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Sample records for incident colorectal cancer

  1. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  2. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  3. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; Hagi, M.; Auverlot, B.; Cottenet, J.; Binquet, M.; Compain, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases) and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both). The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  4. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  5. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  7. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Wong, Natalie Z; Abelson, Jonathan S; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-06-01

    Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but its effect on colorectal cancer mortality is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on survival from colorectal cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a large multicenter randomized trial run from 1993 to 2001, with follow-up data recently becoming mature. Participants were women aged 55 to 74 years, without recent colonoscopy. Data from the trial were analyzed to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality based on subjects' use of hormone replacement therapy at the time of randomization: never, current, or former users. A total of 75,587 women with 912 (1.21%) incident colorectal cancers and 239 associated deaths were analyzed, with median follow-up of 11.9 years. Overall, 88.6% were non-Hispanic white, and colorectal cancer incidence in current users compared to never-users was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.94; P = .005), as was death from colorectal cancer (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; P colorectal cancer incidence and improved colorectal cancer-specific survival, as well as all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  10. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

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    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  11. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R. M.; Gonzales, M.; Wiggins, C. L.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses indicated that New Mexican Hispanics and American Indians (AI) did not experience the declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates observed among non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated more recent data to determine whether racial/ethnic differences persisted. Methods. We used New Mexico Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data from 1995 to 2009 to calculate age-specific incidence rates and age-adjusted incidence rates overall and by tumor stage. We calculated mortality rates using National Center for Health Statistics’ data. We used join point regression to determine annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted incidence rates. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Incidence rates continued declining in NHW (APC −1.45% men, −1.06% women), while non significantly increasing for AI (1.67% men, 1.26% women) and Hispanic women (0.24%). The APC initially increased in Hispanic men through 2001 (3.33%, P = 0.06), before declining (−3.10%, P = 0,003). Incidence rates declined in NHW and Hispanics aged 75 and older. Incidence rates for distant-stage cancer remained stable for all groups. Mortality rates declined significantly in NHW and Hispanics. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC persist in New Mexico. Incidence differences could be related to risk factors or access to screening; mortality differences could be due to patterns of care for screening or treatment.

  13. Atrophic Gastritis and the Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812

  14. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Effective Factors in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Pourfarzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Colorectal cancer is considered as the third prevalent malignancy worldwide. Investigation of information on cancers in Iran during 1985-1996 showed an increase in the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer. Its rank in Iran has increased from 9 to 5th during 10 years. It was reported as high prevalent cancer in Iranian people aged less than 40 years among Asian countries.   Methods: In this cases-control study patients with a pathologic report of colorectal cancer were recruited among those cases registered in Ardabil Cancer Registry. Control group were selected from neighbors, frequency matched for age and gender. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire consisting information on age, gender, smoking, drugs and alcohol consuming, diet, family history of cancer and serum IgM and IgG level for H. pylori. Data were analyzed using SPSS v16.   Results: In the current study, 43 persons (53.8% were male and 37 (46.2% were female. In the case group, 10 persons (12.5% were under 40, 34 cases (42.5% in age group of 41- 60 and 36 persons (45% were more than 61 years. In the control group 12 persons (15% were under 40, 36 persons (45.5% in age group of 41-60 and 40 persons (68% were more than 61 years. In the control group 3 cases had BMI less than 19, 36 cases (45% between 19-24.9, 31 cases (38.8% between 25-29.9 and 10 cases (12.5% were more than 30, whereas this variable was 2.5, 32.5, 46.2 and 18.8% respectively in the case group.   Positive history of smoking found to increase the risk of cancer around 1.8 times (OR= 1.78 CI: 0.91- 5.85. However, significant difference was not observed between two groups regarding alcoholic beverage consumption (p=0.385 . There were significant differences between two groups in terms of vegetables and carbohydrates intake. Difference was also significant between two groups regarding positive level of IgG. Among studied persons, 19 and 13 patients in case and control group had

  16. Colorectal cancer incidence in 5 Asian countries by subsite: An analysis of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1998-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Jung, Sun Jae; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hai-Rim; Shin, Aesun

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Asia. However, the trends in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite have not been analyzed across Asian countries. We used the most recent, high quality data from 6 cancer registries for two 5-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents to estimate colorectal cancer incidence by subsite in 5 Asian countries. Cases with overlapping lesions or otherwise unspecified colon cancer were re-distributed as proximal or distal colon cancer. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population and incidence rate ratios from 1998 to 2002 to 2003-2007 were calculated for each subsite. For 2003-2007, men in Miyagi, Japan, had the highest ASR for cancer in the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum. Men of Jewish ancestry in Israel had a high ASR for proximal and distal colon cancer, but the lowest ASR for rectal cancer. The proportion of rectal cancer was highest among Korean men (51.39%) and lowest among Israeli women (26.6%). From 1998-2002 to 2003-2007, rectal cancer incidence did not significantly change in most registries, except for men in Miyagi, Japan, and both sexes in Korea. However, during the same period cancer incidence in the proximal and distal colon increased in most registries. In conclusion, there was substantial variation in subsite distributions of colorectal cancer in Asian registries and increases in overall incidence of colorectal cancer could be attributed to increases in colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and epidemiological features of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Brambilla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: patients with sporadic colorectal cancer or cases associated with syndromes are at risk of having synchronous or metachronous cancer. Although it is an important subject, Brazilian data on the subject are scarce. Objective: to evaluate the incidence and epidemiological features in patients with synchro- nous and metachronous colorectal cancer in a reference service of proctology in the Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: cross-sectional observational study, performed between January and July 2012, analyzing all patients admitted in the service that met the inclusion criteria. A retrospective review of records was performed, noting demographic variables, comorbidi- ties and tumor-related variables. Results: 150 records were analyzed, of which 53.3% were males and mean age was 63 (± 13.01 years old. The most frequently found tumor location was the sigmoid colon and high rectum (50.67%, followed by the lower rectum (36%. Adenocarcinomas were the most prevalent histological subtype (88%, followed by epidermoid tumors (1.33%. Hereditary syndromes were identified in five patients (3.33%, with four being Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP and one hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC. Among the an- alyzed patients, four (2.67% had synchronous and one (0.67% had metachronous cancer. Conclusion: the incidence of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer was, respectively, 2.67% and 0.67%, results that corroborate those reported in international literature. Resumo: Introdução: pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer colorretal esporádico ou associado a sín- dromes correm risco de apresentar lesões sincrônicas ou metacrônicas. Embora seja rele- vante, há escassez de informações sobre o tema na literatura nacional. Objetivo: avaliar a incidência e o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes com tumor colorretal sincrônico e metacrônico em um serviço de referência em proctologia do Rio Grande do Sul. Método: estudo

  18. Colorectal cancer incidence in path_MLH1 carriers subjected to different follow-up protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Toni; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy.......We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy....

  19. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort

  20. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

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    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  1. Characteristics and comparison of colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing with other regions in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Yang, Lei; Du, Changzheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Ning; Gu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiologic studies about colorectal cancer are lacking in China. This study aims to provide a basis for colorectal cancer screening and prevention, through analysis and comparisons the characteristics of the trends in colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing and selected representative regions. RESULTS The annual incidence rate in Beijing region increased significantly, from 9.40/100,000 in 1998 to 18.61/100,000 in 2012. The stratified rate showed that the incidence of distal colon adenocarcinoma increased substantially in men, especially in those aged > 75 years and residing in urban areas. Although the incidence rate in Beijing is still lower than in Shanghai, Jiashan, and Hong Kong in China, it is increasing rapidly. Further, the incidence rate in Beijing is lower than in New York, Oxford and Osaka, but higher than in Mumbai and Kyadondo. The incidence trend in Beijing is increasing especially in older groups, while in other regions such as New York, it is decreasing in these age groups. Materials and Methods Colorectal cancer incidence data were obtained from Beijing Cancer Registry and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus database. All incidence rates were age-standardized according to Segi's world population. Incidence trends were characterized by calculating the annual percent changes using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Conclusions Compared with other regions, Beijing has a medium level of colorectal cancer incidence, however, it is increasing significantly. There are obvious differences in the cancer subsite, sex and age distributions between Beijing and other regions. Prevention and screening of colorectal cancer in Beijing should be strengthened. PMID:28445947

  2. Estimating the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis

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    Alice Graham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly two–thirds of annual mortality worldwide is attributable to non–communicable diseases (NCDs, with 70% estimated to occur in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC. Colorectal cancer (CRC accounts for over 600 000 deaths annually, but data concerning cancer rates in LMIC is very poor. This study analyses the data available to produce an estimate of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa (SSA.

  3. Incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Iva; Šekerija, Mario; Šimunović, Iva; Zgaga, Lina; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Kovačević, Dujo; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To estimate the incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. The number of deaths from gastric and colorectal cancers was obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to describe changes in trends by sex. Results Gastric cancer incidence rates declined steadily during the study period, with estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of -3.2% for men and -2.8% for women. Mortality rates in men decreased, with EAPC of -5.0% from 1988-1995 and -2.5% from 1995-2008. Mortality rates in women decreased, with EAPC of -3.2% throughout the study period. For colorectal cancer in men, joinpoint analysis revealed increasing trends of both incidence (EAPC 2.9%) and mortality (EAPC 2.1%).In women, the increase in incidence was not significant, but mortality in the last 15 years showed a significant increase of 1.1%. Conclusion The incidence and mortality trends of gastric cancer in Croatia are similar to other European countries, while the still increasing colorectal cancer mortality calls for more efficient prevention and treatment. PMID:22522990

  4. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  5. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  7. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  8. Long-Term Impact of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program on Cancer Incidence and Mortality-Model-Based Exploration of the Serrated Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Demirel, Erhan; Lew, Jie-Bin; Berkhof, Johannes; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Canfell, Karen; Dekker, Evelien; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to predict the long-term colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and colonoscopy demand of the recently implemented Dutch colorectal cancer screening program. The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal Cancer model was set up to simulate the Dutch screening program consisting of

  9. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC). We

  10. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC).

  11. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, E.; Maulen- de Jong, A.E. van der; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Woude, C.J. van der; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Jansen, J.M.; Mahmmod, N.; Kremer, W.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies

  12. Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Relationships with the Human Development Index across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Sepehri, Zahra; Shamlou, Reza; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) across the world in 2012. This ecologic study was conducted for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components. Data for SIR and SMR for every country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI. Statistical significance was assumed at <0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 22.0, SPSS Inc.). Countries with the highest SIR of colorectal cancer in the world in 2012, were Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Hungary and countries with the highest SMR were Hungary, Croatia and Slovakia. The correlation between SIR of colorectal cancer and the HDI was 0.712 (P≤0.001), with life expectancy at birth 0.513 (P≤0.001), with mean years of schooling 0.641 (P≤0.001) and with level of income per each person of the population 0.514 (P=0.013). In addition, the correlation between SMR of colorectal cancer and the HDI was 0.628 (P≤0.001), with life expectancy at birth 0.469 (P≤0.001), with mean years of schooling 0.592 (P≤0.001) and with level of income per each person of the population 0.378 (P=0.013). The highest SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer was in the WHO Europe region. There was a positive correlation between HDI and SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. RESULTS: High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total...... alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were...... not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of plasma...

  16. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic site and disease stage in the United States from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Eng, Cathy; Nieman, Linda Z; Kapadia, Asha S; Du, Xianglin L

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the current study were to examine the trends in incidence rates of subsite-specific colorectal cancer at all stages in a large US population and to explore the impact of age and sex on colorectal cancer incidence. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 registries. Colorectal cancer incidence was divided into 3 anatomic subsite groupings: proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Incidence rates and relative risk were calculated using the SEER*Stat software provided by the National Cancer Institute. From 1976 to 2005, age-adjusted incidence of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers per 100,000 population have steadily decreased from 22.5, 18.8, and 19.2 to 21.1, 11.7, and 13.6, respectively, contributing to the overall decline in the incidence of colorectal cancer from 60.5 to 46.4. Distal colon cancer had the greatest incidence decline (-37.79%), whereas the most minimal change in the incidence rates occurred for proximal colon cancer (-6.37%) because of increased incidence rates of ascending colon (24.8%) and hepatic flexure (21.3%) over 30 years. The steadily increased proportion of proximal colorectal cancer subsites was observed in both men and women starting at age 50 although women experienced a greater increase than did men. Overall incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased over the past 3 decades. The percent of ascending colon and hepatic flexure cancers diagnosed at early stages (localized and regional) increased. The finding on sex difference over years suggests that great attention should be paid in the future studies to male and female disparities.

  18. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant FOLFOX for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercek, Andrea; Siegel, Cara L; Capanu, Marinela; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Saltz, Leonard B

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that the incidence of young women diagnosed with colorectal cancer is rising, thus there is an increasing number of female colorectal cancer survivors of premenopausal and child-bearing age. Adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy is the most widely used standard treatment for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer. We evaluated the incidence of FOLFOX-induced amenorrhea in women age 50 and younger treated with adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. A search of pharmacy records identified 119 women age 50 or younger who received adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering for stage II or III colorectal cancer from January 2002 and January 2011. Eligible patients were mailed an anonymous questionnaire. The returned surveys were reviewed and the results tallied. Seventy-three patients returned the questionnaire. Twenty-four patients were excluded from analysis: 19 were treated with pelvic radiotherapy, 2 patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy, 2 had a hysterectomy, and 1 stopped menstruating before diagnosis. Forty-nine patient responses were analyzed. In total, 41% (n = 20) experienced amenorrhea during chemotherapy. Sixteen percent had persistent amenorrhea 1 year after completion of chemotherapy. The incidence of amenorrhea during chemotherapy trended higher in patients aged older than 40 compared with patients aged 40 and younger (59% vs. 31% [P = .075]). There was no statistically significant difference in persistent amenorrhea between the 2 age groups (24% vs. 13%; P = .42). In this retrospective series, there appears to be a trend toward FOLFOX induced amenorrhea during chemotherapy increasing with age. Twenty-four percent of women older than the age of 40 were found to have persistent amenorrhea after FOLFOX therapy. Because of the small sample size, the study is underpowered to detect a statistically significant difference between older and younger patients. Prospective studies

  19. Incidence of breast and colorectal cancer among immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective cohort study from 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldiner, Jennifer; Liu, Ying; Lofters, Aisha

    2018-05-08

    Studies have shown that morbidity and mortality rates due to cancer among recent immigrants are lower than those among the native-born population. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of colorectal and breast cancer among immigrants from major regions of the world compared to Canadian-born residents of the province of Ontario and to examine the role of length of stay and neighborhood income. Retrospective cohort study including all individuals 18 years and over residing in Ontario from 2004 to 2014. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR) were calculated for immigrants from each world region versus Canadian-born residents and stratified by neighborhood income quintile and length of stay. Binomial regression analysis was used to determine the association of neighbourhood income, length of stay, and location of birth with colorectal and breast cancer incidence. Canadian immigrants born in South Asia had the lowest colorectal and breast cancer incidence (colorectal: women: ASIR = 0.14; men: ASIR = 0.18; breast: ASIR = 1.00) compared to long-term residents during the study period (colorectal: women: ASIR = .57; men: ASIR = .72; breast cancer ASIR = 1.61). In multivariate analyses, neighboorhood income did not consistently play a significant role in colorectal cancer incidence; however higher neighbourhood income was a risk factor for breast cancer among immigrant women (adjusted relative risk for highest neighboorhood income quintile versus lowest income quintile =1.21, 95% CI = 1.18-1.24). Increased length of stay was associated with higher risk of cancer. After adjusting for age, neighborhood income, and length of stay, those born in Europe and Central Asia had the highest risk of colorectal cancer compared to those born in East Asia and Pacific and those born in the Middle East had the greatest additional risk of breast cancer. After correcting for age, breast and colorectal cancer incidence rates among immigrants

  20. Coffee consumption and incidence of colorectal cancer in two prospective cohort studies of Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Bergkvist, Leif; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-04-01

    Investigators have reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in several case-control studies, but prospective studies, most of them involving small numbers of cases, have not supported such a relation. In this analysis, the authors prospectively examined the association of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer risk among participants from two population-based cohort studies: 61,433 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 45,306 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men. Information about coffee consumption was obtained from food frequency questionnaires in 1987-1990 and 1997 for women and in 1997 for men. The authors used Cox proportional hazards modeling for cohort-specific multivariate analyses, and results were pooled using random-effects models. During 1,240,597 person-years of follow-up, 1,279 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer in either women or men. For both cohorts combined, the multivariate rate ratio for colorectal cancer for each additional cup of coffee per day was 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.04). The associations were not modified by colorectal cancer risk factors. The findings from these two large prospective cohort studies do not support the hypothesis that coffee consumption lowers the risk of colorectal cancer.

  1. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  2. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible...... in Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number....

  3. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  4. The colorectal cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio as an indicator of global cancer screening and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Vasu; Hébert, James R

    2015-05-15

    Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) has been used previously to evaluate such disparities. The MIR for colorectal cancer is calculated for all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using the 2012 GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality statistics. Health system rankings were obtained from the World Health Organization. Two linear regression models were fit with the MIR as the dependent variable and health system ranking as the independent variable; one included all countries and one model had the "divergents" removed. The regression model for all countries explained 24% of the total variance in the MIR. Nine countries were found to have regression-calculated MIRs that differed from the actual MIR by >20%. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs were found to have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs lack screening programs. When these divergent points were removed from the data set, the recalculated regression model explained 60% of the total variance in the MIR. The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in cancer screening and treatment internationally. It has potential as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs and may be extended to other cancer types for these purposes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.

  6. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Denise M; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Simonsen, Neal R; Leonardi, Claudia; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Scribner, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol. The incidence of CRC was modeled using multilevel binomial regression with individuals nested within neighborhoods. Our study included 10,198 cases of CRC. Adjusting for age and sex, CRC risk was 28% higher for blacks than whites (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33). One SD increase in CDI was associated with 14% increase in risk for whites (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 5% increase for blacks (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.09). After controlling for differential effects of CDI by race, racial disparities were not observed in disadvantaged areas. CRC incidence increased with neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities diminished with mounting disadvantage. Our results suggest additional dimensions to racial disparities in CRC outside of neighborhood disadvantage that warrants further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Ansa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC incidence rates have declined in recent years for people of all races/ethnicities; however, the extent to which the decrease varies annually by demographic and disease-related characteristics is largely unknown. This study examines trends and annual percent change (APC in the incidence among persons diagnosed with CRC in the United States of America from 2000–2014. The data obtained from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program were analyzed, and all persons (N = 577,708 with malignant CRC recorded in the SEER 18 database from 2000 to 2014 were characterized according to sex, race, age at diagnosis, disease site and stage. Incidence rates and APC were calculated for the entire study period. Overall, the incidence rate of CRC decreased from 54.5 in 2000 to 38.6 per 100,000 in 2014, with APC = −2.66 (p < 0.0001. Decline in rates was most profound between 2008 and 2011 from 46.0 to 40.7 per 100,000 (APC = −4.04; p < 0.0001. Rates were higher for males (vs. females; rate ratio (RR = 1.33 and for blacks (vs. whites; RR = 1.23. Proximal colon cancers at the localized stage were the predominant cancers. An increase in rate was observed among people younger than 50 years (6.6 per 100,000, APC= 1.5. The annual rate of CRC has decreased over time. However, the development and implementation of interventions that further reduce the disparities among demographic and disease-related subgroups are warranted.

  8. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to i...

  9. The Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship With the Human Development Index in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian, Maryam; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer among men, and its incidence is increasing in Asia. Awareness about the status of this cancer incidence and mortality is necessary for a better plan. The present study was done with the aim to investigate the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. This study was an ecological study, which was conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization for Asian countries. We assessed the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of colorectal cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS software, version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A total of 592,563 incidences of and 325,752 deaths from colorectal cancer were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The 5 countries with the highest SIR were Republic of Korea (45 per 100,000), Israel (35.9 per 100,000), Singapore (33.7 per 100,000), Japan (32.2 per 100,000), and Jordan (25.6 per 100,000). The 5 countries with the highest SMR for colorectal cancer were Jordan (15.5 per 100,000), Kazakhstan (12.8 per 100,000), Democratic Republic of Korea (12 per 100,000), Brunei (12 per 100,000), and Japan (11.9 per 100,000). Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.709 overall (P ≤ .001)- 0.667 in men (P ≤ .001) and 0.759 in women (P ≤ .001). Also, correlation between HDI and SMR overall was 0.517 (P ≤ .001)- 0.447 in men (P = .002) and 0.593 in women (P ≤ .001). Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in countries with more development. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between standardized incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer and the Human Development Index and its components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  11. [Gender-specific influences on incidence, screening, treatment, and outcome of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2013-08-01

    This overview comments on potential gender-specific differences in incidence, anatomic site, screening, treatment, and outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). For the literature review, the Medline database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "colorectal carcinoma AND gender" and "gender differences AND colorectal cancer". Publications of the last 9 years (2005-2013) were firstly retrieved. CRC is more commonly observed in men than in women, with the higher tumour risk for men being limited to the distal colon and rectum. Risk factors for the development of CRC include overweight and obesity, this relationship is more pronounced for men than for women. The extent to which gender is a prognostic factor for patient survival is controversial. A better survival of women compared to men is found especially in the younger age groups, from which can be derived a protective effect of oestrogens on the development of CRC. As for the frequency with which men and women undergo a screening of CRC, sometimes higher screening rates have been reported for men than women, however, the socio-economic status of persons invited to participate has much more influence on screening attendance than gender. An analysis of surgical procedures indicates that it is more difficult to perform the low anterior resection of the rectum in men than women, with the result that men managed by less experienced surgeons are more likely to receive abdominoperineal excision. Furthermore, the risk of anastomotic leakage is higher in men than women. The essential gender difference, however, is the longer life expectancy of women compared to men which has been not always clearly (risk adjusted) elaborated in the studies available so far. This difference alone can already explain at a high rate the poorer prognosis of right-sided colon cancers compared to left-sided cancers. Comparable levels of CRC risk are reached in women as compared to men at a higher age. This may influence the

  12. NAT2, meat consumption and colorectal cancer incidence: an ecological study among 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjanovic, Simona; Yamamoto, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2006-11-01

    The polymorphic gene NAT2 is a major determinant of N-acetyltransferase activity and, thus, may be responsible for differences in one's ability to bioactivate heterocyclic amines, a class of procarcinogens in cooked meat. An unusually marked geographic variation in enzyme activity has been described for NAT2. The present study re-examines the international direct correlation reported for meat intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, and evaluates the potential modifying effects of NAT2 phenotype and other lifestyle factors on this correlation. Country-specific CRC incidence data, per capita consumption data for meat and other dietary factors, prevalence of the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype, and prevalence of smoking for 27 countries were used. Multiple linear regression models were fit and partial correlation coefficients (PCCs) were computed for men and women separately. Inclusion of the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype with meat consumption improved the fit of the regression model for CRC incidence in both sexes (males-R (2) = 0.78, compared to 0.70 for meat alone; p for difference in model fit-0.009; females-R (2) = 0.76 compared to 0.69 for meat alone; p = 0.02). Vegetable consumption (inversely and in both sexes) and fish consumption (directly and in men only) were also weakly correlated with CRC, whereas smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption had no effects on the models. The PCC between NAT2 and CRC incidence was 0.46 in males and 0.48 in females when meat consumption was included in the model, compared to 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when it was not. These data suggest that, in combination with meat intake, some proportion of the international variability in CRC incidence may be attributable to genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic amines, as determined by NAT2 genotype.

