a germ line mutation in the MLH1 gene (MLH1 c.1546dupC p.Q516PfsX3). Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of MLH1 was lost in the colon cancer as well as the ovarian teratoma. Consistent with the loss of MLH1 expression, both tumours showed high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). This case suggested that LS patients may develop various types of tumours including ovarian PMP

  11. In the limelight. The gamma-graphy incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biau, A.

    2000-01-01

    The risks of gamma-graphy incidents are linked to the irradiation level of the gamma sources. They are very important when the sources are out of their protection case. The incidents are classified in two categories: incidents coming from failures or errors of handling, loss or theft of sources. In the first category 87 incidents have been declared to OPRI between 1975 and 2000.In the second category 17 incidents have been counted on the same period. It is important to follow the regulation arrangements and improve the prevention if one wants to keep this testing technique. (N.C.)

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-24

    Apr 24, 2014 ... and most of the bites occurred in an area of substandard housing. [1]. Other idenfiable risk factors are; poverty, unemployment and rat infestations [2]. Patient and observation. We report a case ... navigation of rats within and around the house before the incidence. No similar incidence in the other siblings.

  13. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  14. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.

    1976-09-01

    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  15. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  16. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  17. The incidence of anorexia nervosa on Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Harten, PN; Hermans, KME; Katzman, MA; Matroos, GE; Susser, ES

    Objective: Although anorexia nervosa was once thought to occur only in affluent societies, cases have now been documented across the globe. To examine whether anorexia nervosa emerges in societies undergoing socioeconomic transition, the authors studied the incidence of anorexia nervosa on the

  18. State financial cover for nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Some States have introduced systems of compensation out of public funds in case the compensation under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention is insufficient to cover the damage caused by a nuclear incident. The systems are described in this paper as well as that in Switzerland, which is not Party to these Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  19. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... causes on life and subsequently on the economy, it became necessary to determine its incidence and antibiogram in our environment for adequate control and treatment. Records of microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity test results of suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) of the University of.

  20. Incident diabetes mellitus may explain the association between sleep duration and incident coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Akiko Kishi; Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle

    2018-02-01

    Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes ('non-diabetes CHD') but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes ('diabetes-CHD'). A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45-73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were identified using national registers. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were stratified by BMI and adjusted for known covariates of diabetes and CHD. Mean follow-up times for incident diabetes (n = 1137/1016 [men/women]), incident CHD (n = 1170/578), non-diabetes CHD (n = 1016/501) and diabetes-CHD (n = 154/77) were 14.2-15.2 years for men, and 15.8-16.5 years for women. In men, short sleep duration (< 6 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), CHD (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06, 1.89) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.20, 4.55). Short sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98, 1.87). Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03, 1.83), CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01, 1.75) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11, 4.00). Long sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.98, 1.80). In women, short sleep duration was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01), CHD (HR 1

  1. Long-term follow-up of HTLV-1 proviral load in asymptomatic carriers and in incident cases of HAM/TSP: what is its relevance as a prognostic marker for neurologic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marina Lobato; Guimarães, Jacqueline Cronemberger; Ribas, João Gabriel; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara

    2017-02-01

    HTLV-1 proviral load (pvl) is an important risk marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but its value as prognostic marker is not well defined. Long-term prospective cohort studies are necessary to clarify this question. Here, we analyzed HTLV-1 pvl in the peripheral blood of 82 asymptomatic carriers (AC; 351 samples), 12 HAM/TSP patients (HAM; 46 samples), and six incident cases of HAM/TSP (iHAM), with serial samples collected before (n = 10) and after (n = 20) the disease onset. The mean interval of follow-up was 10 years in the AC group and 8 years in HAM and iHAM groups. pvl was not significantly different between the first and last measurements in the three groups, but there was a trend to decrease over time. Coefficient of variation of pvl was significantly lower in the AC group than in HAM (p = 0.015) and iHAM (p = 0.022) patients. AC and HAM individuals showed a significant and strong positive correlation between the first and last measurements of pvl, but not iHAM subjects. All individuals who developed HAM/TSP during the follow-up had high pvl level (>1 %) before the onset of disease, but a typical increase in pvl was not observed in that period. The data suggest that there is a trend to reach an equilibrium plateau of pvl over time, characteristic of each individual. A significant rate of AC keeps high pvl levels for a long time without developing clinical symptoms associated to HTLV-1 infection. Thus, serial quantification of pvl in the peripheral blood does not seem to be a good prognostic marker for HAM/TSP.

  2. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzitelli, Alexandra; Smoll, Nicolas R; Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma. Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma. The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival. To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  3. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  4. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  6. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  7. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  8. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308G/A promoter polymorphism in colorectal cancer in ethnic Kashmiri population - A case control study in a detailed perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Mujeeb Zafar; Balkhi, Henah Mehraj; Hamid, Zeenat; Sameer, Aga Syed; Chowdri, Nissar A; Haq, Ehtishamul

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation constitutes one of the important components of colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a cytokine and an important inflammatory mediator plays a pivotal role in the malignant cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis in CRC. The studies on association of various polymorphisms in human TNF-α gene including TNF-α-308G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are limited, mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of TNF-α-308G/A promoter SNP with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility and development risk and also to evaluate the modifying effects of possible TNF-α-308G/A genotypes on different risk factors of CRC in ethnic population of Kashmir, India through a case-control setup. The genotype frequencies of TNF-α-308G/A promoter SNP were compared between 142 CRC patients and 184 individually matched healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The associations between the TNF-α-308G/A SNP and CRC risk were examined through conditional logistic regression models adjusted for multiple possible confounding (third) variables. Further, the associations between this SNP and various clinico-pathological parameters, demographic variables and environmental factors within the case group subjects with regard to CRC risk were also evaluated. The association between the TNF-α-308G/A SNP and the modulation of risk of CRC was not found to be significant (p value = 0.156). The effect of less common TNF-α-308A allele on the risk of colorectal cancer was also not found to be significant (p value = 0.175). The variant genotype (AA) was nonexistent in the study population. Further, we found no significant effect modulation of CRC risk by wild and heterozygous TNF-α-308G/A SNP genotypes in presence of different possible risk factors (p > 0.05). We also found no significant association of TNF-α-308

  11. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  12. The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology. Essays in Honor of James Deetz, edited by Anne Elizabeth Yentsch and Mary C. Beaudry, CRC Press. Boca Raton, 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Cotter

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Master archaeologist James Deetz richly merits this "Deetzschrift" by his students and colleagues. Reared in the hills of western Maryland and West Virginia, he was encouraged by a perceptive high school counselor to try for Harvard - successfully - as, says Deetz, "an early case of affirmatitive action…for hillbillies to Ivy League institutions". Deetz became a fabulously popular university professor at U.C. Santa Barbara and Brown, an author of small but seminal books on historical archaeology all while he and his wife raised a brood of nine children. Jim once told me they lived "on the greatest interior midden in Massachusetts".

  13. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The incidence and clinical associated factors of interval colorectal cancers in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-En Tsai

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of interval CRC in the present study is 3.28%. Comorbidity with ESRD and shorter ascending colon withdrawal time could be factors associated with interval CRC. Good colon preparation for the patients with ESRD and more ascending colon withdrawal time could reduce the interval CRC.

  15. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  16. Cortical blindness following a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ellen H; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Murphy, Marjorie A

    2011-12-01

    Victims of near-drowning incidents often suffer neurologic injury with long-term sequelae secondary to hypoxic-ischemic injury. We describe a case of profound visual loss due to bilateral occipital lobe infarcts in a 23-year-old male victim of a near-drowning incident.

  17. Incidence and Economic Cost of Bovine Trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and economic cost of cases of bovine trypanosomosis in nomadic herds at the Jos Plateau from 1997 to 2001 were determined. These were done using records kept at the Plateau State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources headquarters at Jos, and the model described by Alonge et al. (1984). The incidence ...

  18. Incidence Of Ectopic Pregnancy In Calabar, Nigeria: Two Halves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports of a rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in the country and beyond prompted this study to determine the incidence in Calabar over two time frames. Information from ward registers and case notes of EP patients who presented to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from 1991 to 1995 were analyzed ...

  19. Incidence of Diabetes mellitus at the Federal Medical Centre Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six-year (2002 – 2007) retrospective study of hospital records (in-patients) was carried out to investigate the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Katsina. The records showed that a total of 754 cases were attended within the study period. The study showed yearly increase in the incidence of the disease with the highest ...

  20. Attachment Theory in Supervision: A Critical Incident Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Fitch, Jenelle C.

