WorldWideScience

Sample records for incident causing damage

  1. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  2. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  3. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  4. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation.

  5. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  6. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  7. Coccidian Infection Causes Oxidative Damage in Greenfinches

    OpenAIRE

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Blount, Jonathan D.; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2012-01-01

    The main tenet of immunoecology is that individual variation in immune responsiveness is caused by the costs of immune responses to the hosts. Oxidative damage resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species during immune response is hypothesized to form one of such costs. We tested this hypothesis in experimental coccidian infection model in greenfinches Carduelis chloris. Administration of isosporan coccidians to experimental birds did not affect indices of antioxidant pr...

  8. Coccidian infection causes oxidative damage in greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Blount, Jonathan D; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2012-01-01

    The main tenet of immunoecology is that individual variation in immune responsiveness is caused by the costs of immune responses to the hosts. Oxidative damage resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species during immune response is hypothesized to form one of such costs. We tested this hypothesis in experimental coccidian infection model in greenfinches Carduelis chloris. Administration of isosporan coccidians to experimental birds did not affect indices of antioxidant protection (TAC and OXY), plasma triglyceride and carotenoid levels or body mass, indicating that pathological consequences of infection were generally mild. Infected birds had on average 8% higher levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic end-product of lipid peroxidation) than un-infected birds. The birds that had highest MDA levels subsequent to experimental infection experienced the highest decrease in infection intensity. This observation is consistent with the idea that oxidative stress is a causative agent in the control of coccidiosis and supports the concept of oxidative costs of immune responses and parasite resistance. The finding that oxidative damage accompanies even the mild infection with a common parasite highlights the relevance of oxidative stress biology for the immunoecological research.

  9. Coccidian infection causes oxidative damage in greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuul Sepp

    Full Text Available The main tenet of immunoecology is that individual variation in immune responsiveness is caused by the costs of immune responses to the hosts. Oxidative damage resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species during immune response is hypothesized to form one of such costs. We tested this hypothesis in experimental coccidian infection model in greenfinches Carduelis chloris. Administration of isosporan coccidians to experimental birds did not affect indices of antioxidant protection (TAC and OXY, plasma triglyceride and carotenoid levels or body mass, indicating that pathological consequences of infection were generally mild. Infected birds had on average 8% higher levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic end-product of lipid peroxidation than un-infected birds. The birds that had highest MDA levels subsequent to experimental infection experienced the highest decrease in infection intensity. This observation is consistent with the idea that oxidative stress is a causative agent in the control of coccidiosis and supports the concept of oxidative costs of immune responses and parasite resistance. The finding that oxidative damage accompanies even the mild infection with a common parasite highlights the relevance of oxidative stress biology for the immunoecological research.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF LORRY PISTON COMBUSTION ENGINE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Štefániková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of causes of lorry piston combustion engine damage. For docummentation and analysis of causes was used macroscopical, microscopical and scanning electron microscopy. The analysis showed that the reason of fatal damage resides in production process of lorry combustion pistons which proved in implication of fatigue damage and subsequent burnout in two piston place.

  11. Why do organizations not learn from incidents? Bottlenecks, causes and conditions for a failure to effectively learn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Hasle, P.

    2014-01-01

    If organizations would be able to learn more effectively from incidents that occurred in the past, future incidents and consequential injury or damage can be prevented. To improve learning from incidents, this study aimed to identify limiting factors, i.e. the causes of the failure to effectively

  12. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary damage caused by cytostatics and paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Woeltjen, H.H.; Schauer, A.

    1981-01-01

    Substances which exercise a pulmonary toxic action will first of all produce alveolar and perivascular oedemas followed by fibrosis. Differential diagnosis is explained on the basis of two cases of a fatal mitomycin fibrosis of the lung, as well as the observation of fibrous changes following the administration of Bleomycin and Metothrexat. The course of pulmonary fibroses caused by paraquat is described for two cases of fatal paraquat intoxications. (orig.) [de

  14. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report “Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.” The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  15. User's guide for Reactor Incident Root Cause Coding Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.A.; Paradies, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Reactor Incident (RI) Cause Coding Tree is designed to allow identification of root causes of RI's, thereby leading to trending of useful information and developing of corrective actions to prevent recurrence. This guide explains the terminology of the RI Cause Coding Tree and how to use the tree. Using this guide for cause coding is stressed to allow consistency of coding among all RI investigators. 8 figs

  16. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  17. Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Xiang Xia; Zu Xiao-Tao; Yuan Xiao-Dong; He Shao-Bo; Jiang Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Local CO 2 laser treatment has proved to be an effective method to prevent the 351-nm laser-induced damage sites in a fused silica surface from exponentially growing, which is responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high fluence laser systems. However, the CO 2 laser induced ablation crater is often surrounded by a raised rim at the edge, which can also result in the intensification of transmitted ultraviolet light that may damage the downstream optics. In this work, the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is developed to simulate the distribution of electrical field intensity in the vicinity of the CO 2 laser mitigated damage site located in the exit subsurface of fused silica. The simulated results show that the repaired damage sites with raised rims cause more notable modulation to the incident laser than those without rims. Specifically, we present a theoretical model of using dimpled patterning to control the rim structure around the edge of repaired damage sites to avoid damage to downstream optics. The calculated results accord well with previous experimental results and the underlying physical mechanism is analysed in detail. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Observationally, high plasma urate is associated with high risk of cancer. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of plasma urate are associated with high cancer incidence and all-cause mortality observationally and genetically. Method...

  19. Incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of Elective surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of elective surgical operations in our setting and to find the appropriate solutions for better patient management. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study which was conducted in a teaching hospital at Bugando medical ...

  20. Incidence Of Poverty In Nigeria: Causes And Consequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of 21st century, after nearly forty eight years of Independence, Nigeria is by all standard of measurement, a very poor country. Poverty is wide and deep in Nigeria. This paper therefore, examines the incidence of poverty in Nigeria, causes and consequences. Much of the problems which created poverty is ...

  1. Incidence and causes of marital infidelity as perceived by secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and causes of marital infidelity in Orlu Educational Zone of Imo State. The researcher used both purposive and the simple random sampling techniques in selecting the schools and participants in the study. Thus, 40 public secondary schools were purposively selected out of the 83 ...

  2. A methodological approach to identify rainfall causing damaging hydrogeological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Aceto, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs), defined as periods of severe weather affecting wide regions for several days, and during which landslides and floods cause economic damage and victims. The great variability of DHEs, in both space and time, is the cause of one of main problems to solve in performing the analysis of these events. Dealing with events affecting wide areas for several days, it is challenging to isolate the rainy days that can be considered as triggering factors of the observed damaging phenomena. In this paper we consider 30 catastrophic DHEs which occurred in Calabria (southern Italy) between 1981 and 2010, and we develop a methodological approach aiming to both select and analyze rainfall events that triggered damage. The performed analysis allows highlighting some seasonal characteristics of Calabrian DHEs. More in general, the proposed approach can be used in regions affected by DHEs for which damage and rainfall data are available. Practical results that could be obtained concern: a) individuation of rainfall thresholds for the triggering of DHEs, at both regional and sub-regional scale; b) individuation of relationships between temporal distribution of rain and types of phenomena triggered; c) individuation of rain/damage relationships at sub-regional scale; and d) analysis of the pattern of rainy days which triggered a long historical series of DHEs, in order to highlight if the most recent events affecting the study area were mainly caused by short and intense rain, as it seems the tendency related to the climate change.

  3. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  4. Reducing environmental damages caused by transportation: towards an heterodox approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletto, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    According to orthodox economics, monetary incentives are the best way to reduce environmental damages caused by transportation. This approach is consistent with the consideration of environmental damages as a market failure and with the use of pigouvian taxes to re-establish market equilibrium. Using heterodox economics both the theoretical and the policy approach will change radically. Indeed, market is just one of the structural components of the existing transport system; others being: institutions, technologies, values. Then, a shift in policy approaches is needed: from the orthodox efficient allocation of existing resources, to the heterodox promotion of new development patterns, needed to alter the given structural situation. Consistently with this paradigmatic shift, environmental damages caused by transportation can be reduced only by making the transition to a new transport system viable. Moreover, an heterodox approach to the reduction of environmental damages caused by transportation gives rise to a sound revision of policy tools; among these must be considered: selective industrial policies to foster the ecological reconversion of transport supply (instead of a non-discriminatory support to ecological innovations); participatory decision procedures to evaluate and select transport policies (instead of neutral technical tools - such as Cba or Eia); information campaigns based on ethical considerations (instead of economic incentives to transport demand); attribution of the status of commons to environmental resources, in order to protect them from the free riding of transport activities (instead of the attribution to them of private property rights). This essay is composed of four parts. In the first one, some data on environmental damages caused by transportation in Italy are shown. In the second one, orthodox and heterodox paradigms of public interventions in the economy are compared, with a specific attention to environmental applications. In the

  5. Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The damage caused by the bean bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus(Fabricius) on eight different legume seeds on sale in Awka and Onitshamarkets in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria, were studied betweenJanuary and April, 2008. Clean legume seeds purchased from local marketswere screened to remove ...

  6. Providing compensation for damage caused by wildlife: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, a week hardly passes without a report in the local press of death or destruction of property by wildlife, or retaliatory attacks on wild animals by their victims. ... The solution to this problem lies, not in blaming the people or the elephants, but in finding the means by which the damage caused by these animals can be ...

  7. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  8. Incidence of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents in Oregon forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Dunham

    2008-01-01

    This report uses data from a network of forest inventory plots sampled at two points in time, annual aerial insect and disease surveys, and specialized pest damage surveys to quantify the incidence and impact of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents on Oregon's forests. The number and volume of trees damaged or killed by various agents is summarized....

  9. Cause elucidation of sodium leakage incident at `Monju` reactor. Vibration of thermometer due to fluid force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Koji; Wada, Yusaku; Morishita, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of summarized results of investigation and analysis on fracture of thermometer which is direct reason of sodium leakage incident at the second main cooling system of fast breeder reactor `Monju`. Various surveys such as on various damage factors, on flowing power vibrational features containing flowing power vibrational test of thermometer, on evaluation of high cycle fatigue due to flowing power vibration and details on propagation of and fracture due to fatigue crack, on why only said thermometer damaged, and so forth were executed. As results of these examinations, a decision was arrived that high cycle fatigue due to vibration formed by fluid force (fluid force vibration) was a direct cause of the thermometer damage. (G.K.)

  10. Liability for damage caused by medical X-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A case of liability for damage caused by X-ray medical treatment was recently brought before the courts in Norway. Following a mistake by the physician handling the X-ray apparatus the plaintiff had received an overdose of radiation on her nose and a lengthy and expensive plastic surgery treatment had been required to repair the damage. The local court of Aalesund ruled in April 1975 that the physician concerned had committed a fault but could not be accused of gross negligence or gross fault in view of Norwegian case law on medical liability. Therefore the plaintiff obtained compensation for her medical expenses but was refused compensation for non-material damage (disfigurement and pretium doloris). (NEA) [fr

  11. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  13. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex

    2009-07-10

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between {theta} = 78.5 and {theta} = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For {theta} = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount

  14. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redinger, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between θ = 78.5 and θ = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For θ = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount of material as a

  15. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  16. Incidence and cause of acute confusion in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeki A. Rahayu

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute confusion is a clinical syndrome in the elderly whose diagnosis is made by acute onset of disturbance of consciousness, impairment of cognition and fluctuating perception and has an underlying medical cause associated with usually serious medical illness. Acute confusion has a high morbidity and mortality, and patient need to stay longer in the hospital, have a higher risk for institutionalization and immobilization. The aim of this study is to recognize the incidence and most of medical illness, which cause acute confusion in elderly patients, a retrospective study based on medical record of elderly patients who were hospitalized in Dr Kariadi hospital since 1998 to 1999. 5407 elderly patients were hospitalized, but only 5191 were analyzed and included in this study. 35% (992 men and 846 women elderly patients had acute confusion on first arrival and 7% ( 197 men and 176 women acute confusion appears in the ward. Total acute confusion was 40.89%. The mortality rate was 29% (263 women and 381 men. Three most frequent cause of death were sepsis (10.04%; hemorrhagic stroke (5.11%; multifactor (4.16%. Top ten diseases, which cause acute confusion, were hepatic encephalopathy, hemorrhagic stroke, sepsis, moderate dehydration due to gastoenteritis, hyponatremia, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia cordis. (Med J lndones 2002; 11: 30-35Keywords: acute confusional state, geriatric patients, hospital study

  17. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. The Three Mile Island - 2 incident and damage to pheasants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1981-01-01

    In popular Austrian TV show deformed pheasants were shown hatched from eggs which were purchased by an Austrian pheasants breeder from a pheasantry about 60 miles from Harrisburg. The case was presented in such a way that the public could have correlated the deformed pheasants to the TMI-2 incident. As detailed investigations showed that the radiation dose after the TMI-2 incident was rather low even very close to the nuclear power plant such an effect seems highly unlikely. Analyses of the hatch percentages of other pheasants breeder using eggs from the very same flock showed no abnormal behaviour whatsoever. Therefore, the negative hatch result of the Austrian breeder must originate in other environmental effects either during transport or breeding. (author)

  19. Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Åkerblom, Markku; Nevalainen, Olli; Hakala, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2018-04-06

    Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.

  20. Did high-altitude EMP (electromagnetic pulse) cause the Hawaiian streetlight incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittitoe, C N

    1989-04-01

    Studies of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects on civilian and military systems predict results ranging from severe destruction to no damage. Convincing analyses that support either extreme are rare. The Hawaiian streetlight incident associated with the Starfish nuclear burst is the most widely quoted observed damage. We review the streetlight characteristics and estimate the coupling between the Starfish EMP and a particular streetlight circuit identified as one of the few that failed. Evidence indicates that the damage was EMP-generated. The main contributing factors were the azimuthal angle of the circuit relative to the direction of EMP propagation, and the rapid rise of the EMP signal. The azimuthal angle provided coherent buildup of voltage as the EMP swept across the transmission line. The rapid rise allowed substantial excitation before the canceling effects of ground reflections limited the signals. Resulting voltages were at the threshold for causing the observed fuse damage and are consistent with this damage occurring in only some of the strings in the systems. 15 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Why do organizations not learn from incidents? Bottlenecks, causes and conditions for a failure to effectively learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Hasle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    If organizations would be able to learn more effectively from incidents that occurred in the past, future incidents and consequential injury or damage can be prevented. To improve learning from incidents, this study aimed to identify limiting factors, i.e. the causes of the failure to effectively learn. In seven organizations focus groups were held to discuss factors that according to employees contributed to the failure to learn. By use of a model of the learning from incidents process, the steps, where difficulties for learning arose, became visible, and the causes for these difficulties could be studied. Difficulties were identified in multiple steps of the learning process, but most difficulties became visible when planning actions, which is the phase that bridges the gap from incident investigation to actions for improvement. The main causes for learning difficulties, which were identified by the participants in this study, were tightly related to the learning process, but some indirect causes - or conditions - such as lack of ownership and limitations in expertise were also mentioned. The results illustrate that there are two types of causes for the failure to effectively learn: direct causes and indirect causes, here called conditions. By actively and systematically studying learning, more conditions might be identified and indicators for a successful learning process may be determined. Studying the learning process does, however, require a shift from learning from incidents to learning to learn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  3. Assessing the damage caused by Deepwater Horizon: not just another Exxon Valdez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, Robert K

    2013-06-15

    In light of the high stakes of the Deepwater Horizon civil trial and the important precedent-setting role that the case will have on the assessment of future marine disasters, the methodologies underpinning the calculations of damage on both sides will be subjected to considerable scrutiny. Despite the importance of the case, however, there seems to be a pronounced lack of convergence about it in the academic literature. Contributions from scientific journals frequently make comparisons to the Ixtoc I oil spill off the coast of Mexico in 1979; the legal literature, by stark contrast, seems to be much more focused on the Exxon Valdez spill that occurred off the shores of Alaska in 1989. This paper accordingly calls for a more thorough consideration of other analogs beyond the Exxon Valdez spill-most notably, the Ixtoc I incident-in arriving at an assessment of the damage caused by the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Applications of habitat equivalency analysis in ecological damage assessment of oil spill incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Han, Da-xiong; Wang, Hai-yan

    2011-08-01

    Habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) is one of the methods commonly used by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in natural resources damage assessment, but rarely applied in China. Based on the theory of HEA and the assessment practices of domestic oil spill incidents, a modification on the HEA was made in this paper, and applied to calculate the habitat value in oil spill incidents. According to the data collected from an oil spill incident in China, the modified HEA was applied in a case study to scale the compensatory-restoration. By introducing the ecological service equivalent factor to transfer various habitats, it was achieved to value of the injured habitats in ecological damage assessment of oil spill incident.

  5. Characterization of genetic miscoding lesions caused by postmortem damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Willerslev, Eske

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in a large data set of cloned sequences from ancient human specimens. The most common forms of damage observed are two complementary groups of transitions, termed "type 1" (adenine-->guanine/thymine-->cytosine) and "type 2" (cyto...

  6. INCIDENCE AND CAUSES OF FRACTURE OF ACRYLIC RESIN COMPLETE DENTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Sampa; Pradip Kumar; Manabendra; Saibal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND): Replacement of missing teeth and the associated structures are done with the help of artificial prosthesis. Acrylic resin, by virtue of its excellent properties is widely used as a material of choice for fabrication of denture base. In spite of its higher esthetic quality, tissue compatibility and ease of manipulation, it has an inherent deficiency of proneness to fracture. AIMS: The present study was being undertaken to find out the incidence of frac...

  7. Economic damage caused by a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemans, T.; Schwarz, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is directed towards the estimation of the economic damage which arises from a severe possible accident with a newly built 1000 MWE nuclear power plant in the Netherlands. A number of cases have been considered which are specified by the weather conditions during and the severity of the accident and the location of the nuclear power plant. For each accident case the economic damage has been estimated for the following impact categories: loss of the power plant, public health, evacuation and relocation of population, export of agricultural products, working and living in contaminated regions, decontamination, costs of transportation and incoming foreign tourism. The consequences for drinking water could not be quantified adequately. The total economic damage could reach 30 billion guilders. Besides the power plant itself, loss of export and decreasing incoming foreign tourism determine an important part of the total damage. 12 figs.; 52 tabs

  8. Multiple imputation methods for nonparametric inference on cumulative incidence with missing cause of failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Dignam, James J.; Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric approach for cumulative incidence estimation when causes of failure are unknown or missing for some subjects. Under the missing at random assumption, we estimate the cumulative incidence function using multiple imputation methods. We develop asymptotic theory for the cumulative incidence estimators obtained from multiple imputation methods. We also discuss how to construct confidence intervals for the cumulative incidence function and perform a test for comparing the cumulative incidence functions in two samples with missing cause of failure. Through simulation studies, we show that the proposed methods perform well. The methods are illustrated with data from a randomized clinical trial in early stage breast cancer. PMID:25043107

  9. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  10. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jacqueline C; Ashton, Elizabeth; Hardwick, Catherine M; Rowan, Marnie K; Chia, Elisa S; Fairclough, Kyle A; Menon, Lalitha L; Scott, Courtney; Mather-McCaw, Georgia; Navarro, Katherine; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-09-29

    Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s) advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2-110). The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that effective early lactation management for prevention of nipple pain and early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to avoid early weaning.

  11. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Kent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469 and 2014 (n = 708. Attributed cause(s of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Results: Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2–110. Conclusion: The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that effective early lactation management for prevention of nipple pain and early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to avoid early weaning.

  12. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Ashton, Elizabeth; Hardwick, Catherine M.; Rowan, Marnie K.; Chia, Elisa S.; Fairclough, Kyle A.; Menon, Lalitha L.; Scott, Courtney; Mather-McCaw, Georgia; Navarro, Katherine; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s) advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Results: Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2–110). Conclusion: The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that effective early lactation management for prevention of nipple pain and early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to avoid early weaning. PMID:26426034

  13. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  14. Incidence of moisture-associated skin damage in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Matarín, J; Del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Ribal-Prior, R; Pujol-Vila, M; Sandalinas-Mulero, I

    To determine the incidence of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) in the nappy area, identify predisposing factors and know the preventive measures and nursing records. Descriptive longitudinal study (June 2014-April 2015) in a general ICU. Patients whose stay >48hours and without skin lesions were included. The skin was assessed daily until the appearance of MASD, discharge or a maximum of 14 days. Demographics, stay, MASD type, incontinence, number and consistency of stools, obesity, Braden scale and prevention were recorded. 145 patients (66.2% male) were studied, median age was 69 (P 25 =56.5, P 75 =76) and median length of stay was five days (P 25 =3, P 75 =11.25), 29.9% were obese. Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) was detected in 26.2% and intertriginous dermatitis (ITD) in 15.9%. MASD was recorded in 23.8%. The variables causing IAD to develop were faecal incontinence, number of stools, liquid stools, and stay. Those for ITD were obesity and score on the Braden scale. Multivariate analysis selected faecal incontinence (OR=5.4, CI95%: 1.1-26) and the number of stools (OR=1.1, CI95%:1.0-1.2) as independent variables for developing IAD and obesity (OR=2.8, CI95%:1.0-8.2) and Braden (OR=0.8, CI95%:0.7-1.0) for developing ITD. Prevention to 23.8% of obese and 42.9% of incontinent was performed. There is a high incidence in MASD. Faecal incontinence and higher number of stools are the risk factors for developing IAD. Obesity and a lower score on the Braden scale may affect susceptibility to ITD. Recording of MASD and its prevention in patients at risk is insufficient. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions for skin changes caused by nerve damage in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinar, Liv Merete; Forsetlund, Louise; Bjørndal, Arild; Lockwood, Diana

    2008-07-16

    More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear in preventing and healing secondary damage to the skin in persons affected by leprosy. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (April 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (from 2003 to April 2008), EMBASE (from 2005 to April 2008), CINAHL (1982-2006) and LILACS (1982- April 2008 ) as well as online registers of ongoing trials (April 2008). Randomised controlled trials involving anyone with leprosy and damage to peripheral nerves treated with any measures designed to prevent damage with the aim of healing existing ulcers and preventing development of new ulcers. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. Eight trials with a total of 557 participants were included. The quality of the trials was generally poor. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. Although three studies that compared zinc tape to more traditional dressings found some benefit, none of these showed a statistically significant effect. One trial indicated that topical ketanserin had a better effect on wound healing than clioquinol cream or zinc paste, RR was 6.00 (95% CI 1.45 to 24.75). We did not combine the results of the two studies that compared topical phenytoin to saline dressing, but both studies found statistically significant effects in favour of phenytoin for healing of ulcer (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -3.30 to -1.39; and SMD -0.79; 95% CI -1.20 to 0.39). Canvas shoes were not much better than PVC-boots, and double rocker shoes did not promote healing much more than below-knee plasters. One study suggested that topical ketanserin is more effective than clioquinol cream

  16. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  17. Damage on sliding bearings of internal combustion engines. Damage patterns, causes, prevention; Schaeden an Gleitlagern von Verbrennungsmotoren. Erscheinungsbilder, Ursachen, Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakrichen (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Bearing failures are consequences of system deficiencies which cause an inadequate function of the hydrodynamic action and, thereby, too high a friction, at least locally. The bearing overheats, what ultimately leads to its destruction and that of adjacent components. These 'consequential damages' are frequently severe. We identify, therefore, early stages of malfunction, already as 'bearing damage'. In this condition, a diagnosis and remedial measures to avoid total destruction are possible. Typical bearing conditions, possible causes and remedies are described herein. (orig.)

  18. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response caused by excess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate copper (Cu2+) concentrations are required for plants, but at higher concentrations it can cause toxic effects. In this study, physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes were assayed in the leaves of maize variety Zhendan958, which is one of the dominant cultivar of maize (Zea mays L.) in China due to its ...

  19. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Itoh, C.; Shirai, K.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of impact tests, small-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests, have been executed to determine local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by the impact of aircraft engine missiles. The results of the test program showed that (1) the use of the similarity law is appropriate, (2) suitable empirical formulas exist for predicting the local damage caused by rigid missiles, (3) reduction factors may be used for evaluating the reduction in local damage due to the deformability of the engines, (4) the reinforcement ratio has no effect on local damage, and (5) the test results could be adequately predicted using nonlinear response analysis. (orig.)