  13. Colorectal cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Cali, Colombia, 1962-2012

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    Armando Cortés

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the colorectal cancer (CRC behavior in Cali, Colombia, during the 1963-2012 period using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Materials and methods. An ecological time series analysis to study the CRC incidence (1962-2007 and mortality (1984-2012 rate trends; and a survival analysis of CRC cases registered in Cali between 1995 and 2004 were conducted. The age-standardized temporal trend of incidence (I-ASR and mortality (M-ASR rates were studied using an annual percent change (APC. The 5-year relative survival was estimated and a multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results. During the 1962-2007 period, CRC TTIR increased in men and women living in Cali [APC= 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-3.0 and APC= 2.2% (95% CI 1.8-2.7, respectively]. In the 1984-2012 period, the TTMR remained stable in women but increased in men in all age groups [APC= 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-2.8]. The 5-year relative survival was independent of sex and increased from 29.7% in 1995-1999 to 39.8% in 2000- 2004. The risk of dying from CRC was higher in people of lower socio-economic status (SES vs higher SES [HR= 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.6], among people older than 70 years of age vs younger than 50 years [HR= 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9], and for the 1995-1999 period vs 2000-2004 period [HR= 1.5(95% CI 1.3-1.7]. Conclusion. CRC is beginning to take a prominent place among the most important cancers in Cali, Colombia.

  14. Towards gene-and gender-based risk estimates in Lynch syndrome; Age-specific incidences for 13 extra-colorectal cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Ladelund, Steen; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background:In Lynch syndrome, inherited mismatch repair (MMR) defects predispose to colorectal cancer and to a wide spectrum of extra-colorectal tumours. Utilising a cohort study design, we aimed to determine the risk of extra-colorectal cancer and to identify yet unrecognised tumour types...... were identified for 13 cancer types with differences related to gender, age and disease-predisposing gene. The different cancer types showed variable peak age incidence rates (IRs) with the highest IRs for ovarian cancer at age 30-49 years, for endometrial cancer, breast cancer, renal cell cancer...... and brain tumours at age 50-69 years, and for urothelial cancer, small bowel cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and skin tumours after age 70.Conclusions:The broad spectrum of tumour types that develop at an increased incidence defines Lynch syndrome as a multi-tumour syndrome. The variable...

  15. Consumption of beer and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhong, Min

    2015-04-01

    Several meta-analyses and reports from the World Cancer Research Fund supported a risk association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association for beer consumption, the common type of alcoholic beverage, remains unclear. We identified studies by a literature search of PUBMED and EMBASE through 30 June 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their 95% CIs were calculated with a fixed or random effects model. Twelve case-control and nine cohort studies were included. Compared with non-alcohol drinkers or non-beer drinkers, any beer drinkers were associated with an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.06-1.37; p(heterogeneity) beer drinking was related to increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49), while light or moderate beer drinking was not. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that an increase of one drink per day in beer consumption was related to an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). There was evidence of a potential nonlinear association between beer intake and CRC incidence (p = 0.002 for nonlinearity). The results from this meta-analysis suggest that heavy (≥ 2 drinks/day) beer drinking may be associated with increased CRC risk. More researches with improved control of confounding and actual measurement of beer consumption are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  17. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...

  18. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bakken, Toril; Åsli, Lene Angell; Argüelles, Marcial; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Eilo; Tjønneland, Anne; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundFew studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations.MethodsThe association

  19. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

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    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  20. Effects of changes in dietary habits on colorectal cancer incidence in twenty countries from four continents during the period 1971-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Luis M; Gili, Miguel; Infantes, Beatriz; Marcott, Pamela F

    2011-10-01

    the incidence of colorectal cancer is one of the highest on a global level. Many epidemiological studies have identified risk and protective factors, many of which have a behavioral component and, therefore, are potentially avoidable or subject to modification. This study investigated the incidence rates of colorectal cancer by gender in twenty different countries, taking into account the dietary habits of the habitants of each country. adjusted incidence rates, according to gender, were obtained for each country from the International Agency for Research on Cancer during the period 1971-2002.Annual per capita consumption data of the different dietary variables were obtained for the period 1961-2007 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated comparing incidence rates according to gender with different dietary variable using ten-year delay intervals. there is an important variation in trends of colorectal cancer incidence worldwide which were found to be related with the dietary habits of each country. based on the trends observed, each country was classified into one of four different situations based on the range of values of their incidence rates and linear trends observed. Due to the potential of primary prevention programs for colorectal cancer and to the delay between changes in the exposure to risk and protective factors and the effects on the incidence of this tumor, the application of legislative and educational measures promoting a healthy diet has become an urgent issue to stop the increasing tendency of colorectal cancer reported worldwide.

  1. PDGFRα/β and VEGFR2 polymorphisms in colorectal cancer: incidence and implications in clinical outcome

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    Estevez-Garcia Purificacion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed. Results Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12: c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13: c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17: c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19: c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205, was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG (51% vs 17%; p=0.073. Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029 was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060 or TNM stage (p Conclusions PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated.

  2. PDGFRα/β and VEGFR2 polymorphisms in colorectal cancer: incidence and implications in clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez-Garcia, Purificacion; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Castaño, Angel; Martin, Ana C; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Iglesias, Joaquin; Muñoz-Galván, Sandra; Lopez-Calderero, Iker; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Pastor, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC). VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed. Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12): c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13): c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17): c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19): c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205), was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA) than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG) (51% vs 17%; p=0.073). Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029) was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060) or TNM stage (p<0.001). PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated

  3. Is adherence to diet, physical activity, and body weight cancer prevention recommendations associated with colorectal cancer incidence in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations was associated with colorectal cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). In this ongoing prospective cohort of African American women (analytic cohort n = 49,103), 354 incident colorectal cancers were diagnosed between baseline (1995) and 2011. Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1 point, non-adherent level 1 = 0.5 points, non-adherent level 2 = 0 points) were created using questionnaire data and summed to an overall adherence score (maximum = 7). Recommendation adherence and colorectal cancer incidence were evaluated using baseline and time-varying data in Cox regression models. At baseline, 8.5 % of women adhered >4 recommendations. In time-varying analyses, the HR was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.84-1.15) per 0.5 point higher score and 0.51 (95 % CI 0.23-1.10) for adherence to >4 compared to <3 recommendations. Adherence to individual recommendations was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Results were similar in models that considered baseline exposures only. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations was low and not associated with colorectal cancer risk among women in the BWHS. Research in diverse populations is essential to evaluate the validity of existing recommendations, and assess whether there are alternative recommendations that are more beneficial for cancer prevention in specific populations.

  4. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20-30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0-4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4-8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8-12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12-16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals.

  5. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20–30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0–4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4–8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8–12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12–16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Conclusion: Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals. PMID:22875713

  6. Change in the incidence and anatomic distribution of colorectal adenoma and cancer over a period of 20 years: A single center experience

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    Milovanović-Alempijević Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated a proximal shift in the distribution of adenomas and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the incidence and anatomical distribution of adenomas and colorectal cancers spanning a 20 year time gap. Methods. We performed a retrospective observational study of colorectal adenomas and cancers diagnosed during total colonoscopy in a high volume tertiary care facility in two 1-year periods of time – 1990 and 2010. Results. During the analyzed period, 4,048 colonoscopies were performed, 1,148 were performed in 1990 and 2,900 were done in 2010. The study included 466 patients with adenomas and 121 patients with colorectal cancers. Frequency of proximal adenoma changed from 16.5% to 32.7% (p < 0.001. By analyzing colonoscopies in 2010, an increase in the incidence of adenomas compared to 1990 was noticed. The number of adenomas sized 0–5 mm rose from 32.8% to 56.9% (p < 0.001. Frequency of colon carcinoma changed from 5.3% to 2.0% (p < 0.001. Incidence of cancers in the proximal colon rose from 21.3% to 48.4% (p = 0.002. A higher incidence of cancers in the proximal colon and a lower incidence of distal cancers were observed, while no difference was observed in the incidence of rectal cancers. Conclusion. Presence of proximal colon adenoma and cancer is higher, while the overall incidence of colon cancer is lower. This finding should be taken into account when planning the screening for colorectal cancer.

  7. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  8. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  9. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence: a period and birth-cohort analysis in a well-defined French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, Marion; Cottet, Vanessa; Lepage, Côme; Jooste, Valérie; Faivre, Jean; Bouvier, Anne-Marie

    2011-06-30

    France stands among high-risk areas for colorectal cancer. Different trends in CRC incidence are reported around the world. The aim of this study was to provide temporal trends in CRC incidence over a 30-year period in a French well-defined population. Between 1976 and 2005, 17,028 new cases were registered by the Burgundy digestive cancer registry. The mean variations in age-standardized incidence rates were estimated using a Poisson regression adjusted for age for each gender and location. The cumulative risk by birth cohort of developing a cancer over the age range 0-74 years was estimated using an age-cohort model. Incidence rates for right and left colon cancers increased more rapidly in males (respectively +11.7% and +10.3% on average by 5-year period) than in females (respectively +5.9% and +6.1%). It remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males (-0.1%) and decreased in females (-5.2%). It also decreased for rectal cancers both in males (-2.7%) and in females (-2.0%). The cumulative risk increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased (4.5% among those born around 1950). It remained at the same level for females born around 1900 (2.7%) as for those born around 1930 (2.7%) and then slightly increased (2.9%) for those born around 1950. For right colon cancers, the cumulative risk increased strikingly in successive birth cohorts from 0.53% to 1.2% in males and 0.55% to 0.77% in females. The corresponding cumulative risks for the left colon were 0.24% and 0.42% in males and 0.14% and 0.29% in females. For sigmoid cancer, they decreased from 1.59% to 1.08% in males, and 0.88% to 0.80% in females. Temporal variations in incidence rates of colorectal cancers differed according to subsite, suggesting different aetiological factors and implications for diagnosis and screening strategies. Total colonoscopy must be the preferred strategy in high-risk groups or after a positive faecal occult blood test.

  10. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence: a period and birth-cohort analysis in a well-defined French population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faivre Jean

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background France stands among high-risk areas for colorectal cancer. Different trends in CRC incidence are reported around the world. The aim of this study was to provide temporal trends in CRC incidence over a 30-year period in a French well-defined population. Methods Between 1976 and 2005, 17,028 new cases were registered by the Burgundy digestive cancer registry. The mean variations in age-standardized incidence rates were estimated using a Poisson regression adjusted for age for each gender and location. The cumulative risk by birth cohort of developing a cancer over the age range 0-74 years was estimated using an age-cohort model. Results Incidence rates for right and left colon cancers increased more rapidly in males (respectively +11.7% and +10.3% on average by 5-year period than in females (respectively +5.9% and +6.1%. It remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males (-0.1% and decreased in females (-5.2%. It also decreased for rectal cancers both in males (-2.7% and in females (-2.0%. The cumulative risk increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased (4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females born around 1900 (2.7% as for those born around 1930 (2.7% and then slightly increased (2.9% for those born around 1950. For right colon cancers, the cumulative risk increased strikingly in successive birth cohorts from 0.53% to 1.2% in males and 0.55% to 0.77% in females. The corresponding cumulative risks for the left colon were 0.24% and 0.42% in males and 0.14% and 0.29% in females. For sigmoid cancer, they decreased from 1.59% to 1.08% in males, and 0.88% to 0.80% in females. Conclusion Temporal variations in incidence rates of colorectal cancers differed according to subsite, suggesting different aetiological factors and implications for diagnosis and screening strategies. Total colonoscopy must be the preferred strategy in high

  11. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  12. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects....... effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects......·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective...

  13. Incidence of chemotherapy- and chemoradiotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with stage II/III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juefeng; Gai, Ya; Li, Guichao; Tao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young individuals are increasing. There has been a significant improvement in overall survival in CRC because of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy over the past decades. However, these procedures may compromise the function of the reproductive system, and ovarian failure and premature menopause may occur. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence of long-term amenorrhea (≥ 12 months) in women with CRC aged 40 years and younger after adjuvant treatment. The authors identified 162 premenopausal women with CRC aged 40 years or younger who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to December 2012. One hundred twenty-three patients met all eligibility criteria and had sufficient follow-up for evaluation. The median age at diagnosis in patients with colon and rectal cancers was, respectively, 36 and 35 years (range, 17-40 and 24-40 years). All patients had regular menses before treatment; 3 patients with colon cancer (4.2%) experienced long-term amenorrhea, and 48 patients with rectal cancer (94.1%) experienced long-term amenorrhea. The incidence of amenorrhea was significantly lower in patients with colon cancer (4.2%; 3 of 72) than in patients with rectal cancer (94.1%; 48 of 51) (P amenorrhea in patients with colon and rectal cancers was 4.2% and 94.1%, respectively. We believe our data support the fact that young female patients with CRC, especially those with rectal cancer who are scheduled to undergo pelvic irradiation, should be counseled regarding fertility preservation options, including ovarian transposition and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, embryo, or oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  15. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  16. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  17. Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older following recommendations for population-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Lund, Jennifer L.; Baron, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the U.S. is increasing among adults younger than age 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening. We examined age- and race-related differences in CRC incidence over a 40-year time period. Methods We determined the age-standardized incidence of CRC, from 1975 through 2013, using the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of cancer registries. We calculated incidence for 5-year age categories (20—24 years through 80—84 years and 85 years or older) for different time periods (1975—1979, 1980—1984, 1985—1989, 1990—1994, 1995—1999, 2000—2004, 2005—2009, and 2010—2013), tumor subsite (proximal colon, descending colon, and rectum), and stages at diagnosis (localized, regional, and distant). Analyses were stratified by race (white vs. black). Results There were 450,682 incident cases of CRC reported to the SEER registries over the entire period (1975—2013). Overall incidence was 75.5/100,000 white persons and 83.6/100,000 black persons. CRC incidence peaked during 1980 through 1989 and began to decrease in 1990. In whites and blacks, the decreases in incidence between the time periods of 1980—1984 and 2010—2013 were limited to the screening-age population (ages 50 years or older). Between these time periods, there was a 40% decrease in incidence among whites compared with a 26% decrease in incidence among blacks. Decreases in incidence were greater for cancers of the distal colon and rectum, and reductions in these cancers were greater among whites than blacks. CRC incidence among persons younger

  18. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  19. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Colorectal cancer incidence in path_MLH1 carriers subjected to different follow-up protocols : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppala, Toni; Pylvanainen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Jarvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Bernstein, Inge; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Sala, Paola; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Blanco, Ignacio; Sijmons, Rolf; Jeffries, Jacqueline; Vasen, Hans; Burn, John; Nakken, Sigve; Hovig, Eivind; Rodland, Einar Andreas; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; Cappel, Wouter H. de Vos tot Nederveen; Hill, James; Wijnen, Juul; Jenkins, Mark; Genuardi, Maurizio; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Sunde, Lone; Mints, Miriam; Bertario, Lucio; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Morak, Monika; Frayling, Ian M.; Plazzer, John-Paul; Sampson, Julian R.; Capella, Gabriel; Moslein, Gabriela; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Moller, Pal

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenicMLH1variants(path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation

  1. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelle L. Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py] were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000. The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000 in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000 in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000 in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000. Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low.

  2. Spatial Inequalities in the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Factors in the Neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran: Bayesian Spatial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Mansori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. Methods This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry. The Besag-York-Mollié (BYM model was used to identify factors associated with the spatial distribution of CRC incidence. The software programs OpenBUGS version 3.2.3, ArcGIS 10.3, and GeoDa were used for the analysis. Results The Moran index was statistically significant for all the variables studied (p<0.05. The BYM model showed that having a women head of household (median standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.53, living in a rental house (median SIR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96, not consuming milk daily (median SIR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94 and having greater household health expenditures (median SIR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.68 were associated with a statistically significant elevation in the SIR of CRC. The median (interquartile range and mean (standard deviation values of the SIR of CRC, with the inclusion of all the variables studied in the model, were 0.57 (1.01 and 1.05 (1.31, respectively. Conclusions Inequality was found in the spatial distribution of CRC incidence in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Paying attention to this inequality and the factors associated with it may be useful for resource allocation and developing preventive strategies in atrisk areas.

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment and follow up were included. Patient ... and recurrence and the associated patient and disease ... The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the devel- ... therapy, disease stage and curative intent (table 3). ... through genetic and family analyses (4,6). ... Polite BN, Dignam JJ: A colorectal cancer model of health.

  4. Improvements in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Not Experienced by Nonmetropolitan Women: A Population-Based Study From Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Brynn; Samadder, N Jewel; Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Pappas, Lisa; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality by community-level factors such as metropolitan status. This analysis utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from Utah. We included patients diagnosed with CRC from 1991 to 2010. To determine whether associations existed between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county of residence and CRC incidence, Poisson regression models were used. CRC mortality was assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. CRC incidence rates did not differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties by gender (males: 46.2 per 100,000 vs 45.1 per 100,000, P = .87; females: 34.4 per 100,000 vs 36.1 per 100,000, P = .70). However, CRC incidence between the years of 2006 and 2010 in nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher in females (metropolitan: 30.4 vs nonmetropolitan: 37.0 per 100,000, P = .002). As compared to metropolitan counties, the incidence of unstaged CRC in nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher in both males (1.7 vs 2.8 per 100,000, P = .003) and females (1.4 vs 1.6 per 100,000, P = .002). Among patients who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010, metropolitan counties were found to have significantly increased survival among males and females, but nonmetropolitan counties showed increased survival only for males. While we observed a decreasing incidence of CRC among men and women in Utah, this effect was not seen in women in nonmetropolitan areas nor among those with unstaged disease. Further studies should evaluate factors that may account for these differences. This analysis can inform interventions with a focus on women in nonmetropolitan areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  7. Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F

    1993-01-01

    The perceived or self-reported degree of 'religiousness' was obtained by interview from 715 colorectal cancer patients and 727 age/sex matched community controls, as part of a large, comprehensive population-based study of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival (The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study) conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study, was a statistically significant protective factor [relative risk (RR) = 0.70, ...

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  9. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  10. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  11. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  12. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  15. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    -grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile...... (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer......Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains...

  16. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  17. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w......Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  18. Radiologic evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joong; Kang, Hee Tae; Kim, Jong Deok; Rhee, Hak Song

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer of Korea is much lower than that of Western countries, but has shown a tendency to a slight increase recently. Barium enema is the most valuable, noninvasive and inexpensive method available to evaluate the size, shape and site of colorectal cancer. The authors reviewed and radiologically classified barium enema studies of 232 cases of colorectal cancer from Aug. 1967 to July 1982 at Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Confirmed clinically, operatively and pathologically. The results were as follows; 1. The ratio of male and female was 1.3:1, and youngest was 13 year-old and the oldest 86 year-old. 2. The peak incidence occurred from 5th to 7th decades, accounting for 78% of all cases (181/232), and there was a relatively high incidence of the disease in patients below 30 years of age at 7.8% (18/232). 3. Rectum and rectosigmoid region are the most frequently involved regions (127/232:54.8%). 4. The positivity of barium enema examination was 4.0% (232/5807), and its accuracy was 96.5% (224/232). 5. The radiologic findings were classified into 4 groups, and they were annular encircling 62.9% (146/232). polypoid fungating 26.8% (62/232), infiltrating 8.6% (20/232), and primary ulcerating 1.7% (4/232) in order of frequency. 6. The linear length of the cancer ranged from 1.5 Cm to 15 Cm, and the average length was 5.5 Cm. 7. There was no statistical correlation between the length of lesion, the site, and the radiologic findings, and stages of the lesion (P:0.750-0.250). 8. The majority of colorectal cancers was adenocarcinoma (217/232:93.6%)

  19. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  20. Long-term follow-up reveals high incidence of colorectal cancer in Indian patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopanna, Sawan; Kedia, Saurabh; Das, Prasenjit; Dattagupta, S; Sreenivas, V; Mouli, V Pratap; Dhingra, Rajan; Pradhan, Rajesh; Kumar, N Suraj; Yadav, Dawesh P; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2017-08-01

    As the magnitude of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in India is low, magnitude of CRC in ulcerative colitis (UC) is also considered low. As a result, screening for CRC in UC although advocated may not be followed everywhere. We report our data of UC-related CRC from a low-incidence area of sporadic CRC. A total of 1012 patients with left-sided colitis/pancolitis having more than one full-length colonoscopy performed at least a year after the onset of symptoms were included in retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained case records. In addition, 136 patients with duration of disease >10 years underwent surveillance white-light colonoscopy prospectively during the study period. A total of 1012 individuals were finally included (6542 person-years of follow-up, 68.5% males, disease duration: 6.4 ± 6.8 years). Twenty (1.97%) patients developed CRC. Two (10%) patients developed CRC during the first decade, 10/20 (50%) during the second and 8/20 (40%) after the second decade of disease. The cumulative risk of developing CRC was 1.5%, 7.2% and 23.6% in the first, second and third decade, respectively. Of 136 high-risk UC cases, five (3.6%) had CRC on screening colonoscopy. Disease duration and increasing age of onset were associated with higher risk of CRC. Cumulative risk of CRC in Indian UC patients is as high as 23.6% at 30 years. The risk of CRC increases with increasing age of onset and increasing duration of disease. A low risk of sporadic CRC does not confer a low risk of UC-related CRC, and regular screening is warranted.