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident experiences are a powerful source of counselor development (T. M. Skovholt & P. R. McCarthy, 1988a, 1988b) and are relevant to attachment issues. An attachment theory perspective of supervision is presented and applied to a critical incident case scenario. By focusing on the behavioral systems (i.e., attachment, caregiving, and…

  1. The incidence of gonorrhea in an abortion population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querido, L.; Haspels, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhea was investigated in an abortion population. A total of 1021 women participated in this study. Three asymptomatic cases of gonorrhea were detected. None of these women had had gonorrhea before or had a previous abortion. No relation was found between the incidence of

  2. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Gyntelberg, Finn; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    with diabetes incidence were estimated in multivariable Cox-models including conventional risk factors and social class. Diabetes incidence was assessed through a national register. Results During 44 years of follow-up, 518 (10.4%) incident cases of diabetes occurred. In the multi-adjusted model, the obese had......: 0.76–1.23). Conclusion High CRF has a stronger protective effect on diabetes among obese than among normal weight men, supporting the recommendation of fitness-enhancing physical activity for preventing diabetes among the obese.......Aims Increases in prevalence have led to a diabetes pandemic. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are considered to be central mechanisms. We investigated if the effect of CRF on diabetes risk was equivalent across levels of fatness among healthy men. Methods In total 4988 middle...

  4. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  5. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  6. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  7. Fast Foods, Sweets and Beverage Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Takruri, Hamed; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Heath, Dennis D

    2018-01-27

    Background: The effects of consuming fast foods, sweets and beverages on the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible associations between the consumption of different fast foods, sweets and beverages and CRC risk in a Jordanian population. Methods: Two hundred and twenty diagnosed CRC cases and 281 controls were enrolled. Diet history was obtained using a validated quantitative questionnaire. Results: Consumption of some types of fast food, and particularly falafel, was associated with an increased risk of developing CRC. Elevated risk was found for potato and corn chips with an AOR of 4.36 (95%CI: 1.24-15.28) for daily consumption and 3.33 (95%CI: 1.00-11.11) for ≥5 servings/week. Consuming 1-2 or >5 servings per week of fried potatoes or 2-3 servings per week of chicken in sandwiches also increased the risk while exposure to fresh tomato juice and hot pepper sauce on a monthly basis appeared to exert a protective effect. Conclusions: Consumption of fried fast food items was significantly linked with an increased risk of developing CRC in Jordan. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  9. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  10. Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, Robert D.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Johnson, Lee K.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe + bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar + and Xe + bombardment at normal incidence displayed satisfactory agreement with previously published data over an energy range of 200 eV-1 keV. For Xe + ions, the dependence of the yields on angle of incidence θ was determined for 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 80 deg. Over this range, an increase in C sputtering yield by a factor of 4.8 was observed, with the peak in yield occurring at 70 o . This is a much higher variation compared to Xe + → Mo yields under similar conditions, a difference that may be attributed to higher scattering of the incident particles transverse to the beam direction than in the case of Xe + → C. In addition, the variation of the yields with θ was not strongly energy dependent. Trapping of Xe in the surface was observed, in contrast to observations using the QCM technique with metallic target materials. Finally, target surface roughness was characterized using atomic force microscope measurements to distinguish between the effects of local and overall angle of incidence of the target

  11. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...

  12. Incidence of intracranial bleeds in new users of low-dose aspirin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Gaist, David; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin protects against ischemic cardiovascular (CV) events as well as colorectal cancer (CRC). However, low-dose aspirin may be associated with a small increased risk of intracranial bleeds (ICB). OBJECTIVES: To obtain incidence rates of ICB overall and by patient subgroups...... among new users of low-dose aspirin. PATIENTS/METHODS: Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK primary care database (2000-2012), we identified a cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin aged 40-84 years (N=199,079; mean age at start of follow-up, 63.9 years) and followed them, for up to 14 years...... estimates of the absolute risk of ICB for incorporation into risk-benefit assessments of low-dose aspirin use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  14. Multiple-Case Design of Secondary Special Educators Teaching Students with High-Incidence Disabilities in Self-Contained Settings: Rationales for Instructional Strategy Choices and Perspectives on Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Nancy J.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based practices (EBPs) and instructional strategies are the methods through which content is delivered to students. Multiple internal and external factors influence the choice of instructional strategies and EBPs used by secondary special educators working with students with high-incidence disabilities (HID) in the self-contained setting.…

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-27

    Jan 27, 2013 ... lesions as infectious, immunologic or systemic disorders [2]. Tuberculosis is endemic in Morocco with an incidence of 82 new cases per 100000 habitants [3]. It is the major cause of cavitary lung lesions in our context. We report here a case of unusual form of lung metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of ...

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... Middle East, Mediterranean region, Central Europe, Australia and. South America) [1, 2]. The incidence of musculoskeletal echinococcosis including involvement of subcutaneous tissue is 1%-. 5.4% among all cases of hydatid disease [2]. In this report, we present a case of recurrent hydatid cysts involving ...

  17. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-03-12

    Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40-75 years) with incident clinically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 142 controls (70 men and 72 women, aged 40-75 years) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases were recruited and interviewed. Dietary data were assessed by 125-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer. Two major dietary patterns (Healthy pattern and Western pattern) were derived using principal component analysis. Each dietary pattern explained 11.9% (Healthy pattern) and 10.3% (Western pattern) of the variation in food intake, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR= 0.227; 95% CI=0.108-0.478) while an increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed with the Western dietary pattern (OR=2.616; 95% CI= 1.361-5.030). Specific dietary patterns, which include healthy and western patterns, may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This diet-disease relationship can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of chronic disease, particularly colorectal cancer in the Iranian population.

  18. Fluxos informacionais para o monitoramento da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança: a atuação da rede NGO Group for CRCInformation follow and the monitoring process of the convention on the rights of child by NGO Group for CRC network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guiomar da Cunha Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa que investiga uma rede social internacional denominada NGO Group for CRC. A rede é composta por cerca de noventa organizações não governamentais e foi criada para monitorar a implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança (CRC. A CRC é o principal documento jurídico relativo aos direitos da criança, tendo sido aprovada pela totalidade dos países pertencentes à ONU, com exceção dos EUA. Pretende-se especificamente analisar o fluxo informacional que se estabelece em meio à rede, seus membros e as organizações que a ela se associam. As questões investigadas são as seguintes: 1 Em que medida o fluxo informacional torna-se parte intrínseca da estrutura em rede? 2 Como os fluxos informacionais se configuram e de que modo são apropriados e veiculados pela rede NGO Group for CRC no curso do monitoramento da implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança?This paper presents the research results about the social network NGO Group for CRC which is an articulation of non governmental organizations related to children's rights. This paper analyzes the information flow inside the network, among its members and among the network organizations. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC was approved in 1989 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, being ratified in its totality by the countries members, with the exception of the United States of America. The investigated questions are: 1 How is the role of the information flow in the network structure? 2 How is the information flow configured to support the implementation monitoring process of the Convention on the Rights of the Child?

  19. Incidence of convulsive epilepsy in a rural area in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Scott, J Anthony G; Mung'ala-Odera, Victor; Bauni, Evasius; Sander, Josemir W; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Newton, Charles R

    2013-08-01

    There are only a few studies of incidence of epilepsy in low and middle income countries (LMICs). These are often small and conducted in specific age groups or areas where the prevalence of risk factors is high; therefore, these studies are not representative of the wider populations. We determined the incidence of convulsive epilepsy (CE) in a large rural population in Kenya. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys 5 years apart within a health and demographic surveillance system. Initially we identified residents without epilepsy who were then reexamined in the follow-up survey to determine incidence. We estimated the overall incidence of CE and incidence by age-group, sex, and by administrative location. Estimates were adjusted for attrition during case identification and for the sensitivity of the screening method. In a cohort of 151,408 people, 194 developed CE over the 5 years. The minimum crude incidence rate was 37.6/100,000 persons per year (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.7-43.3) and adjusted for loss to follow-up, and the sensitivity of the survey methodology was 77.0/100,000 persons per year (95% CI 67.7-87.4). Incidence was highest in children 6-12 years (96.1/100,000 persons per year; 95% CI 78.4-117.9), and was lowest in the 29-49 year age group (37.4/100,000 persons per year; 95% CI 25.7-54.7). We estimated a high incidence of convulsive epilepsy in this population. Incidence was highest early and late in life, suggesting that preventive interventions should target exposures that occur in these age groups. Incidence of focal epilepsy was more than twice that of generalized epilepsy, suggesting that etiologies that are amenable to intervention were most important in this population. It is likely that incidence is underestimated because of the early mortality of incident cases. © 2013 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Efecto de la presión de C2H2 sobre las propiedades tribológicas y mecánicas de recubrimientos de CrC depositados por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryory Astrid Gómez Botero; Arturo Lousa; Joan Esteve Pujo

    2010-01-01

    Se obtuvieron recubrimientos monocapa de CrC por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC). Se investigaron las propiedades tribológicas de los recubrimientos mediante pruebas de deslizamiento en seco usando un tribómetro de bola sobre disco. Las propiedades mecánicas se estudiaron por nanoindentación dinámica. Los valores de los coeficientes de fricción de los recubrimientos monocapa de CrC mostraron buena correlación con el contenido de carbono de estos recubrimientos, presentando el más bajo coe...