  20. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W. [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S.; Kanai, T. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  1. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W.; Koike, S.; Kanai, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  2. The causes and circumstances of drinking water incidents impact consumer behaviour: Comparison of a routine versus a natural disaster incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-11-18

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two "Boil Water" notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine "Boil Water" notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a "Boil Water" notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  3. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. PMID:25411725

  4. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Rundblad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3% than the routine incident (35.4%. For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  5. Incidence, causes and phenotypes of acute seizures in Kenyan children post the malaria-decline period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serem, George K; Newton, Charles Rjc; Kariuki, Symon M

    2015-10-06

    Acute seizures are a common cause of paediatric admissions to hospitals in Africa, and malaria is an important cause of seizures in endemic areas. Malaria has declined in the past decade whilst neonatal admissions have increased, both which may affect the incidence and phenotypes of acute seizures in African children. We examined the effect of recent decline in malaria and the increasing burden of neonatal admissions on the incidence, causes and phenotypes of acute seizures admitted to hospital from 2009-2013. We used logistic regression to measure associations and Poisson regression to calculate the incidence and rate ratios. The overall incidence of acute seizures over the 5-year period was 312 per 100,000/year (95% CI, 295-329): 116 per 100,000/year (95% CI, 106-127) for complex seizures and 443 per 100,000 live births (95% CI, 383-512) for neonatal seizures. Over the period, there was an increase in incidence of seizures-attributable to malaria (SAM) (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.25; p causes of acute seizures were malaria (33%) and respiratory tract infections (19%); and for neonatal seizures were neonatal sepsis (51%), hypoglycemia (41%) and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (21%). Mortality occurred in 6% of all acute seizures, being more common in complex seizures (8%) and neonatal seizures (10 %) than other seizures (p malaria; suggesting that causes for these seizures need to be prevented in the community.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  7. Evaluation of the damages in rocks caused by the construction of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-12-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Commission) has conducted a bibliographic study of the damages in the rock caused by the construction of a repository, and several hydraulic simulations, to appreciate the influence of these damages on the safety of the repository. These studies have led to the proposal of construction techniques in accordance safety requirements and industrial feasibility [fr

  8. Has the incidence of radiation-induced bowel damage following treatment of uterine carcinoma changed in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Mersh, T.C.; Wilson, E.J.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Mann, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel damage occurred in 4.3% of patients treated primarily by irradiation for uterine carcinoma during the period 1962-1982. There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of radiation damage and radiation-induced rectovaginal fistula during this 20-year period. Radiation from intracavitary sources was a contributory factor in 92% of injured cases. The rising incidence of bowel damage in our patients may be due to an increase in the number of patients receiving a high rectal dose from the intracavitary source. There was a significantly (P<0.01) higher incidence of radiation injury in cases of cervical carcinoma compared to endometrical carcinoma. This was because cervical carcinoma tended to present at a more advanced stage than endometrial carcinoma and was more frequently treated with combined external and intracavitary irradiation. There was no significant increase in the incidence of complications among patients undergoing hysterectomy. (author)

  9. Development of SeismoPortal web application for damage prediction caused by earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunić Nemanja S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of SeismoPortal web application for damage prediction caused by earthquakes, using Django framework with GeoDjango spatial module. Besides the development of web application, the paper deals with development of ZRisk plugin for QGIS that estimates the risk caused by earthquakes to populations and buildings, from earthquakes, expressed in percentage of building damage and in number of casualties.

  10. Incidence and causes of iatrogenic retinal breaks in idiopathic macular hole and epiretinal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Fumihiko; Takagi, Seiji; Tomita, Goji

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence and cause of iatrogenic retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RD) in cases of idiopathic macular hole (MH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM). We analyzed 79 eyes with MH and 41 eyes with ERM, the relationship between the incidence of RBs and RD, and the frequency of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and lattice degeneration (LD). The incidence of RBs related to the operation was significantly higher in eyes with MH. The frequency of PVD was significantly higher in eyes with ERM. The frequency of LD did not differ between groups. In the MH group, the incidence of RBs related to the operation was high in eyes without PVD, but with LD. We observed four cases of RD in the MH group. The MH group had higher incidence of RBs related to the operation, especially in eyes without PVD or with LD.

  11. Hospital-related incidents; causes and its impact on disaster preparedness and prehospital organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Hedelin, Annika; Örtenwall, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background A hospital's capacity and preparedness is one of the important parts of disaster planning. Hospital-related incidents, a new phenomenon in Swedish healthcare, may lead to ambulance diversions, increased waiting time at emergency departments and treatment delay along with deterioration of disaster management and surge capacity. We aimed to identify the causes and impacts of hospital-related incidents in Region Västra Götaland (western region of Sweden). Methods The regional registry at the Prehospital and Disaster Medicine Center was reviewed (2006–2008). The number of hospital-related incidents and its causes were analyzed. Results There were an increasing number of hospital-related incidents mainly caused by emergency department's overcrowdings, the lack of beds at ordinary wards and/or intensive care units and technical problems at the radiology departments. These incidents resulted in ambulance diversions and reduced the prehospital capacity as well as endangering the patient safety. Conclusion Besides emergency department overcrowdings, ambulance diversions, endangering patient s safety and increasing risk for in-hospital mortality, hospital-related incidents reduces and limits the regional preparedness by minimizing the surge capacity. In order to prevent a future irreversible disaster, this problem should be avoided and addressed properly by further regional studies. PMID:19493330

  12. Trends in the incidence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezer, Eedy; Chetrit, Angela; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kinori, Michael; Ben-Zion, Itay; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara

    2015-06-01

    To describe trends in the incidence and causes of legal childhood blindness in Israel, one of the few countries worldwide that maintain a national registry of the blind. We performed a historical cohort study of annual reports of the National Registry of the Blind (NRB) between 1999 and 2013. All data regarding demographic information, year of registration and cause of blindness of children 0-18 years of age registered for blind certification were obtained from the annual reports of the NRB. Causes of legal blindness analyzed were optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), albinism, other retinal disorders, cataract, and glaucoma. The main outcome measure was the incidence of new cases of certified legal blindness. The incidence of newly registered legally blind children in Israel almost halved from 7.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 3.1 per 100,000 in 2013. The decline was mainly attributable to a decreased incidence of blindness resulting from retinitis pigmentosa and ROP. The incidence of registered cases due to cerebral visual impairment increased. During the past decade the incidence of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness declined in Israel. A continuous decline in consanguineous marriages among the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel may have contributed to the decrease in the rate of vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa in children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  14. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jimenez-Jimenez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the ‘Manzanilla’ variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of interference 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit-branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations.

  15. Assessment of ozone damage to crop and forest in Europe caused by Danish emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Zakey, A.; Nuterman, R.; Brandt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric Ozone has a damaging effect on vegetation, where it inhibits growth and reduces yield of crop production, as well as causing visible damage to plant leaves. The reduced crop production and growth of forest trees can be assessed using species specific sensitivity factors and market prices. The damages to agriculture are severe and a treat to food security. However, anthropogenic emissions of air pollution are not causing ozone damage to vegetation locally because of redox titration of ozone in the pollution source area. The ozone damage is taking effect hundreds of kilometers further downwind, where the atmospheric content of ozone has stabilized. This means that ozone damage can have a large effect outside an emitting country's borders, while the effects inside are limited or even have reducing effects of ozone damage from other sources. As part of CEEH (Centre for energy, environment and health), we are assessing ozone damage to forest and vegetation in European countries from Danish emissions using atmospheric chemical transport simulations.

  16. Causes of visual loss and their risk factors: an incidence summary from the Barbados Eye Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Hennis, Anselm

    2010-04-01

    To summarize incidence and risk factors for each main cause of visual loss in an African-Caribbean population and discuss the implications of these data from a public health perspective. A nationally representative cohort (n = 4 709; ages 40-84 years at baseline) had ophthalmic and other examinations over 9 years. Incidence rates were estimated by the product-limit approach. Risk factors were evaluated from Cox regression models. Average incidence was ~ 0.1% per year for blindness (visual impairment was high and significantly affected quality of life. Age-related cataract and OAG caused ~ 75% of blindness, indicating the need for public health action to increase appropriate cataract surgery and early OAG detection and treatment. Controlling DM and hypertension would help prevent DR-related complications and could lower cataract risk, further decreasing visual loss.

  17. Do the ball-ended probe cause less damage than sharp explorers?-An ultrastructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos-Silveira, Juliana; Oliveira, Marina Monreal; Matos, Ronilza; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-03-22

    No evidence about damage caused by ball-ended probes on tooth is available. No study compared probing defects caused by ball-ended probes with sharp explorers during tactile examinations of primary teeth. This exploratory study aimed to compare ultrastructural defects caused by ball-ended probes with sharp explorers during tactile examinations of primary teeth. Forty-nine primary extracted teeth were tactile examined as performed for caries activity assessment. Surfaces were randomly divided into groups based on probe type (ball-ended probe or sharp explorer). Two examiners probed different surfaces using the sharp explorer and the ball-ended probe. The order for examination was randomly determined. Images were captured using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) before and after probing. Two external examiners evaluated independently the ESEM images and scored them as: 0) no damage, 1) slight marks, 2) distinct marks, 3) marks with discontinuity, 4) enamel break-offs. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to analyze associations between probing ultrastructural damage and surface type, baseline condition and probe type. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated with 95 % confidence interval (CI). The most common defects observed on the dental surfaces were probing marks without discontinuity (scores 1 and 2). Ball-ended probes caused significantly less severe damage than sharp explorers (PR: 0.28; CI: 0.11-0.76, p = 0.01). Ball-ended probes cause less damage than sharp explorers when probing gently dental surfaces of primary teeth.

  18. Causes of incident visual field loss in a general elderly population: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skenduli-Bala, Elisa; de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; van Leeuwen, Redmer; Ikram, M. Kamran; Jonas, Jost B.; Bakker, Douwe; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the incidence and causes of visual field loss (VFL) in a general elderly population. Central visual fields of both eyes were examined with suprathreshold perimetry in 3761 persons aged 55 years or older and free of VFL at baseline from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Goldmann

  19. Incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susan M; Foster, Bethany J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A

    2012-10-02

    Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55-3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population.

  20. Damage thresholds for blaze diffraction gratings and grazing incidence optics at an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Conley, Raymond; Moeller, Stefan; Gwalt, Grzegorz; Siewert, Frank; Waberski, Christoph; Zeschke, Thomas; Cocco, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is upgrading its machine to high repetition rate and to extended ranges. Novel coatings, with limited surface oxidation, which are able to work at the carbon edge, are required. In addition, high-resolution soft X-ray monochromators become necessary. One of the big challenges is to design the mirror geometry and the grating profile to have high reflectivity (or efficiency) and at the same time survive the high peak energy of the free-electron laser pulses. For these reasons the experimental damage threshold, at 900 eV, of two platinum-coated gratings with different blazed angles has been investigated. The gratings were tested at 1° grazing incidence. To validate a model for which the damage threshold on the blaze grating can be estimated by calculating the damage threshold of a mirror with an angle of incidence identical to the angle of incidence on the grating plus the blaze angle, tests on Pt-coated substrates have also been performed. The results confirmed the prediction. Uncoated silicon, platinum and SiB 3 (both deposited on a silicon substrate) were also investigated. In general, the measured damage threshold at grazing incidence is higher than that calculated under the assumption that there is no energy transport from the volume where the photons are absorbed. However, it was found that, for the case of the SiB 3 coating, the grazing incidence condition did not increase the damage threshold, indicating that the energy transport away from the extinction volume is negligible.

  1. Extraction of damaged area caused by debris flows in Hiroshima using COSMO-SkyMed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tomohisa; Suga, Yuzo

    2017-10-01

    The heavy rain occurred in Hiroshima city on 20 August 2014. Then, debris flows and shallow slides were induced by the heavy rain. Rapid damage assessment after natural disasters is crucial for initiating effective emergency response actions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has a great potential due primarily to its all-weather day-and- night imaging capabilities. In this study, we examined an extraction of damaged area caused by debris flows using three COSMO-SkyMed images. The extraction methods are interferometric coherence, intensity correlation and normalized difference sigma nought index (NDSI) calculated from COSMO-SkyMed image pair. In this study, we investigated the applicability of the methods for extraction of damaged area caused by debris flows. The single look complex data of COSMO-SkyMed were co-registered each other for calculating interferometric coherence. The interferometric coherence images were ortho-rectified using 10 m gridded Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). The intensity correlation and NDSI were calculated from ortho-rectified images. For damaged area extraction, we investigated the mean and standard deviation of interferometric coherence, intensity correlation and NDSI using pre- and co-disaster image pairs. The mean values derived from the three methods in damaged area almost increased between pre- and co-disaster images. As a result, NDSI in damaged area indicated good separation between pre- and co-disaster images. In conclusion, NDSI showed good capability for extraction of damaged area caused by the debris flows at a rapid disaster response phase.

  2. Compensation for damage caused by abuse of procedural rights in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakočević Milka V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of compensation for damage caused by the abuse of procedural rights as a measure within the oppressive apparatus for sanctioning the abuse of process in civil proceedings, which issue is, unlike others related to the idea of prohibition of abuse of rights within the system of civil procedure, the least treated in the procedural doctrine. The author deals with procedural aspects of certain essential issues that are important in the context of the matter concerned, highlighting the nature of the claim for damages caused by the abuse of process, the manner this right is realized (whether in the pending litigation or by initiating a separate civil procedure, the procedural form of the claim for compensation of damages, etc.

  3. Threats to repair injury caused by judicial errors and criminal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Vasilisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The grounds for the occurrence of punitive damages are related to the illicit actions of the persons with responsibilities in the courts and the criminal prosecution bodies. In order to provide protection against such unfair situations, there are a number of legal guarantees. The legislator has highlighted both the specific circle of reasons (illegal detention, unlawful criminal prosecution, unlawful sentencing, etc. necessary to ensure that the damage caused to the person can be repaired, as well as the circle of conditions for the right to reparation (the acquittal, the order for termination of the criminal proceedings or for the prosecution, etc.. The reparation of the damage caused by judicial and criminal prosecution errors arises at the time when the act whereby the person was convicted or illegally arrested, ie at the time when the rehabilitation act became irrevocable, was found to be illegal.

  4. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  5. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  6. Flexible parametric modelling of cause-specific hazards to estimate cumulative incidence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Competing risks are a common occurrence in survival analysis. They arise when a patient is at risk of more than one mutually exclusive event, such as death from different causes, and the occurrence of one of these may prevent any other event from ever happening. Methods There are two main approaches to modelling competing risks: the first is to model the cause-specific hazards and transform these to the cumulative incidence function; the second is to model directly on a transformation of the cumulative incidence function. We focus on the first approach in this paper. This paper advocates the use of the flexible parametric survival model in this competing risk framework. Results An illustrative example on the survival of breast cancer patients has shown that the flexible parametric proportional hazards model has almost perfect agreement with the Cox proportional hazards model. However, the large epidemiological data set used here shows clear evidence of non-proportional hazards. The flexible parametric model is able to adequately account for these through the incorporation of time-dependent effects. Conclusion A key advantage of using this approach is that smooth estimates of both the cause-specific hazard rates and the cumulative incidence functions can be obtained. It is also relatively easy to incorporate time-dependent effects which are commonly seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:23384310

  7. Analyses of the secondary particle radiation and the DNA damage it causes to human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel E.; Rusek A.; Sivertz, M.; Yip, K.; Thompson, K.; Tafrov, S.

    2011-11-22

    High-energy protons, and high mass and energy ions, along with the secondary particles they produce, are the main contributors to the radiation hazard during space explorations. Skin, particularly the epidermis, consisting mainly of keratinocytes with potential for proliferation and malignant transformation, absorbs the majority of the radiation dose. Therefore, we used normal human keratinocytes to investigate and quantify the DNA damage caused by secondary radiation. Its manifestation depends on the presence of retinol in the serum-free media, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases. We simulated the generation of secondary radiation after the impact of protons and iron ions on an aluminum shield. We also measured the intensity and the type of the resulting secondary particles at two sample locations; our findings agreed well with our predictions. We showed that secondary particles inflict DNA damage to different extents, depending on the type of primary radiation. Low-energy protons produce fewer secondary particles and cause less DNA damage than do high-energy protons. However, both generate fewer secondary particles and inflict less DNA damage than do high mass and energy ions. The majority of cells repaired the initial damage, as denoted by the presence of 53BPI foci, within the first 24 hours after exposure, but some cells maintained the 53BP1 foci longer.

  8. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants in Bogor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danniswari, Dibyanti; Nasrullah, Nizar

    2017-10-01

    Certain plants are called stranglers (hemiepiphyte) because they grow on host trees and slowly choking the host, which often results in the host’s death. The existence of strangler plants on roadside greenbelt trees is quite common in Bogor, but they may cause tree’s failure and threaten users’ safety. To prevent such hazard, evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants is important. This study was directed to analyse the vegetation of strangler plants in Bogor, to assess the damage caused by stranglers, and to compose strangled trees maintenance recommendations. This study was conducted in March to May 2014 by doing survey at five major roads in Bogor, which were Jalan Ahmad Yani, Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Semeru, and Jalan Juanda. The results showed that strangler species found in Bogor are Ficus benjamina, Ficus glauca, Ficus elastica, and Schefflera actinophylla. The most common species in Bogor is F. benjamina. Host trees that tend to be preferred by strangler plants are trees with large trunk, many branches, and medium to high height. The maintenance for every strangled tree is different according to the damage level, mild to severe damage could be treated by strangler root cutting to tree logging, respectively.

  10. Partial meniscectomy is associated with increased risk of incident radiographic osteoarthritis and worsening cartilage damage in the following year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona Arthritis Center and University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hannon, Michael J.; Grago, Jason [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hunter, David J. [University of Sydney, Department of Rheumatology, Royal North Shore Hospital and Kolling Institute, St Leonards (Australia); Eckstein, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Boudreau, Robert M. [University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Englund, Martin [Lund University, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Orthopaedics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund (Sweden); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To assess whether partial meniscectomy is associated with increased risk of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) and worsening cartilage damage in the following year. We studied 355 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative that developed ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥ 2), which were matched with control knees. The MR images were assessed using the semi-quantitative MOAKS system. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate risk of incident ROA. Logistic regression was used to assess the risk of worsening cartilage damage in knees with partial meniscectomy that developed ROA. In the group with incident ROA, 4.4 % underwent partial meniscectomy during the year prior to the case-defining visit, compared with none of the knees that did not develop ROA. All (n = 31) knees that had partial meniscectomy and 58.9 % (n = 165) of the knees with prevalent meniscal damage developed ROA (OR = 2.51, 95 % CI [1.73, 3.64]). In knees that developed ROA, partial meniscectomy was associated with an increased risk of worsening cartilage damage (OR = 4.51, 95 % CI [1.53, 13.33]). The probability of having had partial meniscectomy was higher in knees that developed ROA. When looking only at knees that developed ROA, partial meniscectomy was associated with greater risk of worsening cartilage damage. (orig.)

  11. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  12. Causes of excitation-induced muscle cell damage in isometric contractions: mechanical stress or calcium overload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Anne; Gissel, Hanne; Madsen, Klavs

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged or unaccustomed exercise leads to muscle cell membrane damage, detectable as release of the intracellular enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH). This is correlated to excitation-induced influx of Ca2+, but it cannot be excluded that mechanical stress contributes to the damage. We here...... to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Electrical stimulation increased 45Ca influx 3-5 fold. This was followed by a progressive release of LDH, which was correlated to the influx of Ca2+. BTS (50 microM) caused a 90% inhibition of contractile force but had no effect on the excitation-induced 45Ca influx. After...... release both in control and BTS-treated muscles. In conclusion, after isometric contractions, muscle cell membrane damage depends on Ca2+ influx and energy status and not on mechanical stress....

  13. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  14. Incidence of environmental and genetic factors causing congenital cataract in Children of Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Shagufta; Sharif, Saima; Badar, Hafsa; Rashid, Farzana; Kaleem, Afshan; Iqtedar, Mehwish

    2016-07-01

    To check the incidence of environmental and genetic factors causing congenital cataract in infants. The descriptive study was conducted at Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust, Lahore, Pakistan, from October 2013 to April 2014, and comprised children under 15 years of age who had rubella syndrome, herpes simplex, birth trauma, trisomy 21, Nance-Horan syndrome or Lowe's syndrome. Of the 38,000 cases examined, 120(0.3%) patients were diagnosed with congenital cataract. Of them, 52(43.33%)were aged between 2 and 5 years,22(18.33%) <11 years and 10(8.33%) ?15 years. Bilateral congenital cataract was observed in 91(75.83%) patients and unilateral congenital cataract in 29(24.17%). Environmental factors caused 72(62.07%) cases and genetic factors caused 44(37.93%).. Congenital cataract predominated in boys compared to girls. Early diagnosis and adequate therapy requires specific technology, as well as long-term and permanent care..

  15. Mitigation of BSG damage caused by upstream flaw in the final optics assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhaoyang; Sun, Mingying; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2016-07-01

    In high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, there are many large-radius optical elements, which inevitably have some flaws on the surface. The flaws can cause optical intensity intensification and therefore damage the optical elements in the downstream, especially for the beam sampling grating (BSG), which is an important element in the final optics assembly. In this paper, several physical models are established to study the optical field enhancement in the BSG position modulated by upstream flaw. Firstly, when only the linear transportation is considered, it is found that there is a peak or valley of the maximum intensity after the focus lens compared with the ideal wave front. Meanwhile the influence of flaw has an effective range. Secondly, when the nonlinear effect of the focus lens is also considered, the peak maximum downstream is much bigger than the one for the linear consideration and the damage risk of the BSG there is much higher too. From the simulation, we can see that it is important to place the BSG in a properly selected position to mitigate the laser induced damage. The results could give some references to the mitigation of BSG damage caused by upstream flaws and the layout of the final optics assembly.

  16. DAMAGE CAUSED BY RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (FABRICIUS, 1792 (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE IN STORED BRAZIL NUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Pires

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhyzopertha dominica is an insect that attacks several grains and seeds and is considered the main pest found in stored products in Brazil. This insect is classified as an internal primary pest being a borer. It develops effectively in the grain mass due to its adaptability and high biotic potential. The objectives of this study were to verify if R. dominica adults and larvae feed on Brazil nuts, and also to characterize the damage caused by this Coleoptera. The injuries inflicted by this insect appear as scratched surfaces, which evolve into deep holes, in almonds. As it has the ability to cause considerable damage with consequent losses in the market value of the product, this beetle can be included among the many pests of this product, and even be considered an internal primary pest of the stored Bertholletia excelsa.

  17. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic...... heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay...

  18. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2012-02-03

    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  19. Notification system of incidents without damage in the health system of Castilla y León (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José PEREZ-BOILLOS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Patient safety is an important part of the quality work in the Regional Health Management of Castilla y León. Numerous projects are part of this line, including the no-harm incident reporting system. Objective: Reporting incidents without harm can significantly improve patient safety and improve an organization's safety culture. Material and method: After an exhaustive analysis of the available systems, it was decided to develop an own system, SISNOT (system of notification of incidents without damage, which followed the characteristics recommended by the international organisms in relation to these systems in the health field. Results: 3249 notifications were made through SISNOT, between primary and specialized care, of which 48% could have had high damage in case of reoccurrence of the incident. Conclusions: The implementation of SISNOT has been carried out in all hospitals and in primary care. The results obtained are unequal in each unit. This is due to numerous local barriers: leadership, characteristics of professionals, etc. Although there is a common, lack of safety culture. This is a challenge to keep working.

  20. IAEA-ASSET's root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  1. Incidence, causes, severity and treatment of throat discomfort: a four-region online questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addey, Dilys; Shephard, Adrian

    2012-08-10

    Acute sore throat is commonly associated with viral infections. Consumers typically rely on over-the-counter treatments and other remedies to treat symptoms; however, limited information is available regarding consumer perceptions of sore throat or treatment needs. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions of throat discomfort and how these influence attitudes and consumer behaviour with regard to treatment. Online consumer surveys were completed by participants invited by email between 2003 and 2004 in four markets: the UK, France, Poland, and Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions that covered key issues surrounding throat discomfort including incidence in the past 12 months, causes, severity, effects on functionality and quality of life, actions taken to relieve throat discomfort, the efficacy of these approaches and the reasons behind using specific products. In total, 6465 men and women aged ≥18 years were surveyed, identifying 3514 participants who had suffered throat discomfort/irritation in the past 12 months (response rate of 54%). These participants completed the full survey. The breakdown of throat discomfort sufferers was: UK, 912; France, 899; Poland, 871; Malaysia, 832. A high proportion of respondents experienced one or more instances of throat discomfort in the previous 12 months, with an overall incidence of 54%. Infections including the common cold/influenza and other bacteria/viruses were commonly perceived causes of throat discomfort (72% and 46%, respectively). Physical and environmental factors were also perceived to be causative, including airborne pollution (28%), smoking (23%), and air conditioning (31%). Symptoms perceived to be caused by an infection were associated with a higher degree of suffering (mean degree of suffering for bacteria/virus and common cold/influenza; 3.4 and 3.0, respectively). Medicinal products were used for all perceived causes, but more commonly for sore throats thought to be caused by

  2. Incidence, causes, severity and treatment of throat discomfort: a four-region online questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addey Dilys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute sore throat is commonly associated with viral infections. Consumers typically rely on over-the-counter treatments and other remedies to treat symptoms; however, limited information is available regarding consumer perceptions of sore throat or treatment needs. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions of throat discomfort and how these influence attitudes and consumer behaviour with regard to treatment. Methods Online consumer surveys were completed by participants invited by email between 2003 and 2004 in four markets: the UK, France, Poland, and Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions that covered key issues surrounding throat discomfort including incidence in the past 12 months, causes, severity, effects on functionality and quality of life, actions taken to relieve throat discomfort, the efficacy of these approaches and the reasons behind using specific products. Results In total, 6465 men and women aged ≥18 years were surveyed, identifying 3514 participants who had suffered throat discomfort/irritation in the past 12 months (response rate of 54%. These participants completed the full survey. The breakdown of throat discomfort sufferers was: UK, 912; France, 899; Poland, 871; Malaysia, 832. A high proportion of respondents experienced one or more instances of throat discomfort in the previous 12 months, with an overall incidence of 54%. Infections including the common cold/influenza and other bacteria/viruses were commonly perceived causes of throat discomfort (72% and 46%, respectively. Physical and environmental factors were also perceived to be causative, including airborne pollution (28%, smoking (23%, and air conditioning (31%. Symptoms perceived to be caused by an infection were associated with a higher degree of suffering (mean degree of suffering for bacteria/virus and common cold/influenza; 3.4 and 3.0, respectively. Medicinal products were used for all perceived causes, but more

  3. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Zelm, Rosalie van; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal. - Highlights: • Health damages from Volkswagen's emission fraud are estimated in the USA and Europe. • Combined health damages in the USA and Europe are estimated at 45 thousand DALYs. • Health damages will further increase to 119 thousand DALYs if cars are not recalled. • Combined health costs in the USA and Europe are estimated at 39 billion US dollars. • Costs will further increase to 102 billion US dollars if cars are not recalled. - The diesel emission fraud committed by Volkswagen Group has led to substantial unforeseen emissions of nitrogen oxides and subsequent health damage costs in Europe and the US.