  1. Association of N-Linked Glycoprotein Acetyls and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette D Chandler

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins highlight the dynamic interaction between inflammation and oncogenesis. GlycA, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR inflammatory marker that identifies primarily circulating N-acetyl glycan groups attached to acute phase proteins, may be a future CRC risk biomarker.We examined the association between GlycA and incident CRC and mortality in two prospective cohorts (N = 34,320; Discovery cohort: 27,495 participants from Women's Health Study (WHS; Replication cohort: 6,784 participants from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Multivariable Cox models were adjusted for clinical risk factors and compared GlycA to acute phase proteins (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], fibrinogen, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1].In WHS (median follow-up 19 years, 337 cases, 103 deaths, adjusted HRs (95% CIs per SD increment of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35; p = 0.004 and 1.24 (1.00-1.55; p = 0.05, respectively. We replicated findings in MESA (median follow-up 11 years, 70 cases, 23 deaths; HRs (95% CIs per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality were 1.32 (1.06-1.65; p = 0.01 and 1.54 (1.06-2.23; p = 0.02, respectively, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Pooled analysis, adjusted HR (95% CI per SD of GlycA for CRC incidence and mortality was 1.26 (1.15-1.39; p = 1 x 10-6. Other acute phase proteins (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and sICAM-1 had weaker or no association with CRC incidence, while only fibrinogen and GlycA were associated with CRC mortality.The clinical utility of GlycA to personalize CRC therapies or prevention warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov: WHS NCT00000479, MESA NCT00005487.

  2. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Dragsted, Lars O; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Aman, Per; Nilsson, Lena M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-15

    Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains and whole-grain products measured via FFQs and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, both separately and in combination (Howe's score with ranks). We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort from a research project on Nordic health and whole-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer by reducing the impact of misclassification, thereby increasing the statistical power of the study.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  4. Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A ...

  5. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  6. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  7. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  8. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  11. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  13. Microbiota, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécily Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the potential links between the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer, with a focus on the pro-carcinogenic properties of bacterial microbiota such as induction of inflammation, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation and the production of toxic metabolites. Finally, we will describe the potential therapeutic strategies based on intestinal microbiota manipulation for colorectal cancer treatment.

  14. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  15. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  16. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  17. Incidence of colorectal cancer in new users and non-users of low-dose aspirin without existing cardiovascular disease: A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence regarding the chemo-protective effects of aspirin has influenced expert opinion in favour of low-dose aspirin use in certain patient populations without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of aspirin in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may be a large contributor to this favourable risk-benefit profile of low-dose aspirin in primary CVD prevention. Using The Health Improvement Network, we estimated the incidence of CRC in individuals free of CVD and either prescribed or not prescribed prophylactic low-dose aspirin. Two cohorts - new-users of low-dose aspirin (N=109,426) and a comparator cohort of non-users (N=154,056) at start of follow-up - were followed (maximum 13years) to identify incident CRC cases. Individuals with a record of CVD, cancer or low-dose aspirin prescription before start of follow-up were excluded. 2330 incident cases of CRC occurred; 885 in the aspirin cohort and 1445 in the comparator cohort, after mean follow-ups of 5.43years and 5.17years, respectively. Incidence rates of CRC per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval) were 14.90 (13.95-15.92) in the aspirin cohort and 18.15 (17.24-19.12) in the comparator cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.82 (0.76-0.89) adjusted for age, sex and primary care practitioner (PCP) visits in the previous year. Lower incidence rates were seen in the aspirin cohort for all strata evaluated (gender, age group and number of PCP visits in the previous year) except those aged ≥80years. Among most individuals without established CVD, initiation of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced incidence of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer patients in a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... This is 10% of the rate reported in First-World countries. In high-incidence areas, the rate of abnormal mismatch repair gene expression in colorectal cancers is 2 - 7%. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hMLH1- and hMSH2-deficient colorectal cancer in the. Northern Cape.

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  20. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  1. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in the province of Salamanca: comparison of two periods: 2004-2006 and 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Miguel Marcos-Prieto

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare incidence, mortality and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC in the province of Salamanca over two different periods: 2010-2012 and 2004-2006. Methods: Retrospective observational study. We include all diagnosed cases of CRC according to histopathological criteria from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2006 and from 01/01/2010 to 31/12/2012. The studied variables were sex, age, date of diagnosis and tumor location. Cumulative incidence and specific incidence in different age groups were measured and compared between the two periods. The age rates were adjusted to the standard world population so that the results could be compared with those of other populations. Results: We detected 38% more cases of CRC in the 2010-2012 period than in 2004-2006. Variables distribution (sex, age at diagnosis and location was similar in both groups. More than twice as many colonoscopies were performed in 2010-2012 than in 2004-2006. Population mortality due to CRC also increased, although much less importantly than the incidence of this condition. Conclusions: There has been a clear increase in CRC incidence in the province of Salamanca from 2004-2006 to 2010-2012 which is not related to the ageing of the population. The remarkable increase in colonoscopies may have been an important factor for the increased detection.

  2. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  3. Reporting colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Morris, E

    2007-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer is a team process. High-quality reporting of colorectal cancer is very important as the whole team relies upon the skill of the pathologist. Failure to report key features can lead to undertreatment of this disease. The use of a proforma has been demonstrated to be beneficial and we recommend staying with TNM5 due to scientific and reproducibility issues with TNM6. Important features in stage II/Dukes' B cases are extramural vascular invasion, peritoneal involvement, extent of extramural spread, incomplete resection and perforation. All of these may lead to adjuvant therapy being administered. The surgically created circumferential resection margin (CRM) and the mode of its creation are important features and the CRM retains its value after preoperative therapy. Regression grading should be applied only to fully resected tumours and the dissection and sampling must be standardized to allow comparison of results between trials and centres. When reporting local resections of early-stage cancers we need to look for features that predict spread to local lymph nodes to allow a full resection to be considered.

  4. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  5. Exercise and Low-Dose Ibuprofen for Cognitive Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive Impairment; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  6. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  7. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  8. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If moving from a location of low colorectal cancer incidence to one of high colorectal cancer incidence predisposes one to develop the disease, could not the converse apply and those with a predisposition to developing the disease experience some protection when they live or interact with those with negligible ...

  9. Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After lung cancer colorectal cancer (Cc is ranked the second, as a cause of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Cc cases in our material with respect to all prognostic values including histological type and grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and tumor border features. There were investigated 149 cases of resection specimen with colorectal cancer, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections (4(µm thick were cut and stained with H&E. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type found in 85,90% of cases, in 60,94% of males and 39,06% of females; squamous cell carcinoma in 7,38%, in 63,63% of males and 36,36% of females; mucinous carcinoma in 4,68%, in 57,15% of males and 42,85% of females; while adenosquamous carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinoma in situ in 0,71% of cases each. Dukes' classification was used in order to define the depth of invasion. Dukes B was found in 68,45% of cases, whereas in 31,54% of cases Dukes C was found. As far as histological grading is concerned, Cc was mostly with moderate differentiation (75,16% with neither vascular nor perineural invasion. Resection margins were in all cases free of tumor. Our data indicate that the pathologic features of the resection specimen constitute the most powerful predictors of postoperative outcome in Cc. Dukes' stage and degree of differentiation provide independent prognostic information in Cc. However, differentiation should be assessed by the worst pattern.

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  11. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  12. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... with—and more than 50,000 died from—colorectal cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is ...

  14. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Sandouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families.

  15. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... of 295 patients with primary colorectal cancer we found a sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound, surgical exploration, and intraoperative ultrasound of 70%, 84%, and 97%, respectively, based on a patient-by-patient comparison (p

  16. Incidence, therapy and prognosis of colorectal cancer in different age groups. A population-based cohort study of the Rostock Cancer Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.; Zettl, H.; Kloecking, S.; Kundt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of frequency, treatment modalities used and prognoses of colorectal cancer in a population-specific analysis in relation to age. Material and methods: In 1999 and 2000, 644/6,016 patients were documented as having colorectal carcinomas in the Cancer Registry of Rostock. 39 patients were excluded (16 cases: 'in situ' carcinomas; 23 cases: insufficient data). Three age groups were formed: <60 years, 60-74 years; ≥75 years. Results: The relative percentage of colorectal cancer increases with advanced age (<60 years 7%; 60-74 years 12%, ≥75 years 15%; p<0.001). In older patients with stage III carcinomas, adjuvant treatment was done less frequently in accordance with the treatment recommendations (<60 years 83-89%; 60-74 years 67-77%; ≥75 years 29-36% according to stage and tumor localization); in stage IV, the use of chemotherapy was reduced (<60 years 87.5-100%; 60-74 years 38-47%; ≥75 years 33-37%). In the univariate analysis, age ≥75 years (4-year survival rates: <60 years 68±4.1%; 60-74 years 58±2.8%; ≥75 years 38±3.7%), UICC stage and surgical treatment had a significant effect on prognosis. Adjuvant treatment had no significant effect on the whole population but on patients with UICC stage III and IV. In the multivariate analysis, however, the only independent prognostic parameters were age ≥75 years (p=0.001), performance of chemotherapy (colon cancer) or radiochemotherapy (rectal cancer; p=0.004-0.001), and tumor stage (p=0.045-0.001). Sex (p=0.063) and age between 60 and 74 years (p=0.067) had a borderline influence. Conclusion: With increasing age, there is a departure in daily practice from the treatment recommendations. The patient's prognosis is dependent upon age (especially ≥75 years), tumor stage, and therapy. (orig.)

  17. Incidence, therapy and prognosis of colorectal cancer in different age groups. A population-based cohort study of the Rostock Cancer Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R.; Zettl, H.; Kloecking, S. [University of Rostock (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy; Kundt, G. [University of Rostock (Germany). Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometry

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: Determination of frequency, treatment modalities used and prognoses of colorectal cancer in a population-specific analysis in relation to age. Material and methods: In 1999 and 2000, 644/6,016 patients were documented as having colorectal carcinomas in the Cancer Registry of Rostock. 39 patients were excluded (16 cases: 'in situ' carcinomas; 23 cases: insufficient data). Three age groups were formed: <60 years, 60-74 years; {>=}75 years. Results: The relative percentage of colorectal cancer increases with advanced age (<60 years 7%; 60-74 years 12%, {>=}75 years 15%; p<0.001). In older patients with stage III carcinomas, adjuvant treatment was done less frequently in accordance with the treatment recommendations (<60 years 83-89%; 60-74 years 67-77%; {>=}75 years 29-36% according to stage and tumor localization); in stage IV, the use of chemotherapy was reduced (<60 years 87.5-100%; 60-74 years 38-47%; {>=}75 years 33-37%). In the univariate analysis, age {>=}75 years (4-year survival rates: <60 years 68{+-}4.1%; 60-74 years 58{+-}2.8%; {>=}75 years 38{+-}3.7%), UICC stage and surgical treatment had a significant effect on prognosis. Adjuvant treatment had no significant effect on the whole population but on patients with UICC stage III and IV. In the multivariate analysis, however, the only independent prognostic parameters were age {>=}75 years (p=0.001), performance of chemotherapy (colon cancer) or radiochemotherapy (rectal cancer; p=0.004-0.001), and tumor stage (p=0.045-0.001). Sex (p=0.063) and age between 60 and 74 years (p=0.067) had a borderline influence. Conclusion: With increasing age, there is a departure in daily practice from the treatment recommendations. The patient's prognosis is dependent upon age (especially {>=}75 years), tumor stage, and therapy. (orig.)

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  19. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  20. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Sub site-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, K. A.; Stroup, A. M.; Sherman, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic sub site and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by sub site (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in sub site-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  1. Colorectal cancer complicating Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    2001-04-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%). All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%), no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung) was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  2. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%. All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%, no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  3. Colorectal cancer incidence in path_MLH1 carriers subjected to different follow-up protocols: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Toni; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Järvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Bernstein, Inge; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Sala, Paola; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Blanco, Ignacio; Sijmons, Rolf; Jeffries, Jacqueline; Vasen, Hans; Burn, John; Nakken, Sigve; Hovig, Eivind; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Wouter H; Hill, James; Wijnen, Juul; Jenkins, Mark; Genuardi, Maurizio; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Sunde, Lone; Mints, Miriam; Bertario, Lucio; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Morak, Monika; Frayling, Ian M; Plazzer, John-Paul; Sampson, Julian R; Capella, Gabriel; Möslein, Gabriela; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Møller, Pål

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1 ) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy ( n  = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently ( n  = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively ( p  > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending

  4. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  5. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  6. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  7. Undefined familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambirinis, Constantinos Pantelis; Theodoropoulos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers of the world, is actually a spectrum of several subtypes, with different molecular profiles, clinico-pathological characteristics and possibly separate pathways of progression. It is estimated that in approximately 25%-35% of cases, a familial component exists, so they are classified as familial CRC (fCRC). However the known hereditary CRC syndromes justify only up to 5%. The rest are attributed to some inherited genetic predisposition passed to offspring through low-penetrance genes, which in the proper environmental setting can bring on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, part of the familial clustering may be attributed to chance. Because of the complexity regarding the etiology of CRC, the clinician is sometimes faced with obscure patient data, and cannot be sure if they are dealing with fCRC or sporadic CRC. The elucidation of what is going on with the as yet "undefined" portion of CRC will aid not only in the diagnosis, classification and treatment of CRC, but more importantly in the proper adjustment of the screening guidelines and in genetic counselling of patients.

  8. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before 50). Dave has Lynch syndrome and had colorectal cancer at 28. Amy found out she has Lynch syndrome when she was diagnosed with colorectal cancer days after turning 47. Why is it Important ...

  9. Prevalence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and hereditary factors and family history are responsible for the incidence and development of the disease in 20 to 30% of cases. Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, is the most common hereditary form of CRC that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This study consisted of a systematic literature review of research articles that described the prevalence of HNPCC in Iranian patients with CRC. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles that describe HNPCC or Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC in Iran. For this purpose, a keyword search of the following terms was employed: (((Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer OR HNPCC OR Lynch syndrome AND (colorectal cancer OR familial colorectal cancer OR colon cancer OR rectal cancer OR bowel cancer AND IRAN. All eligible documents were collected, and the desired data were qualitatively analyzed.Result: Of the 67 articles that were found via the initial database search, only 12 were deemed to be of relevance to the current study. These articles included a total population of 3237 and this sample was selected and qualitatively analyzed. The findings of the review revealed that the frequency of mutation in MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 genes varied between 23.1% and 62.5% among the studied families. This indicated that HNPCC is linked with up to 5.5% of the total cases of colorectal cancers in Iran.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the hereditary form of HNPCC or Lynch syndrome is significantly high among patients with CRC in Iran

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  11. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...

  12. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  13. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  16. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  19. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with

  20. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  1. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  2. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431 ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  3. Incidence of cold-induced peripheral neuropathy and dose modification of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altaf, Rahim; Lund Brixen, Annette; Kristensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CAPOX regimen is used for adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. A well-known side effect of oxaliplatin, which often leads to dose modification (DM), is acute neuropathy (AN). AN is provoked by cold, and it could therefore be expected that the degree of AN and thereby DM is more...

  4. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J

    2017-12-01

    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  5. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  6. Influence of long-term colonoscopic surveillance on incidence of colorectal cancer and death from the disease in patients with precursors (adenomas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Case-control studies and short term prospective studies have suggested that selected groups of patients with precursors of colorectal cancer may benefit from colonoscopic surveillance after initial removal of adenomas. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate such a possible benefit from...... long term (1-24 years) colonoscopic surveillance in a population of patients with all types of adenomas regardless of size and way of removal. Two thousand and forty-one patients with a first time diagnosis of colorectal adenoma were included in prospective surveillance between year 1978 and 2002. All...

  7. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  8. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  9. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  10. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  11. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  12. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  13. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and a...

  14. [Oligometastasized colorectal cancer-modern treatment strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, M; Lambertz, A; Dejong, K; Neumann, U P

    2018-06-05

    The prognosis of colorectal cancer in UICC stage IV has been improved in the last decades by improvements in interdisciplinary treatment. Treatment strategies for oligometastasized colorectal cancer are developing more and more into an individualized treatment. An overview of the current literature of modern treatment concepts in oligometastasized colorectal cancer UICC stage IV is given. Surgery still has the supreme mandate in resectable colorectal liver metastases, as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies to not provide any benefits for these patients. In marginal or non-resectable stages systemic treatment is superior in these patients depending on the prognostic parameters. Also in curative settings local treatment options should be considered as a reasonable additive tool. An interesting treatment approach for isolated liver metastases and non-resectable colorectal cancer is liver transplantation. Irrespective of new developments in treatment strategies for metastasized colorectal cancer, resection of colorectal liver metastases remains the gold standard whenever possible.

  15. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  16. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  17. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... (prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovary). In addition, cancer incidence, stage shift, and case survival are... Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance... for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the...

  18. Colorectal Carcinoma: Why Is There a Lower Incidence in Nigerians When Compared to Caucasians?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irabor, D. O.

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is the 2nd commonest cancer in the United States; the leading cancer being lung cancer. It has been estimated that 130,200 new cases of colorectal cancer will be diagnosed annually while 56,300 sufferers will die from the disease (Murphy et al., 2000). In developing countries especially West Africa, the rate has not yet reached such magnitude. This suggests that there may be factors either anthropomorphic or environmental which may be responsible for this. The paper acknowledges the reduced incidence of colorectal cancer in native West Africans living in Africa and endeavours to highlight the various factors that produce this observation in medical literature. A diligent search through available literature on the aetiology, epidemiology and comparative anthropology of colorectal cancer was done. Internet search using Pub med, British library online and Google scholar was also utilized. The rarity of adenomatous polyposis syndromes in the native West African contributes to the reduced incidence of colorectal cancer. Cancer prevention and cancer-protective factors are deemed to lie in the starchy, high-fiber, spicy, peppery foodstuff low in animal protein which many West African nations consume.

  19. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  20. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  1. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...

  2. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...

  3. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  4. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  5. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer; Epidemiologie kolorektaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Colorectal tumors are among the most frequently encountered forms of cancer worldwide. With approximately 57,000 new cases every year, they represent the most frequent type of cancer in Germany, ranking before breast cancer (approximately 46,000) and lung cancer (approximately 37,000). Although global incidence is on the rise, in Germany it is only increasing among men, but not among women. The mortality rate (approximately 26,500 deaths annually) in Germany has declined among men for about the past 10 years and among women for about the past 20 years.The most important risk factors are familial history of colorectal and other tumors as well as lifestyle factors such as nutrition, obesity, inactivity,and smoking.Lifestyle-related risks offer a broad area for implementing primary preventive measures, which have not yet been adequately exhausted. Several proven (fecal occult blood test) and probably effective (endoscopic) methods are available for secondary prevention. Consistent encouragement of these possibilities for prevention could reduce incidence and mortality substantially and render colorectal tumors less frequent. (orig.) [German] Kolorektale Tumoren gehoeren weltweit zu den haeufigsten Krebsarten und sind mit jaehrlich ca.57000 Neuerkrankungsfaellen vor Brustkrebs (ca. 46000) und Lungenkrebs (ca. 37000) die haeufigste Krebsart in Deutschland.Waehrend die Inzidenz weltweit steigt, nimmt sie in Deutschland nur bei Maennern,nicht aber bei Frauen zu.Die Mortalitaet (jaehrlich ca.26500 Todesfaelle) geht hierzulande bei Maennern seit ca.10 Jahren, bei Frauen seit ca.20 Jahren zurueck. Die bedeutendsten Risikofaktoren sind familiaere Vorgeschichte an kolorektalen und anderen Tumoren sowie Lebensstilfaktoren wie Ernaehrung, Uebergewicht,Bewegungsmangel und Rauchen.Die lebensstilbedingten Risiken bieten breiten Raum fuer primaere Praevention, der bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepft ist.Auch fuer sekundaere Praevention stehen mehrere nachgewiesenermassen (Test auf

  6. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  7. Colorectal cancer in Malaysia: Its burden and implications for a multiethnic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Sajesh K; Lim, Kean Ghee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Ching, Siew Mooi; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to provide an analytical overview of the changing burden of colorectal cancer and highlight the implementable control measures that can help reduce the future burden of colorectal cancer in Malaysia. We performed a MEDLINE search via OVID with the ​Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "Colorectal Neoplasms"[Mesh] and "Malaysia"[Mesh], and PubMed with the key words "colorectal cancer" and "Malaysia" from 1990 to 2015 for studies reporting any clinical, societal, and economical findings associated with colorectal cancer in Malaysia. Incidence and mortality data were retrieved from population-based cancer registries/databases. In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is substantial and is likely to increase over time in Malaysia owing to the current trend in colorectal cancer incidence. In Malaysia, most patients with colorectal cancer have been diagnosed at a late stage, with the 5-year relative survival by stage being lower than that in developed Asian countries. Public awareness of the rising incidence of colorectal cancer and the participation rates for colorectal cancer screening are low. The efficiency of different screening approaches must be assessed, and an organized national screening program should be developed in a phased manner. It is essential to maintain a balanced investment in awareness programs targeting general population and primary care providers, focused on increasing the knowledge on symptoms and risk factors of colorectal cancer, awareness on benefits of screening, and promotion of healthy life styles to prevent this important disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Methods This case?control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40...

  9. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  11. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  12. Risk of second primary colorectal cancer among colorectal cancer cases: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha P Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5 as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6 and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4 with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0 and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6. Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

  13. Systems Support Mapping in Guiding Self-Management in Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8

  14. Symptom burden among young adults with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Profile in a Tertiary Care Centre, Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Suryadevara, , , ,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancers are a common disease of oncological practice. A raising incidence is seen in Asian population. It is one of the cancers where screening and early diagnosis are possible. Very few articles are there about the cancer scenario in India. A study of the disease profile helps in screening, early diagnosis and management of the disease in developing countries. Aim: To study the cancer presentation in our population which can help in developing strategies for better control of disease. Material and Methods: Medical records of 171 patients registered at Kidwai Hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data including age at presentation, sex, location of the cancer and stage at presentation were analyzed. Results: The male to female ratio was 1.26:1 in rectal cancer. In colon cancer the ratio was 1:1.3. The mean age at presentation was 47 years in males and 51 years in females in colorectal cancers together. Thirty eight percent of the patients were less than 45 years old. Eighty percent of the cases were rectal cancers. In 71% of rectal cancers the growth was located within 5cm from anal verge (AV. Stage III was the commonest stage of presentation. Abdominoperineal resection (APR was the commonest surgical procedure done. Inoperability was highest with lower rectal cancer. Conclusion: Younger age at presentation, low lying rectal cancers and advanced stage at presentation were observed in our study group which includes predominantly rural population. Rectal cancers are the most common cancers referred among colorectal cancers. Screening for colorectal cancers and early evaluation of symptomatic cases need to be encouraged. Patients should be educated regarding this. Screening strategies, etiopathogenesis and genetic abnormalities in colorectal cancer patients need to be defined in developing countries.