  1. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  2. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  3. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  4. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-12-18

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. [Congenital syphilis: incidence among newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Moura, E F; Ramos, F L; Holanda, V G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of congenital syphilis among newborns at the maternity of a public hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at the maternity of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará, from May to September 1996; 361 mothers were interviewed, and physical examination was performed in their newborns. Serum samples from both, mothers and neonates, were tested using three methods: VDRL, FTA - Abs, ELISA IgM. The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was established according to the criteria defined by Ministério da Saúde in 1993. RESULTS: The rate of congenital syphilis was of 9.1% (33); in 14 cases, there were one or more signs of the disease: prematurity, hepatomegaly, stillbirth, splenomegaly, perinatal death, abdominal distention, nasal stuffiness, jaundice, newborn small for gestational age. The majority of the infected mothers belonged to the age group of 20-35 years (81.8%); 60.6% were married; 63.6% received prenatal care; 48.5% reported previous spontaneous abortion, and 12.1% previous stillbirth. The rate of bisexuality among fathers was of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The syphilis control measures and the prenatal care, have not been sufficient to prevent the high rate of the disease.

  6. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  7. A Case of Colorectal Cancer during Pregnancy: A Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Khodaverdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC during pregnancy is so rare. Herein we present a case of colorectal cancer that was missed by pregnancy all over the pregnancy period. The patient was a 37-year-old woman (gravid 4, para 2 referred with the complaints of vaginal discharge and suspicious rupture of membrane (ROM. The patient was pale and the initial physical examination revealed dilation of two fingers, effacement about 30%. She underwent emergent cesarean section which showed adhesions surrounding the uterus, the bladder, and the abdominal wall. Forty days postoperatively, the patient presented with abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant (LUQ. Imaging confirmed a mass in LUQ. Partial colectomy of transverse colon (20 cm was performed. Postoperative histopathologic study revealed a 7 * 6 * 5 cm mass in transverse colon compatible to stage IIa of the Duck class (T3, N0, Mx. Adjuvant chemotherapy was applied and the patient showed improvements during 7 months followup after surgery. Colorectal cancer in pregnancy is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges which mostly lead to late diagnosis in advanced stages and poor prognosis. A targeted program to improve the general population knowledge and the establishment of a national consultant and screening program particularly for women with a planned pregnancy in the high risk group might be beneficial.

  8. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both. The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  9. General practitioner reported incidence of Lyme carditis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, A; Arend, S M; Davids, C J; Tukkie, R; van Pelt, W

    2015-11-01

    Between 1994 and 2009, incidence rates of general practitioner (GP) consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans, the most common early manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, have increased substantially in the Netherlands. The current article aims to estimate and validate the incidence of GP-reported Lyme carditis in the Netherlands. We sent a questionnaire to all GPs in the Netherlands on clinical diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis in 2009 and 2010. To validate and adjust the obtained incidence rate, medical records of cases of Lyme carditis reported by GPs in this incidence survey were reviewed and categorised according to likelihood of the diagnosis of Lyme carditis. Lyme carditis occurred in 0.2 % of all patients with GP-reported Lyme borreliosis. The adjusted annual incidence was six GP-reported cases of Lyme carditis per 10 million inhabitants, i.e. approximately ten cases per year in 2009 and 2010. We report the first incidence estimate for Lyme carditis in the Netherlands, validated by a systematic review of the medical records. Although Lyme carditis is an uncommon manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, physicians need to be aware of this diagnosis, in particular in countries where the incidence of Lyme borreliosis has increased during the past decades.

  10. 1981 CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    The physical inspections of the 1981 fuels were similar to those of the 1980 fuels, although the 70 percent and 90 percent distillation temperatures...in Appendix C, Table C-IV. There were significant differences between the 1981 and 1980 fuels in terms of API gravity, distillation temperatures, and...0 11 0 1 47 33 Total 80 JI -26- Ln C4qr fl. C"U& Ln qt-l 0%knO w O omw en n Y fin wo 0=0 =oo 00 0=0 00 -000000 0 in444 44414441+1 +1+ 4444 41 444 4 1

  11. CRC Handbook of Medical Physics, vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggener, R.G.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Shalek, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, the care and testing of measurement and diagnostic instruments are described in detail. Difficulties encountered with therapeutic and diagnostic calibrations are explored and solutions are suggested. VOLUME III Physics Teaching for Radiologic Technologists, Physics Teaching for Diagnostic Radiology Residents, Physics Teaching for Nuclear Medicine Residents, Physics Teaching for Radiotherapy Residents, Degree Programs in Medical Physics, Radiobiology Teaching, Non-Degree Medical Physics Training and American Board of Radiology Certifications, Radioactivity and Production of Medical Isotopes, Practical Medical Physics Consulting, Radiologic Terminology, Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques, Description of Radiotherapy Procedures, Medical Applications of Ultrasonography and Thermography, Glossary of Medical and Anatomical Terms Used in Medical Physics, Equipment List for Medical Physics and Acquisition Priority. Bibliography of Reference Materials. Index

  12. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  13. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and Interaction with Dietary and Life Style Factors in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Danish Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjoøneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation...... and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants...... from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased...

  14. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Shuto, Nobuaki; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Shigetoshi; Ishigami, Minoru; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to analyze risk factors for incidents occurring during the practice of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single Japanese center. Treatment data for EBRT from June 2014 to March 2017 were collected. Data from incident reports submitted during this period were reviewed. Near-miss cases were not included. Risk factors for incidents, including patient characteristics and treatment-related factors, were explored using uni- and multivariate analyses. Factors contributing to each incident were also retrospectively categorized according to the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). A total of 2887 patients were treated during the study period, and 26 incidents occurred (0.90% per patient). Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were identified as risk factors for incidents by univariate analysis. Only previous history of radiotherapy was detected as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Identified categories of contributing factors were human behavior (50.0%), communication (40.6%), and technical (9.4%). The incident rate of EBRT was 0.90% per patient in our institution. Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were detected as risk factors for incidents. Human behavior and communication errors were identified as contributing factors for most incidents. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomic Subsite of Primary Colorectal Cancer and Subsequent Risk and Distribution of Second Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Chan, Andrew T.; Shuji Ogino, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with a history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased risk of subsequent cancer. We used cancer registry data to evaluate whether this increased risk of cancer after CRC differed by anatomic subsite of a first CRC. Methods Individuals diagnosed with first primary CRC between 1992–2009 were identified from 12 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the incidence of subsequent cancers in these index CRC cases to cancer incidence rates in the general population. SIRs were calculated for cancers at anatomic sites within and outside the colorectum in analyses stratified by subsite of the index CRC. Results Cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in those with prior CRC than in the general population (SIR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.13–1.16). Individuals with an index CRC located between the transverse and descending colon experienced the greatest increased risk both overall (SIR=1.29 to 1.33), and with respect to risk of second CRC in particular (SIR=2.53 to 3.35). Incidence of small intestinal cancer was significantly elevated regardless of index CRC subsite (SIR=4.31, 95% CI: 3.70–4.77); incidence of endometrial cancer was elevated in those with index CRC in the proximal colon (SIR=1.37 to 1.79). Conclusions Risk of second cancer after CRC differs by anatomic site of the first tumor, and is particularly pronounced for those with prior CRC located in the transverse to descending colon. The mechanisms underlying this pattern of second cancer risk remain unknown. PMID:23856984

  16. Control judicial de la regulación económica en clave de los actos administrativos proferidos por la Comisión de Regulación de Comunicaciones (CRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Perdomo Villamil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los procesos de liberalización y los nuevos regímenes económicos a nivel constitucional, la regulación económica se posicionó como una de las principales actividades de intervención estatal sobre la economía. Esta se concibe como un instrumento técnico, neutral e independiente, diseñado para resolver las fallas del mercado y armonizar objetivos económicos y no económicos, generalmente contrapuestos. Por tanto, la cabida del control judicial es muy cuestionada, evidenciándose choques entre la garantía de acceso a la justicia de los particulares y la competencia técnica de los reguladores. Así, se efectúa un análisis material de los actos proferidos por las autoridades de regulación en clave de la extensión del principio de legalidad, y basado en las funciones asignadas a la CRC según la Ley 1341 de 2009, con el propósito de determinar los marcos, límites y alcances del control judicial.