  5. Incidence, risk factors and causes of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the South of iran (fars province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadije Sadat; Saki, Forough; Hemmati, Fariba; Inaloo, Soroor

    2013-03-01

    Today, Severe hyperbilirubinemia is the most common cause of neonatal readmissions. Identification of the cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is useful in determining whether therapeutic interventions can prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in Fars province and to determine the underlying causes and risk factors, which would be of value in identifying and implementing strategies to prevent morbidity from this condition. All infants less than 28 days referred due to severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were included. Complete history, physical examination and lab work up were performed. This is a longitudinal prospective study in 2009-2010. More common causes of severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were blood group incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, sepsis and unknown. Risk factors of severe hyperbilirubinemia were Male sex, previous siblings with severe hyperbilirubinemia, early discharge, NVD, Breast feeding and cultural background of mothers. Our study showed severe neonate indirect hyperbilirubinemia is still prevalence in Fars province and ethnic and cultural background of the mothers was more effective than school education in preventing hyperbilirubinemia complication.

  6. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  7. Reduction of aesthetical properties of organic coatings caused by mechanical damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, S.; Deflorian, F.; Scrinzi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Organic coatings are the most commonly used system for protection from corrosion. In many applications, the protective properties against corrosion are associated with several other properties, including resistance to abrasion and good aesthetic appearance. This is particularly important for the automotive and transport industry, building trade, domestic products, packaging. To evaluate the abrasion resistance of organic coatings the Taber Abraser test is frequently used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the reduction of aesthetical properties, caused by abrasion by Taber test, using different abrasive pastes. The level of damage was evaluated through gloss measurements; 20 deg. was the most sensitive angle to gloss changes, with this geometry different samples could be compared. The correlation between the changes of gloss and the damage was investigated using optical microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. With increase of grain dimensions, the paste became more abrasive with negative effect on the aesthetical aspect of the organic coating

  8. The cause, incidence and severity of a new gall damage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against the new Eucalyptus pest. Key words: Alien insects, Galls. Leptocybe invasa, pest management, tree plantation. Introduction. Tree growing is important to many ... refugee settlements in Uganda to protect the environment while ensuring sustainable supply of tree ...

  9. The cause, incidence and severity of a new gall damage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an invasive gall inducer on Eucalyptus. Australian Jownal of Entomology, Vol. 43, pp51-63. Mutitu, K. E. 2003. A pest threat to Eucalyptus species in. Kenya. KEFRI Tec hnical Report, KEFRI, 12 pp. Withers, T.M.; Raman, A. and Beny 2000. Host Range and. Biology of Ophelimus eucalypti (HYM.

  10. Quality review of an adverse incident reporting system and root cause analysis of serious adverse surgical incidents in a teaching hospital of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsandi Maziar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of surgical patients are unintentionally harmed during their hospital stay. Root Cause Analysis (RCA aims to determine the aetiology of adverse incidents that lead to patient harm and produce a series of recommendations, which would minimise the risk of recurrence of similar events, if appropriately applied to clinical practice. A review of the quality of the adverse incident reporting system and the RCA of serious adverse incidents at the Department of Surgery of Ninewells hospital, in Dundee, United Kingdom was performed. Methods The Adverse Incident Management (AIM database of the Department of Surgery of Ninewells Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. Details of all serious (red, sentinel incidents recorded between May 2004 and December 2009, including the RCA reports and outcomes, where applicable, were reviewed. Additional related information was gathered by interviewing the involved members of staff. Results The total number of reported surgical incidents was 3142, of which 81 (2.58% cases had been reported as red or sentinel. 19 of the 81 incidents (23.4% had been inappropriately reported as red. In 31 reports (38.2% vital information with regards to the details of the adverse incidents had not been recorded. In 12 cases (14.8% the description of incidents was of poor quality. RCA was performed for 47 cases (58% and only 12 cases (15% received recommendations aiming to improve clinical practice. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate the need for improvement in the quality of incident reporting. There are enormous benefits to be gained by this time and resource consuming process, however appropriate staff training on the use of this system is a pre-requisite. Furthermore, sufficient support and resources are required for the implementation of RCA recommendations in clinical practice.

  11. Therapeutic role of curcumin in oxidative DNA damage caused by formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Gulay; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Cenesiz, Sena; Sogut, Mehtap Unlu; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Cevat; Guvenc, Dilek; Ertekin, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Formaldehyde is a common environmental contaminant that causes oxidative DNA damage in cells by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), tumor protein 53(TP53), beta-amyloid[Aß(1-42), Aß (1-40)], total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the therapeutic role of curcumin in rat cells with oxidative DNA damage caused by formaldehyde. The control group was given physiological saline for 15 days (i.p.) and the second group was given 37% formaldehyde (i.p.) at a dose of 9 mg/kg group every other day. The third group was given 9 mg/kg formaldehyde (i.p.) every other day and treated therapeutically with 100 mg/kg curcumin every day by gavage. At the end of the trial period, urine, blood, and brain tissue was collected from the rats. The levels of MDA in sera were increased and the TAC, TP53, and Aß (1-40) levels were reduced in the formaldehyde-treated group with respect to the control group (pformaldehyde-treated group and reduced after treatment with curcumin (P formaldehyde-treated group (P  0.05). In conclusion, the oxidative stress caused by formaldehyde exposure was reduced with the application of curcumin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Damage to ancient mural paintings and petroglyphs caused by Pseudonocardia sp. - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoxuan; Ge, Qinya; Pan, Jiao

    2015-07-04

    The historical relics exposed to the natural environment during the long-term were vulnerable to microbial invasion. According to some new studies, microorganism of Pseudonocardia may is one of the main groups on the surface of mural paintings and petroglyphs, causing damage to the paints. Based on recent research progress, we reviewed the phenomenon according to the relationship between the ancient paintings and the growth conditions of Pseudonocardia, which could provide a new theory basis for the protection of cultural relics especially mural paintings and petroglyphs.

  13. Causes of death and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Australian pesticide-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Benke, Geza; Del Monaco, Anthony; Sim, Malcolm R

    2010-04-01

    To determine the rates of mortality and of cancer incidence in a cohort of pesticide-exposed Australian workers. The study cohort was assembled using records of former government occupational health surveillance programs. The cohort was then linked to the Australian national registries of cancer and mortality and analyzed in comparison with the general Australian population. Consistent with a healthy worker effect, we found no overall excesses in mortality or incident cancer. Non-injury-related causes of death were less than expected; however, non-intentional poisoning and suicide mortality were significantly elevated. All types of suicide were elevated, and firearm suicide deaths were significantly in excess. The suicides by poisoning were predominantly associated with pesticides, although other published research suggests this pattern is more often associated with developing countries. This study did not find evidence of a relationship between occupational pesticide exposure and cancer or non-injury-related mortality. However, accidental poisoning and intentional self-harm warrant further investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cause-specific mortality in adults with unprovoked seizures. A population-based incidence cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V; Olafsson, E; Hauser, W A; Gudmundsson, G

    2001-10-01

    To determine the cause-specific mortality relative to that expected in a population-based incidence cohort of people with unprovoked seizures. The cohort comprises 224 inhabitants of Iceland first diagnosed as suffering from unprovoked seizures during a 5-year period from 1960 to 1964. The expected number of deaths was calculated by multiplying person-years of observation within 5-year age categories for each year from diagnosis through 1995 by cause-specific and sex-specific national death rates for those aged 20 years and above. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All-cause mortality was increased among men (SMR 2.25, 95% CI 1.56-3.14) but not women (SMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.46). Among men, there were 8 deaths from accidents, poisoning and violence observed versus 2.82 expected (SMR 2.84, 95% CI 1.22-5.59) and 4 deaths from suicide versus 0.69 expected (SMR 5.80, 95% CI 1.56-14.84). All-cause mortality for men was still elevated after restriction of analysis to those with seizures of unknown etiology (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.05-2.67) with the excess deaths attributable to suicide (SMR 5.26, 95% CI 1.06-15.38). Both males and females with remote symptomatic unprovoked seizures had an increase in all-cause mortality due to excess mortality from all cancers, cerebrovascular disease and accidents. When compared with the age-, time-period- and gender-specific mortality in the general population, there is excess mortality in men but not women. The increased mortality for men is partly attributable to excess mortality from accidents and suicides. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Flexible parametric modelling of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Paul C; Wilkes, Sally R; Crowther, Michael J

    2017-04-30

    Competing risks arise with time-to-event data when individuals are at risk of more than one type of event and the occurrence of one event precludes the occurrence of all other events. A useful measure with competing risks is the cause-specific cumulative incidence function (CIF), which gives the probability of experiencing a particular event as a function of follow-up time, accounting for the fact that some individuals may have a competing event. When modelling the cause-specific CIF, the most common model is a semi-parametric proportional subhazards model. In this paper, we propose the use of flexible parametric survival models to directly model the cause-specific CIF where the effect of follow-up time is modelled using restricted cubic splines. The models provide smooth estimates of the cause-specific CIF with the important advantage that the approach is easily extended to model time-dependent effects. The models can be fitted using standard survival analysis tools by a combination of data expansion and introducing time-dependent weights. Various link functions are available that allow modelling on different scales and have proportional subhazards, proportional odds and relative absolute risks as particular cases. We conduct a simulation study to evaluate how well the spline functions approximate subhazard functions with complex shapes. The methods are illustrated using data from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry showing excellent agreement between parametric estimates of the cause-specific CIF and those obtained from a semi-parametric model. We also fit models relaxing the proportional subhazards assumption using alternative link functions and/or including time-dependent effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Incidência de patógenos e vigor de sementes de milho doce submetidas a danos mecânicos Pathogen incidence and vigor in sweet corn seed after mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2009-09-01

    7 impacts and stored at the temperature of 20ºC and 50-60% of relative humidity. The experimental design was a completely randomized with four repetitions, performing a factorial 7 x 5 (7 sieves and 5 damages intensities, totalizing 35 treatments. Seeds water content, mechanical damage (iodine dyeing, germination test, cold test and seed health test were evaluated. Variations in the incidence of pathogens among seeds with different sizes and forms were evidenced. Increasing mechanical damage did not favor increasing of pathogens incidence in seeds; however, it caused reduction on seed vigor.

  17. Aerial pesticide application causes DNA damage in pilots from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Waliszewski, S M; Amador-Muñoz, O; Meza, E; Calderón-Segura, M E; Zenteno, E; Huichapan-Martínez, J; Caba, M; Félix-Gastélum, R; Longoria-Espinoza, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural production originates residues in the environment where they are applied. Pesticide aerial application is a frequent source of exposure to pesticides by persons dedicated to agricultural practices and those living in neighboring communities of sprayed fields. The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxic effects of pesticides in workers occupationally exposed to these chemicals during their aerial application to agricultural fields of Sinaloa, Mexico. The study involved 30 pilots of airplanes used to apply pesticides via aerial application and 30 unexposed controls. Damage was evaluated through the micronucleus assay and by other nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. The highest frequency ratios (FR) equal to 269.5 corresponded to binucleated cells followed by 54.2, corresponding to cells with pyknotic nuclei, 45.2 of cells with chromatin condensation, 3.7 of cells with broken-egg, 3.6 of cells with micronucleus, and 2.0 of karyolytic cells. Age, worked time, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not have significant influence on nuclear abnormalities in the pilots studied. Pesticide exposure was the main factor for nuclear abnormality results and DNA damage. Marked genotoxic damage was developed even in younger pilots with 2 years of short working period, caused by their daily occupational exposure to pesticides.

  18. Localized damage caused by topographic amplification during the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Given, D.; Janvier, M.G.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Meremonte, M.; Mildor, B.S.-L.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Local geological conditions, including both near-surface sedimentary layers and topographic features, are known to significantly influence ground motions caused by earthquakes. Microzonation maps use local geological conditions to characterize seismic hazard, but commonly incorporate the effect of only sedimentary layers. Microzonation does not take into account local topography, because significant topographic amplification is assumed to be rare. Here we show that, although the extent of structural damage in the 2010 Haiti earthquake was primarily due to poor construction, topographic amplification contributed significantly to damage in the district of Petionville, south of central Port-au-Prince. A large number of substantial, relatively well-built structures situated along a foothill ridge in this district sustained serious damage or collapse. Using recordings of aftershocks, we calculate the ground motion response at two seismic stations along the topographic ridge and at two stations in the adjacent valley. Ground motions on the ridge are amplified relative to both sites in the valley and a hard-rock reference site, and thus cannot be explained by sediment-induced amplification. Instead, the amplitude and predominant frequencies of ground motion indicate the amplification of seismic waves by a narrow, steep ridge. We suggest that microzonation maps can potentially be significantly improved by incorporation of topographic effects. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Emese; Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor; Vajda, Nora

    2009-01-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  20. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Zoltan, E-mail: hozer@aeki.kfki.h [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szabo, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Vajda, Nora [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, Muegyetem rakpart 9 (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage caused by pulsed discharge with cavitation on the bactericidal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Ito, Hironori; Ihara, Satoshi; Terato, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-based techniques are expected to have practical use for wastewater purification with a potential for killing contaminated microorganisms and degrading recalcitrant materials. In the present study, we analysed oxidative DNA damage in bacterial cells treated by the plasma to unveil its mechanisms in the bactericidal process. Escherichia coli cell suspension was exposed to the plasma induced by applying an alternating-current voltage of about 1 kV with bubbling formed by water-cavitation, termed pulsed discharge with cavitation. Chromosomal DNA damage, such as double strand break (DSB) and oxidative base lesions, increased proportionally with the applied energy, as determined by electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses. Among the base lesions identified, the yields of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G) and 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OH-C) in chromosomal DNA increased by up to 4- and 15-fold, respectively, compared to untreated samples. The progeny DNA sequences, derived from plasmid DNA exposed to the plasma, indicated that the production rate of 5-OH-C exceeded that of 8-OH-G, as G:C to A:T transitions accounted for 65% of all base changes, but only a few G:C to T:A transversions were observed. The cell viabilities of E. coli cells decreased in direct proportion to increases in the applied energy. Therefore, the plasma-induced bactericidal mechanism appears to relate to oxidative damage caused to bacterial DNA. These results were confirmed by observing the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide molecules following the plasma exposure. We also compared our results with the plasma to those obtained with 137Cs γ-rays, as a well-known ROS generator to confirm the DNA-damaging mechanism involved.

  2. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  3. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  4. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  5. Population fluctuation and damage caused by phytophagous mites on three rubber tree clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, E B; Nuvoloni, F M; Mattos, C R R; Feres, R J F

    2013-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the population fluctuation and the damage caused by the phytophagous mites Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, and Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) on clones FX 2784, FX 3864, and MDF 180 in rubber tree crops from southeastern Bahia, Brazil. Moreover, we tested for the influence of climatic variables on occurrence patterns of these species throughout weekly samples performed from October to April. The infestation peaks was between mid-January and late February. The clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had the highest infestations and more severe damage possibly caused by C. heveae, which was the most frequent and abundant species in all clones. We found that sunlight duration and rainfall were the most important factors for C. heveae while T. heveae was affected by rainfall and temperature. Eutetranychus banksi was only affected by sunlight duration. However, the best models had low goodness of fit. We concluded that the clones FX 2784 and FX 3864 had a higher susceptibility to mite attack, and the association between climatic variables and favorable physiological conditions were determinant for the population increase of the species from January to April.

  6. The Natural Product Citral Can Cause Significant Damage to the Hyphal Cell Walls of Magnaporthe grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Yu Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a natural alternative to the synthetic fungicides currently used against the devastating rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, this study explored the antifungal potential of citral and its mechanism of action. It was found that citral not only inhibited hyphal growth of M. grisea, but also caused a series of marked hyphal morphological and structural alterations. Specifically, citral was tested for antifungal activity against M. grisea in vitro and was found to significantly inhibit colony development and mycelial growth with IC50 and IC90 values of 40.71 and 203.75 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, citral reduced spore germination and germ tube length in a concentration-dependent manner. Following exposure to citral, the hyphal cell surface became wrinkled with folds and cell breakage that were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There was damage to hyphal cell walls and membrane structures, loss of villous-like material outside of the cell wall, thinning of the cell wall, and discontinuities formed in the cell membrane following treatment based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This increase in chitinase activity both supports the morphological changes seen in the hyphae, and also suggests a mechanism of action. In conclusion, citral has strong antifungal properties, and treatment with this compound is capable of causing significant damage to the hyphal cell walls of M. grisea.

  7. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croitoru, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R sub H) and resistivity (rho) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI=9.9x10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 (neutrons) and PHI>=7.5x10 sup 8 Kr/cm sup 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of conduction due to the damaged regions, where localized levels are created, which are the main cause of the deviation of the electrical characteristics of the detectors ...

  8. Remote Sensing Techniques for Rapid Assessment of Forest Damage Caused by Catastrophic Climatic Events, NA-TP-01-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Ciesla; William Frament; Margaret Miller-Weeks

    2001-01-01

    Catastrophic climatic events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and ice storms can cause billions of dollars in damage to infrastructure and personal property, loss of lives, and damage to natural resources. Forests are especially susceptible to these events. The following is a list of recent climatic events in North America that have had devastating effects on forest...

  9. The inadequate liability and compensation regime for damage caused by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jon M. Van

    2010-09-01

    The specific obligation to provide restitution and compensation when nuclear activities cause injuries has been recognized repeatedly and is now certainly part of customary international law. But problems remain regarding how to measure damages, how to implement the duty to repair the injuries, and what specific obligations exist to protect neighboring states from transboundary pollution. Although some treaties exist governing liability for harm resulting from nuclear accidents, they are not adequate to protect victims and have not been widely ratified. The failure to require nuclear operators to prepare for damage that may result from accidents constitutes a subsidy to the nuclear industry and makes it difficult to compare the real costs of nuclear energy with the costs of other energy sources. This survey of settled norms and unresolved issues demonstrates that further work is needed to develop a comprehensive and authoritative regime to govern harm from nuclear activities. Although it is clear that both the operators of nuclear facilities and the states that have jurisdiction over them would be responsible to provide restitution and compensation for such harm under a strict liability regime, the types of injuries that must be compensated and the range of damages that must be covered remain subjects of controversy. Although the underlying customary international law principles (the no-harm principle and the polluter-pays principle) are clear, the actual treaties that have been drafted are inadequate and they have not been widely ratified. Victims of damage from nuclear activities would have difficulty finding a neutral tribunal in which to bring their claims and would face procedural obstacles including caps on liabilities and inappropriately short statutes of limitations as well as difficulties regarding proof of damages. The failure to develop a proper regime that would ensure full restitution and compensation for harm resulting from nuclear facilities

  10. Do the ball-ended probe cause less damage than sharp explorers?—An ultrastructural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos-Silveira, Juliana; Oliveira, Marina Monreal; Matos, Ronilza; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Fraga, Mariana Minatel Braga

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background No evidence about damage caused by ball-ended probes on tooth is available. No study compared probing defects caused by ball-ended probes with sharp explorers during tactile examinations of primary teeth. This exploratory study aimed to compare ultrastructural defects caused by ball-ended probes with sharp explorers during tactile examinations of primary teeth. Me...

  11. Incidence of various causes of vaginal discharge among sexually active females in age group 20-40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to know incidence of various causes of vaginal discharge in sexually active females of age group 20-40 years. One hundred sexually active females in the age group of 20-40 years, with vaginal discharge, were selected for this study at random. A detailed clinical history and a thorough examination of all the cases was done. After making the clinical diagnosis, appropriate tests for diagnosing candidiasis, trichomoniosis, gonorrhoea and bacterial vaginosis were done. The present study showed 45% incidence of bacterial voginosis, 31% vulvovaginalcandidiasis, 2% trichomoniasis, 3% gonorrhoea, 5% non-specific urogenital causes, and 14% with other causes.

  12. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  13. Fusarium infection causes genotoxic disorders and antioxidant-based damages in Orobanche spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybeke, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the toxic effects of Fusarium oxysporum on root parasitic weed, Orobanche spp. Comparative genetic and gene expression studies were conducted on uninfected and fungus-infected orobanches. In genetic studies, isolated total DNA was amplified by RAPD PCR. Fragment properties were analysed by GTS test. According to the results, the fragment properties of control and Fusarium infected (experimental) groups varied widely; and it has been observed that Fusarium has genotoxic effects on the DNA of orobanches. In gene expression studies, the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes or proteins were associated with ROS damage and toxic effects, therefore, gene expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Zn-superoxide dismutase (=SOD2, mitochondrial), glutamine synthetase (GS), heat shock protein gene (HSP70), BAX, Caspase-3 and BCL2 were significantly higher in the experimental group. In the light of obtained data, it was concluded that F. oxysporum (1) caused heavy ROS damage in Orobanche (2) induced significant irrevocable genotoxic effects on the DNA of Orobanche, (3) degraded protein metabolism and synthesis, and finally (4) triggered apoptosis. The results of this study can be a ground for further research on reducing the toxic effects of Fusarium on agricultural products, so that advancements in bio-herbicide technology may provide a sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of cell damage causing growth delay for high pressure inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanba, Masaru; Nomura, Kazuki; Nasuhara, Yusuke; Hayashi, Manabu; Kido, Miyuki; Hayashi, Mayumi; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao; Ueno, Shigeaki; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-06-01

    A high pressure (HP) tolerant (barotolerant) mutant a2568D8 and a variably barotolerant mutant a1210H12 were generated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultra-violet mutagenesis. The two mutants, a barosensitive mutant a924E1 and the wild-type strain, were pressurized (225 MPa), and pressure inactivation behavior was analyzed. In the wild-type strain, a proportion of the growth-delayed cells were detected after exposure to HP. In a924E1, the proportion of growth-delayed cells significantly decreased compared with the wild-type. In a2568D8, the proportion of growth-delayed cells increased and the proportion of inactivated cells decreased compared with the wild-type. In a1210H12, the growth-delayed cells could not be detected within 120 s of exposure to HP. The proportion of growth-delayed cells, which incurred the damage, would affect the survival ratio by HP. These results suggested that cellular changes in barotolerance caused by mutations are remarkably affected by the ability to recover from cellular damage, which results in a growth delay.

  15. Phakopsora euvitis Causes Unusual Damage to Leaves and Modifies Carbohydrate Metabolism in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Nogueira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter. Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed. Histopathological analyses and quantification of starch were also performed on diseased leaves. Biomass and carbohydrate accumulation were quantified in different organs of diseased and healthy plants. Rust reduced the photosynthetic rate, and β was estimated at 5.78, indicating a large virtual lesion. Mesophyll conductance, maximum rubisco carboxylation rate, and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate dependent on electron transport rate were reduced, causing diffusive and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Hypertrophy, chloroplast degeneration of mesophyll cells, and starch accumulation in cells close to lesions were observed. Root carbohydrate concentration was reduced, even at low rust severity. Asian grapevine rust dramatically reduced photosynthesis and altered the dynamics of production and accumulation of carbohydrates, unlike strict biotrophic pathogens. The reduction in carbohydrate reserves in roots would support polyetic damage on grapevine, caused by a polycyclic disease.