  16. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  17. Lower or Standard Dose Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Colon Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  18. Effects of the lactase 13910 C/T and calcium-sensor receptor A986S G/T gene polymorphisms on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal cancer in Hungarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budai Barna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggested the chemopreventive role of higher calcium intake in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined genetic polymorphisms that might influence calcium metabolism: lactase (LCT gene 13910 C/T polymorphism causing lactose intolerance and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR gene A986S polymorphism as a responsible factor for the altered cellular calcium sensation. Methods 538 Hungarian subjects were studied: 278 patients with colorectal cancer and 260 healthy controls. Median follow-up was 17 months. After genotyping, the relationship between LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms as well as tumor incidence/progression was investigated. Results in patient with colorectal cancer, a significantly higher LCT CC frequency was associated with increased distant disease recurrence (OR = 4.04; 95% CI = 1.71–9.58; p = 0.006. The disease free survival calculated from distant recurrence was reduced for those with LCT CC genotype (log rank test p = 0.008. In case of CaSR A986S polymorphism, the homozygous SS genotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 4.01; 95% CI = 1.33–12.07; p = 0.014. The number of LCT C and CaSR S risk alleles were correlated with tumor incidence (p = 0.035. The CCSS genotype combination was found only in patients with CRC (p = 0.033. Conclusion LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms may have an impact on the progression and/or incidence of CRC.

  19. Effects of the lactase 13910 C/T and calcium-sensor receptor A986S G/T gene polymorphisms on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal cancer in Hungarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bácsi, Krisztián; Speer, Gábor; Hitre, Erika; Kósa, János P; Horváth, Henrik; Lazáry, Áron; Lakatos, Péter L; Balla, Bernadett; Budai, Barna; Lakatos, Péter

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested the chemopreventive role of higher calcium intake in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined genetic polymorphisms that might influence calcium metabolism: lactase (LCT) gene 13910 C/T polymorphism causing lactose intolerance and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene A986S polymorphism as a responsible factor for the altered cellular calcium sensation. 538 Hungarian subjects were studied: 278 patients with colorectal cancer and 260 healthy controls. Median follow-up was 17 months. After genotyping, the relationship between LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms as well as tumor incidence/progression was investigated. in patient with colorectal cancer, a significantly higher LCT CC frequency was associated with increased distant disease recurrence (OR = 4.04; 95% CI = 1.71–9.58; p = 0.006). The disease free survival calculated from distant recurrence was reduced for those with LCT CC genotype (log rank test p = 0.008). In case of CaSR A986S polymorphism, the homozygous SS genotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 4.01; 95% CI = 1.33–12.07; p = 0.014). The number of LCT C and CaSR S risk alleles were correlated with tumor incidence (p = 0.035). The CCSS genotype combination was found only in patients with CRC (p = 0.033). LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms may have an impact on the progression and/or incidence of CRC

  20. COLORECTAL CANCER IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer which can be detected early by implementation of cancer screening. This has led to decline in colorectal cancer related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. However, there is increase in the incidence of this cancer in young individuals. This study was undertaken to study the characteristics of young colorectal cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study was conducted from 2014 to 2016. All colorectal cancer patients attending the Department of Oncology, who were less than or equal to 50 years of age were included. Patients’ demographic data as well as data regarding the colorectal cancer was collected. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS This study included 28 patients with a median age of 40 years and equal sex distribution. History of smoking in 85.7% (12/14 and alcohol (moderate consumption in 64% (9/14 was present in male patients. There was no history of alcohol or smoking was present among female patients. However, tobacco chewing habit was present in 28% (4/14 of female patients. History of multiple sexual partners in 14% (4/28 of cases and 78% (22/28 were non-vegetarians. Nearly 85% (24/28 of patients presented with an advanced stage disease. The analysis showed involvement of left side of colon in 50% (14/28, rectum in 39% (11/28 and right side of colon in 11%(3/28. Except for two patients who were in stage - 1, all other patients received chemotherapy. CONCLUSION The incidence of colorectal cancer in young individuals is constantly rising. The reason for this increase is unclear and the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors remain relatively unexplored.

  1. Anatomical sites of colorectal cancer in a Semi-Urban Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    region from big urban cities have shown that the incidence of colorectal cancer is rising and with a proportionate right-ward shift. Objective: To assess the sub-site distribution and surgical treatment patterns of colorectal cancer in a semi-urban ...

  2. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  3. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  4. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC mortality; some screening modalities also reduce CRC incidence. Get detailed information about CRC screening tests (e.g., fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, stool DNA) including potential benefits and harms in this clinician summary.

  6. Health Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Wilschut (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, with over a million newly diagnosed cases per year worldwide. CRC occurs especially frequently in established market economies like Europe, the United States (US), Canada, Australia and Japan. The lifetime incidence in average

  7. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  9. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  10. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Personalizing therapy for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ashley; Ma, Brigette B Y

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Several important scientific discoveries in the molecular biology of CRC have changed clinical practice in oncology. These included the comprehensive genome-wide profiling of CRC by the Cancer Genome Atlas Network, the discovery of mutations along the RAS-RAF signaling pathway as major determinants of response to antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor, the elucidation of new molecular subsets of CRC or gene signatures that may predict clinical outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy, and the innovative targeting of the family of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors. These new data have allowed oncologists to individualize drug therapy on the basis of a patient's tumor's unique molecular profile, especially in the management of metastatic CRC. This review article will discuss the progress of personalized medicine in the contemporary management of CRC. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association of Cholelithiasis and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sărăcuț

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the literature there are a number of studies that suggest a possible correlation between cholelithiasis/cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer. The exposure of the colon mucosa to the action of bile acids that potentially have a carcinogenic effect due to the change in anatomy after cholecystectomy, seems to be the explanation of this association. The purpose of this paper was to search for such a correlation in our study group. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study, analyzing the patients admitted to the First Surgical Clinic of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital Tîrgu Mureș, between January 1st, 2005 - December 31st, 2010. Analyzing the medical records, operation protocols and histopathological results, we paid attention to demographics, location of neoplasia, the time elapsed since the cholecystectomy to the discovery of neoplasia, histological types, trying to perform correlations between these parameters and the lithiasic factor. Results: Out of the 534 patients admitted and operated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, 15.6% (n = 83 showed a history of gallbladder stone affection. Most patients came from urban areas, the average age was 67.2 (range 39-88 years, females were more affected. The most common locations were: the sigmoid colon (26.5%, rectum (36.3% and the most common histological form was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Similar to other studies, our work suggests a slight increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients that underwent a cholecystectomy, without drawing a firm conclusion. We deem it necessary to see if diet changes of the Romanian population affect this relationship

  14. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  15. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and addresses the issues that arise in diagnosing and treating this patient group. By highlighting these difficulties, this review aims to improve understanding and to provide clearer insight into both surgical and non-surgical management.

  16. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  17. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  18. Update on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Karin M

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically over recent years. Colorectal cancer can be classified in multiple different ways. Along with the advent of whole-exome sequencing, we have gained an understanding of the scale of the genetic changes found in sporadic colorectal cancer. We now know that there are multiple pathways that are commonly involved in the evolution of colorectal cancer including Wnt/β-catenin, RAS, EGFR, and PIK3 kinase. Another recent leap in our understanding of colorectal cancer genetics is the recognition that many, if not all tumors, are actually genetically heterogeneous within individual tumors and also between tumors. Recent research has revealed the prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications of various specific mutations, including specific mutations in BRAF and KRAS . There is increasing interest in the use of mutation testing for screening and surveillance through stool and circulating DNA testing. Recent advances in translational research in colorectal cancer genetics are dramatically changing our understanding of colorectal cancer and will likely change therapy and surveillance in the near future.

  19. Temporal relationship between prostate brachytherapy and the diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, Sarah A.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the location of pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal malignancies and posttreatment colorectal polyps in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through July 2004, 1,351 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 2002) prostate cancer. Supplemental external beam radiotherapy (XRT) was administered to 699 patients. The median follow-up was 4.6 years. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed for all patients with pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal cancer and posttreatment colorectal polyps. Multiple parameters were evaluated for the development of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps. Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 23 and 25 patients before and after prostate brachytherapy, respectively. No differences were identified in the distribution of colorectal cancers either before or after treatment (3 and 4 rectal cancers in the pre- and postbrachytherapy cohorts). Thirty-five of the 48 colorectal cancers (73%) were diagnosed within 5 years of brachytherapy with a peak incidence 1 year after brachytherapy. One hundred ninety-two colorectal polyps were diagnosed after brachytherapy, 160 (83%) occurred within 4 years of brachytherapy, and only 27 (14%) were located in the rectum. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, prostate D 9 (minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume) predicted for posttreatment colorectal cancer. Rectal polyps were most closely related to patient age and percent positive biopsies, whereas sigmoid/colon polyps were best predicted by patient age, planning volume, and supplemental XRT. Conclusions: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed with equal frequency before and after brachytherapy with comparable geographic distributions. In addition, the vast majority of postbrachytherapy colorectal polyps were located beyond the confines of the rectum

  20. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  1. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pa...

  2. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer ... Colorectal Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0273 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrea Burnett-Hartman 5d... cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s specific aims are as follows: 1) Estimate the risk of colorectal

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pneumatosis Coli Mimicking Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatosis coli (PC is a rare condition of the gastrointestinal tract involving extraluminal gas confined within the bowel wall. We report the case of a 40-year-old gentleman presenting clinically and endoscopically with suspected colorectal cancer. In light of the patient’s red flag symptoms, and carpet of polyps seen endoscopically, surgical management by an anterior resection was performed with the patient making a successful recovery. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed pneumatosis coli with no evidence of colonic neoplasia. Although PC can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients and considered a benign condition, it can also present as a life-threatening emergency with bowel necrosis and obstruction requiring emergency surgical intervention. Also, when PC mimics malignancy, surgical management is the most appropriate step to ensure that the diagnosis of cancer is not missed.

  5. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  6. Meat and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J

    1999-05-01

    In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.

  7. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  8. Personality as a risk factor in large bowel cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F; Bahnson, C B

    1991-02-01

    In a case control study which formed one arm of a large, population-based investigation of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival. 'The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study', among others, 22 psychosocially orientated questions were asked by personal interview of 637 histologically confirmed new cases of colorectal cancer and 714 age/sex frequency matched community controls, from Melbourne (population 2.81 million). Self-reported childhood or adult life 'unhappiness' was statistically significantly more common among the cancer cases, while 'unhappiness with retirement' was similarly distributed among cases and controls. Questions which were formulated to test a particular personality profile as a cancer risk, and which included the elements of denial and repression of anger and of other negative emotions, a commitment to prevailing social norms resulting in the external appearance of a 'nice' or 'good' person, a suppression of reactions which may offend others and the avoidance of conflict, showed a statistically significant discrimination between cases and controls. The risk of colorectal cancer with respect to this model was independent of the previously found risk factors of diet, beer intake, and family history of colorectal cancer, and was also independent of other potential confounding factors of socioeconomic level, marital status, religion and country of birth. Although the results must be interpreted with caution, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that this personality type may play a role in the clinical expression of colorectal cancer and merits further study.

  9. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  11. Growth and progression of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushio, K.; Hirota, T.

    1988-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the natural history of colorectal carcinoma, now that small polypoid lesions of the large intestine can be detected effectively by radiology and endoscopy. The problems of this histo- and morphogenesis of colorectal cancer have, however, remained unsettled because the observation of the sequential change of a lesion with time by follow-up radiology and/or endoscopy is impossible once its malignancy is proved. Clinically the retrospective review of radiographic findings in overlooked cases is the only means to evaluate the natural history of colorectal cancer. This paper attempts to estimate the growth rate of colorectal cancer, based on a retrospective review of radiographic findings of overlooked cases, and analyses of the radiographic features of small polypoid lesions which may develop into advanced cancers

  12. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  13. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and familial colorectal cancer in Central part of Iran, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of data on familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (CRC in Iran. We aimed to deter-mine the frequency of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC and familial colorectal cancer (FCC and to determine the frequency of extracolonic cancers in these families in Isfahan. Methods: We reviewed documents of all patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of CRC admitted to Isfa-han referral hospitals between 1995 and 2006. We also studied our CRC registry at Poursina Hakim Research Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found HNPCC and FCC families based on the Amsterdam II criteria and interviewed them for family history of CRC and extracolonic tumors. The family history was taken at least up to the second-degree relatives. Results: During 1996 to 2008, a total of 2580 CRC cases have been diagnosed. We found 14 HNPCC and 53 FCC families. Mean age of CRC at diagnosis was 48.0 ΁ 14.6 and 49.0 ΁ 13.9 years in the HNPCC and FCC families, re-spectively (p > 0.05. The total numbers of observed extracolonic tumors were 70 (21.6%; mean age = 53.6 ΁ 11.0 years and 157 (13.8%; mean age = 54.8 ΁ 18.0 years in HNPCC and FCC families, respectively (p > 0.05. CRC was respectively found in 52 and 76 members of the HNPCC and FCC families, revealing the frequency of HNPCC and FCC as 2.0% (52/2580 and 2.9% (76/2580, respectively. Conclusions: We found a relative high frequency of HNPCC (2.0% and FCC (2.9% among CRC cases in our socie-ty and high incidence of extracolonic tumors in their families. Further studies focusing on molecular basis in this field and designing a specific screening and national cancer registry program for HNPCC and FCC families should be con-ducted.

  14. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  15. Comparison of clinical features between suspected familial colorectal cancer type X and Lynch syndrome in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer: a cross-sectional study conducted by the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsubara, Nagahide; Ishikawa, Hideki; Arai, Masami; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-02-01

    The characteristics of familial colorectal cancer type X are poorly defined. Here we aimed to clarify the differences in clinical features between suspected familial colorectal cancer type X and Lynch syndrome in Japanese patients. We performed germline mutation analyses of mismatch repair genes in 125 patients. Patients who met the Amsterdam Criteria I but lacked mismatch repair gene mutations were diagnosed with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X. We identified 69 patients with Lynch syndrome and 25 with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X. The frequencies of gastric and extracolonic Lynch syndrome-associated cancers were lower with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X than with Lynch syndrome. The number of organs with Lynch syndrome-associated cancer was significantly lower with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X than with Lynch syndrome. The cumulative incidence of extracolonic Lynch syndrome-associated cancer was significantly lower with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X than with Lynch syndrome. We estimated that the median cancer risk in 60-year-old patients with Lynch syndrome was 89, 36 and 24% for colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancers, respectively. Analyses of family members, including probands, revealed that the median age at diagnosis of extracolonic Lynch syndrome-associated cancer was significantly older with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X than with Lynch syndrome. The frequency of extracolonic Lynch syndrome-associated cancer was significantly lower with suspected familial colorectal cancer type X than with Lynch syndrome. A significant difference in extracolonic Lynch syndrome-associated cancer was evident between suspected familial colorectal cancer type X and Lynch syndrome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cost of illness in colorectal cancer: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriza, Christine; Emmert, Martin; Wahlster, Philip; Niederländer, Charlotte; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Given the current-and increasing-pressure to limit expenditure on health care provision in many countries, a better understanding of the cost burden of colorectal cancer is needed. Cost-of-illness studies and reviews thereof can be a useful tool for analysing and critically evaluating the cost-related development of colorectal cancer, and they highlight important cost drivers. A systematic review was conducted from 2002 to 2012 to identify cost-of-illness studies related to colorectal cancer, searching the Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and the York CRD databases. Among the 10 studies (from France, the US, Ireland and Taiwan) included in the review, 6 studies reported prevalence-based estimates and 4 studies focussed on incidence-based data. In the studies included in the review, long-term costs for colorectal cancer of up to $50,175 per patient (2008 values) were estimated. Most of the studies in the review showed that the initial and terminal phases of colorectal cancer care are the most expensive, with continuing treatment being the least costly phase. One study also highlighted that stage I CRC disease was the least costly and stage III the most costly of all 4 stages, due to the high cost impact of biological agents. This review has highlighted a trend for rising costs associated with CRC, which is linked to the increasing use of targeted biological therapies. COI studies in colorectal cancer can identify specific components and areas of care that are especially costly, thereby focussing attention on more cost-effective approaches, which is especially relevant to the increased use of biological agents in the field of personalised medicine. COI studies are an important tool for further health economic evaluations of personalised medicine.

  17. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  18. Epigenetic prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common diagnosed cancers worldwide, and is the second most important cause of cancer mortality in Europe. The current TNM staging system used at the time of diagnosis is insufficient, as patients with the same tumor stage show wide variations in survival and

  19. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly. It is the second most common cancer in the UK and the third most common cause of cancer-related death.[1] Surgical resection, either for cure or palliation, remains the mainstay of treatment.[1,2]. Long-term survival is related to the extent of disease at diagnosis.

  20. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  1. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  2. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  3. Epigenetics and colorectal cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  4. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  5. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  6. Mucinous Histology Signifies Poor Oncologic Outcome in Young Patients With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Basem G; Karagkounis, Georgios; Church, James M; Plesec, Thomas; Kalady, Matthew F

    2018-05-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer in the young (under age 40) is increasing, and this population has worse oncologic outcomes. Mucinous histology is a potential prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, but has not been evaluated specifically in young patients. The objective of the study was to determine factors associated with poor outcome in young patients with colorectal cancer (≤40 years) and to determine relationships between mucinous histology and oncologic outcomes in this population. This is a retrospective study. Patients from a single-institution tertiary care center were studied. A total of 224 patients with colorectal cancer under 40 years of age diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were included (mean age, 34.7 years; 51.3% female). 34 patients (15.2%) had mucinous histology. There were no interventions. Oncologic outcomes were analyzed according to the presence of mucinous histology. The mucinous and nonmucin colorectal cancer study populations were statistically similar in age, sex, tumor location, pathological stage, differentiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy use. Five-year disease-free survival was 29.1% versus 71.3% (p colorectal cancers recurred earlier at a median time of 36.4 months versus 94.2 months for nonmucin colorectal cancers (p colorectal cancer. This is associated with early and high recurrence rates, despite use of standard neoadjuvant and adjuvant regimens. Physicians need to be aware of this association and potentially explore novel treatment options. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A575.

  7. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  9. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth facto...

  12. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... colorectal carcinomas, and del(10)(q22) and add(16)(p13), which so far have not been associated with primary tumors and which may play a particular pathogenetic role in the metastatic process....

  13. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  14. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  15. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  16. Predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasia for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lam, Thomas Y T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Victor C W; Hirai, Hoyee W; Ching, Jessica Y L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2014-05-01

    The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score based on age, gender, family history, and smoking is useful to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian subjects. To evaluate the factors in addition to those of APCS associated with ACN colonoscopic findings. Data from 5,220 asymptomatic subjects aged between 50 and 70 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in a community center between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. One binary logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2013 with the presence of ACN or cancer as the outcome, controlling for APCS score, alcohol consumption, BMI, hypertension, and other chronic diseases as independent variables. The average participant age was 57.7 years (SD=4.9) and 47.5% were men. Advanced neoplasms or cancers were identified at colonoscopy in 5.6% of all screening participants. From multivariate regression analysis, APCS score≥4 (adjusted OR [AOR]=1.74, 95% CI=1.34, 2.25, pstatistic of APCS score alone was 0.560 (95% CI=0.524, 0.595, p=0.001) and that of APCS score plus BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption was 0.613 (95% CI=0.578, 0.648, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and BMI are independent predictors of ACN, which could be incorporated into the APCS for prioritizing Asian asymptomatic subjects for colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  18. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...

  19. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  1. Long-term effect of resistant starch on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathers, John C; Movahedi, Mohammad; Macrae, Finlay

    2012-01-01

    have been done. We assessed the effect of resistant starch on the incidence of colorectal cancer. METHODS: In the CAPP2 study, individuals with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to receive 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo...

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  3. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  4. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-03-12

    Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40-75 years) with incident clinically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 142 controls (70 men and 72 women, aged 40-75 years) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases were recruited and interviewed. Dietary data were assessed by 125-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer. Two major dietary patterns (Healthy pattern and Western pattern) were derived using principal component analysis. Each dietary pattern explained 11.9% (Healthy pattern) and 10.3% (Western pattern) of the variation in food intake, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR= 0.227; 95% CI=0.108-0.478) while an increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed with the Western dietary pattern (OR=2.616; 95% CI= 1.361-5.030). Specific dietary patterns, which include healthy and western patterns, may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This diet-disease relationship can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of chronic disease, particularly colorectal cancer in the Iranian population.

  5. Radiological and clinical evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, O. J.; Chin, S. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred thirty two cases of the pathologically proven colorectal cancer at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Hospital in the period from January 1973 to June 1980 were analyzed radiologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. The colorectal cancer was prevalent in rectosigmoid area and in the fourth to seventh decade of life. 2. The clinical pictures were classified into two groups. The one was rectosigmoid cancer with bowel habit changes. The other was one with no specific symptoms or signs. The clinical pictures of the right colon cancer were rather indirected, chronic and systemic than those of the left one. 3. The roentgenological findings were classified into two groups. The one was rectum and left colon cancer with symmetrical annular narrowing and the other showed trumpet-like proximal dilatation. 4. The most frequent complication was intestinal obstruction. 5. The majority of colorectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma and atypical cell carcinoma were most prevalent in rectum, but malignantly lymphoma often occurred in right colon. The rarest colorectal cancer was atypical cell carcinoma in rectum

  6. Prospective study of dietary patterns and colorectal cancer among Singapore Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, L M; Wang, R; Koh, W-P; Yu, M C

    2008-01-01

    An influence of Western diet and lifestyle factors observed among Singapore Chinese may contribute to the population's marked rise in colorectal cancer incidence over the past two decades. Thus far, however, there is little evidence for individual nutrients and foods as major contributing factors in this population. We evaluated whether patterns of food intake were associated with colorectal cancer in a population-based cohort of 61,321 Singapore Chinese that was established in 1993?98. Two d...

  7. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: The Takayama study

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population?based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ?35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorecta...

  8. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. Methods: We analysed data from 39?498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who...

  9. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  10. Epidemiological and Experimental Studies: The Role of Metformin on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih D. Yudhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GLOBOCAN data in 2012 showed colorectal cancer was the third leading cancer worldwide. In Indonesia, based on WHO data in 2014, colorectal cancer was the second common cancer ini men and third cancer in women. Epidemiological studies showed that diabetes mellitus have a correlation with the incidence of cancer and increase colorectal cancer risk by 30%. Some of epidemiological study showed that metformin therapy in diabetes patient reduce the risk of cancer incidence. It supported by experimental study which showed that metformin inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by influence the AMPK/mTOR pathway as a main role. The method was literature review based on publication at Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with keywords “metformin, colorectal cancer”, “metformin, colon cancer”, without index factor limitation in free journal and paid journal. The aim of this review is to give a new insight of metformin activity as anti-cancer and its potential for both preventif and adjuvant cancer therapy, especially for colorectal cancer.

  11. Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango, Yessenia M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits. We assessed the association between diet and the risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed colorectal polyps among 2,818 subjects who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in 2 cohort studies: the AHS-1 in 1976 and the AHS-2 from 2002-2005. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps; 441 cases of colorectal polyps were identified. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps.