  17. C2-Related Incidents Reported by UAS Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. This presentation focuses on incidents that involved the management of the command and control (C2) link. The identified issues include loss of link, interference from undesired transmissions, voice latency, accidental control transfer, and the use of the lost link timer, or lost link OK features.

  18. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  19. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Slovenia since improved iodine supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Pirnat, E.; Hojker, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since the year 1953, when iodine prophylaxis was introduced in Slovenia, several epidemiological studies confirmed the existence of mild iodine deficiency on the whole territory of Slovenia. In January 1999 the implementation of higher iodine content (25 mg of KI or 32 mg of KIO 3 ) was recommended and since then the increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis was observed. Here we present 5-year follow-up data of the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease. We estimated incidence rates from 1997 to 2001 for hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease among 1000000 people, living in the area of Ljubljana. We assumed that most cases were seen and treated in the Outpatient Department for thyroid diseases of Department for Nuclear Medicine of University Medical Centre Ljubljana. Immediately after correction of iodine deficiency, the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy rose almost twice in 1999 (320 cases in 1999 compared to 173 cases in 1997), but afterwards the incidence slightly decreased (240 cases in 2000). Similarly, the incidence of Graves' disease rose in 1999 (267 cases in 1999 compared to 237 in 1997) and in contrast to thyroid autonomy the incidence further increased in the following years (337 in 2000 and 246 in the first half of 2001). The increased incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease after elevation of iodine prophylaxis in Slovenia is comparable with data in some other endemic areas. Those data indicate that stepwise supplementation is preferable to immediate corrections. However, we believe that iodine prophylaxis is reasonable and justified and to reassess the iodine nutrition status we plan a follow up evaluation in year 2002. (author)

  20. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to screen for fetal neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities, amniocentesis was carried out in 334 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between 1979 and 1987. Two cases (0.6%; 95% confidence limits 0.1-2.2%) of fetal chromosome abnormality were found: one case...... of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non...

  1. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College. Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. Results: During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were available for analysis.

  2. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accidents, gas explosions, falls, civilian malpractice, and similar incidents) that do not involve... screened to identify potential cases. The RJA or recovery attorney will screen the MTF comptroller records database and division records as well as ambulance logs to identify potential medical care recovery cases...

  3. Increased venous thrombosis incidence in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Kesmodel, U S; Juul, S

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is venous thrombosis risk increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER The venous thrombosis incidence was significantly increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; especially in the first trimester and in the first 6 weeks post-partum. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY In vitro fertilization without pregnancy is not associated with increased venous thrombosis incidence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This national register-based cohort study covered the period from 1995 to 2005. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All Danish pregnancies conceived...... by in vitro fertilization (n = 18 787) were included. Venous thrombosis incidence rates in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization were compared with venous thrombosis incidence rates in reference pregnancies, by calculating incidence rate ratios. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In total, 48 cases were...

  4. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  5. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  6. Incidence of dog bites in Milwaukee, wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndon, J A; Jach, G J; Wehrenberg, W B

    1996-04-01

    Dogs are everywhere. The incidence of and injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions in certain parts of the United States that they are now considered a major public health concern. Playful Rover is no longer a harmless pet. Uncontrolled, he now can be considered a public nuisance. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of dog bites recorded in Milwaukee, for calendar years 1989-1991. This assessment included anatomical location of bites, victims' ages, behavioral antecedents, leading up to the bite incidents, season of the year, and animal ownership. The evaluation also measured the correlation coefficient between the frequency of dog bite incidents and median household income distribution within the city. During the 3-year period, a total of 3,926 animal bites, including 3,244 (83%) dog bites, were reported to the City of Milwaukee Department of Health. Of all the dog bites reported, 60% were on the upper extremities. Children less than 15 years old sustained 44% of the injuries, mostly to the head and face. Provocation by the victim accounted for 19% of the cases. The majority of the incidents (67%) occurred during the spring and summer months. In 49% of all cases, the victims families or neighbors owned the animals involved in the biting. Researchers also observed a significant negative correlation between bites and median household income distribution. Study results suggest a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.

  7. Incidence of rheumatoid arthritis from 1995 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; Kjær, Niels; Svendsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    arthritis were identified at hospitals and private practising rheumatologists (referral centres), and in general practice. The observed incidence was 32/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 29-35). Using the ratio between the number of cases known only from general practice and the number known......The aim of this study was to describe the mean incidence rate of rheumatoid arthritis over a 7-year period from 1995 to 2001 in a population in the southern part of Denmark, using the data from several sources. Cases fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid...... from general practice and referral centres, the estimated incidence was 35/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 32-38). We suggest that the estimated rate should be viewed as a plausible upper limit for the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark....

  8. Incidence and survival in non-hereditary amyloidosis in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disease caused by deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and thereby interfering with physiological functions. Hardly any incidence data are available and most survival data are limited to specialist clinics. Methods Amyloidosis patients were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Outpatients Registers from years 2001 through 2008. Results The incidence of non-hereditary amyloidosis in 949 patients was 8.29 per million person-years and the diagnostic age with the highest incidence was over 65 years. Secondary systemic amyloidosis showed an incidence of 1 per million and a female excess and the largest number of subsequent rheumatoid arthritis deaths; the median survival was 4 years. However, as rheumatoid arthritis deaths also occurred in other diagnostic subtypes, the incidence of secondary systemic amyloidosis was likely to be about 2.0 per million. The median survival of patients with organ-limited amyloidosis was 6 years. Most myeloma deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with unspecified or ‘other’ amyloidosis. These subtypes probably accounted for most of immunoglobulin light chain (AL amyloidosis cases; the median survival time was 3 years. Conclusions The present diagnostic categorization cannot single out AL amyloidosis in the Swedish discharge data but, by extrapolation from myeloma cases, an incidence of 3.2 per million could be ascribed to AL amyloidosis. Similarly, based on rheumatoid arthritis death rates, an incidence of 2.0 could be ascribed to secondary systemic amyloidosis.

  9. Incidence estimates of hand and upper extremity injuries in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the incidence rates of upper extremity injuries and to give an overview of the most frequent diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two population databases were queried for all injuries in the upper extremities, the SINIACA-IDB (S-IDB: Emergency Department Injury Database in Italy and the Hospital Discharge Register (HDR. The diagnoses codes of hand trauma were selected from both databases in order to estimate the national incidence rate. RESULTS: According to the S-IDB data of year 2011, total 1 479 510 ED attendances per year in Italy were estimated with an upper extremity injury (incidence rate: 2491 per 100 000 persons/year. About 880 816 Emergency Department (ED attendances per year are due to hand injuries, while over 653 336 attendances per year concern arm injuries. The incidence rates are 1483 and 1100 per 100 000 person/year respectively. About 201 940 hospitalizations are observed in the HDR because of upper extremity injuries (incidence rate: 340 per 100 000 persons/year. Males have higher incidence rate (387 vs 280 per 100 000 persons per year. The trend in the incidence rates for the age group of inpatients shows two peaks: at age 12 (400 cases per 100 000 persons/year, and in the older age groups (700 cases per 100 000 persons/year.

  10. Incidence and survival of gynecologic sarcomas in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Matthew; Dennis, Nicola L; Hirschowitz, Lynn; Grimer, Robert; Poole, Jason; Lawrence, Gill; Nordin, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Gynecologic sarcomas account for approximately 3% to 4% of all gynecologic malignancies and are associated with poor outcomes compared with gynecologic carcinomas. The aim of this study is to report the incidence and survival rates of the main gynecologic sarcomas using national English cancer registration data. Records of gynecologic sarcomas diagnosed between 1985 and 2008 were extracted from the English National Cancer Data Repository. ICD-O3 morphology codes were used to assign tumor records to specific histologic subgroups. Incidence and 5-year relative survival rates were calculated. There were 5316 new cases of gynecologic sarcoma diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2008. Incidence rates increased significantly in the early 1990s, probably due to coding changes. Age-specific incidence rates were highest in women aged between 45 and 64 years. In the most recent period studied (2001-2008), incidence rates fluctuated between 8 and 9.6 per million. The most common anatomical site was the uterus (83% of all diagnoses), and the most common histologic diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (52% of all diagnoses). Overall 5-year relative survival increased significantly between 1985-1989 and 2000-2004, from 34% to 48%. Gynecologic sarcoma incidence rates have varied little since 1993, whereas survival has improved significantly. These results are consistent with previously published small series and case studies, and provide a more complete picture of gynecologic sarcoma incidence and survival patterns in England.