  16. Self-Cyclizing Antioxidants to Prevent DNA Damage Caused by Hydroxyl Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulSalam, Safnas F; Gurjar, Purujit N; Zhu, Haizhou; Liu, Jing; Johnson, Emma S; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Merino, Edward J

    2017-10-18

    Antioxidant therapy is a promising treatment strategy for protecting DNA from the damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report new self-cyclizing antioxidant reagents that are selective for the hydroxyl radical. Our mechanistic investigation revealed that the reagents react with three equivalents of oxidant in a cascade reaction to form a bicyclic final product. Among the reagents synthesized, 1 c showed favorable properties in vitro and in cellular studies. Using As 2 O 3 , which triggers ROS production, we showed that 1 c prevents formation of the guanine oxidation product 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one-2'-deoxyribonucleoside and lowers cellular levels of reactive oxygen. The described self-cyclizing antioxidants are efficient, flexible, and tunable reagents with the potential to limit toxic oxidative stress. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  18. Using magnetic nanoparticles to probe protein damage in ferritin caused by freeze concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Chagas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method for monitoring the damage caused to a protein during freeze-thawing in the presence of glycerol, a cryo-protectant. For this work we synthesized magnetite nanoparticles doped with 2.5% cobalt inside the protein ferritin (CMF, dissolved them in different concentration glycerol solutions and measured their magnetization after freezing in a high applied field (5 T. As the temperature was raised, a step-like decrease in the sample magnetization was observed, corresponding to the onset of Brownian relaxation as the viscosity of the freeze-concentrated glycerol solution decreased. The position of the step reveals changes to the protein hydrodynamic radius that we attribute to protein unfolding, while its height depends on how much protein is trapped by ice during freeze concentration. Changes to the protein hydrodynamic radius are confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements, but unlike DLS, the magnetic measurements can provide hydrodynamic data while the solution remains mainly frozen.

  19. Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-03-13

    To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The high cancer incidence in young people in Italy: do genetic signatures reveal their environmental causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Ridolfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cancer in children and adolescents registered in Italy in the last few decades is one of the highest amongst Western countries. The causes are difficult to identify, but recent daily news and some epidemiological surveys, such as the ‘Sentieri’ study, suggest that environmental pollution has an important role. In the past 20 years, epigenetic studies have described how the changes induced by the cell microenvironment on the non-coding parts of the genome can heavily influence gene function, contributing to the carcinogenesis process. Connecting links amongst the external environment, cellular microenvironment and functional epigenetic and genetic mutations promote carcinogenesis. Today, the whole genome sequencing techniques for human cancers can help to formulate a map of mutational signatures in individual tumours, and a list of mutational fingerprints showing exposure to specific environmental mutagens is being developed. Determining the ethical, legal and economic consequences of known cancer causative agents in young people will be a crucial step for a serious reconsideration of primary prevention.

  1. Analysis of performance and stress caused by a simulation of a mass casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Fernández-Pacheco, Antonio; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro; Navarro Fernández, José Luis; Cerón Madrigal, José Joaquín; Juguera Rodriguez, Laura; Perez Alonso, Nuria; Armero-Barranco, David; Lidon López Iborra, María; Damian, Escribano Tortosa; Pardo Rios, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    To determine the stress that is potentially produced in professional health workers due to a mass casualty incident (MCI) simulated exercise, and its relation to prior academic training and the role played in the simulation. Observational study of stress in a MCI. For this work, two MCI drills comprised of 40 victims each were conducted. Two randomized groups of 36 students each were created: Master's Students Group (MSG) and Undergraduate Student Group (USG). The role performed by each student (triage or sectorization) was assessed. The stress level was determined by prior and subsequent measurements of alpha-amylase (αA), HR, SBP and DBP. The percentage of victims that were correctly triaged was 88.6%, 91.84% for MSG and 83.76% for the USG (p=0.004). The basal αA was 97,107.50±72,182.67IU/L and the subsequent αA was 136,195.55±90,176.46±IU/L (pperformed the triage and those who performed sectorization but there were no differences between undergraduate and Masters' students. Conducting a simulated exercise caused stress in personnel involved in the MCI, with a greater impact on participants who performed triage, although it was not influenced by their prior academic level. The stress level in our case did not affect or determine the performance of acquired skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Urinary KIM-1 a Predictor of EGFR Decline, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, and All Cause Mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhoff, Mie Klessen; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    Background Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) has shown to reflect tubular pathophysiology. We evaluated KIM-1 as a predictor of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2......D) and microalbuminuria without clinical coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a prospective study including 200 patients, all receiving multifactorial treatment. Urinary KIM-1 was measured at baseline and was available in 191 patients. Adjusted Cox models included sex, age, LDL cholesterol...... the predefined CKD progression endpoint after 4.9 years (median). Higher urinary KIM-1 was a predictor of eGFR decline, unadjusted HR (95% CI): 1.9 (1.2-2.8); p=0.003, and in the adjusted model HR 1.7 (1.0-2.7); p=0.034. For CVD events urinary KIM-1 was a determinant in the unadjusted model (HR 1.4 (1.0-2.1); p...

  3. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriya, S; Gupta, P C; Dimba, E; Chindia, M; Otoh, E C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Califano, J; Kowalski, L

    2011-05-01

    The mouth and oropharynx are among the ten most common sites affected by cancer worldwide, but global incidence varies widely. Five-year survival rates exceed 50% in only the best treatment centers. Causes are predominantly lifestyle-related: Tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, poor diet, viral infections, and pollution are all important etiological factors. Oral cancer is a disease of the poor and dispossessed, and reducing social inequalities requires national policies co-ordinated with wider health and social initiatives - the common risk factor approach: control of the environment; safe water; adequate food; public and professional education about early signs and symptoms; early diagnosis and intervention; evidence-based treatments appropriate to available resources; and thoughtful rehabilitation and palliative care. Reductions in inequalities, both within and between countries, are more likely to accrue from the application of existing knowledge in a whole-of-society approach. Basic research aimed at determining individual predisposition and acquired genetic determinants of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus allowing for targeted therapies, should be pursued opportunistically.

  4. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  5. Ex-core fuel damage event at paks causes, consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsz, J.; Gado, J.

    2004-01-01

    On April 10, 2003 Paks NPP experienced a loss of decay-heat removal to 30 irradiated fuel assemblies undergoing a cleaning process in a fuel service pit near the unit 2 spent fuel pool. Following chemical cleaning of high decay-heat fuel, a delay in removing the cleaning vessel's lid left the cleaning system in such a condition that did not provide adequate cooling to the fuel. After several hours of the fuel being under-cooled, a steam bubble developed in the vessel, essentially uncovering the fuel. When the lid of the vessel was removed, the sudden introduction of cool water thermally shocked the fuel causing significant structural damage and a release of fission product gases to the reactor building. The paper will discuss the causes of the event as well as the contributing factors to it. Detailed information will be given about the planning and preparation of the recovery actions. The in-depth analyses of the consequences and lessons learned complete the lecture. (author)

  6. Omega-3 supplementation can restore glutathione levels and prevent oxidative damage caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Anna R; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes long-lasting deficits in brain structure and function. In this study, we have examined the effect of PNEE on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in the adult brain with particular focus on four brain regions known to be affected by ethanol: cerebellum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus subregions). We have utilized a liquid diet model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that is supplied to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. To examine the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, a subset of animals were provided with an omega-3-enriched diet from birth until adulthood to examine whether these fatty acids could ameliorate any deficits in antioxidant capacity that occurred due to PNEE. Our results showed that PNEE caused a long-lasting decrease in glutathione levels in all four brain regions analyzed that was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative damage. These results indicate that PNEE induces long-lasting changes in the antioxidant capacity of the brain, and this can lead to a state of oxidative stress. Postnatal omega-3 supplementation was able to increase glutathione levels and reduce lipid peroxidation in PNEE animals, partially reversing the effects of alcohol exposure, particularly in the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum. This is the first study where omega-3 supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect in PNEE, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lysergic acid diethylamide causes photoreceptor cell damage through inducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Di; Xu, Ling-Li; Gong, Yan; Wu, Guo-Hai; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Shan-Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Mao, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Sheng; Li, Qin-Bo; Yuan, Jian-Shu

    2018-01-19

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a classical hallucinogen, was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina and little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate the effect of LSD on macrophage activation state at non-toxic concentration and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by LSD on 661 W cells after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with LSD-induced RAW264.7 cells to the M1 phenotype, releasing more pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the M1-related gene expression. Moreover, after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells, significant oxidative stress in 661 W cells treated with LSD was observed, by increasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our study demonstrated that LSD caused photoreceptor cell damage by inducing inflammatory response and resultant oxidative stress, providing the scientific rationale for the toxicity of LSD to retina.

  8. Unit-based incident reporting and root cause analysis: variation at three hospital unit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Merten, H.; Zwaan, L.; Lubberding, S.; Timmermans, D.; Smits, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To minimise adverse events in healthcare, various large-scale incident reporting and learning systems have been developed worldwide. Nevertheless, learning from patient safety incidents is going slowly. Local, unit-based reporting systems can help to get faster and more detailed insight

  9. Unit-based incident reporting and root cause analysis: variation at three hospital unit types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Merten, H.; Lubberding, S.; Zwaan, L.; Timmermans, D.; Smits, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To minimise adverse events in healthcare, various large-scale incident reporting and learning systems have been developed worldwide. Nevertheless, learning from patient safety incidents is going slowly. Local, unit-based reporting systems can help to get faster and more

  10. Why do organizations not learn from incidents? Bottlenecks, causes and conditions for a failure to effectively learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Hasle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    be studied.Difficulties were identified in multiple steps of the learning process, but most difficulties became visiblewhen planning actions, which is the phase that bridges the gap from incident investigation to actions forimprovement. The main causes for learning difficulties, which were identified...... learn. In sevenorganizations focus groups were held to discuss factors that according to employees contributed to thefailure to learn. By use of a model of the learning from incidents process, the steps, where difficulties forlearning arose, became visible, and the causes for these difficulties could...

  11. Incident particle range dependence of radiation damage in a power bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Ming; Li, Xing-Ji; Geng, Hong-Bin; Rui, Er-Ming; Guo, Li-Xin; Yang, Jian-Qun

    2012-10-01

    The characteristic degradations in silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) of type 3DD155 are examined under the irradiations of 25-MeV carbon (C), 40-MeV silicon (Si), and 40-MeV chlorine (Cl) ions respectively. Different electrical parameters are measured in-situ during the exposure of heavy ions. The experimental data shows that the changes in the reciprocal of the gain variation (Δ(1/β)) of 3DD155 transistors irradiated respectively by 25-MeV C, 40-MeV Si, and 40-MeV Cl ions each present a nonlinear behaviour at a low fluence and a linear response at a high fluence. The Δ(1/β) of 3DD155 BJT irradiated by 25-MeV C ions is greatest at a given fluence, a little smaller when the device is irradiated by 40-MeV Si ions, and smallest in the case of the 40-MeV Cl ions irradiation. The measured and calculated results clearly show that the range of heavy ions in the base region of BJT affects the level of radiation damage.

  12. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial ...

  13. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial fo...

  14. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. End-stage renal disease in India and Pakistan: incidence, causes, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, Vinay; Kohli, Harbir S

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a devastating medical, social, and economic problem for patients and their families in India and Pakistan. Reliable data on the true incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in India and Pakistan are lacking because no national registries exist. Among reported cases, chronic glomerulonephritis is the most common cause, accounting for more than one third of patients, while diabetic nephropathy accounts for approximately 20% of all patients in India. Delayed diagnosis and failure to institute measures to slow the progression of renal failure have resulted in a predominantly young ESRD population, with a median age of 44 years. Because of financial constraints, less than one third of all patients referred to a tertiary care center receive any kind of renal replacement therapy. Most hemodialysis patients who stop treatment and die do so because of cost constraints within the first three months, and approximately 5% of patients are started on ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Renal transplantation is the cheapest option, but < 10% of all patients with ESRD have a transplant. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone continue to be the backbone of post-transplant immunosuppression, but cyclosporine is stopped in a significant proportion of patients at one year post-transplant to cut down costs. Living related donor transplants constitute 70% of all transplants; two thirds of the donors are females, while more than three fourths of all recipients are males. Spouses account for 20% of donors from within families. Almost 30% of transplanted kidneys are donated by living unrelated donors, while cadaver donors account for only 2%. More resources must be mobilized to care for these patients; early detection of renal disease must be facilitated, and measures to delay ESRD must be implemented.

  16. Electron microscopy study of damage in some metals caused by irradiation with helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guysse, J. van.

    1977-01-01

    This study is an experimental contribtuion to the investigation of damage, caused by irradiation with low energy helium ions (up to 21 keV) in a hexagonal closed packed metal rhenium. It also gives preliminary information about the radiation damage in SAP (sintered aluminum powder containing (7 wt % Al 2 O 3 ) which is a moretechnological material). Points of interest were the nucleation and the growth of dislocation loops, bubbles and blisters: examination was performed partly by transmission - and partly by scanning electron microscopy. The main parameter during the investigations were the irradiation dose and the annealing temperature. Sometimes the irradiation energy and temperature were varied too. For rhenium, the irradiation dose was varied in the following intervals: 10 12 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 for the study of dislocation loops: 10 16 to 10 17 for the study of bubbles, and 10 17 to 10 19 ions/cm 2 for the blisters. Almost all specimens have been annealed up to 1500 deg. C. For sintered aluminum powder, only the dose interval ranging from 10 16 to 10 19 ions/cm 2 was examined, and specimens were annealed only up to 500 deg C. Our model explains the temperature dependence of the blister radii which is also observed by other authors. The critical dose for blister formation in rhenium is 3 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 ; broken blisters are formed for the doses above 3 x 10 18 ions/cm 2 . Experimental relationships have been deduced for blister height and blister depth as a function of blister radius. For sintered aluminium powder, containing 7 wt % Al 2 O 3 the most relevant preliminary results are the influence of the oxide layer on the specimen, and the role played by the interface between matrix and oxide layer. (author)

  17. Heat-Induced Calcium Leakage Causes Mitochondrial Damage inCaenorhabditis elegansBody-Wall Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Kenta; Homma, Takashi; Isaka, Ruri; Sudevan, Surabhi; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Acute onset of organ failure in heatstroke is triggered by rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle. Here, we showed that elevated temperature increases free cytosolic Ca 2+ [Ca 2+ ]f from RYR (ryanodine receptor)/UNC-68 in vivo in the muscles of an experimental model animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans This subsequently leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, and breakdown of myofilaments similar to rhabdomyolysis. In addition, treatment with an inhibitor of RYR (dantrolene) or activation of FoxO (Forkhead box O)/DAF-16 is effective against heat-induced muscle damage. Acute onset of organ failure in heatstroke is triggered by rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into heat-induced muscle breakdown, we investigated alterations of Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial morphology in vivo in body-wall muscles of C. elegans exposed to elevated temperature. Heat stress for 3 hr at 35° increased the concentration of [Ca 2+ ]f, and led to mitochondrial fragmentation and subsequent dysfunction in the muscle cells. A similar mitochondrial fragmentation phenotype is induced in the absence of heat stress by treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Mutation of the unc-68 gene, which encodes the ryanodine receptor that is linked to Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, could suppress the mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and reduced mobility and life span induced by heat stress. In addition, in a daf-2 mutant, in which the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor is activated, resistance to calcium overload, mitochondrial fragmentation, and dysfunction was observed. These findings reveal that heat-induced Ca 2+ accumulation causes mitochondrial damage and consequently induces muscle breakdown. Copyright © 2017 Momma et al.

  18. Liability for damage caused by shortage and failure to use necessary medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide for successful, safe and high quality medical services, health care institutions need to be equipped with adequate medical devices. For this reason, every medical institution is legally obliged to have relevant medical devices. In case a patient has been deprived of some medical service for the lack of necessary medical devices (which the institution has been obliged to provide, the medical institution is responsible for the damage and harm sustained by the patient. The responsibility implies non-contractual liability (in tort law or pre-contractual liability (in contract law. In both cases, the liability is based on the presumed culpability. In order to be excluded from liability, the medical institution has to prove that the patient has been deprived of medical service (or that the institution has refused to enter into a medical service provider agreement on justifiable grounds, i.e. due to the lack of necessary medical devices. On the other hand, in case the medial institutions fail to provide needed care or violate their obligation to use medical devices when necessary, it is regarded as medical negligence (professional error. In most cases, it implies the liability of medical institutions for damage, injury or harm caused to the patient by medical services provided without applying a relevant medical device, whose use has been medically indicated. The liability is even more substantial in cases where the medical device has been available but the medical institutions has not applied it in medial treatment (even though its use has been medically indicated; such conduct is qualified as gross negligence.

  19. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement G. Yedjou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO32] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60 cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO32 for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05 increase of necrotic cell death in Pb(NO32-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO32 compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05 in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO32 exposure significantly (p < 0.05 increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO32 exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO32 inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO32 exposure and its associated adverse

  20. Extent of flood damage increased cerebrovascular disease incidences in Iwate prefecture after the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported on increases in the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases after huge earthquakes. An increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. To assess whether tsunami damage or the earthquake was responsible for this trend, we assessed the relative impact of earthquake magnitude and flood damage on cerebrovascular disease. A total of 12 coastal municipalities facing the epicenter were divided into 4 flood severity groups according to the percentage of people living in the flooded areas (earthquake severity group. Odds ratios (ORs) of disease incidence and the adjusted ORs for seismic intensity (using the Mantel-Haenszel method) between the higher (≥40%) and the lower flooded area (Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 increased because of tsunami damage and not because of the earthquake magnitude. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Occupational exposure to asphalt fume can cause oxidative DNA damage among road paving workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ceylan; Ağış, Erol R; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Tutkun, Lütfiye; Yılmaz, Ömer H

    2018-03-07

    We designed the present study to determine the effect of occupational exposure to asphalt fumes on oxidative status and DNA damage in road paving workers. Sixty road paving workers exposed to asphalt fumes and forty non-exposed control subjects were recruited. Occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion. Serum thiol disulfide homeostasis (TDH), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and urinary 8-hydro-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level were evaluated by automated colourimetric method. The urinary concentrations of 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Disulfide/thiol ratio, TOS, and TAS were also significantly higher for the asphalt workers. A positive correlation existed between urinary 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG, TOS and TAS. Study results indicate that exposure to PAHs induces oxidative stress and causes genotoxic effects in asphalt workers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Damages and causes on the structures during the October 23, 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Damcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The earthquake in Van Province took place at 13.41 (with local time, GMT+3 on October 23, 2011 with a magnitude of 7.2 in Turkey. The earthquake with an approximate rupture duration of 50 s occurred at 43.36 Eastern longitude and 38.75 Northern latitude at a depth of 10–15 km below the surface of the earth, triggering an average displacement of 2 m in Northeast–Southwest direction. With Van’s Erciş Town constituting the epicenter, the earthquake was felt in the city center and surrounding villages, along with the nearby provinces of Erzurum, Ağrı, Mardin, Diyarbakır, Muş, Bitlis, Iğdır, Kars, Batman, Siirt and their respective towns. According to the data released by Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, 2288 buildings fully collapsed as a result of the earthquake. Analyzing the structural characteristics of the region, it is observed that urban centers are dominated by RC buildings, while mostly adobe structures prevail in the rural areas. The on-site technical investigations revealed that the damages were caused mostly by faulty concrete production, defects in reinforcement details and the poor quality of workmanship. In the study, impacts of the mentioned earthquake on the structures in the region and the underlying reasons were analyzed, and a number of recommendations were provided to prevent the repetition of similar flaws.

  3. Rutin increases neural crest stem cell survival against damage caused by aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Nones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p1 The neural crest (NC corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potential. The derivatives of the NC at the trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and some endocrine cells. The present work investigated, for the first time, the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and the flavonoid rutin on the survival and proliferation of NC and NC-derived melanocytes. Quail NC cell cultures were treated with AFB1 (30 μM and/or rutin (20 μM for 6 days. Cell viability was assessed by MTT and trypan blue analyses and cell proliferation by BrdU staining. Melanocytes were identified by immunocytochemistry against the melanocyte-specific cellular marker MelEM. The AFB1 treatment decreased both NC cell viability and proliferation. The total number of MelEM-positive cells was also reduced after this treatment, an effect partially prevented by the addition of rutin. On the other hand, rutin added alone did not influence the NC cell population. Our results demonstrated that rutin increases the survival of the NC after damage caused by AFB1. However, additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in AFB1 and rutin interactions.

  4. Skin and soft tissue artifacts due to postmortem damage caused by rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, M; Matschke, J; Gehl, A; Koops, E; Püschel, K

    1999-09-30

    Five cases of postmortem bite-injuries inflicted by rodents are presented (five males between 41 and 89 years; three cases caused by mice, one case by rats, one case of possible mixed rodent activity by rats and mice). The study presents a spectrum of phenomenological aspects of postmortem artifacts due to rodent activity to fresh skin and soft tissue: the majority of the injuries have a circular appearance. The wound margins are finely serrated with irregular edges and circumscribed 1-2 mm intervals within, partly showing protruding indentations up to 5 mm. Distinct parallel cutaneous lacerations deriving from the biting action of the upper and lower pairs of the rodents incisors are diagnostic for tooth marks of rodent origin but cannot always be found. No claw-induced damage can be found in the skin beyond the wound margins. Areas involved in the present study were: exposed and unprotected parts of the body, such as eyelids, nose and mouth (representing moist parts of the face); and the back of the hands. Postmortem rodent activity may occasionally be expected on clothed and therefore protected parts of the body. The phenomenon of postmortem rodent activity to human bodies can be found indoors especially under circumstances of low socioeconomic settings; outdoors this finding is particularly observed among fatalities among homeless people.

  5. A Fatal Waterborne Outbreak of Pesticide Poisoning Caused by Damaged Pipelines, Sindhikela, Bolangir, Orissa, India, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Murhekar, M.; Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated a cluster of pesticide poisoning in Orissa. Methods. We searched the village for cases of vomiting and sweating on 2 February 2008. We described the outbreak by time, place, and person. We compared cases with controls. Results. We identified 65 cases (two deaths; attack rate: 12 per 1000; case fatality: 3%). The epidemic curve suggested a point source outbreak, and cases clustered close to a roadside eatery. Consumption of water from a specific source (odds ratio [OR]: 35, confidence interval [CI]: 13 93) and eating in the eatery (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.14.7) was associated with illness. On 31 January 2008, villagers had used pesticides to kill street dogs and had discarded leftovers in the drains. Damaged pipelines located beneath and supplying water may have aspirated the pesticide during the nocturnal negative pressure phase and rinsed it off the next morning in the water supply. Conclusions. Inappropriate use of pesticides contaminated the water supply and caused this outbreak. Education programs and regulations need to be combined to ensure a safer use of pesticides in India.

  6. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  7. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2013-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for an organism's favorable response to alkylating agents. Furthermore, an individual's response to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity. PMID:22237395

  8. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  9. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Patient record review of the incidence, consequences, and causes of diagnostic adverse events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; de Bruijne, M.; Wagner, C.; Thijs, A.; Smits, M.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic errors often result in patient harm. Previous studies have shown that there is large variability in results in different medical specialties. The present study explored diagnostic adverse events (DAEs) across all medical specialties to determine their incidence and to gain

  11. Patient record review of the incidence, consequences, and causes of diagnostic adverse events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; Bruijne, M. de; Wagner, C.; Thijs, A.; Smits, M.; Wal, G. van der; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic errors often result in patient harm. Previous studies have shown that there is large variability in results in different medical specialties. The present study explored diagnostic adverse events (DAEs) across all medical specialties to determine their incidence and to gain

  12. Nonparametric Estimation of Cumulative Incidence Functions for Competing Risks Data with Missing Cause of Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Effraimidis, Georgios; Dahl, Christian Møller

    In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametri...

  13. An observation of histological evidence on internal organ damages in mice caused by repeated exposures to motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y. P.; Juswono, Unggul P.; Noor, Johan A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a source of ultrafine particles, which have significant impacts on human health. Repeated and prolonged exposure to ultrafine particles may have a significant association with organ damage. Here, we evaluated the correlation between repeated exposure to ultrafine particles and organ damage in mice. Motorcycle emissions were injected into an exposure chamber with mice for a period of 20 seconds. This treatment was conducted over 10 days. The mice were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th days for organ preparations. Based on the results, motorcycle emission exposure caused organ damage in mice, with different severities depending on the organ. The highest damage was found for the lung, followed by the kidney, erythrocytes, and liver.