  12. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  13. Involvement of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouga, Helen; Tsouros, Isidoros; Bounias, Dimitrios; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Stavropoulos, Michael S; Papageorgakopoulou, Nikoletta; Theocharis, Dimitrios A; Vynios, Demitrios H

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronidases belong to a class of enzymes that degrade, predominantly, hyaluronan. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor growth, infiltration and angiogenesis, but their exact role in tumor promotion or suppression is not clear yet. Advanced colorectal cancer is associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan of varying size. The aim of the present study was therefore to illuminate the importance of hyaluronidases in colon carcinoma progression. The patients' samples (macroscopically normal and cancerous) were subjected to sequential extraction with PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl - 1% Triton X-100. The presence of the various hyaluronidases in the extracts was examined by zymography and western blotting. Their expression was also examined by RT-PCR. Among hyaluronidases examined, Hyal-1, -2, -3 and PH-20 were detected. Their activity was higher in cancerous samples. Hyal-1 and Hyal-2 were overexpressed in cancerous samples, especially in advanced stages of cancer. Both isoforms were mainly extracted with PBS. Hyal-3 was observed only in the third extract of advanced stages of cancer. PH-20 was abundant in all three extracts of all stages of cancer. The expression of only Hyal-1 and PH-20 was verified by RT-PCR. A high association of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer was observed. Each hyaluronidase presented different tissue distribution, which indicated the implication of certain isoforms in certain cancer stages. The results provided new evidence on the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer

  14. Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Mortality in HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼNeill, Tyler J; Nguemo, Joseph D; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Burchell, Ann N; Antoniou, Tony

    2017-08-01

    As people with HIV live longer, the numbers of colorectal cancer cases are expected to increase. We sought to compare the colorectal cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among people living with and without HIV. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched 5 electronic databases up to June 28, 2016, for primary studies reporting standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)/hazard ratios or data sufficient for estimating these summary measures. We performed a random effects pooled analysis to estimate SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer in HIV. Of 8110 articles, we included 27 studies from North America (n = 18), Europe (n = 7), the Pacific region (n = 4), and South America (n = 1). Overall, 1660 cases of colorectal cancer and colon cancer (excluding rectal cancer) occurred among 1,696,070 persons with HIV. In pooled analysis, we found no summary risk of malignancy among those with HIV relative to an uninfected population (SIR 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.22; I = 89.2%). Colorectal cancer-specific mortality was higher among people with HIV but did not reach statistical significance (SMR 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.40; I = 85.0%). Rates of colorectal cancer are similar between people with and without HIV. Existing screening guidelines are likely adequate for people with HIV.

  15. Preoperative evaluation of synchronous colorectal cancer using MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Holst Andersen, Lars P; Klein, Mads

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: It is well known that synchronous cancers (incidence, 2%-11%) and polyps (incidence, 12%-58%) occur in patients with colorectal cancer. Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) seems like the obvious choice as a diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation, because...... a full conventional colonoscopy or in whom full conventional colonoscopy was not possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 13-month period, 47 patients diagnosed with rectal or sigmoid colon cancer scheduled for operation were included in the study. MRC was performed with bowel purgation either the night...... before surgery or as ambulatory MRC the week before surgery. RESULTS: Full MRC was performed in 98% of the patients. In four patients, 12 synchronous lesions (one cancer, two plaques of carcinosis, and nine adenomas) were found. One flat adenoma and five small polyps were missed by MRC and perioperative...

  16. Nitrate in drinking water and colorectal cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Thygesen, Malene

    2018-01-01

    based on drinking water quality analyses at public waterworks and private wells between 1978 and 2011. For the main analyses, 1.7 million individuals with highest exposure assessment quality were included. Follow-up started at age 35. We identified 5,944 incident CRC cases during 23 million person......Nitrate in drinking water may increase risk of colorectal cancer due to endogenous transformation into carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Epidemiological studies are few and often challenged by their limited ability of estimating long-term exposure on a detailed individual level. We exploited...... population-based health register data, linked in time and space with longitudinal drinking water quality data, on an individual level to study the association between long-term drinking water nitrate exposure and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Individual nitrate exposure was calculated for 2.7 million adults...

  17. An audit of colorectal cancer histopathology reports in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...

  18. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  19. The Impact of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in Mississippi, and the need for Mississippi to Eliminate its CRC Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhé, Roy J

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), while highly preventable and highly treatable, is a major public health problem in Mississippi. This article reviews solutions to this problem, beginning with the relationship between modifiable behavioral risk factors and CRC incidence. It then describes the impact of CRC screening on national downward trends in CRC incidence and mortality and summarizes recent data on the burden of CRC in Mississippi. While other states have created Comprehensive Colorectal Cancer Control Programs in an organized effort to manage this public health problem, Mississippi has not. Responding to Mississippi's situation, the 70x2020 Colorectal Cancer Screening Initiative arose as an unconventional approach to increase CRC screening rates throughout the state. This article concludes by considering the current limits of CRC treatment success and proposes that improved clinical outcomes should result from research to translate recently-identified colorectal cancer subtype information into novel clinical paradigms for the treatment of early-stage colorectal cancer.

  20. Association between the neighborhood obesogenic environment and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canchola, Alison J; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Albright, Cheryl; Hertz, Andrew; Park, Song-Yi; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Wilkens, Lynne R; Cheng, Iona

    2017-10-01

    Information on the role of the neighborhood environment and colorectal cancer risk is limited. We investigated the association between a comprehensive suite of possible obesogenic neighborhood attributes (socioeconomic status, population density, restaurant and retail food environments, numbers of recreational facilities and businesses, commute patterns, traffic density, and street connectivity) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Among 81,197 eligible participants living in California (35,397 males and 45,800 females), 1973 incident cases (981 males and 992 females) of invasive colorectal cancer were identified between 1993 and 2010. Separately for males and females, multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer risk overall and by racial/ethnic group (African American, Japanese American, Latino, white). In males, higher traffic density was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61, p=0.03, for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1; p-trend=0.06). While this association may be due to chance, this pattern was seen (albeit non-statistically significant) in all racial/ethnic groups except whites. There were no other significant associations between other neighborhood obesogenic attributes and colorectal cancer risk. Findings from our large racial/ethnically diverse cohort suggest neighborhood obesogenic characteristics are not strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...... and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota...... and probiotics on chemotherapy. In the future, targeting the microbiota will probably be a powerful weapon in the battle against CRC as gut microbiology, genomics and metabolomics promise to uncover important linkages between microbiota and intestinal health....

  2. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 (path_MLH1), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year...

  3. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  7. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three...

  8. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...

  9. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  10. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  11. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  12. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  13. Cetuximab: clinical results in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, E; Giuliani, F; Gebbia, V; Piano, A; Agueli, R; Colucci, G

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, the introduction of targeted therapies into clinical practice seems to offer incremental benefits in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mainly when they are employed in combination with optimal chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this paper, we focus on Cetuximab and its role in the treatment of mCRC.

  14. Metalloproteinases and their regulators in colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Wobbes, T.; Strobbe, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MPs) such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and adamalysins (ADAMs and ADAMTS) are expressed in various stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), and some correlate with survival and prognosis. The MPs are regulated by various factors including EMMPRIN, TIMPs, and RECK. In

  15. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  16. [Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, N V; Kit, O I; Gevorkyan, Yu A; Milakin, A G

    to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.

  17. Fear of cancer recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.A.E.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Janssen, S.H.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors generally report a good quality of life, fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) remains an important issue. This study investigated whether the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) can detect high FCR, the prevalence, and characteristics of FCR in CRC

  18. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  19. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: The Takayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2017-05-01

    Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ≥35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorectal cancer was confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries and histological identification from colonoscopy in two main hospitals in the study area. From September 1992 to March 2008, 429 men and 343 women developed colorectal cancer. After adjustments for multiple confounders, a significantly increased relative risk of colorectal cancer was observed in the highest versus lowest quartile of the intake of total and red meat among men; the estimated hazard ratios were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.79) for total meat (P for trend = 0.022), and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.89) for red meat (P for trend = 0.009). A positive association between processed meat intake and colon cancer risk was also observed in men. There was no significant association between colorectal cancer and meat consumption in women. These results suggest that the intake of red and processed meat increases the risk of colorectal or colon cancer among Japanese men. Abstaining from excessive consumption of meat might be protective against developing colorectal cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  1. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...

  2. Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Diagnosed after 40 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine J Karvellas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between ulcerative colitis (UC and colorectal cancer (CRC is well established. Retrospective data show a 5.4% CRC incidence rate among patients with pancolitis and suggest that cancer surveillance should be provided to patients following eight to 10 years of extensive UC.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  4. Definition and taxonomy of interval colorectal cancers: a proposal for standardising nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanduleanu, S.; le Clercq, C. M. C.; Dekker, E.; Meijer, G. A.; Rabeneck, L.; Rutter, M. D.; Valori, R.; Young, G. P.; Schoen, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interval colorectal cancers (interval CRCs), that is, cancers occurring after a negative screening test or examination, are an important indicator of the quality and effectiveness of CRC screening and surveillance. In order to compare incidence rates of interval CRCs across screening programmes, a

  5. Quality of life and its determinants among colorectal cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Nayyereh Amini Sani; Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi; Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer has a significant impact on physical, mental and social discomfort of patients. The aim of this study was to assess different aspects of health-related quality of life and its association with demographic characteristics and some clinical features in colorectal cancer survivors in the city of Babol. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 120 colorectal cancer survivors identified in the cancer registry from 2007 to 2012. A questionnair...

  6. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Moshfeghi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of cases. Data collected by using a structured questionnaire and based on interviews with patients and their medical records. We used chi-squared and independent t-tests to analyze data. Logistic regression applies to eliminate the effect of possible confounding variables.Results: From all participants 55.7% were male and 90% got married. 33.6% were overweight and/or obese. Mean ± SD of age and BMI was 54.41±14.88 yr and 24.42±4.58, respectively. Regression model showed that fatty food intake, high education and positive family history are the predictor risk factors of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Due to preventable colorectal cancer and increased global incidence of disease, educational intervention about the importance of disease, methods of screening and diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients are necessary

  8. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  9. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-09-01

    Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. We analysed data from 39 498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40-79 years old and free of cancer at the baseline. Fish consumption was assessed at the baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. During 9 years of follow-up, we identified 566 incident cases of colorectal cancer (379 men and 187 women). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence in the highest quartile of fish consumption compared with the lowest quartile were 1.07 (95% CIs; 0.78-1.46, P-trend=0.43) for men, and 0.96 (95% CIs; 0.61-1.53, P-trend=0.69) for women. The results of this prospective cohort study revealed no association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

  10. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  11. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  12. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  13. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.Q.; Samo, K.A.; Memon, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  14. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  15. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...... detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection...

  16. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  17. Recognition and management of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes Identificación y tratamiento de los síndromes de cáncer colorrectal hereditario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herráiz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 1.900 colorectal tumors will arise in association with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome in Spain in 2009. The genetic defects responsible for the most common syndromes have been discovered in recent years. Genetic testing helps diagnose affected individuals and allows identification of individuals at-risk. Colonoscopy and prophylactic colectomy decrease colorectal cancer incidence and overall mortality in patients with hereditary colon cancer. Extracolonic tumors are frequent in these syndromes, so specific surveillance strategies should be offered.

  18. Groundwater uranium and cancer incidence in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Bolick-Aldrich, Susan; Temples, Tom; Wilkerson, Rebecca C.; Vena, John E.; Hébert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This ecologic study tested the hypothesis that census tracts with elevated groundwater uranium and more frequent groundwater use have increased cancer incidence. Methods Data sources included: incident total, leukemia, prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers (1996–2005, SC Central Cancer Registry); demographic and groundwater use (1990 US Census); and groundwater uranium concentrations (n = 4,600, from existing federal and state databases). Kriging was used to predict average uranium concentrations within tracts. The relationship between uranium and standardized cancer incidence ratios was modeled among tracts with substantial groundwater use via linear or semiparametric regression, with and without stratification by the proportion of African Americans in each area. Results A total of 134,685 cancer cases were evaluated. Tracts with ≥50% groundwater use and uranium concentrations in the upper quartile had increased risks for colorectal, breast, kidney, prostate, and total cancer compared to referent tracts. Some of these relationships were more likely to be observed among tracts populated primarily by African Americans. Conclusion SC regions with elevated groundwater uranium and more groundwater use may have an increased incidence of certain cancers, although additional research is needed since the design precluded adjustment for race or other predictive factors at the individual level. PMID:21080052

  19. Lifestyle Changes and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and ... of this cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia and the Caribbean. ... populations from low risk regions to countries in North America, Europe and ... risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in their newly found environment as a result of ...

  20. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  1. Clinical and biological aspects of mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands approximately 5% of all people will develop colorectal cancer during his or her life. The rapid development of individualized therapy for cancer patients has led to an increased interest in tumor subtypes. Currently, colorectal cancer patients are treated in the same way

  2. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  3. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  4. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; Peosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients independent of the overall tumor-associated inflammatory response. Evaluation of peritumoral eosinophils represents a promising

  5. [Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly. In recent years, the National Health and Family Planning Commission has organized experts to revised the protocol 2 times: the first time in 2015, the second time in 2017. The revised part of "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2017 edition) involves new progress in the field of imaging examination, pathological evaluation, surgery, chemotherpy and radiotherapy. The 2017 edition of the protocol not only referred to the contents of the international guidelines, but also combined with the specific national conditions and clinical practice in China, and also included many evidence-based clinical data in China recently. The 2017 edition of the protocol would further promote the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China, improve the survival and prognosis of patients, and benefit millions of patients with colorectal cancer and their families.

  6. Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    study of patients carrying Lynch syndrome-associated mutations affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Standardised information on surveillance, cancers and outcomes were collated in an Oracle relational database and analysed by age, sex and mutated gene. RESULTS: 1942 mutation carriers without previous...... carriers. Among first cancer detected in each patient the colorectal cancer cumulative incidences at 70 years by gene were 46%, 35%, 20% and 10% for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers, respectively. The equivalent cumulative incidences for endometrial cancer were 34%, 51%, 49% and 24......%; and for ovarian cancer 11%, 15%, 0% and 0%. Ten-year crude survival was 87% after any cancer, 91% if the first cancer was colorectal, 98% if endometrial and 89% if ovarian. CONCLUSIONS: The four Lynch syndrome-associated genes had different penetrance and expression. Colorectal cancer occurred frequently despite...

  7. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosara Teixeira, Marcela; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Sabbaga, Jorge; Hoff, Paulo M

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer incidence has been rising strongly in parallel with economic development. In the past few decades, much has been learned about the lifestyle, dietary and medication risk factors for this malignancy. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that prevention of weight gain and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity can positively influence in lowering the risk. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. Though quite often recommended, the role for many supplements, including omega-3, vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains unsettled. Only calcium and vitamin D supplementation appear to add a modest benefit, particularly in those with a low daily intake. With regard to chemoprevention, medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and postmenopausal hormonal replacement for women might be associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by their side effect profile. However, the role of agents such as statins, bisphosphonates and antioxidants have yet to be determined. Ultimately, primary prevention strategies focusing on modifying environmental, lifestyle risk factors, and chemopreventive drugs are options that have already been tested, and may impact on colon cancer incidence.

  8. Virilisation during Pregnancy in a Patient with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case of a 25-year-old woman with virilisation occurring during pregnancy in the presence of metastatic colorectal cancer. Virilisation during pregnancy is rare. The potential causes include adrenal, foetal, or ovarian pathologies. The most common causes during pregnancy are pregnancy luteoma and hyperreactio luteinalis. The incidence of cancer during pregnancy is rare and the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in pregnancy is even rarer. The presenting signs and symptoms of CRC can be confused with symptoms commonly encountered during pregnancy, thereby delaying diagnosis and commencement of treatment. Diagnosis and staging also proves more problematic in the pregnant patient as the usual modalities of colonoscopy with biopsy and imaging with CT are relatively contraindicated. Treatment is dependent on gestational age of the foetus. There is currently no agreed best practice as to the role of prophylactic oophorectomy in the prevention of metachronous ovarian metastases. Surgical and adjuvant treatments have implications for females of child-bearing age.

  9. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  10. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  11. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  12. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  13. Genetics, Cytogenetics, and Epigenetics of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Migliore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the colorectal cancer (CRC cases are sporadic, only 25% of the patients have a family history of the disease, and major genes causing syndromes predisposing to CRC only account for 5-6% of the total cases. The following subtypes can be recognized: MIN (microsatellite instability, CIN (chromosomal instability, and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype. CIN occurs in 80–85% of CRC. Chromosomal instability proceeds through two major mechanisms, missegregation that results in aneuploidy through the gain or loss of whole chromosomes, and unbalanced structural rearrangements that lead to the loss and/or gain of chromosomal regions. The loss of heterozygosity that occur in the first phases of the CRC cancerogenesis (in particular for the genes on 18q as well as the alteration of methylation pattern of multiple key genes can drive the development of colorectal cancer by facilitating the acquisition of multiple tumor-associated mutations and the instability phenotype.

  14. Colorectal cancer in Denmark 1943-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article reports the incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer in Denmark during 55 years of data registration and estimates the number of cases identified attributable to four modifiable risk factors and potentially preventable. METHODS: On the basis of reports in the nationwide......, population-based, Danish Cancer Registry, we calculated age-standardized, period-specific, incidence rates and age and birth cohort-specific incidence rates. To calculate the population attributable risk, relative risk estimates were obtained from meta-analyses, case-control, and prospective cohort studies......, combined with data from surveys of the consumption of alcohol, red meat, vegetables, and level of physical activity. RESULTS: For both genders, the incidence rate of colon cancer increased, whereas the incidence rate for rectal cancer decreased during the period 1943 to 1997. The decrease in the incidence...

  15. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in Japan: the Miyagi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    The association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been controversial. We examined this question in a large prospective cohort study in Japan. From June through August 1990, 47,605 residents, aged 40-64 years, of Miyagi Prefecture in northern Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire, including a food frequency questionnaire. In the study population, we observed 474 incident cases of colorectal cancer during 11 years of follow-up, to March 2001. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the relative risk of colorectal cancer (colorectum, colon, rectum and proximal colon and distal colon) according to each of the categories of meat intake (total meat, beef, pork, ham or sausage, chicken and liver), with adjustment for sex, age and other potentially confounding variables. The multivariate relative risk of colorectal cancer in the highest category of total meat consumption compared with the lowest was 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-1.53; P-trend=0.22]. We also found no significant association between total meat consumption and the risk of sub-site of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, our data do not support the hypothesis that meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

  16. Serum carotenoids and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-10-01

    Previous epidemiological studies on the association between circulating carotenoids and the risk of colorectal cancer drew inconclusive conclusions. This study aimed to examine serum carotenoids in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. One case-control study beginning from July 2010, consecutively recruited 538 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 564 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were detected by HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence internal (CI) after adjusting for various confounders. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted ORs of the highest quartile relative to the lowest quartile serum level were 0.49 (95% CIs 0.33-0.72) for α-carotene, 0.44 (95% CIs 0.29-0.66) for β-cryptoxanthin, and 0.36 (95% CIs 0.24-0.54) for lycopene, respectively. The association between serum β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant. The results indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer was associated with lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene among Chinese population residing in Guangdong. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bile acids in experimental colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rainey, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Cogent epidemiological and experimental data implicate bile acids as endogenous co-carcinogens in colorectal cancer. A series of experiments was designed to test the ability of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) to promote intestinal hyperplasia and neoplasia in rats (n = 265). The intermediary role of faecal anaerobes was explored in animals receiving oral metronidazole. Intrarectal instillation of SDC trebled tumour yield in functioning large bowel and increased both crypt depth and crypt cell produ...

  18. Cetuximab in the management of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2007-01-01

    Cetuximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the ligand-binding domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is active in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). As an IgG1 antibody, cetuximab may exert its antitumor efficacy through both EGFR antagonism and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Clinical trials established the role of cetuximab, particularly with irinotecan, in irinotecan-refractory/heavily pretreated patients. More recent studies show promising...

  19. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingham, SA; Day, NE; Luben, R; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Norat, T; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kesse, E; Boeing, H; Tjonneland, A; Overvad, K; Martinez, C; Dorronsoro, M; Gonzalez, CA; Key, TJ; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Krogh, [No Value; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Peeters, PHM; Berglund, G; Hallmans, G; Lund, E; Skeie, G; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E

    2003-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre is thought to protect against colorectal cancer but this view has been challenged by recent prospective and intervention studies that showed no protective effect. Methods We prospectively examined the association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colorectal

  20. Current and future molecular diagnostics in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Andy Hin-Fung; Cheng, Ka-Ho; Wong, Apple Siu-Ping; Ng, Simon Siu-Man; Ma, Brigette Buig-Yue; Chan, Charles Ming-Lok; Tsui, Nancy Bo-Yin; Chan, Lawrence Wing-Chi; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2014-04-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. On the other hand, CRC is also one of the most curable cancers if it is detected in early stages through regular colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Since CRC develops slowly from precancerous lesions, early detection can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease. Fecal occult blood test is a widely used non-invasive screening tool for CRC. Although fecal occult blood test is simple and cost-effective in screening CRC, there is room for improvement in terms of the accuracy of the test. Genetic dysregulations have been found to play an important role in CRC development. With better understanding of the molecular basis of CRC, there is a growing expectation on the development of diagnostic tests based on more sensitive and specific molecular markers and those tests may provide a breakthrough to the limitations of current screening tests for CRC. In this review, the molecular basis of CRC development, the characteristics and applications of different non-invasive molecular biomarkers, as well as the technologies available for the detection were discussed. This review intended to provide a summary on the current and future molecular diagnostics in CRC and its pre-malignant state, colorectal adenoma.