  11. Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard po...

  12. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.

    2008-01-01

    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  13. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  14. Video analysis of injuries and incidents in Norwegian professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T E; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

    2004-10-01

    This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 174 of 182 (96%) regular league matches during the 2000 season. Incidents where the match was interrupted due to an assumed injury were analysed using FIA to examine the characteristics of the playing situation causing the incident. Club medical staff prospectively recorded all acute injuries on a specific injury questionnaire. Each incident identified on the videotapes was cross referenced with the injury report. During the 174 matches, 425 incidents were recorded and 121 acute injuries were reported. Of these 121 injuries, 52 (43%) were identified on video including all head injuries, 58% of knee injuries, 56% of ankle injuries, and 29% of thigh injuries. Strikers were more susceptible to injury than other players and although most of the incidents and injuries resulted from duels, no single classic injury situation typical for football injuries or incidents could be recognised. However, in most cases the exposed player seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging him for ball possession. This study shows that in spite of a thorough video analysis less than half of the injuries are identified on video. It is difficult to identify typical patterns in the playing events leading to incidents and injuries, but players seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging them for ball possession.

  15. Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Southern Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xi Hua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T, have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility. Overall, no association was observed between these two variants and the risk of CRC. Our meta-analysis also confirmed a lack of overall association. Stratified analyses were performed by age, gender, smoking status, pack-year, drinking status, tumor sites, and Duke’s stages. We found that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk in subjects at 57 years of age or younger (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.004–1.86, p = 0.047 and non-drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10–2.12, p = 0.011. Our results indicated that XPC Lys939Gln may be a low-penetrance CRC susceptibility polymorphism. Our findings warrant further validation.

  16. Regulation No. 55/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic dated as of January 12, 2006 on details concerning emergency planning in case of nuclear incident or accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Regulation provides details on (a) the content of emergency plans, procedure for their submission and approval; (b) the measures, procedures and activities including degrees of severity of the events according to international criteria; (c) informing the Authority and the public; (d) contents of the documents necessary for application approval of the size of the area at risk, the size of the common area at risk, including the date of its submission; (e) monitoring systems; (f) training, practicing and updating emergency plans; (g) provided data and time during an incident or accident to nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials; (h) notification of operational events and events during shipment. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  17. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Cockburn, Myles G; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette M; Midthune, Douglas N; Zou, Zhaohui; Krapcho, Martin F; Miller, Daniel G; Feuer, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Cancer incidence rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2014 using data reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in February 2016 and a validation of rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 and submitted in February 2015 using the November 2015 submission are reported. New cancer sites include the pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, corpus and uterus, and childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years inclusive. A new reporting delay model is presented for these estimates for more consistent results with the model used for the usual November SEER submissions, adjusting for the large case undercount in the February submission. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked for validity between the February 2016 and November 2016 submissions. Validation revealed that the delay model provides similar estimates of eventual counts using either February or November submission data. Trends declined through 2014 for prostate and colon and rectum cancer for males and females, male and female lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Thyroid cancer and liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased. Pancreas (male and female) and corpus and uterus cancer demonstrated a modest increase. Slight increases occurred for male kidney and renal pelvis, and for all childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years. Evaluating early cancer data submissions, adjusted for reporting delay, produces timely and valid incidence rates and trends. The results of the current study support using delay-adjusted February submission data for valid incidence rate and trend estimates over several data cycles. Cancer 2017;123:2524-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a Manitoba First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Riediger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes and diabetes complications are substantially higher among Canadian First Nations populations compared with the general Canadian population. However, incidence data using detailed individual assessments from a population-based cohort have not been undertaken. Objective: We sought to describe incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a population-based cohort from a Manitoba Ojibway First Nation community. Design: Study data were from 2 diabetes screening studies in Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada, collected in 2002/2003 and 2011/2012. The cohort comprised of respondents to both screening studies (n=171. Health and demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure and anthropometric data were also collected objectively. Incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were determined. Generalized linear models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate risk of incident diabetes and cardiometabolic conditions according to age and sex. Results: There were 35 (95% CI: 26, 45 new cases of diabetes among 128 participants without diabetes at baseline (27 or 3.3% per year. While participants who were 50 years and older at baseline had a significantly higher risk of incident diabetes at follow-up compared with participants aged 18–29 at baseline (p=0.012, more than half of the incident cases of diabetes occurred among participants aged less than 40 at baseline. There were 28 (95% CI: 20, 37 new cases of dyslipidemia at follow-up among 112 without dyslipidemia at baseline (25%. There were 36 (95% CI: 31, 42 new cases of hypertension among 104 participants without hypertension at baseline (34.6%. Women had half the risk of developing hypertension compared with men (p=0.039. Conclusions: Diabetes incidence is very high, and the number of new cases among those younger than 40 is a concern. Additional public health and primary care efforts are needed to address the

  19. Incidence and pathology of synucleinopathies and tauopathies related to parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bower, James H.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Rocca, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the incidence and distribution of specific types of parkinsonism and related proteinopathies. Design We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who received a screening diagnostic code of interest. A movement disorders specialist reviewed the complete medical records of each subject to confirm the type of parkinsonism and the presumed proteinopathy using specified criteria. Setting Olmsted County, MN, from 1991 through 2005 (15 years) Participants All residents of Olmsted County, MN Main Outcome Measure Incidence of parkinsonism Results Among 542 incident cases of parkinsonism, 409 (75.5%) were classified as proteinopathies. Of 389 patients with presumed synucleinopathies (71.8% of cases), 264 had Parkinson's disease (48.7% of all cases). The incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of synucleinopathies was 21.0 overall and increased steeply with age. The incidence rate of tauopathies was 1.1 overall (20 cases) and the most common tauopathy was progressive supranuclear palsy (16 cases). Thirty-six subjects had drug-induced parkinsonism (6.6%), 11 had vascular parkinsonism (2.0%), 1 had amyotropic lateral sclerosis in parkinsonism (0.2%), 1 had parkinsonism secondary to surgery (0.2%), and 84 remained unspecified (15.5%). Men had higher incidence than women for most types of parkinsonism. Findings at brain autopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 53 out of 65 patients who underwent autopsy (81.5%). Conclusions The incidence of proteinopathies related to parkinsonism increases steeply with age and is consistently higher in men than women. Clinically-diagnosed synucleinopathies are much more common than tauopathies. Findings at autopsy confirm the clinical diagnosis. PMID:23689920

  20. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  1. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  2. Colorectal cancer and its association with the metabolic syndrome: a Malaysian multi-centric case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaganathan, V; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Faizal, J A; Fijeraid, H; Normayah, K; Gooi, B H; Othman, R

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both on the rise in Malaysia. A multi-centric case-control study was conducted from December 2009 to January 2011 to determine any relationship between the two. Patients with confirmed CRC based on colonoscopy findings and cancer free controls from five local hospitals were assessed for MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Each index case was matched for age, gender and ethnicity with two controls (140: 280). MetS among cases was highly prevalent (70.7%), especially among women (68.7%). MetS as an entity increased CRC risk by almost three fold independently (OR=2.61, 95%CI=1.53-4.47). In men MetS increased the risk of CRC by two fold (OR=2.01, 95%CI, 1.43-4.56), demonstrating an increasing trend in risk with the number of Mets components observed. This study provides evidence for a positive association between the metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer. A prospective study on the Malaysian population is a high priority to confirm these findings.

  3. Asymptotics for incidence matrix classes

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Peter; Prellberg, Thomas; Stark, Dudley

    2005-01-01

    We define {\\em incidence matrices} to be zero-one matrices with no zero rows or columns. A classification of incidence matrices is considered for which conditions of symmetry by transposition, having no repeated rows/columns, or identification by permutation of rows/columns are imposed. We find asymptotics and relationships for the number of matrices with $n$ ones in these classes as $n\\to\\infty$.

  4. Incidence Handling and Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbande, Prof. Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr. G. T.; Singh, Mr. Manish

    2009-01-01

    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. I...

  5. The true incidence of cryptorchidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Kjellberg, Emma M; Breddam, Mette

    2008-01-01

    at Glostrup University Hospital during 2002, with a 4-year review of patient data and telephone contact with primary physicians. Results: At birth the overall frequency of cryptorchidism was 2.4% (26 of 1,088 cases, 23% bilateral). The frequency of cryptorchidism in singletons was 2.4% (24 of 1,012 patients...... testes. Conclusions: In a small cohort of newborns the incidence of cryptorchidism in Denmark has not changed, and is similar to previous reports from the 1950s. The risk is higher in low birth weight singleton neonates but does not appear to be higher in twins, despite lower birth weight and prematurity...