  14. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  15. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  16. Cafeteria diet-induced obesity causes oxidative damage in white adipose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy R; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Sampey, Brante P; Troester, Melissa A; Hayes, D Neil; Makowski, Liza

    2016-04-29

    Obesity continues to be one of the most prominent public health dilemmas in the world. The complex interaction among the varied causes of obesity makes it a particularly challenging problem to address. While typical high-fat purified diets successfully induce weight gain in rodents, we have described a more robust model of diet-induced obesity based on feeding rats a diet consisting of highly palatable, energy-dense human junk foods - the "cafeteria" diet (CAF, 45-53% kcal from fat). We previously reported that CAF-fed rats became hyperphagic, gained more weight, and developed more severe hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance compared to the lard-based 45% kcal from fat high fat diet-fed group. In addition, the CAF diet-fed group displayed a higher degree of inflammation in adipose and liver, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an increased concentration of lipid-derived, pro-inflammatory mediators. Building upon our previous findings, we aimed to determine mechanisms that underlie physiologic findings in the CAF diet. We investigated the effect of CAF diet-induced obesity on adipose tissue specifically using expression arrays and immunohistochemistry. Genomic evidence indicated the CAF diet induced alterations in the white adipose gene transcriptome, with notable suppression of glutathione-related genes and pathways involved in mitigating oxidative stress. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated a doubling in adipose lipid peroxidation marker 4-HNE levels compared to rats that remained lean on control standard chow diet. Our data indicates that the CAF diet drives an increase in oxidative damage in white adipose tissue that may affect tissue homeostasis. Oxidative stress drives activation of inflammatory kinases that can perturb insulin signaling leading to glucose intolerance and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and causes of dental trauma in children living in the county of Värmland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexomboon, Duangjai; Carlson, Christina; Andersson, Ragnar; von Bultzingslowen, Inger; Mensah, Tita

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of injuries to permanent incisors in 2011-2013 in children aged 8-10 years living in the county of Värmland, Sweden, and to compare it with the incidence rates in 1989/1990 in the county of Västmanland, as well as to determine the cause of dental trauma in relation to time and place. The study analysed the patient records from dental visits (2011-2013) of trauma to the permanent incisors in children aged 8-10 years. The incidence rates were the incidence per 1000 children at risk. Standardized incidence rates were calculated for the comparison between different years. Information about month, location where the trauma occurred as well as cause of trauma was recorded. A total of 2.2% of 21 721 children aged 8-10 years had experienced at least one trauma. The incidence rate in Värmland increased from 18.9 in 2011 to 21.3 in 2012 to 28.5 in 2013. The standardized incidence rate in Värmland in 2011 and 2012 was not significantly different than in Västmanland in 1989/1990 (P > 0.05), but the standardized rates in 2013 were significantly higher than in 1989/90 (P Dental trauma occurred most often outdoors, followed by sports arenas/sports fields, and more often at school than at home. Falling and slipping was the most common cause of trauma, followed by accidents during leisure activities, playing and sports. The incidence rate for dental trauma has not decreased in the past 20 years, and there is an indication that parents and teachers should be more aware of the risks of dental trauma at leisure times and at school as well as during sports and exercise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  19. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  20. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-12

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for a favourable response of an organism to alkylating agents. Furthermore, the response of an individual to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity.

  1. Initial Pulmonary Respiration Causes Massive Diaphragm Damage and Hyper-CKemia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinori; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Yugeta, Naoko; Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of muscle degeneration in a lethal muscle disorder Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) has not been fully elucidated. The dystrophic dog, a model of DMD, shows a high mortality rate with a marked increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in the neonatal period. By measuring serum CK levels in cord and venous blood, we found initial pulmonary respiration resulted in massive diaphragm damage in the neonates and thereby lead to the high serum CK levels. Furthermore, molecular biological techniques revealed that osteopontin was prominently upregulated in the dystrophic diaphragm prior to the respiration, and that immediate-early genes (c-fos and egr-1) and inflammation/immune response genes (IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and selectin E) were distinctly overexpressed after the damage by the respiration. Hence, we segregated dystrophic phases at the molecular level before and after mechanical damage. These molecules could be biomarkers of muscle damage and potential targets in pharmaceutical therapies. PMID:23851606

  2. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, SA; Qader, SS

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer wor...

  3. New onset of insomnia in hospitalized patients in general medical wards: incidence, causes, and resolution rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, An; Raja, Bronson; Waldhorn, Richard; Baez, Valentina; Mohammed, Idiris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Insomnia is common in hospitalized patients. However, no study has examined new onset of insomnia in patients without a prior history of insomnia. Objectives: Incidence of new onset of insomnia in inpatients, associated factors and resolution rate after 2 weeks. Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a community hospital. We used the Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire to screen for insomnia in all patients located in the general medical floors f...

  4. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania-Alina DUMITRACHE

    2014-01-01

    According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to c...

  5. Indemnification of damage to the environment caused by non-nuclear industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental damage has reached catastrophic proportions, implying the death of hundreds of people or expenses of many hundreds of million dollars. The financial impact of this damage is however small at the level of the industrial sector concerned which could bear its costs. If States would take measures to redistribute such costs, they would avoid having to compensate victims of the gravest accidents. Special procedures were introduced for this purpose in certain industrial sectors. (NEA) [fr

  6. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Sa; Qader, Ss

    2009-03-01

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world.This review article discusses the two contradictory views regarding the association of global warming with an increased incidence of malaria. On one hand, there are many who believe that there is a strong association between the recent increase in malaria incidence and global warming. They predict that as global warming continues, malaria is set to spread in locations where previously it was limited, due to cooler climate. On the other hand, several theories have been put forward which are quite contrary to this prediction. There are multiple other factors which are accountable for the recent upsurge of malaria: for example drug resistance, mosquito control programs, public health facilities, and living standards.

  7. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, SA; Qader, SS

    2009-01-01

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world. This review article discusses the two contradictory views regarding the association of global warming with an increased incidence of malaria. On one hand, there are many who believe that there is a strong association between the recent increase in malaria incidence and global warming. They predict that as global warming continues, malaria is set to spread in locations where previously it was limited, due to cooler climate. On the other hand, several theories have been put forward which are quite contrary to this prediction. There are multiple other factors which are accountable for the recent upsurge of malaria: for example drug resistance, mosquito control programs, public health facilities, and living standards. PMID:21483497

  8. Causes of General Aviation Weather-Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Certified Flight Instructor-Instrument CFIT Controlled flight into terrain FAA U.S. Federal Aviation Administration FBO Fixed-base operator FSS Flight...William R. Knecht Michael Lenz Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Federal Aviation Administration Oklahoma City, OK 73125 September 2010 Final Report...Causes of General Aviation Weather- Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data DOT/FAA/AM-10/13 Office

  9. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  10. Antibodies Damage the Resilience of Fimbriae, Causing Them To Be Stiff and Tangled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupender; Mortezaei, Narges; Savarino, Stephen J; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    As adhesion fimbriae are a major virulence factor for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, they are also potential targets for antibodies. Fimbriae are commonly required for initiating the colonization that leads to disease, and their success as adhesion organelles lies in their ability to both initiate and sustain bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. The ability of fimbriae to unwind and rewind their helical filaments presumably reduces their detachment from tissue surfaces with the shear forces that accompany significant fluid flow. Therefore, the disruption of functional fimbriae by inhibiting this resilience should have high potential for use as a vaccine to prevent disease. In this study, we show that two characteristic biomechanical features of fimbrial resilience, namely, the extension force and the extension length, are significantly altered by the binding of antibodies to fimbriae. The fimbriae that were studied are normally expressed on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, which are a major cause of diarrheal disease. This alteration in biomechanical properties was observed with bivalent polyclonal antifimbrial antibodies that recognize major pilin subunits but not with the Fab fragments of these antibodies. Thus, we propose that the mechanism by which bound antibodies disrupt the uncoiling of natural fimbria under force is by clamping together layers of the helical filament, thereby increasing their stiffness and reducing their resilience during fluid flow. In addition, we propose that antibodies tangle fimbriae via bivalent binding, i.e., by binding to two individual fimbriae and linking them together. Use of antibodies to disrupt physical properties of fimbriae may be generally applicable to the large number of Gram-negative bacteria that rely on these surface-adhesion molecules as an essential virulence factor. Our study shows that the resiliency of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and coli surface antigen 2 (CS2) fimbriae, which are current

  11. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  12. Curcumin causes DNA damage and affects associated protein expression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Chou, Yu-Ru; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Au, Man-Kuan; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chu, Yung-Lin; Chou, Hsiao-Min; Chou, Hsiu-Chen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and it is a prominent cause of cancer mortality. Curcumin is one of the major compounds from Turmeric and has been shown to induce cytotoxic cell death in human cervical cancer cells. However, there is no study to show curcumin induced DNA damage action via the effect on the DNA damage and repair protein in cervical cancer cells in detail. In this study, we investigated whether or not curcumin induced cell death via DNA damage, chromatin condensation in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using comet assay and DAPI staining, respectively, we found that curcumin induced cell death through the induction of DNA damage, and chromatin condensation. Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy examination were used to examine the effects of curcumin on protein expression associated with DNA damage, repair and translocation of proteins. We found that curcumin at 13 µM increased the protein levels associated with DNA damage and repair, such as O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, early-onset breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1, p-p53 and p-H2A.XSer140 in HeLa cells. Results from confocal laser systems microscopy indicated that curcumin increased the translocation of p-p53 and p-H2A.XSer140 from cytosol to nuclei in HeLa cells. In conclusion, curcumin induced cell death in HeLa cells via induction of DNA damage, and chromatin condensation in vitro.

  13. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  14. PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Toxic Mushrooms Causing Food-Poisoning Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Sakuma, Daisuke; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, species-specific identification of five toxic mushrooms, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Gymnopilus junonius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Pleurocybella porrigens, and Tricholoma ustale, which have been involved in food-poisoning incidents in Japan, was investigated. Specific primer pairs targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were designed for PCR detection. The specific amplicons were obtained from fresh, cooked, and simulated gastric fluid (SGF)-treated samples. No amplicons were detected from other mushrooms with similar morphology. Our method using one-step extraction of mushrooms allows rapid detection within 2.5 hr. It could be utilized for rapid identification or screening of toxic mushrooms.

  15. Quantification of time delay between damages caused by windstorms and by Ips typographus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Damages by wind and by European spruce bark beetle (I. typographus L. were compared on the basis of the reports about the occurrence of harmful forest agents for the period 1964−1991 across former regional state forest directorates. In the given period, the quantity of salvage logging (70 million m3 was more than five times that of sanitation felling (13 million m3. Damage intensity increased over the decades. Using a cross-correlation function between the time series, an increase in the abundance of I. typographus due to windfall was demonstrated with a delay of 1–3 years. Wind damage was also shown to arise as a result of disturbed stand stability after sanitation felling with a stochastic delay of 1−5 years. Thus, disturbance of static stability of forest stands may be considered as one of the main harmful consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for the near future. Consequences for forest management are discussed.

  16. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage

  17. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts

  18. Method for assessing damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by radiation and epichlorohydrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.; Hauswirth, W.W.; Ross, W.E.; Neims, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and reliable method for quantification of damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially strand breaks. The degree of damage to mtDNA is assessed by the proportion of physical forms (i.e., supercoiled versus open-circular and linear forms) upon agarose gel electrophoresis, blotting, and visualization by hybridization with [ 32 P]mtDNA probes. The use of a radiolabeled probe is a crucial step in the procedure because it provides both a means to quantify by radioautography and to obtain the mtDNA specificity required to eliminate misinterpretation due to nuclear DNA contamination. To demonstrate the utility of this technique, X-irradiation and epichlorohydrin are shown to damage both isolated mtDNA and mtDNA in whole cells in a dose-dependent fashion

  19. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  20. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  1. Causes of keel bone damage and their solutions in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander-Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Sandilands, V.; Tobalske, B.W.; Toscano, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the contemporary laying hen industry due to the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that KBD, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all housing systems

  2. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... underwater pipe should include the use of visual inspection by divers or instrumented detection. Information... owners and operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to... class location, failures, leakage history, corrosion, substantial changes in cathodic protection...

  3. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... of underwater pipe should include the use of visual inspection by divers or instrumented detection... operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to pipeline... facilities to determine and take appropriate action concerning changes in class location, failures, leakage...

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein causes a delay in repair of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Wook; Nickel, Kwangok P.; Torres, Alexandra D.; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) head and neck cancers (HNCs) demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to traditional HPV negative (HPV−) HNC patients. We have recently shown that HPV+ HNC cells are more sensitive to radiation than HPV− HNC cells. However, roles of HPV oncogenes in regulating the response of DNA damage repair remain unknown. Material and methods: Using immortalized normal oral epithelial cell lines, HPV+ HNC derived cell lines, and HPV16 E7-transgenic mice we assessed the repair of DNA damage using γ-H2AX foci, single and split dose clonogenic survival assays, and immunoblot. The ability of E7 to modulate expression of proteins associated with DNA repair pathways was assessed by immunoblot. Results: HPV16 E7 increased retention of γ-H2AX nuclear foci and significantly decreased sublethal DNA damage repair. While phospho-ATM, phospho-ATR, Ku70, and Ku80 expressions were not altered by E7, Rad51 was induced by E7. Correspondingly, HPV+ HNC cell lines showed retention of Rad51 after γ-radiation. Conclusions: Our findings provide further understanding as to how HPV16 E7 manipulates cellular DNA damage responses that may underlie its oncogenic potential and influence the altered sensitivity to radiation seen in HPV+ HNC as compared to HPV− HNC

  5. Prevalence of pathological conditions causing skin damage and consequently reducing its market value in domestic ruminants of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar I. Chaudhry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the prevalence of skin diseases reducing the market value of skins and hides and ultimately refined leather were not available in Pakistan. The current study was conducted in the hide/skin markets and abattoirs of Lahore and Faisalabad and tanneries of Sheikhupura, Kasur and Sialkot. The record of various skin diseases and conditions damaging the skin/hide of cattle, goat and sheep was made. Lesions, extent and type of damage were recorded. A total of 21,671 skins / hides were examined out of which 3918 of skins and 600 hides were examined at the abattoirs of Lahore and Faisalabad, 6784 Skins and 1399 hides at hide markets and 8091 skins and 879 hides at tanneries. Out of total 21,671 skins / hides, 66.12% were normal and 33.88% were having some sort of damage. The data were gathered on questionnaire sheets. The prevalence of skin diseases was assessed through Strata V.9 software program. The correlation of the disease and area was analyzed by the chi-square. The prevalence of various diseases and damages due to mal-management in sheep, goats and cattle has been discussed in detail. The damages in goat skins were significantly less as compared with cattle and sheep. However, the type of defects and severity varied amongst various ruminants studied. The most common damages observed, overall in all species studied were atrophy of skin (Thin skin 6.38%, followed in descending order observed was lesions of wounds 4.94%, old lesions of pox 4.82%, flaying cuts 3.17%, tick infestation 3.08%, lesions caused by mites infestation 2.45%, scratches 2.33%, lesions caused by warble fly larvae 1.47%, decomposition 1.32%, charr (fibrosis 1.28%, ringworm infection 1.10%, extensive soiling by dung 0.84%, chronic abscesses 0.46%, and Lice infestation 0.17%.

  6. Field data analysis of asphalt road paving damages caused by tree roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tree root damages are a frequent problem along paved cycling paths and service roads of rivers and streams. Damages occur mostly on streets with thin asphalt layers and especially in the upper part of the pavement structure. The maintainers of these roads are faced with frequent and high annual repair costs in order to guarantee traffic safety and pleasant cycling conditions. The focus of this research project is to get an insight in the processes governing the growth of the tree roots in asphalt layers and to develop test methods to avoid rood penetration into the road structure. Tree vegetation has been analysed selectively along a 300 km long cycle and service path of the Danube River in the region of Austria. Tree characteristics, topographic as well as hydrologic conditions have been analysed at 119 spots with different asphalt damage intensities. On 5 spots additional investigations on the root growth characteristics where performed. First results underline a high potential damage of pioneer trees which are growing naturally along rivers. Mostly, local occurring fast growing tree species penetrated the road layer structure. In a few cases other tree species where as well responsible for road structure damages. The age respectively the size of the trees didn't seem to influence significantly the occurrence of asphalt damages. Road structure damages were found to appear unaffected by hydrologic or topographic conditions. However, results have to be interpreted with care as the investigations represent a temporally limited view of the problem situation. The investigations of the root growth characteristics proved that tree roots penetrate the road structure mostly between the gravel sublayer and the asphalt layer as the layers it selves don't allow a penetration because of their high compaction. Furthermore roots appear to be attracted by condensed water at the underside of the asphalt layer. Further steps of the research project imply testing of different

  7. Molecular mechanisms of silk gland damage caused by phoxim exposure and protection of phoxim-induced damage by cerium chloride in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Sun, Qingqing; Yu, Xiaohong; Xie, Yi; Hong, Jie; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sang, Xuezi; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

    2015-09-01

    It is known that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP) including phoxim can produce oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and greatly attenuate cocooning rate in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Cerium treatment has been demonstrated to relieve phoxim-induced toxicity in B. mori; however, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of silk gland injury due to OP exposure and protection of gland damage due to cerium pretreatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate silk gland damage and its molecular mechanisms in phoxim-induced silkworm toxicity and the protective mechanisms of cerium following exposure to phoxim. The results showed that phoxim exposure resulted in severe gland damage, reductions in protein synthesis and the cocooning rate of silkworms. Cerium (Ce) attenuated gland damage caused by phoxim, promoted protein synthesis, increased the antioxidant capacity of the gland and increased the cocooning rate of B. mori. Furthermore, digital gene expression data suggested that phoxim exposure led to significant up-regulation of 714 genes and down-regulation of 120 genes. Of these genes, 122 were related to protein metabolism, specifically, the down-regulated Ser2, Ser3, Fib-L, P25, and CYP450. Ce pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of 162 genes, and down-regulation of 141 genes, importantly, Ser2, Ser3, Fib-L, P25, and CYP333B8 were up-regulated. Treatment with CeCl3 + phoxim resulted in higher levels of Fib-L, P25, Ser2, Ser3, CAT, TPx, and CYP333B8 expression in the silk gland of silkworms. These findings indicated that Ce increased cocooning rate via the promotion of silk protein synthesis-related gene expression in the gland under phoxim-induced toxicity. These findings may expand the application of rare earths in sericulture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  9. Incidence of the endothelin receptor B mutation that causes lethal white foal syndrome in white-patterned horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, E M; Vrotsos, P D; Purdy, A K; Mickelson, J R

    2001-01-01

    To determine incidence of the Ile118Lys endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) mutation responsible for overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS) and its association with specific types of white patterning. 945 horses of white-patterned bloodlines and 55 solid-colored horses of other breeds. Horses were genotyped by use of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to determine incidence of the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation. Genotypes detected were homozygous Ile118, homozygous Lys118, and heterozygous. All foals with OLWS were homozygous for the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation, and adults that were homozygous were not found. White patterning was strongly associated with EDNRB genotype. Color patterns with highest incidence (> 94%) of heterozygotes were frame overo, highly white calico overo, and frame blend overo. White-patterned bloodlines with lowest incidence of heterozygotes (white calico overo, splashed white overo, nonframe blend overo, and breeding-stock solid. The mutation was not detected in solid-colored horses from breeds without white patterning. In homozygotes, the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation causes OLWS. In heterozygotes, the mutation is usually responsible for a frame overo phenotype. The frame pattern can be combined with other white patterns, making accurate estimation of EDNRB genotype by visual inspection difficult. Wide range of incidence of heterozygotes in various subtypes of white-patterned horses indicates different genetic control of these color patterns. Determination of EDNRB genotype by use of a DNA-based test is the only way to determine with certainty whether white-patterned horses can produce a foal affected with OLWS.

  10. Structures of masonry walls in buildings of permanent ruin – causes of damage and methods of repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lot of castles classified as objects of the permanent ruin. In according to conservation doctrine, it is needed to protect this objects and prevent further degradation. Usually one of the most destructed element in this type of object is masonry wall. In this article has been described selected types of the masonry walls of the permanent ruin, causes of their damages and repairs methods.

  11. The enigma of multiple sclerosis: inflammation and neurodegeneration cause heterogeneous dysfunction and damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis has an autoimmune inflammatory component, which has dominated the description of multiple sclerosis. A degenerative component to multiple sclerosis was always apparent, but was underappreciated until recently. Recent work has brought...... axonal pathology and brain atrophy into new focus. The purpose of this review is to highlight the relative roles played by the inflammatory and degenerative processes in multiple sclerosis pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past year reports have been published to show that early disability and disease...... progression correlate with axonal damage, and that brain atrophy resulting from axonal loss is a feature of early multiple sclerosis, and is not restricted to the secondary progressive forms of the disease. Inflammatory mediators (CD8 T cells and antibodies) are implicated in axonal damage, and treatment...

  12. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsia Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72 has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30–60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF-α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  13. Incidence, causes and consequences of pregnancy failure in viviparous lizards: implications for research and conservation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kelly M; Cree, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Research on the causes of pregnancy failure in vertebrates has historically been mammal-focussed. However, live-birth (viviparity) has evolved multiple times, and is present in all other vertebrate taxa except Aves and Agnatha. Viviparous lizards (O. Squamata, excluding snakes and amphisbaenians) provide a valuable experimental group when studying major evolutionary events and some are also species of high conservation value. Consequently, both researchers and herpetoculturists often require high reproductive output from captive-held lizards. We reviewed the literature to determine potential or known causes of pregnancy failure for captive lizards. Pregnancy success across species averages approximately 86%, but varies extensively and does not appear to be related to embryonic stage when brought into captivity or level of placentation. Causes of pregnancy failure also vary among species, but correct thermal environments are vital to success, and providing adequate nutrition before vitellogenesis increases the number of viable offspring. A coordinated sequence of hormonal changes involving both pro-pregnancy and pro-labour factors is important for successful pregnancies, although uncertainty remains around the maternal concentrations of corticosterone that allow successful development. Several research areas commonly studied in mammals have yet to be explored or fully addressed in pregnant lizards, including impacts of toxins, parasites, UV light and nutritional quality. As viviparity has evolved over 100 times in lizards, and many different levels of placentation exist, pregnant lizards provide valuable models for studies in ecology and evolution and offer a useful comparison for studies on other viviparous vertebrates.

  14. Plasma Nitrate and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in the Community: The Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Renke; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Göen, Thomas; Müller, Johannes; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2017-11-18

    Nitrate is a dietary component as well as an endogenously formed metabolite and source of the signaling molecule nitric oxide. Harmful as well as beneficial effects of nitrate have been advocated. Data regarding the prognostic relevance of plasma nitrate are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association of plasma nitrate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We assayed plasma nitrate in 2855 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 59 years, 54% women) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and evaluated its association with all-cause mortality and incident CVD. On follow-up (median 17.3 years), 775 participants died and 522 developed new-onset CVD (of 2546 participants free of CVD at baseline). In multivariable models adjusting for standard risk factors, plasma nitrate was associated with an increased risk of death in participants (hazard ratio per unit increase in log-nitrate 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.40 [ P =0.015]). The strength of the association was attenuated by additional adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35 [ P =0.057]). In contrast, no evidence was found for an association of plasma nitrate with incident CVD (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase log-nitrate 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.31 [ P =0.42]). In our prospective community-based investigation, a higher plasma nitrate concentration was associated with all-cause mortality but not with incident CVD. The association of nitrate with mortality may at least in part be attributable to its association with renal function. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Doses of ash from carbonized rice husk on the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity and yield of onion under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ash from carbonized rice husk on the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity, yield, onion postharvest performance and chemical characteristics of the soil in organic system. The study was conducted in the field at Epagri, Experimental Station of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The cultivar used was Epagri 362 Crioula Alto Vale. The treatments were doses of carbonized rice husk ash 5 t ha-1, 10 t ha-1, 15 t ha-1 and untreated check. Randomized blocks design with five replications was used. The treatments do not affect the incidence and damage of thrips, downy mildew severity, leaf potassium content, yield and onion postharvest yield. Doses of ash influence the content of potassium in the soil in a positive quadratic relation and does not change the pH, organic matter, P, Ca, Al, Mg, and Na.

  16. Hibernation reduces cellular damage caused by warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P; Pike, Amanda C; Torrealba, Jose R; Carey, Hannah V

    2017-05-01

    During the hibernation season, livers from 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) are resistant to damage induced by ex vivo, cold ischemia-warm reperfusion (IR) compared with livers from summer squirrels or rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hibernation also reduces damage to ground squirrel livers in an in vivo, warm IR model, which more closely resembles complications associated with traumatic injury or surgical interventions. We also examined whether protection is mediated by two metabolites, inosine and biliverdin, that are elevated in ground squirrel liver during interbout arousals. Active squirrels in spring and hibernators during natural arousals to euthermia (body temperature 37 °C) were subject to liver IR or sham treatments. A subset of hibernating squirrels was pre-treated with compounds that inhibit inosine synthesis/signaling or biliverdin production. This model of liver IR successfully induced hepatocellular damage as indicated by increased plasma liver enzymes (ALT, AST) and hepatocyte apoptosis index compared to sham in both seasons, with greater elevations in spring squirrels. In addition, liver congestion increased after IR to a similar degree in spring and hibernating groups. Microvesicular steatosis was not affected by IR within the same season but was greater in sham squirrels in both seasons. Plasma IL-6 increased ~twofold in hibernators pre-treated with a biliverdin synthesis inhibitor (SnPP) prior to IR, but was not altered by IR in untreated squirrels. The results show that hibernation provides protection to ground squirrel livers subject to warm IR. Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms responsible for endogenous protection of liver tissue under ischemic stress.