  1. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Weiss, Jennifer M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [{+-}SD] age 56.9 {+-} 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 {+-} 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  2. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Weiss, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [±SD] age 56.9 ± 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 ± 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  3. Immunotherapy and immunoescape in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Guillermo; Murillo, Oihana; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Dubrot, Juan; Tirapu, Iñigo; Rizzo, Miguel; Arina, Ainhoa; Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; Berasain, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, José L; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses a variety of interventions and techniques with the common goal of eliciting tumor cell destructive immune responses. Colorectal carcinoma often presents as metastatic disease that impedes curative surgery. Novel strategies such as active immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), gene transfer of cytokines into tumor cells or administration of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (such as anti-CD137 or anti-CTLA-4) have been assessed in preclinical studies and are at an early clinical development stage. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be combined in the treatment of some cases with colorectal cancer, with synergistic potentiation as a result of antigens cross-presented by dendritic cells and/or elimination of competitor or suppressive T lymphocyte populations (regulatory T-cells). However, genetic and epigenetic unstable carcinoma cells frequently evolve mechanisms of immunoevasion that are the result of either loss of antigen presentation, or an active expression of immunosuppressive substances. Some of these actively immunosuppressive mechanisms are inducible by cytokines that signify the arrival of an effector immune response. For example, induction of 2, 3 indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNγ in colorectal carcinoma cells. Combinational and balanced strategies fostering antigen presentation, T-cell costimulation and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms will probably take the stage in translational research in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:17990348

  4. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  5. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  6. Incidence of Second Primary Malignancies Following Colorectal Cancer: A Distinct Pattern of Occurrence Between Colon and Rectal Cancers and Association of Co-Morbidity with Second Primary Malignancies in a Population-Based Cohort of 98,876 Patients in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Teng, Chung-Jen; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Jen-Kou; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Wang, Huann-Sheng; Yang, Shung-Haur; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chen, Wei-Shone; Lin, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Shih-Ching; Chen, Ming-Huang; Teng, Hao-Wei; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yen, Chueh-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the features of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among patients with prior colorectal cancer (CRC) using a nationwide population-based dataset. Patients with CRC newly diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, and >1 year of follow-up were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs in patients with CRC were calculated. During the 16-year study period, 4259 SPMs developed among 98,876 CRC patients. The median duration of follow-up was 4.03 years. The SIR for all SPMs was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.17). Compared with the general population, a higher incidence of thyroid, prostate, ovarian, and hematologic malignancies developed among patients with colon cancer, whereas the risk for bone and soft tissue cancers increased among patients with rectal cancer. The risk for breast, bladder, kidney, lung, and uterine cancers was significantly higher in patients with colon and rectal cancers than the general population. The risk for liver and biliary tract cancers declined in patients with rectal cancer. Based on multivariate analysis among patients with CRC, age ≥70 years, men, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cirrhosis, and dyslipidemia were independent predictors of an SPM. In conclusion, patients with CRC were at increased risk for a second cancer. The pattern of SPMs was distinct between patients with colon and rectal cancer. Age, men, COPD, cirrhosis, and dyslipidemia were independent risk factors for SPMs. Surveillance and education should be provided for survivors with respect to risk for SPMs. PMID:26131831

  7. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, we present historical and projected cancer incidence frequencies and rates for Canada, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (i.e. basal and squamous carcinomas, in 1983 to 2032. The information is intended to help in planning strategy and allocating resources and infrastructure for future cancer control and health care. Projected changes in cancer incidence rates: From 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, the agestandardized incidence rates (ASIRs for all cancers combined are predicted to decrease in Canadian males by 5%, from 464.8 to 443.2 per 100 000 population, and increase in Canadian females by 4%, from 358.3 to 371.0 per 100 000. The overall decrease in cancer rates in males will be driven by the decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65Endnote * or older and in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older. The overall increase in cancer rates in females reflects the predicted rise in lung cancer rates in women aged 65 or older. The increase also represents the expected increase in cancers of the uterus, thyroid, breast (in females under 45, leukemia, pancreas, kidney and melanoma. The largest changes in ASIRs projected over the 25-year forecasting horizon are increases in thyroid cancer (55% in males and 65% in females and liver cancer in males (43% and decreases in larynx cancer (47% in males and 59% in females, lung cancer in males (34% and stomach cancer (30% in males and 24% in females. The incidence rate of lung cancer in females is projected to continue to rise by 2% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 and then start to decrease in the last 20 projection years, by 18%. Breast cancer incidence is expected to change the least (an increase of less than 1% of all cancers in females. The predicted changes in the rates for colorectal cancer are below the medians in all cancers, with a decrease of 6% for both males and females during the entire projection period. The rates for prostate cancer are projected to be stable, based on an

  8. Analysis of metastasis associated signal regulatory network in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2018-06-18

    Metastasis is a key factor that affects the survival and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. To elucidate molecular mechanism associated with the metastasis of colorectal cancer, genes related to the metastasis time of colorectal cancer were screened. Then, a network was constructed with this genes. Data was obtained from colorectal cancer expression profile. Molecular mechanism elucidated the time of tumor metastasis and the expression of genes related to colorectal cancer. We found that metastasis-promoting and metastasis-inhibiting networks included protein hubs of high connectivity. These protein hubs were components of organelles. Some ribosomal proteins promoted the metastasis of colorectal cancer. In some components of organelles, such as proteasomes, mitochondrial ribosome, ATP synthase, and splicing factors, the metastasis of colorectal cancer was inhibited by some sections of these organelles. After performing survival analysis of proteins in organelles, joint survival curve of proteins was constructed in ribosomal network. This joint survival curve showed metastasis was promoted in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0022939). Joint survival curve of proteins was plotted against proteasomes (P = 7 e-07), mitochondrial ribosome (P = 0.0001157), ATP synthase (P = 0.0001936), and splicing factors (P = 1.35e-05). These curves indicate that metastasis of colorectal cancer can be inhibited. After analyzing proteins that bind with organelle components, we also found that some proteins were associated with the time of colorectal cancer metastasis. Hence, different cellular components play different roles in the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  11. The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0198 TITLE: The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jatin Roper...CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...substantially reduces colorectal tumorigenesis in our genetically engineered mouse model. We also successfully ablated novel downstream targets of Akt in our

  12. Prospective study of dietary patterns and colorectal cancer among Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, L M; Wang, R; Koh, W-P; Yu, M C

    2008-11-04

    An influence of Western diet and lifestyle factors observed among Singapore Chinese may contribute to the population's marked rise in colorectal cancer incidence over the past two decades. Thus far, however, there is little evidence for individual nutrients and foods as major contributing factors in this population. We evaluated whether patterns of food intake were associated with colorectal cancer in a population-based cohort of 61,321 Singapore Chinese that was established in 1993-98. Two dietary patterns, meat-dim sum and vegetable-fruit-soy, were previously identified by principal components analysis using baseline dietary data from a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. As of 31 December 2005, 961 incident colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. Using nearly 10 years of follow-up data, we observed no association with either the meat-dim sum or vegetable-fruit-soy pattern for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, neither individual nutrients or foods nor dietary patterns appear to explain the rise in colorectal cancer among Singapore Chinese population.

  13. Early and late complications among long-term colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy or anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-02-01

    Among long-term (>or=5 y) colorectal cancer survivors with permanent ostomy or anastomosis, we compared the incidence of medical and surgical complications and examined the relationship of complications with health-related quality of life. The incidence and effects of complications on long-term health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors are not adequately understood. Participants (284 survivors with ostomies and 395 survivors with anastomoses) were long-term colorectal cancer survivors enrolled in an integrated health plan. Health-related quality of life was assessed via mailed survey questionnaires from 2002 to 2005. Information on colorectal cancer, surgery, comorbidities, and complications was obtained from computerized data and analyzed by use of survival analysis and logistic regression. Ostomy and anastomosis survivors were followed up for an average of 12.1 and 11.2 years, respectively. Within 30 days of surgery, 19% of ostomy survivors and 10% of anastomosis survivors experienced complications (P Ostomy was associated with long-term fistula (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI 1.4-21.2), and among ostomy survivors, fistula was associated with reduced health-related quality of life (P ostomy have more complications early in their survivorship period, but complications among anastomosis survivors catch up after 20 years, when the 2 groups have convergent complication rates. Among colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy, fistula has especially important implications for health-related quality of life.

  14. EARLY AND LATE COMPLICATIONS AMONG LONG-TERM COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS WITH OSTOMY OR ANASTOMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Among long-term (≥5 years) colorectal cancer survivors with permanent ostomy or anastomosis, we compared the incidence of medical and surgical complications and examined the relationship of complications with health-related quality of life. Background The incidence and effects of complications on long-term health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors are not adequately understood. Methods Participants (284 ostomy/395 anastomosis) were long-term colorectal cancer survivors enrolled in an integrated health plan. Health-related quality of life was assessed via mailed survey questionnaire in 2002–2005. Information on colorectal cancer, surgery, co-morbidities, and complications was obtained from computerized data and analyzed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Results Ostomy and anastomosis survivors were followed an average 12.1 and 11.2 years, respectively. Within 30 days of surgery, 19% of ostomy and 10% of anastomosis survivors experienced complications (pOstomy was associated with long-term fistula (odds ratio 5.4; 95% CI 1.4–21.2), and among ostomy survivors, fistula was associated with reduced health-related quality of life (postomy have more complications early in their survivorship period, but complications among anastomosis survivors catch up after 20 years, when the two groups have convergent complication rates. Among colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy, fistula has especially important implications for health-related quality of life. PMID:20087096

  15. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  16. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Dolatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatkhah, R.; Somi, M. H.; Dolatkhah, R.; Kermani, I. A.; Dastgiri, S.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  18. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual...

  19. Early colorectal Cancer: focuses and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Oscar A; Martinez, Carlos E; Escobar, Jaime; Sanchez, William; Serrano, Juan M

    2001-01-01

    Currently, early colorectal cancer (ECC) constitutes only 10% of the total of diagnosed colorectal malignancy. This proportion is expected to show an important increase with the different screening protocols that are on the way, together with recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. We compare the histopathologic spectrum of ECC from the western and Japanese viewpoint, defining the anatomopathologic characteristics of this lesions, together with the natural history and new classification and staging systems; variables which are all oriented to establish the grade of local invasion and risk of nodal spread. The knowledge and integral analysis of the different biologic, clinical, histological and endoscopic characteristics of ECC, will determine the most rational individual therapeutic pathway from the prognostic point of view

  20. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  1. BCKDK of BCAA Catabolism Cross-talking With the MAPK Pathway Promotes Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peipei; Zeng, Fanfan; Duan, Qiuhong; Xiao, Juanjuan; Liu, Lin; Yuan, Ping; Fan, Linni; Sun, Huimin; Malyarenko, Olesya S; Lu, Hui; Xiu, Ruijuan; Liu, Shaoqing; Shao, Chen; Zhang, Jianmin; Yan, Wei; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo. Mechanistically, BCKDK promotes colorectal cancer by enhancing the MAPK signaling pathway through direct MEK phosphorylation, rather than by branched-chain amino acids catabolism. And the process above could be inhibited by a BCKDK inhibitor, phenyl butyrate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BCKDK of BCAA Catabolism Cross-talking With the MAPK Pathway Promotes Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Xue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo. Mechanistically, BCKDK promotes colorectal cancer by enhancing the MAPK signaling pathway through direct MEK phosphorylation, rather than by branched-chain amino acids catabolism. And the process above could be inhibited by a BCKDK inhibitor, phenyl butyrate.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  4. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....

  5. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells and Molecular Biology Test in Colorectal Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi-Ys, Rustam

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in males, the second in females, and is the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Within Indonesia's 250 million population, the incidence rates for CRC per 100,000 population were 15.2 for males and 10.2 for females, and estimated 63,500 cases per year.  More than 50% of colorectal cancer patients will develop metastasis. CRC is still the main cause of tumor-related death, and although most CRC patients are treated with surgery to remove the tumor tissue, some of the CRC patients recurred. Chemotherapy used as adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy also has several problems, in which these treatments are useless in tumor cells with chemo-resistance. Molecular testing of CRC from tumor tissues has important implications for the selection of treatment. Biomarkers can be used as prognostic value, molecular predictive factors, and targeted therapy. Recent research reported that, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the origin of tumorigenesis, development, metastasis and recurrence. At present, it has been shown that CSCs existed in many tumors including CRC. This review aims to summarize the issue on CSCs, and the future development of drugs that target colorectal cancer stem cells.

  7. Perceived stress and risk of colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Kristensen, T S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the relationship between stress and risk of primary colorectal cancer in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 6488 women and 5426 men were included in the study. The participants were...... there was no clear relationship between stress and colorectal cancer in men....... asked about intensity and frequency of stress at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until the end of 2000 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Less than 0.1% was lost to follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First time incidence of primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: During follow-up 162 women and 166 men...

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  9. Prevalence and prognosis of synchronous colorectal cancer: a Dutch population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.F.; Kranse, R.; Damhuis, R.A.; Wilt, J.H. de; Ouwendijk, R.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Leerdam, M.E. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A noticeable proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are diagnosed with synchronous CRC. Large population-based studies on the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of synchronous CRC are, however, scarce, and are needed for better determination of risks of synchronous CRC in

  10. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  11. Spatial variation in stage distribution in colorectal cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.A.G.; Pukkala, E.; Klaase, J.M.; Siesling, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased, mainly in the eastern part of the country. Patient delay due to unawareness or ignorance of symptoms and differences in use of diagnostic tools could have influence on the stage distribution. The aim of this study was

  12. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A; Ion, D; Ciocan, D N; Paduraru, D N

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem; it is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer: each year there are nearly one million new cases of CRC diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths (1). This review aims to summarise the most important currently available markers for CRC that provide prognostic or predictive information. Amongst others, it covers serum markers such as CEA and CA19-9, markers expressed by tumour tissues, such as thymidylate synthase, and also the expression/loss of expression of certain oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes such as K-ras and p53. The prognostic value of genomic instability, angiogenesis and proliferative indices, such as the apoptotic index, are discussed. The advent of new therapies created the pathway for a personalized approach of the patient. This will take into consideration the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, besides the classical clinical and pathological stagings. The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology lead to a compulsory study of the clinical use of biomarkers with role in improving response and survival, as well as in reducing toxicity and establishing economic stability. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have arisen from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and their therapeutical significance are discussed. RevistaChirurgia.

  13. Anatomic Subsite of Primary Colorectal Cancer and Subsequent Risk and Distribution of Second Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Chan, Andrew T.; Shuji Ogino, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with a history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased risk of subsequent cancer. We used cancer registry data to evaluate whether this increased risk of cancer after CRC differed by anatomic subsite of a first CRC. Methods Individuals diagnosed with first primary CRC between 1992–2009 were identified from 12 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the incidence of subsequent cancers in these index CRC cases to cancer incidence rates in the general population. SIRs were calculated for cancers at anatomic sites within and outside the colorectum in analyses stratified by subsite of the index CRC. Results Cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in those with prior CRC than in the general population (SIR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.13–1.16). Individuals with an index CRC located between the transverse and descending colon experienced the greatest increased risk both overall (SIR=1.29 to 1.33), and with respect to risk of second CRC in particular (SIR=2.53 to 3.35). Incidence of small intestinal cancer was significantly elevated regardless of index CRC subsite (SIR=4.31, 95% CI: 3.70–4.77); incidence of endometrial cancer was elevated in those with index CRC in the proximal colon (SIR=1.37 to 1.79). Conclusions Risk of second cancer after CRC differs by anatomic site of the first tumor, and is particularly pronounced for those with prior CRC located in the transverse to descending colon. The mechanisms underlying this pattern of second cancer risk remain unknown. PMID:23856984

  14. Pattern & presentation of colorectal cancer in central Sudan, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logical types of colorectal cancer cases presented to Ibn Sina specialized hospital. ... Abdominal pain. Tenesmus. Weight loss. Abdominal distension. Anal pain ... Male sex. 23. 18. 31. 21. Family history 8. 1. 6. 5. Rectal cancer. 26. 9. 29. 26.

  15. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins...

  16. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind self-renewal may lead to the development of novel targeted interventions for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  17. A prospective audit of early stoma complications in colorectal cancer treatment throughout the Greater Manchester and Cheshire colorectal cancer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, K L; Zammit, M; Smith, A; Kenyon, D; Lees, N P

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the incidence of early stoma problems after surgery for colorectal cancer to identify predisposing factors and to assess the effect on discharge from hospital and the greater need for community stoma care. A prospective study of 192 patients was carried out over a six-month period in the 13 units of the Greater Manchester and Cheshire Cancer Network. Stoma problems were categorized into fistula, leakage, pancaking, necrosis, retraction, separation, stenosis, skin problems, parastomal hernia, suboptimal stoma site and need for resiting or refashioning. Differences in incidence between units (anonymized) were analysed, and the effect of stoma complications on length of hospital stay and the need for additional community stoma care was determined. One hundred and ninety-two patients with stomas were included, of which 52 (27.1%) were identified as being problematic (range 0-66.7% between units). Significant risk factors included stoma type (colostomy) (P stoma length (P = 0.006), higher BMI (P = 0.043), emergency surgery (P = 0.002) and lack of preoperative site marking (P stomas were associated with longer hospital stay (P care (P Stoma type, stoma length, body mass index, emergency surgery and lack of preoperative marking were significant risk factors. Overall complication rates compare favourably with other studies. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Computed tomography in brain metastases of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Sueyoshi, Nobuyuki [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Nonaka, Nobuhito; Sano, Yoshinori; Itoyama, Yoichi; Miura, Giichi

    1984-10-01

    Metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancers are relatively rare. In previous reports, the incidence ranged from 3 to 5 percent of all metastatic brain tumors. We report 7 cases of metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancers. The time interval from the diagnosis of the primary tumors to the brain metastasis was 3 years on the average. Metastasis to the lung and liver were also found in 6 cases at the time of the diagnosis of the brain metastasis. The CEA levels in the serum were highly elevated in all cases. Solitary metastasis was found in all cases; cancers tend to metastasize in the deep area of the cerebrum or cerebellum. On a plain CT scan, tumors were demonstrated as ring-type, with a high-density mass, and ring-like enhancement was seen in 6 cases. Prognosis was very poor in most cases. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 4.5 months in the 2 cases with surgery and 3.5 months in the 4 cases without surgery.

  19. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  20. Clinic-surgical characterization of the colorectal cancer in inpatients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo Concepcion, Osvaldo; Castillo Lamas, Libardo; Umpierrez Garcia, Ibis

    2009-01-01

    The colorectal cancer presents high incidence. This pathology occupies the fifth place among the neoplasias in both sexes in Cuba. With the objective of characterizing this disease we carried out a descriptive transversal study at the service of General Surgery of the University Military Hospital of Matanzas 'Dr. Mario Munnoz Monroy', in the period from January 2001 to January 2005, studying age, sex, familiar oncological antecedents, presentation form, localization and diagnosis of the tumor, and also the surgical technique used in the treatment. The results showed predominance of the male sex in ages between 60 and 69 years old, different symptoms depending on the localization, predominance of the rectal cancer, and others. It was concluded that there is a delay between the beginning of the symptoms and the diagnosis, considerably diminishing the healing possibilities and survival

  1. Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper; Linnemann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic...... and predictive significance in CRC patients. This review provides an overview of the intestinal stem cell markers leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell–specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1), Musashi1 (MSI1), and sex-determining region y-box 9 (SOX9......) and their implications in human CRC. The exact roles of the intestinal stem cell markers in CRC development and progression remain unclear; however, high expression of these stem cell markers have a potential prognostic significance and might be implicated in chemotherapy resistance...

  2. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Extended Cancer Education for Longer-Term Survivors in Primary Care for Patients With Stage I-II Breast or Prostate Cancer or Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  5. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-10-03

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence

  6. Burden of colorectal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Monica S; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in Central and South American due to an ongoing transition towards higher levels of human development. We describe the burden of CRC in the region and review the current status of disease control. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries, as well as cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percentage change for 1997-2008. The CRC rate in males was 1-2 times higher than that in females. In 2003-2007, the highest ASRs were seen in Uruguayan, Brazilian and Argentinean males (25.2-34.2) and Uruguayan and Brazilian females (21.5-24.7), while El Salvador had the lowest ASR in both sexes (males: 1.5, females: 1.3). ASMRs were<10 for both sexes, except in Uruguay, Cuba and Argentina (10.0-17.7 and 11.3-12.0). CRC incidence is increasing in Chilean males. Most countries have national screening guidelines. Uruguay and Argentina have implemented national screening programs. Geographic variation in CRC and sex gaps may be explained by differences in the prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, early detection, and cancer registration practices. Establishing optimal CRC screening programs is challenging due to lack of healthcare access and coverage, funding, regional differences and inadequate infrastructure, and may not be feasible. Given the current status of CRC in the region, data generated by population-based cancer registries is crucial for cancer control planning. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia.

  8. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  9. Colorectal cancer in Slovenia – differences in surgical treatment and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Norčič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in Slovenia. Its incidence rises constantly in the last years while the outcome of treatment is poorer than in other developed countries.Methods: In a retrospective study we analysed 940 colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in Slovenia in 1997.Results: Differences in outcome between the Slovenian institutions are due to different stage-distributions and differences in surgical radicality. Differences in pathohistological staging and medical oncological treatment are probably less important. The same can be said regarding some of the examples from abroad.Conclusions: With constant and objective auditing, the improvement of all aspects of treatment can be achieved, resulting in better survival of all Slovenian colorectal cancer patients.