  6. The role of dietary and lifestyle factors in the development of colorectal cancer: case control study in Minia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Eman Mohamed; Sadek, Refaat Raouf; Abdel-Latief, Wafaa Mohamed; Mosallem, Fadia Abdel-Hamed; Hassan, Ebtesam Esmail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, after lung and breast cancer, and is associated with the population dietary and lifestyle factors. To determine the relation between dietary and lifestyle factors and development of CRC in patients attending Minia oncology centre and compare them with their control. Study included 150 CRC patients attending Minia oncology centre and 300 control subjects matched by age and sex. Subjects participating in the study filled in a questionnaire including questions about socio-demographic data, medical data concerning CRC and its treatment as well as dietary and lifestyle factors. The most significant dietary and lifestyle CRC risk factors were higher consumption of red meat (OR = 57.1), preserved food (OR = 39.4), artificial sweeteners (OR = 20.8), fast foods (OR = 12.8), soft drinks (OR = 4.6), spicy foods (OR = 4.2), processed meat (OR = 2.4), and smoking (OR = 8.8). The most significant protective factors were physical activity (OR = 0.001), calcium rich diet (OR = 0.08), higher consumption of fruits and vegetable (OR = 0.02), cruciferous vegetables (broccoli OR = 0.11, cauliflower OR = 0.30 and cabbage OR = 0.30), high fiber bread (OR = 0.15), fruit juice (OR = 0.18), and sea foods (tuna OR = 0.28 and fish OR = 0.38). Sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy dietary choices were prevalent among CRC cases. This study provides strong evidence that lifestyle and dietary modification are important factors in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  7. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.

  8. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  9. Incidence of motion loss of the stifle joint in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: longitudinal clinical study of 412 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandi, Avtar S; Schulman, Alan J

    2007-02-01

    To report the incidence of loss of stifle extension or flexion and its relationship with clinical lameness after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Longitudinal study. Dogs (n=280) with CCL rupture (n=412). TPLO was performed without meniscal release or arthrotomy. Angles of extension and flexion of the stifle were measured by goniometry to determine range of motion. Based upon motion loss, stifles were divided in 3 groups: no loss of extension or flexion (n=322), or =10 degrees loss of extension or flexion (n=12). Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was associated with significantly (P=.001) higher clinical lameness scores in comparison with no loss, or loss of extension or flexion or =10 degrees was less tolerable and less amenable to physical rehabilitation than flexion loss. Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was responsible for higher clinical lameness scores. Osteoarthrosis in the cranial femorotibial joint led to extension loss. Loss of extension or flexion should be assessed in dogs with persistent clinical lameness after TPLO so that early intervention can occur. Our study provides guidelines to define clinically relevant loss of extension or flexion of stifle joint after TPLO.

  10. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  11. Incidence, seasonality and comorbidity in vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Handžić, Jadranka; Habek, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Aims of the present study were: (1) to assess the incidence of vestibular neuritis (VN) in the adult population in two cities in Croatia, (2) to identify distribution of new VN cases in the different months and seasons by years, and (3) to identify comorbidities associated with VN. This is a prospective, population-based study conducted in the cities of Zagreb and Velika Gorica, Croatia in the 2011-2012 period. All diagnoses were confirmed either with caloric test or vestibular evoked myogenic potentials within 7 days of symptom onset. Following clinical parameters were collected from all patients: age, gender, side of the lesion, month and season of symptoms onset and comorbidities. We identified 79 new cases of VN (34 in 2011, 45 in 2012). The male to female ratio was 1.1:1. The mean age at the onset of the disease was 52.3 (range 20-86) years. The average annual incidence was 11.7 per 100,000 (95 % CI 7.8-15.6) in the 2011 period and 15.5 per 100,000 (95 % CI 11.0-20.0) in the 2012 period. For both years there was no statistically significant uneven distribution in the different months or seasons by years. The most frequent comorbidities present in VN patients were hypertension (30.4 %), diabetes mellitus (8.9 %), hyperlipidemia (7.5 %) and hypothyreosis (6.3 %). Our study has shown higher incidence of VN than previously reported. We have found no evidence of seasonality of VN and significant proportion of VN patients older than 50 years who had vascular risk factors present.

  12. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  13. Management of adult spontaneous spondylodiscitis and its rising incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, A; Tsang, K; Brown, M; Tzerakis, N

    2015-09-01

    Spondylodiscitis refers to the infection of the intervertebral disc and osteomyelitis of the adjacent endplates, and it is uncommon in the developed world. Broad consensus indicates its incidence is on the rise. The aim of this retrospective study was twofold. First, we sought to give an up-to-date incidence estimate by comparing case presentation over two time periods (1995-1999 and 2008-2011). Data from the England and Wales census in 2001 and 2011 were used for incidence estimation. The second part of this study aimed to generate management guidance from data from medical and radiographic records of the 2008-2011 patient cohort. The incidence of adult spontaneous spondylodiscitis in the local region between 2008 and 2011 was 3.67/100,000 per year, representing a 150% increase from the incidence in 1995-1999. Our data demonstrate that methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus remains the most common offending pathogen of spontaneous spondylodiscitis. The mean C-reactive protein (CRP) level remained at >30mg/l after a month of starting antibiotic treatment in both medically and surgically managed groups. Evidence suggests that the incidence of spondylodiscitis is on the rise. A review of our case series has demonstrated the effectiveness of intravenous antibiotic therapy. While no official guidance exists for when to switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics, our study shows that CRP at 1 month is >30mg/l and we recommend 6 weeks of intravenous therapy, followed by 6 further weeks of oral therapy.

  14. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Morais, Samantha; Oliveira, Maria J; Marques, Ana P; José Bento, Maria; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to quantify thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends in Portugal. The number of thyroid cancer cases and incidence rates were retrieved from the Regional Cancer Registries for the period 1989-2011. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2012) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1988-2012 by region). Joinpoint regression of the standardized incidence and mortality rates was performed. A significant, rapid and continued increase in incidence was observed for both sexes in each of the Regional Cancer Registries, with annual per cent changes (APCs) ranging between 2 and 9. Incidence in Portuguese women is higher than estimates for the world and Europe. Mortality decreased for women (APC: -1.5), with the greatest decrease in the North, and increased marginally for men (APC: +0.2), with a greater increase in the South. The significant increases in incidence in Portugal are predominantly because of the increase in incidence among women from the North. These trends, combined with an overall low mortality and high 5-year relative survival, raise concerns on the extent to which overdiagnosis may be taking place. Further research is needed, quantifying the importance of the most likely determinants of these trends as well as the extent and potentially deleterious effects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment in the Portuguese setting.

  15. Retrieval of Melt Ponds on Arctic Multiyear Sea Ice in Summer from TerraSAR-X Dual-Polarization Data Using Machine Learning Approaches: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea with Mid-Incidence Angle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt ponds, a common feature on Arctic sea ice, absorb most of the incoming solar radiation and have a large effect on the melting rate of sea ice, which significantly influences climate change. Therefore, it is very important to monitor melt ponds in order to better understand the sea ice-climate interaction. In this study, melt pond retrieval models were developed using the TerraSAR-X dual-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR data with mid-incidence angle obtained in a summer multiyear sea ice area in the Chukchi Sea, the Western Arctic, based on two rule-based machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT and random forest (RF—in order to derive melt pond statistics at high spatial resolution and to identify key polarimetric parameters for melt pond detection. Melt ponds, sea ice and open water were delineated from the airborne SAR images (0.3-m resolution, which were used as a reference dataset. A total of eight polarimetric parameters (HH and VV backscattering coefficients, co-polarization ratio, co-polarization phase difference, co-polarization correlation coefficient, alpha angle, entropy and anisotropy were derived from the TerraSAR-X dual-polarization data and then used as input variables for the machine learning models. The DT and RF models could not effectively discriminate melt ponds from open water when using only the polarimetric parameters. This is because melt ponds showed similar polarimetric signatures to open water. The average and standard deviation of the polarimetric parameters based on a 15 × 15 pixel window were supplemented to the input variables in order to consider the difference between the spatial texture of melt ponds and open water. Both the DT and RF models using the polarimetric parameters and their texture features produced improved performance for the retrieval of melt ponds, and RF was superior to DT. The HH backscattering coefficient was identified as the variable contributing the most, and its

  16. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

  17. Incidence and prevalence of episcleritis and scleritis in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honik, Grace; Wong, Ira G; Gritz, David C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of episcleritis and scleritis in a large well-defined population in Northern California. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Northern California Epidemiology of Uveitis Study. The patient database of a large regional health maintenance organization was searched for all patients who potentially experienced ocular inflammatory disease during the 12-month study period. Medical records were reviewed for all potential patients to confirm ocular inflammatory disease and specific diagnosis, establish the time of onset, and collect additional data. Age- and sex-stratified quarterly study population data were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. After reviewing 2011 possible cases, 297 new-onset cases of episcleritis, 39 prior-onset cases of episcleritis, 25 new-onset cases of scleritis, and 8 prior-onset cases of scleritis were confirmed. For episcleritis, the overall incidence was 41.0 per 100,000 person-years and an annual prevalence ratio of 52.6 per 100,000. The overall incidence of scleritis was 3.4 per 100,000 person-years and an annual prevalence ratio of 5.2 per 100,000 persons. For both episcleritis and scleritis, there was a statistically significant increase in eye disease in older patients (P = 0.05 and episcleritis (P = 0.017). This study found that patients with scleritis were older than those with episcleritis and that women had higher rates of both episcleritis and scleritis compared with what men had.