  17. Change in the dibenzyldimethylammonium accumulation by irradiated Streptococcus cells caused by radiation damage modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Leont'eva, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Anoxia, concentrated cell suspension, glutathione (10 -4 -10 -2 M) or low concentrations of cysteine (10 -4 -10 -3 M) exerted a radioprotective effect and suppressed the accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium chloride (DDA + ) by γ-irradiated (40 krad) S. faecalis cells. Dilution of the cell suspensions and higher cysteine concentrations (>10 -3 M) increased the effects of irradiation on bacterial accumulation of DDA + and decreased the cell survival. The lethal action of irradiation apparently involves damage to the mechanisms which maintain a normal membrane potential

  18. Damage caused by capybaras in a corn Field Danos causados por capivaras em um campo de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paschoaletto Michi de Barros Ferraz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by capybaras in agroecossystems in Brazil has been frequently observed. The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the actual damage caused by capybaras in a corn field, aiming to get basic information on how, how much, and where these damage occur. Systematic sampling indicated that 26% of the planted area were damaged by capybaras, and the highest percentage of damage occurred on the border of the corn field (t=4.5698, p=0.0001. Damage in areas adjacent to a forest fragment was significantly higher (t=13.6198, p=0.0001, suggesting that the strategy of area utilization for feeding was related to the proximity of the resources "forest" and "water". Avoiding corn plantation in areas adjacent to forest fragments used by capybaras and, when possible, controlling capybara population may lead to a reduction of damage occurrence in agroecossystems.Danos causados por capivaras em culturas agrícolas no Brasil têm sido freqüentemente reportados. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e quantificar os danos causados por capivaras em um campo de milho, visando obter informações básicas de quanto, como e onde esse dano ocorre. Através da amostragem sistemática obteve-se que 26% da área plantada foi danificada por capivaras, sendo que a maior porcentagem dos danos localizou-se nas bordas do campo de milho (t=4.5698, p=0.0001. O dano em áreas adjacentes ao fragmento de mata foi significativamente maior do que no restante do terreno (t=13.6198, p=0.0001, sugerindo que a estratégia de utilização da área de alimentação pela capivara relaciona-se com o fator proximidade dos recursos "floresta" e "água". Evitar o plantio de milho em áreas adjacentes a fragmentos florestais utilizados por capivaras e, quando possível adotar práticas de controle populacional, podem significar a redução da ocorrência de danos causados aos agroecossistemas.

  19. [Cervical cord damage caused by discopathy coexistent with borreliosis (diagnostic difficulties)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, M; Curyło, M; Strek, G

    1999-01-01

    Borreliosis is a systemic disease proceeding chronically, in stages and with dermatological, rheumatological and cardiological manifestations. In international terminology the name Lyme borreliosis is most commonly used. Recently the number of the incidents of this disease has increased in Poland as well, particularly among those employed in forests located in endemic regions, which has been confirmed in publications. In this article we present an unusual case of the coexistence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection with cervical medulla injury resulting from discopathy observed in a 65-year-old patient, who additionally suffered from arterial hypertension and diabetes.

  20. Inhibition of root growth by narciclasine is caused by DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest in lettuce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanfeng; Li, Jiaolong; Yang, Lijing; Nan, Wenbin; Cao, Xiaoping; Bi, Yurong

    2014-09-01

    Narciclasine (NCS) is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid isolated from Narcissus tazetta bulbs. Its phytotoxic effects on plant growth were examined in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Results showed that high concentrations (0.5-5 μM) of NCS restricted the growth of lettuce roots in a dose-dependent manner. In NCS-treated lettuce seedlings, the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells and cell elongation in the mature region, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells, and cell cycle. Moreover, comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that higher levels NCS (0.5-5 μM) induced DNA damage in root cells of lettuce. The decrease in meristematic cells and increase in DNA damage signals in lettuce roots in responses to NCS are in a dose-dependent manner. NCS-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation may explain an increase in DNA damage in lettuce roots. Thus, the restraint of root growth is due to cell cycle arrest which is caused by NCS-induced DNA damage. In addition, it was also found that NCS (0.5-5 μM) inhibited the root hair development of lettuce seedlings. Further investigations on the underlying mechanism revealed that both auxin and ethylene signaling pathways are involved in the response of root hairs to NCS.

  1. [Increasing incidence of community-acquired pneumonia caused by atypical microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazón-Varela, M A; Alonso-Valle, H; Muñoz-Cacho, P; Gallo-Terán, J; Piris-García, X; Pérez-Mier, L A

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents. The aetiological diagnosis was made using blood cultures, detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila urinary antigens, sputum culture, influenza virus and Streptococcus pyogenes detection. Categorical variables are presented as absolute values and percentages, and continuous variables as their means and standard deviations. Of the 287 patients included in the study (42% women, mean age 66±22 years), 10.45% died and 70% required hospital admission. An aetiological diagnosis was achieved in 43 patients (14.98%), with 16 microorganisms found in 59 positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Streptococcus pneumonia (24/59, 41%), followed by gram-negative enteric bacilli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 20% of the samples (12/59), influenza virus (5/59, 9%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (3/59, 5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2/59, 3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2/59, 3%), Legionella pneumophila (2/59, 3%), and Haemophilus influenza (2/59, 3%). Polymicrobial infections accounted for 14% (8/59). A high percentage of atypical microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia were found. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Essential Metals Zinc, Selenium, and Strontium Protect against Chromosome Damage Caused by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yansen; Feng, Wei; Wang, Suhan; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wangzhen; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2016-01-19

    Essential metals play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but the effects of their interaction with the environmental pollutants are still not very well-known in human subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of essential metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on chromosome damage, an early carcinogenic event. A total of 1245 male workers were included in this study and the levels of 11 urinary essential metals, 12 urinary PAH metabolites, plasma concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, and lymphocyte micronucleus (MN) frequencies were monitored. We found that zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and strontium (Sr) have significant inverse dose-response relationships with MN frequencies (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the protective roles of Zn, Se, and Sr were mainly shown among subjects with high levels of BPDE-Alb adducts. Significant effect modification of BPDE-Alb adducts on the associations of Zn, Se, and Sr with MN frequencies was observed (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Our study showed evidence that Zn, Se, and Sr play protective roles in reducing chromosome damage, and these effects can be modified by PAH exposure levels. These findings add potential evidence for the preventive effects of Zn, Se, and Sr against carcinogenesis in human subjects.

  3. Tissue damage caused by the intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, H; Jacobson, J H

    1985-04-01

    In order to elucidate whether tissue damage produced on occasion by intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin is due to accidental intra-arterial injection or vasospasm, two types of experiments were carried out in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, six New Zealand White rabbits were given intra-arterial injections of 0.4 mL of a mixture containing 300,000 U of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units of penicillin procaine per milliliter (Bicillin C-R) into the left femoral artery and 0.4 mL of normal saline into the right femoral artery as autocontrol. In a second set of experiments, 0.4 mL of the same penicillin preparation was injected in the space surrounding the left femoral artery in five New Zealand rabbits, and 0.4 mL of normal saline was injected in a similar fashion around the right femoral artery as control. The legs of the rabbits that received the intra-arterial injection of penicillin invariably developed ischemic manifestations. None of the legs of rabbits given intra-arterial injections of normal saline had pathologic manifestations. None of the rabbits that received the periarterial penicillin preparation or normal saline developed abnormalities. These results strongly suggest that the tissue damage produced by penicillin is secondary to the intra-arterial administration of the drug.

  4. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  5. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  6. Mild hyperthermia can induce adaptation to cytogenetic damage caused by subsequent X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Lu.; Jiang, Jie.

    1995-01-01

    Many low-level environmental agents are able to induce an increased resistance to subsequent mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this paper, an induced cytogenetic adaptation to radiation in human lymphocytes was studied with mild hyperthermia as the adaptive treatment and compared with that induced by low-dose radiation. We found that this adaptation could be induced not only in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes (at 14, 38 and 42 h after addition of PHA), but also in unstimulated G 0 -phase cells (before addition of PHA) by mild hyperthermia (41 degrees C for 1 h) as well as 50 mGy X rays. When the two adaptive treatments were combined, no additive effects on the magnitude of the adaptation induced were observed, suggesting that low-dose radiation and hyperthermia may share one mechanism of induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage. Some mechanisms which may be involved in the induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage by low-dose radiation are discussed and compared with the effects of mild hyperthermia in inducing thermotolerance and radioresistance. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Mild hyperthermia can induce adaptation to cytogenetic damage caused by subsequent X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lu.; Jiang, Jie. [Norman Bethune Univ. of Medical Sciences, Changchun (China)

    1995-07-01

    Many low-level environmental agents are able to induce an increased resistance to subsequent mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this paper, an induced cytogenetic adaptation to radiation in human lymphocytes was studied with mild hyperthermia as the adaptive treatment and compared with that induced by low-dose radiation. We found that this adaptation could be induced not only in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes (at 14, 38 and 42 h after addition of PHA), but also in unstimulated G{sub 0}-phase cells (before addition of PHA) by mild hyperthermia (41{degrees}C for 1 h) as well as 50 mGy X rays. When the two adaptive treatments were combined, no additive effects on the magnitude of the adaptation induced were observed, suggesting that low-dose radiation and hyperthermia may share one mechanism of induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage. Some mechanisms which may be involved in the induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage by low-dose radiation are discussed and compared with the effects of mild hyperthermia in inducing thermotolerance and radioresistance. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. [Diagnostic values of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein for liver damage caused by different degrees of neonatal asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yun-Su; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Cao, Zhao-Lan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic values of prealbumin (PAB) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) for liver damage caused by mild or severe asphyxia. A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 neonates (including 84 premature infants and 101 full-term infants) with asphyxia. Based on the Apgar score, they were divided into two groups: mild asphyxia group (n=150) and severe asphyxia group (n=35). The levels of PAB, RBP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured and compared. Their diagnostic values for liver damage were evaluated by ROC curve analysis. The premature infants in the severe asphyxia group had significantly higher AST level and significantly lower levels of PAB and RBP than those in the mild asphyxia group (Pasphyxia group had a significantly lower PAB level than those in the mild asphyxia group (Pasphyxia group and in the full-term infants in both mild and severe asphyxia group (Pasphyxia groups also showed a significant improvement in AST level (Pasphyxia in full-term and preterm infants. PAB can be used as an indicator of liver damage caused by asphyxia in neonates, and can be used to assess the degree of asphyxia.

  9. Snoring Is Not Associated With All-Cause Mortality, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, or Stroke in the Busselton Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Wong, Keith K.H.; Cullen, Stewart R.J.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To ascertain whether objectively measured snoring increases mortality, cardiovascular disease, or stroke risk over the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and other established risk factors. Design: Community-based cohort. Participants: 400 residents of the Western Australian town of Busselton. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea were quantified via the percentage of the night spent snoring and the respiratory disturbance index as measured by a single night recording in November-December 1990 by a home sleep apnea monitoring device (MESAM IV), along with a range of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Follow-up for deaths and cardiovascular hospitalizations was ascertained via record linkage until the end of 2007. Results: Our analytical sample of 380 people was made up of the 397 people for whom the authors had follow-up data, minus 17 people who reported a previous stroke or heart attack at baseline (n = 380/400 = 95% of cohort). Snoring was observed for a mean/median of 32.0/27.4% of the night (standard deviation = 23.9%; range = 0-97.2%). There were 46 deaths, 68 cardiovascular events, and 24 strokes during 17 yr of follow-up. Snoring as either a categoric or continuous variable was not significantly associated with death, incident cardiovascular disease, or stroke in both unadjusted Cox regression models and in models that adjusted for obstructive sleep apnea and other risk factors. Conclusions: No measure of snoring was associated with all-cause mortality, or incident cardiovascular disease or stroke over 17 yr in this community-based sample. Citation: Marshall NS; Wong KKH; Cullen SRJ; Knuiman MW; Grunstein RR. Snoring is not associated with all-cause mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, or stroke in the Busselton Health Study. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1235–1240. PMID:22942501

  10. Proximal aortic distensibility is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and incident CV events: the MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redheuil, Alban; Wu, Colin O; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Yan, Raymond T; Bertoni, Alain G; Hundley, Gregory W; Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Daniels, Lori B; Darwin, Christine; Sibley, Christopher; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2014-12-23

    The predictive value of ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) for mortality and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events has not been fully established. This study sought to assess the utility of AAD to predict mortality and incident CVD events beyond conventional risk factors in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AAD was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 3,675 MESA participants free of overt CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate risk of death, heart failure (HF), and incident CVD in relation to AAD, CVD risk factors, indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis, and Framingham risk score. There were 246 deaths, 171 hard CVD events (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke and CV death), and 88 HF events over a median 8.5-year follow-up. Decreased AAD was associated with increased all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) for the first versus fifth quintile of AAD of 2.7 (p = 0.008) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, other CVD risk factors, and indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis. Overall, patients with the lowest AAD had an independent 2-fold higher risk of hard CVD events. Decreased AAD was associated with CV events in low to intermediate- CVD risk individuals with an HR for the first quintile of AAD of 5.3 (p = 0.03) as well as with incident HF but not after full adjustment. Decreased proximal aorta distensibility significantly predicted all-cause mortality and hard CV events among individuals without overt CVD. AAD may help refine risk stratification, especially among asymptomatic, low- to intermediate-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of medicinal plants extracts on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by cucumber mosaic virus and growth of chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidson, H.; Damiri, N.; Angraini, E.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of several extracts of medicinal plants on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus infection on the chili (Capsicum annuum L.) plantation. A Randomized Block Design with eight treatments including control was used throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of Azadiracta indica (A), Piper bitle (B), Cymbopogon citrates (C), Curcuma domestica (D), Averroa bilimbi (E), Datura stramonium (F), Annona Muricata (G) and control (H). Each treatment consist of three replications. The parameters observed were the incidence of mosaic attack due to CMV, disease severity, plant height, wet and dry weight and production (number of fruits and the weight of total fruits) each plant. Results showed that the application of medicinal plant extracts reduced the disease severity due to CMV. Extracts of Annona muricata and Datura stramonium were most effective in suppressing disease severity caused by the virus as they significantly different from control and from a number of treatment. The plants medicinal extracts were found to have increased the plant height and total weight of the plant, fruit amount and fruit weight. Extracts of Curcuma domestica, Piper bitle and Cymbopogon citrates were the third highest in fruit amount and weight and significantly different from the control.

  12. Low Doses of Oxygen Ion Irradiation Cause Acute Damage to Hematopoietic Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Chang

    Full Text Available One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE particles, such as oxygen (16O, carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE. Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 16O irradiation on the hematopoietic system. Specifically, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 0.1, 0.25 and 1.0 Gy whole body 16O (600 MeV/n irradiation and examined the effects on peripheral blood (PB cells, and bone marrow (BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs at two weeks after the exposure. The results showed that the numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased in PB after exposure to 1.0 Gy, but not to 0.1 or 0.25 Gy. However, both the frequency and number of HPCs and HSCs were reduced in a radiation dose-dependent manner in comparison to un-irradiated controls. Furthermore, HPCs and HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant reduction in clonogenic function determined by the colony-forming and cobblestone area-forming cell assays. These acute adverse effects of 16O irradiation on HSCs coincided with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, enhanced cell cycle entry of quiescent HSCs, and increased DNA damage. However, none of the 16O exposures induced apoptosis in HSCs. These data suggest that exposure to low doses of 16O irradiation induces acute BM injury in a dose-dependent manner primarily via increasing ROS production, cell cycling, and DNA damage in HSCs. This finding may aid in developing novel strategies in the protection of the

  13. Tacrolimus reversibly reduces insulin secretion, induces insulin resistance, and causes islet cell damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Niu, Yu-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Teng, Ya-Qin; Li, Chun-Feng; Wang, Hong-Yu; Yin, Jun-Ping; Wang, Le-Tian; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diabetogenic effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus, the reversibility of these effects upon treatment discontinuation, and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model. 60 healthy male rats were randomly divided into three groups for intragastric administration of tacrolimus either at 4 mg/kg/d or 2 mg/kg/d or an equal volume of normal saline (control). The treatment was administered for 5 months, followed by a 5-month period of no intervention. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were used to calculate the homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Tacrolimus treatment significantly increased blood glucose concentrations (p insulin secretion pathway, local and/or systemic insulin resistance, and islet cell damage.

  14. [Development of pulmonary hypertension and multi-valvular damage caused by appetite depressants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S E; Levy, Y; Shoenfeld, Y

    1998-12-01

    Marked obesity is an independent risk factor for multi-system morbidity. The use of anorectic drugs is an aggressive strategy for weight reduction. It appears to be an easy way of dealing with the problem, because the patient needn't change his behavior. However, such treatment is not harmless. At the end of the 60's an outbreak of pulmonary hypertension was associated with the drug aminorex, and it was soon withdrawn from the market. 30 years later it became clear that new-generation anorectic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine), which were being used world-wide, lead to both pulmonary hypertension and valvular damage. We describe a woman of 70 with both these complications which developed after prolonged anorectic therapy with a fenfluramine-phentermine combination.

  15. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  16. In situ quantification of endothelial cell damage caused by iodinated contrast media using a rat vena cava model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of vascular endothelial cell damage induced by iodinated contrast media using an in situ perfused rat vena cava model. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this study protocol prior to the commencement of all studies. A laparotomy was performed in 90 rats divided into 18 groups of five, and an 18G-catheter was inserted into the abdominal vena cava (mean length: ca 8 mm). After sacrificing, a thoracotomy was done and the outflow perfusate was emitted via a polyethylene tube inserted into the thoracic vena cava through the right atrium for an open system. Iopamidol (300 or 370 mg I/mL, 50 or 100 mL) was injected via the abdominal vena cava at a rate of 1, 4, or 8 mL/s. The abdominal vena cava was removed for histological analysis (n = 5). Physiological saline was injected as a negative control. The detachment percentage of endothelial cells was calculated by measuring the circumference and detachment section of the endothelium. The difference of the detachment percentage and circumference between each group was compared with Tukey's range test. Results: In contrast media groups, the severity of damage to the vascular endothelial cell was direct proportional to the increase of injection rate. The detachment percentage at 4 or 8 mL/s was significantly higher than that at 1 mL/s. As a result, the correlation between the injection rate and severity of cell damage was significant; however, the detachment percentage among contrast media groups was not significant at any injection rate. Conclusion: The in situ vena cava model was able to quantify contrast media injection related endothelial damage based on histopathological endpoints. Moreover, our results indicate that mechanical shear stress besides physico-chemical properties such as osmolality or viscosity cause endothelial damage.

  17. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  18. [Incidence and causes of early end in awake surgery for language mapping not directly related to eloquence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Gloria; Pacreu, Susana; Fernández-Candil, Juan Luis; León, Alba; Serrano, Laura; Conesa, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and causes that may lead to an early end (unfinished cortical/subcortical mapping) of awake surgery for language mapping are little known. A study was conducted on 41 patients with brain glioma located in the language area that had awake surgery under conscious sedation. Surgery was ended early in 6 patients. The causes were: tonic-clonic seizure (1), lack of cooperation due to fatigue/sleep (4), whether or not word articulation was involved, a decreased level of consciousness for ammonia encephalopathy that required endotracheal intubation (1). There are causes that could be expected and in some cases avoided. Tumour size, preoperative aphasia, valproate treatment, and type of anaesthesia used are variables to consider to avoid failure in awake surgery for language mapping. With these results, the following measures are proposed: l) If the tumour is large, perform surgery in two times to avoid fatigue, 2) if patient has a preoperative aphasia, do not use sedation during surgery to ensure that sleepiness does not cause worse word articulation, 3) if the patient is on valproate treatment, it is necessary to rule out the pre-operative symptoms that are not due to ammonia encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Factors and Root Causes Associated With Near-Miss or Safety Incidents in Patients Treated With Radiotherapy: A Case-Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Gregory D; Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Tracton, Gregg; Marks, Lawrence B; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors associated with a near-miss or safety incident (NMSI) in patients undergoing radiotherapy and identify common root causes of NMSIs and their relationship with incident severity. We retrospectively studied NMSIs filed between October 2014 and April 2016. We extracted patient-, treatment-, and disease-specific data from patients with an NMSI (n = 200; incident group) and a similar group of control patients (n = 200) matched in time, without an NMSI. A root cause and incident severity were determined for each NMSI. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine which specific factors were contributing to NMSIs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine root causes of NMSIs and their relationship with incident severity. NMSIs were associated with the following factors: head and neck sites (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; P = .01), image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (OR, 3; P = .009), daily imaging (OR, 7; P importance of a strong reporting system to support a safety culture.

  20. Lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera inhibit damage caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in HEp-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Villaseñor, H.; Canizalez-Román, A.; de la Garza, M.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Leon-Sicairos, N.

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. It produces a characteristic intestinal histopathological lesion on enterocytes known as ‘attaching and effacing’ (A/E), and these two steps are mediated by a type-III secretory system. In the

  1. [Cerebral damage in the full-term newborn infant. Causes and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varangot, J; Henrion, R; Amiel-Tison, C; Papiernik-Berkhauer, E

    1975-04-26

    Modern obstetrics can no longer be content to statistically analyse deaths only but must also concern itself with injuries. Cerebral damage in the new-born at term may result in grave sequelae. A study was made in the maternity department of the Port-Royal hospital of 65 infants, born at 38 weeks or later, with neurological signs, over the period 1968/69. The study was aimed at clarifying neonatal neurological signs, analysing the obstetric circumstances in which the complications occurred and observing future development of the children involved. In most instances a combination of neurological signs was present, falling into three broad clinical categories on the basis of severity. These neurological signs may appear during the hours after birth even when the Apgar score was satisfactory. Analysis of the cases showed that obstetric factors were responsible for the neurological disorder in 45 cases. The obstetric circumstances were almost always identical: abnormalities of presentation, dynamic problems during labour, and trials of labour. Modern methods for in-utero foetal surveillance are excellent but can nerve replace a perfect and hard won understanding of basic obstetric principles. Follow-up showed that sequelae remained in 7 children. It would appear, then, that in addition to "high risk" pregnancies, there exist "high risk" deliveries in part unpredictable before the onset of labour. There exists also a group of children in whom risk is increased and in whom surveillance over many years is indicated.

  2. Irreversible damage to auditory system functions caused by perinatal hypothyroidism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hiromi; Yumoto, Shoko; Iso, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of perinatal hypothyroidism on auditory function in rats using a prepulse inhibition paradigm. Pregnant rats were treated with the antithyroid drug methimazole (1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole) from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 21 via drinking water at concentrations (w/v) of 0 (control), 0.002 (low dose), or 0.02% (high dose). Rats from methimazole-treated mothers were tested at ages 1, 6, and 12months using techniques to examine prepulse inhibition and startle response. The startle stimulus consisted of 40ms of white noise at 115dB, whereas the prepulse, which preceded the startle stimulus by 30ms, consisted of 20ms of white noise at 75, 85, or 95dB. When the prepulse intensity was 75 or 85dB, the high-dose group showed decreased prepulse inhibition percentages compared with the control and low-dose groups. The reduced percentages of prepulse inhibition did not return to control levels over the 12-month study period. In contrast, no differences in prepulse inhibition were observed among the three dose groups when prepulse intensity was 95dB. Moreover, the high-dose group displayed excessive reaction to auditory startle stimuli compared with the other groups. Reductions in plasma free thyroxine and body weight gain were observed in the high-dose group. We conclude that perinatal hypothyroidism results in irreversible damage to auditory function in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Convention on civil liability for damage caused during carriage of dangerous goods by road, rail and inland navigation vessels (CRTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    1990-01-01

    In preparing this explanatory report on the Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused During Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland Navigation Vessels its author has been conscious of the fact that its function is not to offer a full history of the negotiations leading up to its adoption, but rather to provide clarifications which may be useful to those who will be called upon to apply and interpret the Convention. The text of the Convention can be found in appendix of the report

  5. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  6. Brain Damage Caused by Chemical Warfare Agents: Are Free Radicals a Final Common Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid ( 5 -HIAA) were quantitated by HPLC with electrochemical detection as described by Westerink et...microdialysis perfusates in both anesthetized and awake rats. Also, both soman and cyanide cause significant increases in 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA...Nielsen, E.O., Scheel-Krüger, J. and Olesen, S-P. (1994) Nitric oxide promotes seizure activity in kainate-treated rats. Neuroreport 5 , 2325-2328

  7. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccown, Andrew William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)ory

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  8. Is vein damage the only cause of clinical signs of lower limb chronic venous insufficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Cristina Seidel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Venous insufficiency is a very prevalent disease. Some decades ago a group of patients was identified that had symptoms of venous insufficiency, but no visible anatomic abnormalities. Studies showed that this subset had reduced venous tone, and their condition became known as hypotonic phlebopathy.Objective:To investigate prevalence, age group and variations in body mass index (BMI among patients with hypotonic phlebopathy.Methodology:A total of 1,960 limbs were examined in 1,017 patients who had been referred for complaints compatible with venous insufficiency. Patients with BMI ≥ 30 were defined as obese. The patients were examined using color Doppler ultrasonography to detect presence or absence of reflux in veins of the lower limbs and were then distributed into two groups as follows: patients with CEAP ≤ 1 and no reflux, diagnosed with hypotonic phlebopathy; or patients with CEAP ≥ 2 and reflux.Results:The study sample comprised 89.7% women and 10.3% men with a mean age of 44.9 years. Hypotonic phlebopathy was more common among the women (p = 0.0001. Obese women were more likely than women who were not obese to have venous symptom etiology involving trunk lesions (p = 0.0017. Among the men, obesity was unrelated to etiology of symptoms (p = 0.5991. Symptomology was more likely to be related to trunk vein damage among older age groups than among younger age groups (p-valor <0.0001.Conclusions:Hypotonic phlebopathy was very prevalent, particularly among young women who were not obese.