  10. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Technical advances that has been achieved during the past two decades have not dramatically improved the 35 % five-year rate observed in patients with colorectal cancer. These tumours remain one of the most challenging problems in public health policies in western countries. Screening applies to some subgroups of high-risk individuals and the general population aged over 50. In order to improve their efficacy, such screening programs imply large-scale information campaigns and a strong cooperation with the general physicians. The diagnosis is strongly suggested by any recent modification of bowel habits ad by rectal bleeding. It has to be confirmed by rectal examination and by colonoscopy which allows sampling to the tumour. Loco-regional and distant metastatic tumour spread must be assessed precisely before any therapeutic strategy is decided. Surgery, which resects the tumour en bloc with the corresponding lymphatic territories, is the only treatment that can achieve long term cure. In localized tumours, surgery alone can provide patients with 5-years survival rates close to 95 %. On the other hand, surgery alone is not sufficient to cure patients with advances cancers. In recent years, several adjuvant therapeutic modalities have been shown to improve the results of surgery in these cases (rectal cancer: pre-operative radiotherapy or post-operative radio-chemotherapy, colon cancer with nodal metastases: post-operative chemotherapy). There is a hope that a better use of our diagnostic and therapeutic armementarium would be able to avoid or to cure up to 75 % of the colorectal cancers we are dealing with. (author)

  11. Colorectal cancer: what's new in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, M.

    1992-01-01

    Five studies presented at the 1992 ASCO meeting are analysed. Kligerman's study was designed to determine if pre-treatment with WR-2721 could p rotect normal tissues from the toxicities induced by radiation therapy (in 100 patients with an advanced rectal cancer). This pre-treatment resulted in a 13% reduction of moderate and severe acute toxicity. No WR-2721 patient experienced moderate or severe late toxicities compared to five in the group without pre-treatment. Minski studied the acute toxicity (during treatment and two weeks after) of combined pelvic radiation therapy, 5-FU and leucovorin when delivered pre-operatively (16 patients) versus post-operatively (25 patients) in patients with rectal cancer. The final report of the inter group study of 5-FU plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage C colon cancer was made by Moertel. With a median follow-up time of 5.5 years, the 5-FU plus levamisole treatment has reduced the recurrence rate by 39%, the cancer related death rate by 32% and the overall death rate by 31%. Most of the recurrences occurred during the first two years. There was a decrease in the liver, great omentum, peritoneum and lung metastases, but there was no modification in loco-regional recurrence rate. Welt presented a phase I/II study of radio-immunotherapy with I 131 monoclonal antibody A33 in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Results were characterized by major hematologic toxicity and minor tumor response rate. Heiss undertook a prospective study to evaluate the influence of homologous blood transfusion on recurrence rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Fifty-eight patients receiving autologous blood transfusion were compared with sixty-two patients receiving homologous transfusion. With a median follow-up of 21 months a higher recurrence rate was found in the homologous group (29.4% versus 16.7%)

  12. Increased risk of colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes is independent of diet quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Jarvandi

    Full Text Available Poor diet increases the risk of both colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the role of diet in the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer.We analyzed data from 484,020 individuals, aged 50-71 years who participated in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and were cancer free at baseline (1995-1996. History of diabetes was self-reported. Diet quality was measured with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of first primary incident colorectal cancer, overall and by anatomical location.During an average follow-up of 9.2 years, we identified 7,598 new cases of colorectal cancer. After controlling for non-dietary confounders, diabetes was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36. Further adjustment for diet quality did not attenuate this association. Diabetes was associated with a HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40 in individuals with good diet (quartile 4 of HEI-2005 and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.86 in those with poor diet (quartile 1 of HEI-2005, compared to those with no diabetes and good diet. Moreover, diabetes was associated with a stronger risk of proximal than distal colon cancer (HR: 1.33 vs. HR: 1.20, while poor diet was associated with a weaker risk of proximal colon cancer (HR: 1.18 vs. HR: 1.46.Diabetes and poor diet, independently and additively are associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  13. Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis—European recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Phil; Risio, Mauro; Lambert, René; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, colorectal cancer is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for approximately 436,000 incident cases and 212,000 deaths in 2008. The potential of high-quality screening to improve control of the disease has been recognized by the Council of the European Union who issued a recommendation on cancer screening in 2003. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document consists of ten chapters and an extensive evidence base. The content of the chapter dealing with pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis is presented here in order to promote international discussion and collaboration leading to improvements in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider scientific community. PMID:21061133

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenoma and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies exploring associations between individual dietary components and colorectal adenoma or cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. The study of food-based dietary patterns in relation to chronic disease risk represents an alternative approach to the evaluation of single dietary exposures in epidemiological investigations. Results from prospective cohort and population-based case-control studies examining associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer or adenoma risk were evaluated and described in this review. Despite notable differences in population characteristics, study design, and methods used for characterizing dietary patterns across the different studies, two general dietary patterns were found to modestly predict colorectal adenoma and cancer risk. A healthier pattern consisting of greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, and lower intakes of red and processed meat, appeared protective against colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence. Findings also suggest that a less healthy pattern characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, as well as potatoes and refined carbohydrates, may increase risk. Continued research efforts are needed to evaluate the cumulative and interactive effects of numerous dietary exposures on colorectal cancer risk.

  15. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  16. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Periostin Expression and Its Prognostic Value for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewu Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrin is important for cell growth, invasion and metastasis, which are frequently observed in malignant tumors. The periostin (POSTN gene encodes the ligand for integrin, one of the key focal adhesion proteins contributing to the formation of a structural link between the extracellular matrix and integrins. High expression levels of the POSTN gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. We examined POSTN protein in colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients by strictly following up using immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasm immunohistochemical staining showed POSTN protein expression in colorectal cancers. The positive expression rate of POSTN protein (59.13%, 68/115 in colorectal cancers was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosa (0.47%, 11/109. POSTN over-expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, clinical stage and five-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer and high POSTN expression levels had lower survival rates than those with early stage colorectal cancer and low POSTN expression levels. Overall, our results showed that POSTN played an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers.

  20. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Elderly Patients: A Propensity Score Match Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Abdalla, Solafah; Bianchi, Giorgio; Memeo, Riccardo; Charpy, Cecile; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Sobhani, Iradj; Brunetti, Francesco

    2018-05-31

    Minimally invasive surgery in elderly patients with colorectal cancer remains controversial. The study aimed to compare the operative, postoperative, and oncologic outcomes of robotic (robotic colorectal resection surgery [RCRS]) versus laparoscopic colorectal resection surgery (LCRS) in elderly patients with colorectal cancer. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare patients aged 70 years and more undergoing elective RCRS or LCRS for colorectal cancer between 2010 and 2017. Overall, 160 patients underwent elective curative LCRS (n = 102) or RCRS (n = 58) for colorectal cancer. Before PSM, the mean preoperative Charlson score and the tumor size were significantly lower in the robotic group. After matching, 43 RCRSs were compared with 43 LCRSs. The RCRS group showed longer operative times (300.6 versus 214.5 min, P = .03) compared with LCRS, but all other operative variables were comparable between the two groups. No differences were found for postoperative morbidity, mortality, time to flatus, return to regular diet, and length of hospital stay. R0 resection was obtained in 95.3% of procedures. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were similar between RCRS and LCRS patients. The presence of more than one comorbidity before surgery was significantly associated with the incidence of postoperative complications. In patients aged 70 years or more, robotic colorectal surgery showed operative and oncologic outcomes similar to those obtained by laparoscopy, despite longer operative times. Randomized trials are awaited to reliably assess the clinical and oncological noninferiority and the costs/benefits ratio of robotic colorectal surgery in elderly populations.

  1. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  3. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-McLean, E.; Hu, J.; Greene-Finestone, L. S.; de Groh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Metho...

  5. The results of gynecologic surveillance in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Mosgaard, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to estimate the incidence rate of endometrial cancer (EC) and to evaluate the results of EC-surveillance in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. Methods. All at-risk women recommended for EC-surveillance by the HNPCC-register-2959 women (19,334 women yea...... of having Lynch syndrome. We conclude that EC surveillance should only be targeted at MMR-mutation carriers. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laparoscopic surgery in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler Hernandez, Norlan; Martinez Perez, Elliot; Fernandez Rodriguez, Leopoldo; Torres Core, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    In the current age of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been established as oncologically equivalent to conventional open surgery. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have translated into smaller incisions and shorter recovery. Since the advent of laparoscopy, surgeons have been fueled to develop less invasive operative methods as feasible alternatives to traditional procedures. As techniques evolved and technology advanced, laparoscopy became more widely accepted and is now more commonly used in many institutions. Recently, a trend toward less invasive surgery, driven by patient and surgeon alike, has been a major objective for many institutions because of the ability of laparoscopic surgery to reduce postoperative pain, achieve a quicker recovery time, and improve cosmetic outcomes. Although still evolving, traditional laparoscopy has served as a foundation for even further refinements in the minimally invasive approach and as a result, more advanced equipment and newer techniques have arisen

  8. Colorectal Carcinoma: A General Overview and Future Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mármol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%–5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism. Some of the bacteria responsible for this multiphase process include Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. CRC is caused by mutations that target oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genes related to DNA repair mechanisms. Depending on the origin of the mutation, colorectal carcinomas can be classified as sporadic (70%; inherited (5% and familial (25%. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to this situation can be included in three types, namely chromosomal instability (CIN, microsatellite instability (MSI and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Within these types of CRC, common mutations, chromosomal changes and translocations have been reported to affect important pathways (WNT, MAPK/PI3K, TGF-β, TP53, and mutations; in particular, genes such as c-MYC, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD2 and SMAD4 can be used as predictive markers for patient outcome. In addition to gene mutations, alterations in ncRNAs, such as lncRNA or miRNA, can also contribute to different steps of the carcinogenesis process and have a predictive value when used as biomarkers. In consequence, different panels of genes and mRNA are being developed to improve prognosis and treatment selection. The choice of first-line treatment in CRC follows a multimodal approach based on tumour-related characteristics and usually comprises surgical resection followed by chemotherapy combined

  9. Genetic Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Catherine S; Giannakis, Marios; Wells, Daniel K; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Quist, Michael; Nowak, Jonathan A; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Inamura, Kentaro; Morikawa, Teppei; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Abril-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Connolly, Charles; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Geybels, Milan S; Grady, William M; Hsu, Li; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Kim, Yeon Joo; Krystofinski, Paige; Leiserson, Mark D M; Montoya, Dennis J; Nadel, Brian B; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pritchard, Colin C; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Quist, Elleanor H; Raphael, Ben J; Salipante, Stephen J; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Shinbrot, Eve; Shirts, Brian; Shukla, Sachet; Stanford, Janet L; Sun, Wei; Tsoi, Jennifer; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Catherine J; Yu, Ming; Zaidi, Syed H; Zaretsky, Jesse M; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Garraway, Levi A; Hudson, Thomas J; Fuchs, Charles S; Ribas, Antoni; Ogino, Shuji; Peters, Ulrike

    2018-06-01

    To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/β-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/β-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion. Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Can an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery(ERAS) programme improve colorectal cancer outcomes in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oodit, R L; Ljungqvist, O; Moodley, J

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer related deaths. It is estimated that CRC is amongst the top five malignancies in South Africa (SA) with an age standardised incidence rate of 10.2 and 6.1 per 100 000 for males and females respectively. The incidence is projected to increase in South Africa as a result of ageing, a growing population and an increase in prevalence of risk factors. Copyright© Authors.

  11. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  12. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anticancer effects of bergenin on human colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 was treated with various concentrations of bergenin for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were analyzed ...

  13. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney; Kim, David H; Bartel, Twyla B; Cash, Brooks D; Chang, Kevin J; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Garcia, Evelyn M; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Marin, Daniele; Peterson, Christine M; Scheirey, Christopher D; Smith, Martin P; Weinstein, Stefanie; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the relevant literature regarding colorectal screening with imaging. For individuals at average or moderate risk for colorectal cancer, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening. After positive results on a fecal occult blood test or immunohistochemical test, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer detection. For individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer (eg, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn colitis), optical colonoscopy is preferred because of its ability to obtain biopsies to detect dysplasia. After incomplete colonoscopy, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening for individuals at average, moderate, or high risk. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential expression of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in human colorectal cancer: A comparison with colon and rectal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, SHUAI; CHEN, YIJUN; ZHU, ZHANMENG; DING, YUNLONG; REN, SHUANGYI; ZUO, YUNFEI

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men and the second among women. Accumulating evidence regarding carbohydrate antigen (CA) demonstrated that tumor-associated antigens are clinically useful for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of human gastrointestinal cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. There has been an extensive investigation for sensitive and specific markers of this disease. Currently, the gastrointestinal cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most widely applied tumor marker in cancer diagnosis. Despite a similar etiology and cancer incidence rates, there are anatomical and clinical differences between colon and rectal cancer, as well as differences regarding tumor progression and adjuvant treatments. To investigate whether CA19-9 is differentially expressed between colon and rectal cancer, we conducted a differential analysis of serum CA19-9 levels among 227 cases of colorectal cancer, analyzing gender, age, Dukes’ stage and distant metastasis for human colon and rectal cancer as a single entity, separately and as matched pairs. We demonstrated that the serum CA19-9 levels in colorectal cancer were upregulated in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By contrast, the serum CA19-9 levels in colon cancer displayed a differential and upregulated behavior in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By analyzing as matched pairs, the upregulated serum CA19-9 levels in rectal cancer during the early stages without distant metastasis further supported our hypothesis that the expression of CA19-9 displays a site-specific differential behavior. The integrative analysis suggested a significant difference between human colon and rectal cancer, justifying individualized therapy for these two types of cancer. PMID:24649295

  15. Underpinning the repurposing of anthracyclines towards colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Smith, David Hersi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. We propose a repurposing strategy where anthracyclines are reintroduced to a subgroup of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the highest likelihood of response. In breast cancer, DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene (TOP2A) alterations predict incremental benefit...... of anthracyclines, but this association has not been investigated in colorectal cancer. Frequency analysis of TOP2A gene alterations in colorectal cancer and the association with prognosis are evaluated and the challenges of using a TOP2A/CEN-17 FISH probe combination are addressed. Material and methods. Formalin......-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 154 stage III colorectal cancer patients included in the RANX05 clinical trial was retrospectively assessed for TOP2A gene alterations using FISH. The TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio as well as the TOP2A gene copy number alone was used to define gene alterations and associations between...

  16. Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan

    2017-09-27

    Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Mucinous Adenocarcinomas Histotype Can Also be a High-Risk Factor for Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Ya-Qi; Li, Qing-Guo; Ma, Yan-Lei; Peng, Jun-Jie; Cai, Sanjun

    2018-05-22

    Colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) has been associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma (AD) in advanced stages. Little is known about the prognostic impact of a mucinous histotype on the early stages of colorectal cancer with negative lymph node (LN) metastasis. In contrast to the established prognostic factors such as T stage and grading, the histological subtype is not thought to contribute to the therapeutic outcome, although different subtypes can potentially represent different entities. In this study, we aimed to define the prognostic value of mucinous histology in colorectal cancer with negative LNs. Between 2006 and 2017, a total of 4893 consecutive patients without LN metastasis underwent radical surgery for primary colorectal cancer (MA and AD) in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). Clinical, histopathological, and survival data were analyzed. The incidence of MA was 11% in 4893 colorectal cancer patients without LN metastasis. The MA patients had a higher T category, a greater percentage of LN harvested, larger tumor size and worse grading than the AD patients (p colorectal cancer patients. Mucinous histology can suggest a possible high risk in early-stage colorectal carcinoma. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. METHODS: Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. RESULTS: Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  19. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Bak, Jeongin; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  20. Chemoprevention, chemotherapy, and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Sanchez de Medina, Fermin; Castaño, Beatriz; Bujanda, Luis; Romero, Marta R; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Moral-Avila, Rosario Del; Briz, Oscar

    2012-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Chemoprevention is a promising approach, but studies demonstrating their usefulness in large populations are still needed. Among several compounds with chemopreventive ability, cyclooxygenase inhibitors have received particular attention. However, these agents are not without side effects, which must be weighed against their beneficial actions. Early diagnosis is critical in the management of CRC patients, because, in early stages, surgery is curative in >90% of cases. If diagnosis occurs at stages II and III, which is often the case, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery are, in a few cases, recommended. Because of the high risk of recurrence in advanced cancers, chemotherapy is maintained after tumor resection. Chemotherapy is also indicated when the patient has metastases and in advanced cancer located in the rectum. In the last decade, the use of anticancer drugs in monotherapy or in combined regimens has markedly increased the survival of patients with CRC at stages III and IV. Although the rate of success is higher than in other gastrointestinal tumors, adverse effects and development of chemoresistance are important limitations to pharmacological therapy. Genetic profiling regarding mechanisms of chemoresistance are needed to carry out individualized prediction of the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological regimens. This would minimize side effects and prevent the selection of aggressive, cross-resistant clones, as well as avoiding undesirable delays in the use of the most efficient therapeutic approaches to treat these patients.

  1. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  2. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    ), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  3. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  4. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  5. Low-risk diet for colorectal cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, S; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    2001-12-01

    An innovative approach was used to define a low-risk diet for colorectal cancer from a multicentric case-control study of 1953 incident cases and 4154 hospital controls from Italy. A logistic regression model was fitted on the reported intake of five macronutrients, and the estimated coefficients were used to compute a diet-related logistic risk score (LRS). The mean of LRS within risk decile ranged from 0.89 to 1.86. Total energy intake and absolute consumption of each macronutrient increased with increasing LRS. In relative terms, however, starch intake showed an almost threefold increase across subsequent score levels, while a decline was observed for unsaturated fat, sugar and protein. Saturated fat consumption remained fairly stable in relative terms. When food groups were considered, bread and cereals dishes, cakes and desserts and refined sugar were positively associated, while the consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish, poultry and olive oils was inversely associated with LRS.

  6. Considering culture in physician-- patient communication during colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Gao; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P; Pasick, Rena

    2009-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients' and their physicians' understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/ indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients' definitions of provider-patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician-patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening.

  7. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  8. Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Mesalazine and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Stolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD face an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Independent factors associated with increased risk include long disease duration, extensive colonic involvement, young age at onset of IBD, severity of inflammation, primary sclerosing cholangitis, backwash ileitis, and a family history of CRC, thus emphasising the role of intestinal inflammation as an underlying mechanism. This notion is also supported by the demonstration that the use of certain drugs used to attenuate the ongoing mucosal inflammation, such as mesalazine, seems to associate with a reduced incidence of colitis-associated CRC. In the last decade, work from many laboratories has contributed to delineate the mechanisms by which mesalazine alters CRC cell behaviour. In this paper, we review the available experimental data supporting the ability of mesalazine and its derivatives to interfere with intracellular signals involved in CRC cell growth.

  9. Altered Polyamine Profiles in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Markus K; Roine, Antti N; Häkkinen, Merja R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J; Kumpulainen, Pekka S; Kiviniemi, Mikko S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku K; Rantanen, Tuomo K

    2018-06-01

    The declining mortality rate of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be explained, at least partially, with early diagnosis. Simple diagnostic methods are needed to achieve a maximal patient participation rate in screening. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine urinary polyamine (PA) profiles. In a prospective setting, 116 patients were included in the study: 57 with CRC, 13 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 12 with adenoma, and 34 controls. N1,N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSPM) level was significantly higher in patients with CRC than controls (sensitivity=78.0%, specificity=70.6%; p=0.00049). The level of diacetylated cadaverine (p=0.0068) was lower and that of diacetylated putrescine (p=0.0078) was higher in patients with CRC than in those with IBD. Cadaverine (p=0.00010) and spermine (p=0.042) levels were lower and that of DiAcSPM (p=0.018) higher in patients with CRC than in those with adenoma. The simultaneous determination of urinary PAs by means of LC-MS/MS can be used to discriminate CRC from controls and patients with benign colorectal diseases. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  11. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  12. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Moshfeghi; Abolfazl Mohammad-Beigi; Davood Hamedi-Sanani; Masoud Bahrami

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of...

  13. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60?000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, S C; Giovannucci, E; Bergkvist, L; Wolk, A

    2005-01-01

    We examined prospectively the association between whole grain consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. A total of 61?433 women completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987?1990) and, through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry, 805 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 14.8 years. High consumption of whole grains was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, but not of rectal canc...

  14. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  15. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, using anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tadokoro, Masanori; Takagi, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Sadayuki; Sakamoto, Junichi.

    1989-01-01

    Aiming at radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (CEA102) were produced by immunization with purified CEA. CEA102 showed high specificity with clorectal cancer by mixed hemadsorption assay and immunoperoxidase technique. The antigen detected by CEA102 was confirmed to be carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and its molecular weight was estimated to be ca. 180,000 by biochemical analysis. The in vivo study using nude mice grafted a human colorectal cancer or a human malignant melanoma showed greater accumulation of 125 I-labeled CEA102 in CEA-positive colorectal cancer than in nude mouse tissues and CEA-negative malignant melanoma. Moreover we successfully obtained scans with good localization of the grafted colorectal cancer on FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography). Using 131 I-labeled CEA102 liver metastasis in the patient with colorectal cancer was successfully detected by external scanning with γ-camera. These results suggest that radiolabeled CEA102 is useful for the detection of colorectal cancer. (author)

  16. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  18. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  19. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  20. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular suspensions. The detection rate was correlated with the size and infiltrating depth of the cancer. Flow cytometry is a reliable, rapid, and quantitative method for detecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer.

  1. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Brown, Lisa S

    2013-03-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but include a more diverse international population. Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk. The association between colorectal cancer and alcohol remains unclear.

  2. Immunogenomic Classification of Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, Jessica; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Vermeulen, Louis; Maccalli, Cristina; Decock, Julie; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bedognetti, Davide; Hendrickx, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies) is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of

  3. Staging colorectal cancer with the TNM 7(th)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puppa, Giacomo; Poston, Graeme; Jess, Per

    2013-01-01

    lesions encountered, in particular, during radiological staging of patients with colorectal cancer. In this article the diagnosis of these lesions with multiple imaging modalities, their frequency, significance and relevance to staging and disease management are described in a multidisciplinary way...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred.......05-1.40; P = 0.012), whereas this was not the case for those with comorbidity (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.14; P = 0.80). In conclusion, high serum YKL-40 in subjects suspected of colorectal cancer and without comorbidity associates with colorectal cancer. Determination of serum YKL-40 may be useful...

  7. Immune reaction and colorectal cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Nardecchia, Antonella; Tesauro, Manfredi; Roselli, Mario

    2014-09-21

    The potential clinical impact of enhancing antitumor immunity is increasingly recognized in oncology therapeutics for solid tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most studied neoplasms for the tumor-host immunity relationship. Although immune cell populations involved in such a relationship and their prognostic role in colorectal cancer development have clearly been identified, still no approved therapies based on host immunity intensification have so far been introduced in clinical practice. Moreover, a recognized risk in enhancing immune reaction for colitis-associated colorectal cancer development has limited the emphasis of this approach. The aim of the present review is to discuss immune components involved in the host immune reaction against colorectal cancer and analyze the fine balance between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral effect of immunity in this model of disease.

  8. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Koopman, M.; Cats, A.; Rodenburg, C.J.; Creemers, G.J.M.; Schrama, J.G.; Erdkamp, F.L.G.; Vos, A.H.; van Groeningen, C.J.; Sinnige, H.A.M.; Richel, D.J.; Voest, E.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Vink-Börger, M.E.; Antonini, N.F.; Mol, L.; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Dalesio, O.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab to

  9. Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Jolien; Koopman, Miriam; Cats, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Cees J.; Creemers, Geert J. M.; Schrama, Jolanda G.; Erdkamp, Frans L. G.; Vos, Allert H.; van Groeningen, Cees J.; Sinnige, Harm A. M.; Richel, Dirk J.; Voest, Emile E.; Dijkstra, Jeroen R.; Vink-Börger, Marianne E.; Antonini, Ninja F.; Mol, Linda; van Krieken, Johan H. J. M.; Dalesio, Otilia; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) antibody cetuximab

  10. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-09-01

    Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results.

  11. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. Objective: We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Design: Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). Conclusion: The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results. PMID:23864539

  12. Lycopene Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Zi-Hua

    2016-10-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have explored the association between lycopene or lycopene-rich food intake and the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of these studies have not been consistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to quantitatively assess the association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category indicated no significant association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer [RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.10]. However, a significant inverse association was observed between lycopene consumption and the site of cancer in the colon (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). We also found that the incidence of colon cancer and lycopene intake did not exhibit dose-response relationships. The Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality in our study was very low. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that lycopene consumption is not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Further research will be needed in this area to provide conclusive evidence.

  13. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  14. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Teresa T.; Brown, Lisa S.