  18. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  19. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  20. Trends in hepatitis B incidence in Romania, 1989-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Dana; Rafila, A; Pistol, A; Arama, V; Molagic, V; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian

    2008-01-10

    In the early 1990s, Romania had a high incidence of hepatitis B, with over 30 cases per 100,000 population annually. The disease represented a serious public health problem, especially for children. As a result, public health measures were introduced during the 1990s such as the enforcement of the use of single-use needles and a routine vaccination programme for children and health workers. This paper describes the change in incidence of HBV infection in Romania from the late 1980s until 2005, and demonstrates the impact of those measures. They have lead to a dramatic decrease in hepatitis B incidence across the country: overall, the incidence has decreased from 43 per 100,000 in 1989 to 8.5 per 100,000 in 2004. The decrease has been most prominent in children under 15, dropping from 81 to 11 per 100,000 population and year during that period.

  1. Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, David I; Ford, Chandler; Samociuk, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Geographic variation in breast cancer incidence across Connecticut was examined according to age and birth cohort -specific groups. We assigned each of 60,937 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in Connecticut, 1986-2009, to one of 828 census tracts around the state. Global and local spatial statistics estimated rate variation across the state according to age and birth cohorts. We found the global distribution of incidence rates across places to be more heterogeneous for younger women and later birth cohorts. Concurrently, the spatial scan identified more locations with significantly high rates that pertained to larger proportions of at-risk women within these groups. Geographic variation by age groups was more pronounced than by birth cohorts. Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Wilschut (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, with over a million newly diagnosed cases per year worldwide. CRC occurs especially frequently in established market economies like Europe, the United States (US), Canada, Australia and Japan. The lifetime incidence in average

  3. SU-E-T-511: Inter-Rater Variability in Classification of Incidents in a New Incident Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, D; Reis, S; Ali, A; Kapur, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine how consistent the results of different raters are when reviewing the same cases within the Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS). Methods Three second-year medical physics graduate students filled out incident reports in spreadsheets set up to mimic ROILS. All students studied the same 33 cases and independently entered their assessments, for a total of 99 reviewed cases. The narratives for these cases were obtained from a published International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report which included shorter narratives selected from the Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) database. Each category of questions was reviewed to see how consistent the results were by utilizing free-marginal multirater kappa analysis. The percentage of cases where all raters shared full agreement or full disagreement was recorded to show which questions were answered consistently by multiple raters for a given case. The consistency among the raters was analyzed between ICRP and ROSIS cases to see if either group led to more reliable results. Results The categories where all raters agreed 100 percent in their choices were the event type (93.94 percent of cases 0.946 kappa) and the likelihood of the event being harmful to the patient (42.42 percent of cases 0.409 kappa). The categories where all raters disagreed 100 percent in their choices were the dosimetric severity scale (39.39 percent of cases 0.139 kappa) and the potential future toxicity (48.48 percent of cases 0.205 kappa). ROSIS had more cases where all raters disagreed than ICRP (23.06 percent of cases compared to 15.58 percent, respectively). Conclusion Despite reviewing the same cases, the results among the three raters was widespread. ROSIS narratives were shorter than ICRP, which suggests that longer narratives lead to more consistent results. This study shows that the incident reporting system can be optimized to yield more consistent results

  4. SU-E-T-511: Inter-Rater Variability in Classification of Incidents in a New Incident Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, D; Reis, S; Ali, A [Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY (United States); Kapur, A [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To determine how consistent the results of different raters are when reviewing the same cases within the Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS). Methods Three second-year medical physics graduate students filled out incident reports in spreadsheets set up to mimic ROILS. All students studied the same 33 cases and independently entered their assessments, for a total of 99 reviewed cases. The narratives for these cases were obtained from a published International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report which included shorter narratives selected from the Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) database. Each category of questions was reviewed to see how consistent the results were by utilizing free-marginal multirater kappa analysis. The percentage of cases where all raters shared full agreement or full disagreement was recorded to show which questions were answered consistently by multiple raters for a given case. The consistency among the raters was analyzed between ICRP and ROSIS cases to see if either group led to more reliable results. Results The categories where all raters agreed 100 percent in their choices were the event type (93.94 percent of cases 0.946 kappa) and the likelihood of the event being harmful to the patient (42.42 percent of cases 0.409 kappa). The categories where all raters disagreed 100 percent in their choices were the dosimetric severity scale (39.39 percent of cases 0.139 kappa) and the potential future toxicity (48.48 percent of cases 0.205 kappa). ROSIS had more cases where all raters disagreed than ICRP (23.06 percent of cases compared to 15.58 percent, respectively). Conclusion Despite reviewing the same cases, the results among the three raters was widespread. ROSIS narratives were shorter than ICRP, which suggests that longer narratives lead to more consistent results. This study shows that the incident reporting system can be optimized to yield more consistent results.

  5. Reliable assessment of the incidence of childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladjidi, Nathalie; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Beaubois, Cyrielle; Fernandes, Helder; Jeanpetit, Julien; Coureau, Gaelle; Gilleron, Véronique; Kostrzewa, Aude; Lauroua, Pierre; Jeanne, Michel; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Leblanc, Thierry; Leverger, Guy; Perel, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare and severe disease characterized by hemolysis and positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). Few epidemiologic indicators are available for the pediatric population. The objective of our study was to reliably estimate the number of AIHA cases in the French Aquitaine region and the incidence of AIHA in patients under 18 years old. In this retrospective study, the capture-recapture method and log-linear model were used for the period 2000-2008 in the Aquitaine region from the following three data sources for the diagnosis of AIHA: the OBS'CEREVANCE database cohort, positive DAT collected from the regional blood bank database, and the French medico-economic information system. A list of 281 different patients was obtained after cross-matching the three databases; 44 AIHA cases were identified in the period 2000-2008; and the total number of cases was estimated to be 48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45-55). The calculated incidence of the disease was 0.81/100,000 children under 18 years old per year (95% CI 0.76-0.92). Accurate methods are required for estimating the incidence of AIHA in children. Capture-recapture analysis corrects underreporting and provides optimal completeness. This study highlights a possible under diagnosis of this potentially severe disease in various pediatric settings. AIHA incidence may now be compared with the incidences of other hematological diseases and used for clinical or research purposes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Sattar, Naveed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Our objective was to perform a quantitative review of prospective studies examining the association between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Using the title terms ?diabetes? and ?metabolic syndrome? in PubMed, we searched for articles published since 1998. RESULTS?Based on the results from 16 cohorts, we performed a meta-analysis of estimates of relative risk (RR) and incident diabetes. The random-effects summary RRs were 5.17 (95% CI 3.99?6....

  7. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  8. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  9. Critical incidents in paediatric anaesthesia: A prospective analysis over a 1 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raylene; Dave, Nandini; Chiluveru, Swapna; Garasia, Madhu

    2016-11-01

    Critical incident reporting helps to identify errors and formulate preventive strategies. Many countries have existing national reporting systems. Such a system is yet to be established in India. We aimed to study the incidence of critical events in the paediatric operation theatre (OT) of our institute. We conducted a prospective observational study of all children receiving anaesthesia in paediatric OT over a period of 1 year. They were monitored intraoperatively as well as postoperatively, and critical incidents were noted in terms of date and time of incident, location (OT/post-anaesthesia care unit, clinical category, age of patient, degree of patient harm resulting from the incident, description of what happened and duration of surgery. Percentage incidence of critical events was calculated. A total of 1206 children received an anaesthetic during the study. Incidence of critical events was 8.9% (108). Airway and respiratory events were the maximum recorded accounting for 60 (55%) incidents. There were 43 cases of oxygen desaturation out of which 21 were attributable to laryngospasm. Cardiovascular events were 12 (11.1%). Medication-related incidents were 4 (3.8%). Severe harm was reported in ten incidents, and 1 death was reported. A few uncommon incidents like change in voice following use of a cuffed endotracheal tube and post-operative acute renal failure requiring haemodialysis were noted. Incidence of critical incidents was almost one for every ten patients, and the audit helped us establish policy guidelines in our institution.