  9. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, J W M; Ferreira, I; Schalkwijk, C G

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.......This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  10. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al 3+ ) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al 3+ were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and 1 H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al 3+ induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al 3+ can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al 3+ concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  11. Effect of temperature and tree species on damage progression caused by whitespotted sawyer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in recently burned logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Sébastien; Bauce, Eric; Berthiaume, Richard; Long, Bernard; Labrie, Jacques; Daigle, Louis-Frédéric; Hébert, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Ce-rambycidae), is one of the most damaging wood-boring insects in recently burned boreal forests of North America. In Canada, salvage logging after wildfire contributes to maintaining the timber volume required by the forest industry, but larvae of this insect cause significant damage that reduces the economic value of lumber products. This study aimed to estimate damage progression as a function of temperature in recently burned black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lambert) trees. Using axial tomographic technology, we modeled subcortical development and gallery depth progression rates as functions of temperature for both tree species. Generally, these rates were slightly faster in black spruce than in jack pine logs. Eggs laid on logs kept at 12 degrees C did not hatch or larvae were unable to establish themselves under the bark because no larval development was observed. At 16 degrees C, larvae stayed under the bark for > 200 d before penetrating into the sapwood. At 20 degrees C, half of the larvae entered the sapwood after 30-50 d, but gallery depth progression stopped for approximately 70 d, suggesting that larvae went into diapause. The other half of the larvae entered the sapwood only after 100-200 d. At 24 and 28 degrees C, larvae entered the sapwood after 26-27 and 21 d, respectively. At 28 degrees C, gallery depth progressed at a rate of 1.44 mm/d. Temperature threshold for subcortical development was slightly lower in black spruce (12.9 degrees C) than in jack pine (14.6 degrees C) and it was 1 degrees C warmer for gallery depth progression for both tree species. These results indicate that significant damage may occur within a few months after fire during warm summers, particularly in black spruce, which highlights the importance of beginning postfire salvage logging as soon as possible to reduce economic

  12. GPR measurements and estimation for road subgrade damage caused by neighboring train vibration load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Lu, Gang; Ge, Shuangcheng

    2015-04-01

    Generally, road can be simplified as a three-layer structure, including subgrade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. It is commonly compacted before the road construction, and sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime or other modifiers. As the mainly supporting structure, subgrade damage would lead in pavement settlement, displacement and crack. Assessment and monitoring of the subgrade condition currently involves trial pitting and subgrade sampling. However there is a practical limit on spatial density at which trail pits and cores can be taken. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize highway pavement profiling, concrete structure inspection and railroad track ballast estimation. GPR can improve the economics of road maintenance. Long-term train vibration load might seriously influence the stability of the subgrade of neighboring road. Pavement settlement and obvious cracks have been found at a municipal road cross-under a railway with culvert box method. GPR test was conducted to estimate the subgrade and soil within 2.0 m depth for the further road maintenance. Two survey lines were designed in each lane, and total 12 GPR sections have been implemented. Considering both the penetrating range and the resolution, a antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency was chosen for on-site GPR data collection. For data acquisition, we used the default operating environment and scanning parameters for the RAMAC system: 60kHz transmission rate, 50 ns time window, 1024 samples per scan and 0.1 m step-size. Continuous operation was used; the antenna was placed on the road surface and slowly moved along the road. The strong surrounding disturbance related to railroad and attachments, might decrease the reliability of interpretation results. Some routine process methods (including the background removing, filtering) have been applied to suppress the background noise. Additionally, attribute

  13. Management of anterior teeth damage caused by complex caries through aesthetic endorestoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a microbiological disease that result in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. It is multifactorial, therefore prevention must be based on a multifactorial approach. The damage of anterior teeth due to complex caries, for certain person may interfere their performance and decrease their self confidence aesthetically. Restoration of tooth form and function, especially on anterior teeth is highly valuable. Purpose: To present a case of maxillary anterior teeth with complex caries, through endorestoration treatment for recovering its original function and aesthetic. Case: The 21 years old male patient with complex carries on maxillary anterior teeth number 12, 11, 21, 22 and 23. The patient felt bad about his performance and affect his self confidence. The patient visited the clinic to repair his teeth and to get its form and function aesthetically. Case management: The endorestoration treatment was performed for carious teeth through pulpectomy followed by insertion of post retention and porcelain fused to metal crowns. Conclusion: Anterior teeth with severed complex caries can be managed through endorestoration treatment to recover its performance and function aesthetically.Latar belakang: Dental karies adalah penyakit infeksi yang berakibat kerusakan jaringan kalsifikasi dan bersifat multifactorial. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dilakukan dengan pendekatan multifactorial. Kerusakan gigi anterior karena karies kompleks untuk orang-orang tertentu mungkin berdampak pada penampilan dan penurunan kepercayaan diri karena factor estetik. Perbaikan gigi anterior dari berbagai kerusakan baik dalam hal bentuk maupun fungsinya sangat besar nilainya. Tujuan: Untuk menunjukkan kasus gigi anterior rahang atas karena karies kompleks melalui perawatan endorestorasi untuk mengembalikan fungsi gigi asli dan estetik. Kasus: Laki-laki usia 21 tahun dengan karies kompleks pada gigi anterior rahang atas 12, 11, 21

  14. Short-term in vivo exposure to graphene oxide can cause damage to the gut and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewięcka, Marta; Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) has unique physicochemical properties and also has a potentially widespread use in every field of daily life (industry, science, medicine). Demand for nanotechnology is growing every year, and therefore many aspects of its toxicity and biocompatibility still require further clarification. This research assesses the in vivo toxicity of pure and manganese ion-contaminated GO that were administrated to Acheta domesticus with food (at 200mgkg -1 of food) throughout their ten-day adult life. Our results showed that short-term exposure to graphene oxide in food causes an increase in the parameters of oxidative stress of the tested insects (catalase - CAT, total antioxidant capacity - TAC), induces damage to the DNA at a level of approximately 35% and contributes to a disturbance in the stages of the cell cycle and causes an increase of apoptosis. Moreover, upon analyzing histological specimens, we found numerous degenerative changes in the cells of the gut and testis of Acheta domesticus as early as ten days after applying GO. A more complete picture of the GO risk can help to define its future applications and methods for working with the material, which may help us to avoid any adverse effects and damage to the animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  16. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-05-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Executive order no. 433 of 24th May 1996. Executive order on the international fund for compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Danish executive order on the international fund for the compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992 is related to the Danish law no. 205 of March 29th 1996, and is based on the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Damage, 1992. The document includes the convention's protocol presented in French, Danish and English. (AB)

  18. Development and licensure of medical countermeasures to treat lung damage resulting from a radiological or nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Andrea L; Jackson, Isabel L; Shah, Jui R; Czarniecki, Christine W; Maidment, Bert W; Williams, Jacqueline P

    2012-05-01

    Due to the ever-present threat of a radiological or nuclear accident or attack, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Radiation Medical Countermeasures Program was initiated in 2004. Since that time, the Program has funded research to establish small and large animal models for radiation damage, as well as the development of approaches to mitigate/treat normal tissue damage following radiation exposure. Because some of these exposures may be high-dose, and yet heterogeneous, the expectation is that some victims will survive initial acute radiation syndromes (e.g. hematopoietic and gastrointestinal), but then suffer from potentially lethal lung complications. For this reason, efforts have concentrated on the development of animal models of lung irradiation damage that mimic expected exposure scenarios, as well as drugs to treat radiation-induced late lung sequelae including pneumonitis and fibrosis. Approaches targeting several pathways are under study, with the eventual goal of licensure by the United States Food and Drug Administration for government stockpiling. This Commentary outlines the status of countermeasure development in this area and provides information on the specifics of licensure requirements, as well as guidance and a discussion of challenges involved in developing and licensing drugs and treatments specific to a radiation lung damage indication.

  19. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  20. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Oliveira, L.V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 μL of concentrated venom (40 μg/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm 2 energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  1. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  2. Damage caused by a nanosecond UV laser on a heated copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henč-Bartolić, V., E-mail: visnja.henc@fer.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jakovljević, S., E-mail: suzana.jakovljevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zupanič, F. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Cu-plate was exposed to nanosecond UV laser with max. energy 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}. • Surface topography was studied on the cold and heated copper plate. • At room temperature, a crater formed, the melt was ejected from it. • Capillary waves formed in the vicinity of the crater at 360 °C. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of thin copper plate temperature on its surface morphology after irradiation using a pulsed nanosecond UV laser. The surface characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and stylus profilometry. When a target was at room temperature, a crater and the radial flow of molten Cu from the crater was observed. When the thin target was warm (about 360 °C ± 20 °C), a crater was smaller, and quasi-semicircular waves with the periodicity of around 3 μm appeared in its vicinity. The origin of the waves is Marangoni effect, causing thermocapillary waves, which in same occasions had a structure of final states of chaos in Rayleigh–Bénard convection.

  3. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  4. Feeding behavior and crop damage caused by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, G A; Almeida Paz, I C L; Piovezan, U; Garcia, R G; Lima, K A O; Nääs, I A; Salgado, D D; Pilecco, M; Belloni, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds.

  5. Effects of Zinc and N-Acetylcysteine in Damage Caused by Lead Exposure in Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Taíse F; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Fonseca, Mariana M; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of rats exposed to lead acetate (AcPb) during the second phase of brain development (8-12 days postnatal) in hematological and cerebral parameters. Moreover, the preventive effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was investigated. Pups were injected subcutaneously with saline (0.9% NaCl solution), ZnCl 2 (27 mg/kg/day), NAC (5 mg/kg/day) or ZnCl 2 plus NAC for 5 days (3rd-7th postnatal days), and with saline (0.9% NaCl solution) or AcPb (7 mg/kg/day) in the five subsequent days (8th-12th postnatal days). Animals were sacrificed 21 days after the last AcPb exposure. Pups exposed to AcPb presented inhibition of blood porphobilinogen-synthase (PBG-synthase) activity without changes in hemoglobin content. ZnCl 2 pre-exposure partially prevented PBG-synthase inhibition. Regarding neurotoxicity biomarkers, animals exposed to AcPb presented a decrease in cerebrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in Pb accumulation in blood and cerebrum. These changes were prevented by pre-treatment with ZnCl 2 , NAC, and ZnCl 2 plus NAC. AcPb exposure caused no alteration in behavioral tasks. In short, results show that AcPb inhibited the activity of two important enzymatic biomarkers up to 21 days after the end of the exposure. Moreover, ZnCl 2 and NAC prevented the alterations induced by AcPb.

  6. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  7. Extract of Antrodia camphorata Exerts Neuroprotection against Embolic Stroke in Rats without Causing the Risk of Hemorrhagic Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the neuroprotective effect of an extract of Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata, a fungus commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer, alone or in combination with aspirin was investigated in a rat embolic stroke model. An ischemic stroke was induced in rats by a selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA with whole blood clots and then orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day alone and combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day. Sixty days later, the brains were removed, sectioned, and stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and analysed by a commercial image processing software program. Brain infarct volume, neurobehavioral score, cerebral blood perfusion, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence were perceived. In addition, potential bleeding side effect of the combinative therapy was assessed by measuring hemoglobin (Hb content during intracerebral hemorrhage and gastric bleeding, prothrombin time (PT, and occlusion time (OT after oral administration. Posttreatment with high dose A. camphorata significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral score (P < 0.05. Since A. camphorata alone or with aspirin did not alter the Hb level, this treatment is safe and does not cause hemorrhagic incident. Remarkably, the combination of A. camphorata and aspirin did not show a significant effect on the bleeding time, PT and OT increase suggesting that A. camphorata may have the neuroprotective effect without the prolongation of bleeding time or coagulation time. From these observations, we suggest that combinative therapy of A. camphorata and aspirin might offer enhanced neuroprotective efficacies without increasing side effects.

  8. Diabetes in older people: Prevalence, incidence and its association with medium- and long-term mortality from all causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Martínez, Mercedes; Blanco, Augusto; Castell, María Victoria; Gutiérrez Misis, Alicia; González Montalvo, Juan Ignacio; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Otero, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and incidence of self-reported diabetes and to study its association with medium- and long-term mortality from all causes in persons ≥ 65 years. A population-based cohort study begun in 1993. "Envejecer en Leganés" cohort (Madrid). A random sample of persons ≥ 65 years (n=1277 in the 1993 baseline sample). Participants were classified as having diabetes if they so reported and had consulted a physician for this reason within the last year. Diabetes history was categorized in diabetic individuals (1965 persons/2 years). Vital status was recorded on 31 December 2011. The association between diabetes history ≥ 10 years and mortality at 6 and 18 years follow-up was studied by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses after adjusting for age, sex, heart disease and comorbidity. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes rose from 10.3% in 1993 to 16.1% in 1999 (p ≤ 0.001) and was higher in women than men (p ≤ 0.05). Total incidence density was 2.6 cases/100 persons/2 years (95% CI: 2.0-3.3). Medium- and long-term mortality was higher in persons with diabetes history ≥ 10 years than in non-diabetic individuals (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3 and HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5, respectively). In diabetics with history diabetes is clearly associated with increased risk of mortality, it is significant only for patients with ≥ 10 years' history of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  10. Enantioselective oxidative stress and oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Xia, YiLu; Cai, Weidan; Zhang, Yina; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Du, Shaoting

    2017-04-01

    The rational use and environmental security of chiral pesticides has gained the interest of many researchers. The enantioselective effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on oxidative stress in Scenedesmus obliquus were determined in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to S-metolachlor treatment than to Rac-metolachlor treatment, suggesting that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by S-metolachlor. ROS levels following S-metolachlor treatment were 1.92-, 8.31-, and 1.08-times higher than those observed following Rac-metolachlor treatment at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were stimulated with increasing herbicide concentrations, with S-metolachlor exhibiting a greater effect. Oxidative damage in terms of chlorophyll (Chl) content, cellular membrane permeability, and cellular ultrastructures of S. obliquus were investigated. Chla and Chlb contents in algae treated with Rac-metolachlor were 2-6-fold higher than those in algae treated with S-metolachlor at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L. The cellular membrane permeability of algae exposed to 0.3 mg/L Rac- and S-metolachlor was 6.19- and 42.5-times that of the control. Correlation analysis implied that ROS are the major factor responsible for the oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor. Damage to the chloroplasts and cell membrane of S. obliquus, low production of starch granules, and an increased number of vacuoles were observed upon ultrastructural morphology analysis by transmission electron microscope. These results indicate that S-metolachlor has a greater effect on S. obliquus than Rac-metolachlor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The incidence, root-causes, and outcomes of adverse events in surgical units: implication for potential prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We need to know the scale and underlying causes of surgical adverse events (AEs in order to improve the safety of care in surgical units. However, there is little recent data. Previous record review studies that reported on surgical AEs in detail are now more than ten years old. Since then surgical technology and quality assurance have changed rapidly. The objective of this study was to provide more recent data on the incidence, consequences, preventability, causes and potential strategies to prevent AEs among hospitalized patients in surgical units. Methods A structured record review study of 7,926 patient records was carried out by trained nurses and medical specialist reviewers in 21 Dutch hospitals. The aim was to determine the presence of AEs during hospitalizations in 2004 and to consider how far they could be prevented. Of all AEs, the consequences, responsible medical specialty, causes and potential prevention strategies were identified. Surgical AEs were defined as AEs attributable to surgical treatment and care processes and were selected for analysis in detail. Results Surgical AEs occurred in 3.6% of hospital admissions and represented 65% of all AEs. Forty-one percent of the surgical AEs was considered to be preventable. The consequences of surgical AEs were more severe than for other types of AEs, resulting in more permanent disability, extra treatment, prolonged hospital stay, unplanned readmissions and extra outpatient visits. Almost 40% of the surgical AEs were infections, 23% bleeding, and 22% injury by mechanical, physical or chemical cause. Human factors were involved in the causation of 65% of surgical AEs and were considered to be preventable through quality assurance and training. Conclusions Surgical AEs occur more often than other types of AEs, are more often preventable and their consequences are more severe. Therefore, surgical AEs have a major impact on the burden of AEs during hospitalizations

  12. Oxidative damage of U937 human leukemic cells caused by hydroxyl radical results in singlet oxygen formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rác

    Full Text Available The exposure of human cells to oxidative stress leads to the oxidation of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nuclei acids. In this study, the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA was studied after the addition of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent to cell suspension containing human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. EPR spin-trapping data showed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cell suspension formed hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction mediated by endogenous metals. The malondialdehyde HPLC analysis showed no lipid peroxidation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, whereas the Fenton reagent caused significant lipid peroxidation. The formation of protein carbonyls monitored by dot blot immunoassay and the DNA fragmentation measured by comet assay occurred after the addition of both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent. Oxidative damage of biomolecules leads to the formation of singlet oxygen as conformed by EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy and the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is proposed here that singlet oxygen is formed by the decomposition of high-energy intermediates such as dioxetane or tetroxide formed by oxidative damage of biomolecules.

  13. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  14. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection.

  15. The assessment of health damage caused by air pollution and its implication for policy making in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daisheng; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin; Larssen, Steinar; Liu Jianhui; Zhang Dingsheng

    2010-01-01

    We establish the link between energy use, air pollution, and public health impacts in Taiyuan for 2000, and for 2010 and 2015 under alternative scenarios. We find that in year 2000 more than 2200 excess deaths may have been caused by particulate matter (PM) pollution. Using alternative methods for monetization of health impacts the total health damage amounts to 0.8-1.7 billion Yuan, which is 2.4-4.9% of the city's GDP in 2000. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, scenarios assuming extensive fuel switch in low-and-medium-stack pollution sources and extension of the district heating system could prevent 200-1100 PM 10 -related premature deaths in 2010 and substantially reduce population morbidity. The actual PM pollution in 2007 was lower than modeled in these two scenarios. We also find that if air quality in urban Taiyuan were to reach the Chinese National Grade II Standard in 2015, the number of premature deaths would still be around 1330 and the economic cost about 1-2% of the city's GDP in 2015. Our results imply that there are large health benefits to be gained by setting stricter standards for the future in China, and that targeting low-and-medium-stack source effectively reduces health damage.

  16. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  18. Calculation of Core Damage Frequency for the Change of the Common Cause Failure Parameters According to the Testing Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil You; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2011-01-01

    Common cause failure (CCF) probabilities are differently estimated according to testing strategies. There are two representative testing schemes; staggered testing and non-staggered testing schemes. For the cases where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing scheme, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Kang et al. derived the formulas for the estimations of the CCF probabilities of the components under the mixed testing scheme. This paper presents the sensitivity study results on the core damage frequency (CDF) of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) for the changes of the CCF parameters according to the testing strategies

  19. Causes and circumstances of damage to people in Calabria (Italy) due to hydrogeological events in the period 1980-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Luigi; Pasqua, A. Aurora; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE) can be defined as rainy periods during which landslides and floods can damage people. We investigates the effects of DHE on people in Calabria (southern Italy) ,in the period 1980-2014, using data coming from the systematic survey of regional daily newspapers. Data about "fatalities", people "injured" and people "involved" (not killed neither hurt) are stored in the database named PEOPLE, made of five sections: 1) event identification, 2) victim identification, 3) type of victim's involvement, 4) victim-event interaction, and 5) effects on victim. The outcomes highlight vulnerability factors related to gender and age: males were killed more frequently (75%) than females (25%), and fatalities were older (average age 49 years) than injured (40.1 years) and involved people (40.5 years). The average age of females killed (67.5 years), injured (43.4 years) and involved (44.6 years) were higher than the same values assessed for males, maybe indicating that younger females tend to be more cautious than coetaneous males, while older females show an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured and fatalities, perhaps because younger people showed greater promptness to react in dangerous situations. In the study region, floods caused more fatalities (67.9%), injured (55%) and involved people (55.3%) than landslides. Fatalities and injured mainly occurred outdoor, especially along roads, and the most dangerous dynamic seems to be dragged by flood, causing the majority of fatalities. The present work is the progression of the described research, and it has been carried out by enlarging the database to a 34-year period, from 1980 to 2014. The aim is to validate the conclusions drawn for the 2000-2014 period and to investigate if and how the gender and age vulnerability factors of Calabrian people have been changing throughout the study period.

  20. Using Information from Rendezvous Missions for Best-Case Appraisals of Impact Damage to Planet Earth Caused by Natural Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James O.; Chodas, Paul W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Mathias, Donovan L.; Burkhard, Craig D.

    2017-01-01

    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP), a part of NASAs Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) has the responsibility to appraise the range of surface damage by potential asteroid impacts on land or water. If a threat is realized, the project will provide appraisals to officials empowered to make decisions about potential mitigation actions. This paper describes a scenario for assessment of surface damage when characterization of an asteroid had been accomplished by a rendezvous mission that would be conducted by the international planetary defense community. It is shown that the combination of data from ground and in-situ measurements on an asteroid provides knowledge that can be used to pin-point its impact location and predict the level of devastation it would cause. The hypothetical asteroid 2017 PDC with a size range of 160 to 290 m in diameter to be discussed at the PDC 2017 is used as an example. In order of importance for appraising potential damage, information required is: (1) where will the surface impact occur? (2) what is the mass, shape and size of the asteroid and what is its entry state (speed and entry angle) at the 100 km atmospheric pierce point? And (3) is the asteroid a monolith or a rubble pile? If it is a rubble pile, what is its structure and heterogeneity from the surface and throughout its interior? Item (1) is of first order importance to determine levels of devastation (loss of life and infrastructure damage) because it varies strongly on the impact location. Items (2) and (3) are used as inputs for ATAPs simulations to define the level of surface hazards: winds, overpressure, thermal exposure; all created by the deposition of energy during the objects atmospheric flight, andor cratering. Topics presented in this paper include: (i) the devastation predicted by 2017 PDCs impact on land based on initial observations using ATAPs risk assessment capability, (ii) how information corresponding to items (1) to (3) could be obtained

  1. Urinary tract infection in children after cardiac surgery: Incidence, causes, risk factors and outcomes in a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Mohamed S; Ismail, Sameh R; Fatima, Anis; Shafi, Rehana; Idris, Julinar A; Mehmood, Akhter; Singh, Reetam K; Elbarabry, Mahmoud; Hijazi, Omar; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) increases hospitalization, cost and morbidity. In this cohort study, we aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, etiology and outcomes of UTIs in post-operative cardiac children. To this end, we studied all post-operative patients admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2012, and we divided the patients into two groups: the UTI (UTI group) and the non-UTI (control group). We compared both groups for multiple peri-operative risk factors. We included 413 children in this study. Of these, 29 (7%) had UTIs after cardiac surgery (UTI group), and 384 (93%) were free from UTIs (control group). All UTI cases were catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). A total of 1578 urinary catheter days were assessed in this study, with a CAUTI density rate of 18 per 1000 catheter days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CAUTI development: duration of urinary catheter placement (purinary tract (CAKUT) (purinary catheter, the presence of CAKUT, and the presence of syndromes comprised the main risk factors for CAUTI. Gram-negative organisms were the main causes for CAUTI, and one-third of them found to be resistant in this single-center study. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of thermal fatigue damage caused by local fluid temperature fluctuation (part I: characteristics of constraint and stress caused by thermal striation and stratification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation

  3. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  4. The effect of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on the protection of damage of the nerve physiomorphology caused by prolene mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Zeki; Kayaoglu, Huseyin Ayhan; Ozkan, Namık; Ozsoy, Seyma; Yaylak, Faik; Yenidogan, Erdinc

    2015-10-01

    Aim was to investigate the effect of methylprednisolone and tenoxicam on the protection of damage of the nerve physiomorphology caused by prolene mesh used in hernia repair. Fifty male Wistar-albino rats weighing 250-350 gr, were randomly divided into 5 groups. Sciatic nerve was dissected in all rats after performing EMG on basal neural transport. In group 1, only sciatic nerve manipulation was performed. Other groups received a monofilament polypropylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. No additional procedure was performed in group 2. In group 3, 2 mg/kg single dose methylprednisolone was injected around the nerve and mesh. In group 4 and 5, 0.5 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone and 1 mg/kg tenoxicam was injected around the nerve and mesh for 4 weeks, respectively. Neural transport was evaluated by electromyography 4 weeks later and compared with pre-procedural values. Then the rats were sacrificed and, sciatic nerves including 1 cm around the mesh were excised. Inflammation and fibrosis were scored histopathologically. While basal latency was similar, postoperative latency was significantly different among groups. Latency was significantly longer in group 2 than the group 1. It was significantly shorter in group 3 when compared to group 2 (p = 0.007). Preoperative and postoperative amplitudes were similar among groups. Denervation was significantly different among groups (p < 0.05). Denervation was higher in group 2 than group 1. It was similar to group 2 in study groups. Inflammation and fibrosis was significantly different among groups (p < 0.05). Inflammation and fibrosis scores were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The highest inflammation and fibrosis scores were detected in repetitive drug administrated groups. Although it wasn't statistically significant, inflammation was lower in single dose steroid administrated group than group 2. Similarly, the highest fibrosis scores were detected in repetitive drug administrated groups. Single dose steroid

  5. Equipment-related incidents in the operating room: an analysis of occurrence, underlying causes and consequences for the clinical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, I.; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; van den Akker, B.J.; Vaartjes, S.R.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Equipment-related incidents in the operating room (OR) can affect quality of care. In this study, the authors determined the occurrence and effects on the care process in a large teaching hospital. - Methods: During a 4-week period, OR nurses reported equipment-related incidents during

  6. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriba, G. de; Perez de Hornedo, J.; Ramirez Rubio, S.; Calvino Fernandez, M.; Benito Martinez, S.; Maiques Camarero, M.; Parra Cid, T.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has nephrotoxic effects known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), since antioxidants prevent the kidney damage induced by this drug. Given that mitochondria are among the main sources of intracellular ROS, the aims of our study were to examine the mitochondrial effects of CsA in the porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-PK1 and the influence of the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E). Following the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with CsA, we assessed the mitochondrial synthesis of superoxide anion, permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin peroxidation, cytochrome c release and cellular apoptosis, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy procedures. Similar experiments were done after Vit E preincubation of cells. CsA treatment increased superoxide anion in a dose-dependent way. CsA opened the permeability transition pores, caused Bax migration to mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and cardiolipin content. Also CsA released cytochrome c into cytosol and provoked cellular apoptosis. Vit E pretreatment inhibited the effects that CsA induced on mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells and avoided apoptosis. CsA modifies mitochondrial LLC-PK1 cell physiology with loss of negative electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increased lipid peroxidation. These features are related to apoptosis and can explain the cellular damage that CsA induces. As Vit E inhibited these effects, our results suggest that they were mediated by an increase in ROS production by mitochondria.