    2012-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but ...

  15. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... examinations mentioned above were performed in 295 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer. An experienced ultrasonologist performed the preoperative examinations, and results were unknown to the other experienced ultrasonologist who performed the intraoperative examinations. The latter, also was unaware...

  16. Have You Been Tested for Colorectal Cancer? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives, but only if you get tested. If you’re between 50 and 75, talk with your doctor about which test is best for you. If you have inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, ask your doctor if you should start screening before age 50.

  17. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Kuasne, Hellen; Spencer, Ranyell Matheus; Nakagawa, Wilson Toshihiko; Bezerra, Tiago Santoro; Kupper, Bruna Catin; Takahashi, Renata Maymi; Barros Filho, Mateus; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Lopes, Ademar

    2017-11-13

    Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Decreased expression of ERβ isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ERβ1 and ERβ5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002). These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.

  18. Improving Quality in Colorectal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Slieker (Juliette)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Colorectal surgery is an important aspect of our current health system, due to the high incidence of colorectal cancer combined with an ageing population, improved long-term outcomes after colorectal surgery, and the perfectioning of the operative and postoperative

  19. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...... population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours......, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical...

  20. Familial transmission of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer in adoptees is related to cancer in biological but not in adoptive parents: a nationwide family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-09-01

    Familial clustering of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer is well established, but the familial risk of these cancers has not been determined among adoptees. The aim was to disentangle the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the familial transmission of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer. The Swedish Multi-Generation Register was used to follow all adoptees born between 1932 and 1969 (n=70,965) for prostate, breast and colorectal cancer from January 1958 up to December 2010. The risk of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer was estimated in adoptees with at least one biological parent with the same cancer type compared with adoptees without a biological parent with the same cancer type. The risk of cancer was also determined in adoptees with at least one adoptive parent with cancer compared with adoptees with an adoptive parent without cancer. Adoptees with at least one biological parent with prostate, breast or colorectal cancer were more likely to have cancer of the same type than adoptees with biological parents not affected by these respective cancer types (standardised incidence ratio=SIR: 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.2-2.7], 2.0 [1.6-2.5] and 1.9 [1.2-2.9], respectively). In contrast, adoptees with at least one adoptive parent with prostate, breast or colorectal cancer were not at an increased risk of these respective cancer types (SIR=1.2 [0.94-1.6], 0.97 [0.71-1.3], and 1.1 [0.71-1.5], respectively). The findings of the study support the importance of genetic/biological factors in the familial transmission of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Sporadic CRC and Hereditary Nonpolyosis Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extent neuroendocrine differentiation can be encountered in many human neoplasm derived from different organs and systems using immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor cells' behaviors resemble those of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation reputedly appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis than the adenocarcinoma counterparts in sporadic human neoplasm. In this review the neuroendocrine carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of colon and rectum both in sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the relationship of neuroendocrine differentiation and some possible molecular pathways in tumorogenesis of colorectal cancer will be discussed. Possible treatment strategy will also be addressed.

  2. A case-control study on risk of changing food consumption for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiangping; Nakama, Hidenori; Zhang, Xing; Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Leshan

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the relative risk factor of food items for colorectal cancer in four time periods through a case-control study in a Chinese rural area. Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed at a county cancer center, Hebei Province, China, and non-cancer outpatients with similar age, sex, and place of residence were selected for cases and controls, respectively. There were 102 (93.6%) colorectal cancer patients and 99 (90.8%) outpatients being the cases and controls, respectively in the present investigation, who agreed to be interviewed about their food intake, during a 20-year period, through a food frequency questionnaire. The risks of intake of different food items and lifestyle for colorectal cancer were compared between cases and controls. During the 20-year period, diets of both cases and controls changed with increase in intake of animal foods and fruits, and alcohol consumption tended to increase. In the food items, milk intake showed a protective effect in both males and females, and the odds ratios were 0.38 (95% CI 0.16-0.90) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.81) for males and females, respectively. A reduced risk of fruit intake could be seen in males, while a reduced risk of vegetables could be observed in females. Meat intake and saturated fats were the prominent risk factors for colorectal cancer in males and females, respectively. A comparison of life habits, showed that tea drinking had a consistent protective effect in females, and the odds ratios were 0.21 (0.08-0.58), 0.23 (0.08-0.67), 0.25 (0.10-0.64), and 0.11 (0.04-0.30) for periods of 20-, 10-, 5-years ago, and current time, respectively. These findings indicate that change in food consumption is strongly associated with a change in risk of colorectal cancer, and dietary meat has increased the risk of colorectal cancer. Increase in the consumption of milk and fruits may be a significant measure for colorectal cancer prevention in low-incidence areas.

  3. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  4. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  5. Colorectal cancer through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Kershaw, Sophie K.; Byrne, Helen M.; Gavaghan, David J.; Osborne, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has formed a canonical example of tumourigenesis ever since its use in Fearon and Vogelstein's linear model of genetic mutation, and continues to generate a huge amount of research interest. Over time, the field has witnessed a transition from solely experimental work to the inclusion of mathematical and computational modelling. The fusion of these disciplines has the potential to provide valuable insights into oncologic processes, but also presents the challenge of uniting many diverse perspectives. Furthermore, the cancer cell phenotype defined by the 'Hallmarks of Cancer' has been extended in recent times and provides an excellent basis for future research. The authors present a timely summary of the literature relating to CRC, addressing the traditional experimental findings, summarising the key mathematical and computational approaches, and emphasising the role of the Hallmarks in current and future developments. The authors conclude with a discussion of interdisciplinary work, outlining areas of experimental interest which would benefit from the insight that theoretical modelling can provide. © The institution of engineering and technology 2013.

  6. Colorectal cancer through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Kershaw, Sophie K.

    2013-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has formed a canonical example of tumourigenesis ever since its use in Fearon and Vogelstein\\'s linear model of genetic mutation, and continues to generate a huge amount of research interest. Over time, the field has witnessed a transition from solely experimental work to the inclusion of mathematical and computational modelling. The fusion of these disciplines has the potential to provide valuable insights into oncologic processes, but also presents the challenge of uniting many diverse perspectives. Furthermore, the cancer cell phenotype defined by the \\'Hallmarks of Cancer\\' has been extended in recent times and provides an excellent basis for future research. The authors present a timely summary of the literature relating to CRC, addressing the traditional experimental findings, summarising the key mathematical and computational approaches, and emphasising the role of the Hallmarks in current and future developments. The authors conclude with a discussion of interdisciplinary work, outlining areas of experimental interest which would benefit from the insight that theoretical modelling can provide. © The institution of engineering and technology 2013.

  7. Some Aspects Of Adjuvant Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavata, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe and in North America. Cornerstone of the treatment of localized colorectal cancer is surgical resection followed by chemotherapy or radio-chemotherapy in indicated cases. For patients with Stage III colon cancer recent data have shown efficacy through the combining fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with oxaliplatin into adjuvant treatment program. For patients with Stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at high risk for disease recurrence. Current randomized clinical trials in the adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer are examining the value of adding agents known to be active in metastatic disease, including those that modify specific molecular targets. (author)

  8. Special Section: Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week-long series to promote colon and rectal (colorectal) cancer awareness and screening. Following that, research showed that ... niddk.nih.gov The American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org The American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: www.fascrs.org Spring 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  9. Second primary cancers in subsites of colon and rectum in patients with previous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Lemmens, V.E.; de Hingh, I.H.J.T.; de Vries, E.; Roukema, J.A.; van Leerdam, M.E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Soerjomataram, I.

    Background: Compared with the general population, patients with a previous colorectal cancer are at higher risk for a second colorectal cancer, but detailed risk analysis by subsite is scarce. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the risk of a second cancer in relation to subsite as a basis for

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Chupakhin, Valery S; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997-2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997-2010 for incidence and 1999-2010 for mortality. Two years' data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across circumpolar regions and countries. With its small

  13. Tailored treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: clinical and pre-clinical developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in developed countries. Metastases in distant organs, which develop in 50% of colorectal cancer patients, are responsible for the majority of colorectal cancer deaths. Treatment of metastatic disease should

  14. Association of Dietary Inflammatory Potential With Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Liu, Li; Wang, Weike; Fung, Teresa T; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Cao, Yin; Hu, Frank B; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-03-01

    Inflammation is important in colorectal cancer development. Diet modulates inflammation and may thus be a crucial modifiable factor in colorectal cancer prevention. To examine whether proinflammatory diets are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk by using an empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score based on a weighted sum of 18 food groups that characterizes dietary inflammatory potential based on circulating levels of inflammation biomarkers. Cohort study of 46 804 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study: 1986-2012) and 74 246 women (Nurses' Health Study: 1984-2012) followed for 26 years to examine associations between EDIP scores and colorectal cancer risk using Cox regression. We also examined associations in categories of alcohol intake and body weight. Data analysis began January 17, 2017, and was completed August 9, 2017. EDIP scores calculated from food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 years. Incident colorectal cancer. We documented 2699 incident colorectal cancer cases over 2 571 831 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest EDIP quintile (Q) who had a colorectal cancer incidence rate (per 100 000 person-years) of 113 (men) and 80 (women), those in the highest Q had an incidence rate of 151 (men) and 92 (women), leading to an unadjusted rate difference of 38 and 12 more colorectal cancer cases, respectively, among those consuming highly proinflammatory diets. Comparing participants in the highest vs lowest EDIP Qs in multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher EDIP scores were associated with 44% (men: hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19-1.74; P colorectal cancer. In both men and women, associations were observed in all anatomic subsites except for the rectum in women. In subgroups (P ≤ .02 for all interactions), associations differed by alcohol intake level, with stronger associations among men (Q5 vs Q1 HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05-2.49; P = .002 for trend) and women (Q5 vs Q1

  15. Selected trends in colorectal cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Spanik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In worldwide estimates for the year 2012, the Slovak Republic had the highest value of age-standardised incidence, but real data on a national level have only been available up to 2008. Aims: Colorectal cancer is one of the more preventable malignant tumors, whereby organised screening with adequate participation of the population in risk leads to a significant drop in both incidence and mortality. The aim of the submitted paper is to predict the development of selected indicators of descriptive epidemiology of this disease prospectively. Results: In recent years, a significant growth in the incidence of the disease has been witnessed in Slovakia, rising by 2.3% annually in men and 1.4% in women. Mortality in men is falling substantially by -1% annually, and in women it is -1.6%. Conclusion: The drop in mortality is manifesting later and to a lesser degree in Slovakia than in those countries with long-term organised screening in place. (author)

  16. Importance of PET/CT for imaging of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, F.G.; Schramm, N.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Rist, C.; Haug, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has emerged as a very useful imaging modality in the management of colorectal carcinoma. Data from the literature regarding the role of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis, staging, radiotherapy planning, response monitoring and surveillance of colorectal carcinoma is presented. Future directions and economic aspects are discussed. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET for colorectal cancer and endorectal ultrasound for rectal cancer. Combined FDG-PET/CT. While other imaging modalities allow superior visualization of the extent and invasion depth of the primary tumor, PET/CT is most sensitive for the detection of distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We recommend a targeted use of PET/CT in cases of unclear M staging, prior to metastasectomy and in suspected cases of residual or recurrent colorectal carcinoma with equivocal conventional imaging. The role of PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and response monitoring needs to be determined. Currently there is no evidence to support the routine use of PET/CT for colorectal screening, staging or surveillance. To optimally exploit the synergy between morphologic and functional information, FDG-PET should generally be performed as an integrated FDG-PET/CT with a contrast-enhanced CT component in colorectal carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  17. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Siemerink, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Verhaegh, M.E.J.M.; Ostertag, J.U.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the incidence of skin cancer is rising rapidly worldwide, but no reliable figures on multiple nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are available. Aim To determine the actual incidence of skin cancer in dermatology practice and to estimate how this relates to the first primary

  18. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative...

  19. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative...

  20. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  1. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  2. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  3. Trends in colorectal cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændegaard Winther, Stine; Baatrup, Gunnar; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of the older population. The current demographic ageing leads to more elderly patients and is expected to further increase the number of patients with CRC. The objective of the present paper is to outline incidence, mortality and prevalence from 1980...... to 2012 and survival data from 1968 to 2012 in Danish CRC patients focusing on the impact of ageing. Material and methods Data were derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data...... are delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. This study focuses on the elderly population categorized in six age groups. Results The incidence of CRC has increased over the past three decades. Incidence rate...

  4. Incidence of colorectal cancer and influence of dietary habits in fifteen European countries from 1971 to 2002 Incidencia de cáncer colorrectal e influencia de los hábitos alimenticios en 15 países europeos desde 1971 hasta 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Béjar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the incidence of colorectal cancer in 15 European countries in recent decades and the relationship between the incidence found and changes in dietary habits. Methods: Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated by comparing incidence rates obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for 1971-2002 with data on per capita consumption obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations using 10-year delay intervals. Results: Incidence rates increased in all countries except France in men and except Austria, Denmark, England and France in women. Of the dietary variables considered, there were marked increasing trends (linear regression coefficient, R >0.5 in red meat consumption in Germany (R = 0.9, Austria (R = 0.7, Finland (R = 0.8, Italy (R = 0.9, Poland (R = 0.5, Spain (R = 2.1, Sweden (R = 0.6, and the Netherlands (R = 0.7. Conclusions: Changes in dietary habits may be consistent with the observed trends in the incidence of colorectal cancer in the distinct European countries.Introducción: Este estudio analiza la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal en 15 países europeos en las últimas décadas y su relación con cambios en los hábitos alimenticios. Métodos: Coeficientes de correlación de Pearson/Spearman calculados comparando las tasas de incidencia obtenidas de International Agency for Research on Cancer durante 1971-2002 con los consumos per cápita obtenidos de Food and Agriculture Organization con intervalos de retardo de 10 años. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia aumentan en todos los países, excepto en Francia, en los hombres, y en Austria, Dinamarca, Inglaterra y Francia en las mujeres. De las variables de la dieta estudiadas, hay marcadas tendencias crecientes (coeficiente de regresión lineal, R >0,5 para carne roja en Alemania (R = 0,9, Austria (R = 0,7, España (R = 2,1, Finlandia (R = 0,8, Italia (R = 0,9, Países Bajos (R = 0

  5. Results of ERAS protocol in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rasulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: explore the use of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, evaluate its efficacy and safety.Materials and methods. Prospective, single-site, randomized study for the implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery in patients with colorectal cancer has been conducted from October 2014 till the present time. All patients after laparoscopic surgeries undergo treatment according to ERAS protocol, patients after open surgeries are randomized (1:1 in groups of the standard treatment or treatment according to ERAS protocol. The study included patients with localized and locally disseminated colorectal cancer aged from 18 to 75 years, ECOG score ≤ 2. The primary evaluated parameters were the following: the number of postoperative complications (according to Clavien– Dindo classification, postoperative hospital days, incidence of complications and mortality in the 30-day period, timing of activation.Results. Up to date, the study includes 105 patients: laparoscopic group – 51 patients, open-surgery group of patients treated by ERAS protocol – 27 patients, open-surgery group of patients with the standard post-op treatment – 26 patients. Complications requiring emergency surgery for anastomotic leak (p = 0.159 developed in 3.7 % of patients with the standard post-op treatment and in 3.9 % of patients after laparoscopic surgery, while 1 patient required repeat hospitalization. The total number of complications was significantly lower in opensurgery group of patients treated by ERAS protocol compared with the standard post-op treatment (p = 0.021. However, there were no differences between laparoscopic and open-surgery group with the standard post-op treatment (p = 0.159. An average hospitalization stay in patients with the standard post-op treatment was equal to 10 days compared to 7 days in patients treated by ERAS protocol (p = 0.067 and 6 days after laparoscopic

  6. Cancer incidence among patients with alcohol use disorders--long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period from......, but not of breast cancer and colorectal cancer, in patients with alcohol use disorders....... incidence of colon, rectal or urinary bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study confirms the well-established association between high alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract and liver. In addition, the results indicate a significantly elevated occurrence of renal cancer...

  7. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P; Hu, F B; Hansen, H; Wolk, A

    2001-12-15

    A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the relations of individual dietary variables to risk of colorectal cancer. Few studies have addressed the broader eating patterns that reflect many dietary exposures working together. Using data from a prospective study of 61,463 women, with an average follow-up period of 9.6 years (between 1987 and 1998) and 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer, the authors conducted a factor analysis to identify and examine major dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Using proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks, the authors found no clear association between a "Western," "healthy," or "drinker" dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. However, the data suggested that consuming low amounts of foods that constitute a "healthy" dietary pattern may be associated with increased risks of colon and rectal cancers. An inverse association with the "healthy" dietary pattern was found among women under age 50 years, although the number of cancers in this age group was limited and interpretation of this finding should be cautious. In this age group, relative risks for women in increasing quintiles of the "healthy" dietary pattern, compared with the lowest quintile, were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 1.31), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 1.24), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32, 1.07), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.88) (p for trend = 0.03). The role of overall eating patterns in predicting colorectal cancer risk requires further investigation.

  8. Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent. The objective was to investigate whether soy food intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk. We prospectively examined 68,412 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer and diabetes at enrollment. Usual soy food intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded the first year of observation to minimize lifestyle changes related to preclinical disease. During a mean follow-up of 6.4 y, 321 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, total soy food intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Each 5-g/d increment in intake of soy foods as assessed by dry weight [equivalent to approximately 1 oz (28.35 g) tofu/d] was associated with an 8% reduction in risk (95% CI: 3%, 14%). Women in the highest tertile of intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) compared with those in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.008). This inverse association was primarily confined to postmenopausal women. Similar results were also found for intakes of soy protein and isoflavones. This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy foods may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

  9. Reduction in Late Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer Following Introduction of a Specialist Colorectal Surgery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Amanda L; Mercer, Stuart J; Harris, Guy JC; Simson, Jay NL

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An audit of patients presenting with colorectal cancer to our district general hospital during a 2-year period from November 1994 found that 12.1% of cases were diagnosed later than 6 months after initial presentation to a physician. This audit was repeated for a 2-year period from December 2001, to determine whether the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service had led to a reduction in late diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Case notes were reviewed of all patients presenting with colorectal cancer between December 2001 and November 2003. Late diagnosis was defined as diagnosis of colorectal cancer more than 6 months after their first attendance to either their general practitioner or district general hospital. The results were compared with those of the previous study. RESULTS Of a total of 218 patients presenting with colorectal cancer during the study period, 14 (6.4%; 10 men and 4 women) satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis, with the longest delay being 12.5 months. Reasons for late diagnosis were false-negative reporting of barium studies (n = 3), inaccurate tumour biopsy (n = 2), concurrent pathology causing anaemia (n = 4), inappropriate delay in definitive investigation (n = 3), and refusal of investigation by patients (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS There has been a reduction of nearly 50% (12.1% to 6.4%) in the proportion of patients with a late diagnosis of colorectal cancer compared with our previous audit. It is suggested that an important factor in this improvement in diagnosis has been the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service. PMID:17059718

  10. Galectin-3 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expression levels of galectin-3 in colorectal cancer and the association between galectin-3 and its clinical pathological parameters, as well as the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.

  11. Risk factors determining chemotherapeutic toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; Coenen, JLLM; De Graaf, JC; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2000-01-01

    Antitumour therapy in advanced colorectal cancer has limited efficacy. For decades, fluorouracil has been the main anticancer drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recently, however, new agents have been introduced: raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Currently, the dosage for an

  12. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Chinese Adolescent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Colorectal cancer in Chinese adolescents was very rare. The chinese adolecents with colorectal cancer were frequently diagnosed in the right colon, as Stage III/IV disease with signet ring cell carcinoma. The prognosis was relatively poor.

  13. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  14. Mindfulness-based stress reduction teachers, practice characteristics, cancer incidence, and health: a nationwide ecological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-14

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study

  15. Expressions of Machismo in Colorectal Cancer Screening Among New Mexico Hispanic Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Getrich, Christina M.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Sánchez, Victoria; Solares, Angélica; Rhyne, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Although national colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have steadily decreased, the rate for New Mexico Hispanics has been increasing and screening rates are low. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to determine barriers to CRC screening for New Mexico Hispanics. We found that machismo served as a dynamic influence on men’s health seeking behaviors; however, it was conceptualized differently by two distinct Hispanic subpopulations and therefore appeared to play a different role i...

  16. Continued Folic Acid Supplementation Throughout Pregnancy, May Cause Colorectal Cancer In The Future

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy protects from spina bifida and avoids either a spontaneous miscarriage or a severe developmental defect causing early postnatal death, associated with spina bifida, microcephaly or anencephaly. However, Based on epidemiological data in both the U.S. and Canada showed an increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer beginning when folic acid fortification in wheat-based products became mandatory and continued folic acid supplementation through...

  17. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Shyam M; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-08-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of patients with colorectal cancer. Introduction of the HER2 mutations S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutants are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab-resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) wild-type (WT) colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX) identified 4 PDXs with HER2 mutations. HER2-targeted therapies were tested on two PDXs. Treatment with a single HER2-targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2-targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2-mutated PDXs. HER2 activating mutations cause EGFR antibody resistance in colorectal cell lines, and PDXs with HER2 mutations show durable tumor regression when treated with dual HER2-targeted therapy. These data provide a strong preclinical rationale for clinical trials targeting HER2 activating mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  19. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...... standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968...

  20. Dietary, endocrine, and metabolic factors in the development of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michele; Lofano, Katia; De Tullio, Nicola; Licinio, Raffaele; Licino, Raffaele; Albano, Francesca; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third cause of death in industrialized countries. Genetic susceptibility and diet are determinant of cancer risk and tumor behavior. Variation in cancer incidence among and within populations with similar dietary patterns suggests that an individual response may reflect interactions with genetic factors, which may modify gene, protein, and metabolite expression patterns. Nutrigenomics, defined as the interaction between nutrition and an individual genome, will likely provide important clues about responders and non-responders to nutritional intervention. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest a protective role of some normal components of daily diet (fish oil, milk, and vegetables), estrogens, and phytoestrogens in colorectal cancer. The effect of estrogen seems to be mediated by their binding to estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), one of the two estrogen receptors with high affinity for these hormones. Very recently, the demonstration of an involvement of ER-β in the development of adenomatous polyps of the colon has also been documented, suggesting the use of selective ER-β agonists in primary colorectal cancer prevention. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that structurally and functionally act as estrogen agonists in mammals. They are characterized by a higher binding affinity to ER-β as compared to estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), the other estrogen receptor subtype. These biological characteristics explain why the administration of phytoestrogens does not produce the classical side effects associated to estrogen administration (cerebro- and cardiovascular accidents, higher incidence of endometrial and breast cancer) and makes these substances potential candidates for colorectal cancer prevention.