  10. A worrying increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariad, S; Barchana, M; Yukelson, A; Geffen, D B

    2000-11-01

    Exposure to asbestos is the main established cause of mesothelioma; the incidence of this tumor is thus often interpreted as an index of past exposure. Asbestos has been widely used in Israel in industry and building, exposing certain population groups to the risk of developing mesothelioma. To analyze the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel during the years 1960-96, and to project its trend for the following years. We conducted a population-based study of the incidence of mesothelioma reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during 1960-96. Time trends were analyzed from data on the annual import of asbestos to Israel, which may indicate the magnitude of past exposure. Based on these findings, trends in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel were projected for the subsequent years. A total of 327 cases of mesothelioma were reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during the study period. The incidence in Jews was higher than in Arabs (age-standardized incidence rate 2.64 vs. 1.35 per million/year, respectively). Among the Jewish population, Israeli-born males and males born in Europe and America showed the highest incidence (ASR 4.23 and 4.15 per million/year, respectively). Israeli-born males were 20 years younger than Jewish males born elsewhere. The incidence was twice as high among males than females and increased sevenfold from its nadir (1.17 per million/year) in 1978-80 to its peak (8.5 per million/year) in 1993-96. During a similar period the incidence among females increased from 0.33 to 2.56 per million/year. The incidence in both sexes does not appear to level off. The large wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union that began in 1989 only partly accounts for the increased incidence in 1993-96. The time trend in the incidence of mesothelioma in both sexes parallels the use of asbestos in Israel, which peaked in the years 1976-78. The incidence of mesothelioma in Israel has increased sharply in recent years, unrelated to a wave of immigration from

  11. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  12. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis: a 14-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G; Lassen, Annmarie T

    2014-04-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008. In a population-based study we identified all patients aged ≥18 years treated for pyogenic spondylodiscitis in Funen County, Denmark (population 483 123). Annual incidences were determined. Demographics, symptoms and diagnostic methods were recorded. We found 192 cases: median age 66.6 years; 57.3% men; 76.6% culture positive cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (55.1%). During 1995-2008 the overall incidence, incidence of culture negative cases, and incidence of cases due to S. aureus increased 2.2-5.8, 0.3-1.8, and 1.6-2.5 cases per 100 000 person years, respectively. The elderly had the highest incidence compared to those aged ≤70 years (rate ratio for men 5.9 (95% CI: 4.2-8.5) and for women 3.5 (95% CI: 2.3-5.3)). During 1995-2008 the overall incidence of S. aureus and culture negative cases of spondylodiscitis increased and remained highest among the elderly. Whether the increase is real or is a result of improved diagnostic methods and workup remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A study on genetic mutations within the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in cases of colorectal carcinoma in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Menem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the enzyme responsible for the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate, a key single-carbon donor in nucleotide synthesis and the methylation of DNA. In this pilot study we investigated two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene 677C→T and 1298A→C and their association with enhanced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a sample of egyptian individuals. Venous blood samples were withdrawn from 35 cases of CRC and 68 healthy controls . Specimens from colonic and rectal carcinoma tissues in addition to cancer free tissues were obtained from all cases. Polymorphisms was studied by RFLP analysis and confirmed by SSCP analysis using hot SSCP (∼ 1200 Ci/m mol α d ATP S35) and cold SSCP. Frequencies of MTHFR677T and 1298C alleles were significantly higher among cases of CRC tumor tissues (50 % and 56 %, respectively) than germ line alleles in CRC patients (33 % and 41 %, respectively) and healthy controls (21 % and 35 %, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous polymorphism frequencies of MTHFR at positions 677 and 1298 in carcinoma tissues were always the highest. At position 677TT and CT genotype frequencies were 17 % and 66 % with an odds ratio (OR) of 11(95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.39-50.59) and OR 8.34 (95 % CI 2.97-23.92), respectively, in carcinoma tissues. While in the germ line of patients the genotype frequencies of 677TT and CT were 6 % and 54 % with OR 1.57 (95 % CI 0.26-9.51) and 2.99 (95 % CI 1.25-7-12), respectively, compared to control (6 % and 29 %, respectively). The combined genotype MTHFR1298 CC+AC frequencies were 86 % with OR 3.71(95 % CI 1.28-10.78) in carcinoma tissues, 69 % with OR 1.35(95 % CI 0.57-3.21) in germ line of patients and 62 % in controls. The combined genotype 677CT plus any of the following genotypes 1298 AA, AC or CC enhanced risk of CRC, when comparing germ line DNA polymorphism of patients versus peripheral blood DNA of control subjects OR 4.5(95 % CI 0.94-21.56), OR 3.12 (95

  15. Spatial analysis of colorectal cancer cases in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Neoh, Hui-Min; Rahim, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul; Azhar, Zahir Izuan; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Safian, Nazarudin; Jamal, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, data from the Malaysian Health Ministry showed colorectal cancer (CRC) to be the second most common type of cancer in 2007-2009, after breast cancer. The same was apparent after looking at males and females cases separately. In the present study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to describe the distribution of CRC cases in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia, according to socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and district). This retrospective review concerned data for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the years 1995 to 2011 collected from the Wilayah Persekutuan Health Office, taken from the cancer notification form (NCR-2), and patient medical records from the Surgical Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A total of 146 cases were analyzed. All the data collected were analysed using ArcGIS version 10.0 and SPSS version 19.0. Patients aged 60 to 69 years accounted for the highest proportion of cases (34.2%) and males slightly predominated 76 (52.1%), Chinese had the highest number of registered cases at 108 (74.0%) and staging revealed most cases in the 3rd and 4th stages. Kernel density analysis showed more cases are concentrated up in the northern area of Petaling and Kuala Lumpur subdistricts. Spatial global pattern analysis by average nearest neighbour resulted in nearest neighbour ratio of 0.75, with Z-score of -5.59, p value of population and improvement of healthcare facilities to provide better treatment for CRC patients.

  16. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  17. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  18. The incidence of human induced community road dilapidation: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of human induced community road dilapidation: A case study of Ekpoma, Edo- Nigeria. ... International Journal of Community Research ... The manner by which community roads are been excavated without concerted efforts to seal them up properly, has indeed become a worrisome phenomenon. The irony is ...

  19. The Level of Fibula Osteotomy and Incidence of Peroneal Nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jan-Jun 2010 | Vol-2 | Issue-1. 17. The Level of Fibula Osteotomy and Incidence of Peroneal. Nerve Palsy in Proximal Tibial Osteotomy. A. O. Ogbemudia, P. F. A. Umebese, A. Bafor, E. Igbinovia, P. E. Ogbemudia. INTRODUCTION. Osteotomy of the fibula is ...

  20. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  1. A high incidence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of and predisposing risk factors for lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral drugs in South Africa. Design. Observational case series. Setting. Sinikithemba HIV Clinic, McCord Hospital, Durban. Subjects. Eight hundred and ninety-one HIV-positive patients on highly active ...

  2. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed...

  3. Estimation of incidences of infectious diseases based on antibody measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, J; Mølbak, K; Falkenhorst, G

    2009-01-01

    Owing to under-ascertainment it is difficult if not impossible to determine the incidence of a given disease based on cases notified to routine public health surveillance. This is especially true for diseases that are often present in mild forms as for example diarrhoea caused by foodborne...

  4. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  5. Incidence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1948-1982

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hyllested, K

    1992-01-01

    The incidence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark were estimated as a result of a continuous nationwide epidemiological survey since 1948 by the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR). Among cases notified to the DMSR, 6,478 met the diagnostic criteria and had onset of MS from 1948...

  6. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  7. Impact of road construction on malaria incidence and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the impact of road construction on the incidence of malaria cases reported at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) as well as vector abundance in Abeokuta South and North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Mosquito larvae were collected from randomly selected four road construction sites ...

  8. Incidence of pemphigus in Thrissur district, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kidangazhiyathmana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus is a common autoimmune blistering disorder in India. However, there are no population based surveys from India available to study the prevalence of this disease. Aims: To estimate the