  7. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  8. Incidence and characteristics of acute referred orofacial pain caused by a posterior single tooth pulpitis in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Borna, Roya

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate incidence and characteristics of acute referred orofacial pain caused by a posterior single tooth pulpitis in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 3,150 patients (1,400 males and 1,750 females) with pain in the orofacial region were evaluated via clinical and radiographic examination to determine their pain source. Patients completed a standardized clinical questionnaire consisting of a numerical rating scale for pain intensity and chose verbal descriptors from short form McGill questionnaire to describe the quality of their pain. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to score pain intensity. In addition, patients indicated sites to which pain referred by drawing on an illustration of the head and neck. Data were analyzed using chi-square, fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney tests. Two thousand and hundred twenty patients (67/3%) reported pain in sites that diagnostically differed from the pain source. According to statistical analysis, sex (P = 0.02), intensity of pain (0.04), and quality (P = 0.001) of pain influenced its referral nature, while age of patients and kind of stimulus had no considerable effect on pain referral (P > 0.05). The results of the present study show the prevalence of referred pain in the head, face, and neck region is moderately high. Therefore, in patients with orofacial pain, it is essential to carefully examination before carrying out treatment that could be inappropriate. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  10. Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes Chemical control of corn leafhopper and incidence of corn stunting diseases caused by mollicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    . Corn stunting diseases incidence and grain production were evaluated. At screenhouse, the use of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan controlled the adults of D. maidis up to 50%, until the 30th day, and reduced disease incidence and damage on growth and grain production of the infected plants exposed to the infective leafhoppers, two days after emergency. In field, redution on corn stunting diseases or increasing production due to seed treatments was not observed possibly because of the migratory flux of infective leaf hoppers.

  11. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and ...... in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-κB inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene expression....

  12. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  13. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Restoration of electric power system from the damage caused by the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake; Hanshin Awaji daishinsai to denryoku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-05-30

    This paper summarizes the damage of electric power system by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Damages were occurred at ten power stations among 21 thermal power stations. At two power stations, damages in tanks were occurred by the liquefaction. There were damages in 181 facilities at 50 substations. There was occurred outage in 65 facilities at 17 substations. Twenty-three lines of aerial transmission facilities suffered from the earthquake. There were occurred damages in 20 steel towers at 12 lines. One of them was collapsed and the others were slightly damaged by the unequal displacement, which did not cause the outage. 102 lines of underground transmission facilities suffered from the earthquake. Outage happened at three lines with poor flexibility. Damages were occurred in 660 lines of distribution facilities. There were no dropping accidents of transformers. Although outage happened at 189 substations by the damages of facilities immediately after the earthquake, all of substations were restored up to 8:00 am next morning, to be able to supply electric power. It was considered that the functions of multiplex and multi-root facilities for transmission and transformation were secured.

  15. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  16. Could mesenchymal stem cell therapy help in the treatment of muscle damage caused by Bothrops alternatus venom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita da Costa Telles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in the treatment of myonecrosis induced by Bothrops alternatus venom in rats. Seventy-five male adult Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups. G1 and G2 were injected in the gastrocnemius muscle with 120μg of B. alternatus venom, while G3 received 200μL of PBS only. Three days after the venom injection, 12 rats from G1 were treated with 5.0 x 106 MSC in PBS, whereas G2 and G3 rats received PBS. Every three days, blood and muscle samples of five animals from each group were taken for serum biochemical and pathological analyses. Histological examinations showed more intense muscle lesions following MSC treatment, characterized by disorganization and loss of muscle fibers, with focal necrosis and inflammatory infiltration by mononuclear cells. In conclusion, the use of MSC for the treatment of local damage caused by inoculation of B. alternatus venom impaired muscle regeneration and interfered in the healing process.

  17. Damage of the right dorsal superior longitudinal fascicle by awake surgery for glioma causes persistent visuospatial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Riho; Kinoshita, Masashi; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Okita, Hirokazu; Genda, Ryoji; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-12-07

    Patients with glioma frequently present with neuropsychological deficits preoperatively and/or postoperatively, and these deficits may remain after the chronic phase. However, little is known about postoperative recovery course of right hemispheric function. We therefore studied the characteristics and causes of persistent cognitive dysfunction in right cerebral hemispheric glioma. Eighteen patients who underwent awake surgery participated in this study. All patients who received preoperative neuropsychological examinations were assigned to two groups according to their test results: preoperative deficit and normal. They were reassessed 1 week and 3 months after surgery. The rates of remaining deficits in the deficit group at chronic phase were higher than those of the normal group for all functions. Despite preoperative normal function, the remaining rate for visuospatial cognitive deficits was the highest among all functions. The voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis for visuospatial cognition revealed that a part of the medial superior and middle frontal gyri were resected with high probability in patients with low visuospatial cognitive accuracy. Our study indicates that in patients with preoperative neuropsychological deficits, these deficits tend to remain until the chronic phase. Visuospatial dysfunction frequently persists until the chronic phase, which might reflect damage to the superior longitudinal fasciclus I and II.

  18. Civil liability and compensation for damages caused by certain hazardous and noxious substances during their carriage by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, A. de.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper current international efforts directed at the establishment of a special legal regime for civil liability and compensation for damages caused by hazardous and noxious substances during their transport by sea, specifically chemicals and liquid gas products, are described and analysed. Special attention is given to the way in which concern with the development of an 'environment oriented' regime which provides full recovery for victims in a reliable manner, on the one hand, and, on the other, considerations relating to cost effectiveness complement or conflict with each other. Another important area of investigation concerns the potential role of the marine insurance industry in accident prevention through the provision of incentives for careful (i.e. safe and environmentally sound) behaviour. There is a distinct regulatory trend in favour of strict liability (i.e. liability without fault) and compulsory insurance. There is also a growing perception of the need to depart from the traditional pattern of maritime liability which channels liability automatically to the person exercizing operational control during transport by sea (i.e. the carrier), and to additionally impose liability on those responsible for the risks attached to the inherently harmful characteristics of the cargoes carried. (orig.) [de

  19. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known corona...

  20. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.J.W.; van der Bij, A.K.; Prins, M.; Bruisten, S.M.; Brinkman, K.; Ruys, T.A.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Mulder, J.W.; van Agtmael, M.; Jurriaans, S.; Wolthers, K.C.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively screened 1836 men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2003) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. HCV incidence was 0.18/100 person-years (PY) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive MSM (8/4408 PY [95% confidence interval {CI},

  1. Development of an Analysis Tool for Evaluation of Marginal Impacts of Freeway Incidents in the Las Vegas Area Using FAST’s Dashboard Freeway Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Incidents are a major source of non-recurring congestion on freeways. In addition to costing millions of dollars in the loss of life, injuries and property damage, traffic incidents also cause additional losses due to the resulting traffic congestion...

  2. Insomnia symptoms as a cause of type 2 diabetes Incidence: a 20 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Espie, Colin A; Popham, Frank; Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela

    2017-03-16

    Insomnia symptoms are associated with type 2 diabetes incidence but are also associated with a range of potential time-varying covariates which may confound and/or mediate associations. We aimed to assess whether cumulative exposure to insomnia symptoms has a causal effect on type 2 diabetes incidence. A prospective cohort study in the West of Scotland, following respondents for 20 years from age 36. 996 respondents were free of diabetes at baseline and had valid data from up to four follow-up visits. Type 2 diabetes was assessed at the final visit by self-report, taking diabetic medication, or blood-test (HbA 1c  ≥ 6.5% or 48 mmol/mol). Effects of cumulative insomnia exposure on type 2 diabetes incidence were estimated with traditional regression and marginal structural models, adjusting for time-dependent confounding (smoking, diet, physical inactivity, obesity, heavy drinking, psychiatric distress) as well as for gender and baseline occupational class. Traditional regression yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.06-1.70) for type 2 diabetes incidence for each additional survey wave in which insomnia was reported. Marginal structural models adjusted for prior covariates (assuming concurrently measured covariates were potential mediators), reduced this OR to 1.20 (95% CI: 0.98-1.46), and when concurrent covariates were also included (viewing them as potential confounders) this dropped further to 1.08 (95% CI: 0.85-1.37). The association between cumulative experience of insomnia and type 2 diabetes incidence appeared confounded. Evidence for a residual causal effect depended on assumptions as to whether concurrently measured covariates were confounders or mediators.

  3. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  4. Application of routine MRI and 1H-MRS in evaluating the central neurological damages caused by occupational manganese exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangrong; Long Liling; Jiang Muliang

    2010-01-01

    .051±0.024), (0.047± 0.018), (0.043±0.020) μg/ml respectively, which was not significantly different (F=0.623, P= 0.541) and did not exceed the upper limit of normal reference value ( 0.05). No obvious changes of the PI and NAA/Cr were found in the 8 manganese exposed workers after 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: Manganese exposure could lead to the high intensity signal on T 1 WI, therefore the increased PI may be the biomarkers of central nerve system damages caused by the occupational manganese exposure. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba Abuamsha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivars grown commercially in Palestine include Arbequino, Frantoio and ?Barouni’.The “Nabali” is the most dominant and highly susceptible olive cultivar grown in Palestine. Disease incidence varied greatly among the cultivars F=59.4, df=11, 251, p?0.0001 and was correlated with the severity (y = 0.42x + 9.3, P ? 0.0001, R² = 0.84, y = disease severity and x = disease incidence. Disease severity also varied among different cultivars F=13.9, df=11, 251, p?0.0001. Nabali Mohassan was the most affected susceptible while Barouni was most resistant. Progress of disease severity over time fit the logistic function for all cultivars except for highly susceptible cultivars F=1.56, df=6, 83, p?0.169. The assessment method may be useful to screen olive cultivars for OLS resistance in Palestine.

  6. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  8. Substantiation of causes for damage of water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a high-pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    The damageability for water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a TPE-208 boiler is analyzed. The general cause for tube damage is the intensive underslime corrosion of the inner surface, which is caused by a local increase in the salt concentration in boiler water. The experiment-calculated method showed that continuous bleeding from an external cyclone being the first in water downstream causes a substantial increase in the concentration of salts (more than by a factor of three) and scale-forming agents within a contour of the loop of a distant cyclone in comparison with the variant of bleeding from a loop being the second in water downstream.

  9. Morphology of the primary damage caused by the argon-ion laser to the iris of the pigmented rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.K.; Zypen, E. van der; Frankhauser, F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the argon-ion laser upon the iris of the pigmented rabbit were analysed by ultrastructural methods. Apart from the physical parameters of the energy source, the damage strongly depends on the concentration, location, and distribution of the iris pigment. The irradiation of the iris results in the formation of a crater. Depending on the distance of the epicentre of the impact, various degrees of ultrastructural damage are observed. The region immediately adjacent to the crater lumen at a revealing distance of 25 μm consists of homogenous masses, revealing a vacuolar structure. As the only residuals of destroyed cells, melanin granules are observed within the homogenous masses. Destruction of the collagen fibrils and their disintegration into subfibrils with elimination of all cell compartments is found in an area ranging from 25 μm to 300 μm from the wall of the crater. Damage to the chromatin structure is visible up to a distance of 300 μm to 375 μm from the wall of the crater. Characterised by an invasion of macrophages into the damaged area, the cleaning phase starts 24 h after irradiation. The results of this experiment indicate that because of the great energy dose required for man with the inherent widespread tissue damage and low probability of a lasting iridectomy, the cw argon-ion laser appears to be an unsuitable energy source for clinical iridectomy. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  10. Investigation of surface and sub-surface damage in high quality synthetic diamonds by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence in-plane diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussone, Genziana; Lafford, Tamzin A.; Masiello, Fabio; Carbone, Gerardina; Schuelli, Tobias U.; Rommeveaux, Amparo Vivo; Haertwig, Juergen [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gibaud, Alain [Laboratoire PEC, Universite du Maine le Mans, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72 085 Le Mans (France); Connell, Simon H. [University of Johannesburg, cnr Kingsway Ave and University Rd, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wormington, Matthew [Jordan Valley Semiconductors Inc., 8601 Cross Park Drive, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78754-4578 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    High quality single-crystal synthetic diamond is the most suitable material for selected X-ray optical applications in the latest generation X-ray light sources. Excellent heat handling properties, as well as low absorption, coupled with high perfection in the crystal bulk and very good surface quality, are crucial for such applications. In recent years, some progress has been made in the fields of surface treatments and growth techniques. Conventional scaife polishing is largely ineffective on the diamond (111) surface. To overcome this disadvantage, one possibility is to use the Hot Metal polishing technique. An investigation of surface and sub-surface damage of Hot Metal polished and cleaved surfaces, has been carried out using depth-sensitive non-destructive X-ray techniques. The near surface crystalline quality was studied as a function of depth using in-plane grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Additionally, X-ray reflectivity was used to investigate the density, thickness and roughness of near-surface layers. The measurements enable us to estimate the thickness of the affected sub-surface layer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Structural damage in the C. elegans epidermis causes release of STA-2 and induction of an innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Li, Wenna; Li, Linfeng; Li, Yuanbao; Fu, Rong; Zhu, Yi; Li, Jie; Zhou, Yanfeng; Xiong, Sidong; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-02-17

    The epidermis constantly encounters invasions that disrupt its architecture, yet whether the epidermal immune system utilizes damaged structures as danger signals to activate self-defense is unclear. Here, we used a C. elegans epidermis model in which skin-penetrating infection or injury activates immune defense and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. By systemically disrupting each architectural component, we found that only disturbance of the apical hemidesmosomes triggered an immune response and robust AMP expression. The epidermis recognized structural damage through hemidesmosomes associated with a STAT-like protein, whose disruption led to detachment of STA-2 molecules from hemidesmosomes and transcription of AMPs. This machinery enabled the epidermis to bypass certain signaling amplification and directly trigger AMP production when subjected to extensive architectural damage. Together, our findings uncover an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the epithelial barriers to detect danger and activate immune defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  13. Time Trends in Incidence and Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction, and All-Cause Mortality following a Cardiovascular Prevention Program in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Journath

    Full Text Available In 1988, a cardiovascular prevention program which combined an individual and a population-based strategy was launched within primary health-care in Sollentuna, a municipality in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County during a period of two decades following the implementation of a cardiovascular prevention program.The average population in Sollentuna was 56,589 (49% men and in Stockholm County (Sollentuna included 1,795,504 (49% men during the study period of 1987-2010. Cases of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and death were obtained for the population of Sollentuna and the rest of Stockholm County using national registries of hospital discharges and deaths. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality were estimated using the average population of Sollentuna and Stockholm in 1987-2010.During the observation period, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreased more in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County in women (-22% vs. -7%; for difference in slope <0.05. There was a trend towards a greater decline in Sollentuna compared to the rest of Stockholm County in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (in men, acute myocardial mortality, and all-cause mortality but the differences were not significant.During a period of steep decline in acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Stockholm County the municipality of Sollentuna showed a stronger trend in women possibly compatible with favorable influence of a cardiovascular prevention program.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02212145.

  14. Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO3 crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.

    2012-01-01

    The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO 3 crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the ±Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

  15. Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO3 crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.

    2012-01-01

    The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO3 crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the ±Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

  16. The African Zika virus MR-766 is more virulent and causes more severe brain damage than current Asian lineage and dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Herrlinger, Stephanie; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Yang, Mei; Goodfellow, Forrest; Stice, Steven L; Qi, Xiao-Peng; Brindley, Melinda A; Chen, Jian-Fu

    2017-11-15

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) has two lineages, Asian and African, and their impact on developing brains has not been compared. Dengue virus (DENV) is a close family member of ZIKV and co-circulates with ZIKV. Here, we performed intracerebral inoculation of embryonic mouse brains with dengue virus 2 (DENV2), and found that DENV2 is sufficient to cause smaller brain size due to increased cell death in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons. Compared with the currently circulating Asian lineage of ZIKV (MEX1-44), DENV2 grows slower, causes less neuronal death and fails to cause postnatal animal death. Surprisingly, our side-by-side comparison uncovered that the African ZIKV isolate (MR-766) is more potent at causing brain damage and postnatal lethality than MEX1-44. In comparison with MEX1-44, MR-766 grows faster in NPCs and in the developing brain, and causes more pronounced cell death in NPCs and neurons, resulting in more severe neuronal loss. Together, these results reveal that DENV2 is sufficient to cause smaller brain sizes, and suggest that the ZIKV African lineage is more toxic and causes more potent brain damage than the Asian lineage. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. An application of cost-effectiveness analysis to restrict the damage caused by accidental release of radioactive material to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, L.; Tamburrano, A.

    1980-01-01

    A cost-effective analysis is applied to the problem of restricting the damage caused by an accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The cost of remedial actions is compared with the monetary value of the collective dose avoided by these actions. After describing the methodology used, the results for various 'standard' accidents in PWR are given. Results are also given for various values of the monetary value of health damage ($ per man Sv). If remedial action were managed only on the basis of cost-effective analysis, an intervention plan for reducing social damage would be justified only for large and mean extent accidents; however, no account has been taken of psychological factors. (U.K.)

  18. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P electromagnetic radiation could not directly induce DNA damage in normal spiral ganglion neurons, but

  19. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Hurricanes AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... the passage of Hurricanes. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on the Office of Pipeline Safety... can result from the passage of hurricanes. That includes the potential for damage to offshore...

  20. TiO2 Photocatalysis Causes DNA Damage via Fenton Reaction-Generated Hydroxyl Radicals during the Recovery Period▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogniat, Gaëtan; Dukan, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Here, we show that resistance of Escherichia coli to TiO2 photocatalysis involves defenses against reactive oxygen species. Results support the idea that TiO2 photocatalysis generates damage which later becomes deleterious during recovery. We found this to be partly due to DNA attack via hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction during recovery. PMID:17933934

  1. Evaluation of damage caused by Bruchus pisorum L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on some parameters related to seed quality of pea forage cultivars (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the damage caused by Bruchus pisorum L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on the germination ability of pea farage varieties (Pisum sativum L.. Result of damage by Bruchus pisorum in seeds with parasitized larva was significant decrease of the germination by 16.4% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 16.8 and 24.5%, the length and weight of plumule by 12.3 and 14.1%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 32.5 and 32.8% as well as the germination index by 17.4%. The inhibitory effect was on average 17.8%. Essential significant changes in regard to the studied parameters were found for damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole. In these seeds the gewrmination decrease by 58.3% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 34.1 and 36.2%, the length and weight of plumule by 31.8 and 34.3%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 81.1 and 82.1% as well as the germination index by 83.1%. The inhibitory effect was on average 58.3%. It was found that the damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole provided better possibility for growth and development of plants whereas the damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole had significantly low germination, vigor and sowing characteristics. These seeds could not provide the establishment of well-garnished stand and stable yields. As tolerant to damage by Bruchus pisorum was distinguished Glyans variety for which the values of parameters related to germination and vigor of seeds were influenced in the lowest degree from the damage unlike the sensitive Pleven 4 variety. Dominant factor influencing germination ability of seeds for all analyzed parameters was the type of seeds compared to varietal appurtenance.

  2. Intermittent hypoxia causes histological kidney damage and increases growth factor expression in a mouse model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisher Abuyassin

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH, a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA for 60 days. After euthanasia, one kidney per animal was paraformaldehyde-fixed and then sectioned for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Measurements of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial matrix expansion were made in periodic acid-Schiff stained kidney sections, while glomerular transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A proteins were semi-quantified by immunohistochemistry. The antigen-antibody reaction was detected by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine chromogen where the color intensity semi-quantified glomerular protein expression. To enhance the accuracy of protein semi-quantification, the percentage of only highly-positive staining was used for analysis. Levels of TGF-β, CTGF and VEGF-A proteins in the kidney cortex were further quantified by western blotting. Cellular apoptosis was also investigated by measuring cortical antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax proteins by western blotting. Further investigation of cellular apoptosis was carried out by fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining. Finally, the levels of serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary albumin were measured as a general index of renal function. Our results indicate that mice exposed to IH

  3. Use of alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase combinations to minimize the bread quality problems caused by high levels of damaged starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; Tadini, Carmen C; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the contribution of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to dough fermentation process and bread quality, as an alternative to reduce the negative effects caused by high damaged starch in flour. The dough properties during the proofing process were modified by higher damaged starch content. Higher damaged starch in flour resulted into breads with darker crusts and firmer crumbs. The enzymes reduced the negative influence of damaged starch, producing a positive effect on the maximum carbon dioxide pressure reached during fermentation and the carbon dioxide volume retained by dough. Incorporation of alpha-amylase reduced dimension ratio and crumb firmness attributes; however, progressive additions of this additive produced lower bread volume and red intensity, and higher crumb firmness. The amyloglucosidase additions produced higher bread volume and red intensity of the crust, and lower brightness crust and gas cell diameter. Incorporation of amyloglucosidase was beneficial in the presence of a suitable quantity of damaged starch. The results confirmed that the α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions significantly improved bread quality. Incorporation of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase led to higher bread loaves and lower crumb firmness throughout the storage period, promoting a longer life of the finished product.

  4. State financial cover for nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Some States have introduced systems of compensation out of public funds in case the compensation under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention is insufficient to cover the damage caused by a nuclear incident. The systems are described in this paper as well as that in Switzerland, which is not Party to these Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  5. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  6. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Shiori, E-mail: ishino@k9.dion.ne.jp [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  7. Evaluation of the Toxicity, AChE Activity and DNA Damage Caused by Imidacloprid on Earthworms, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Qi, Suzhen; Mu, Xiyan; Chai, Tingting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Li, Dongzhi; Che, Wunan; Wang, Chengju

    2015-10-01

    Imidacloprid is a well-known pesticide and it is timely to evaluate its toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). In the present study, the effect of imidacloprid on reproduction, growth, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage in earthworms was assessed using an artificial soil medium. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median number of hatched cocoons (EC50) of imidacloprid to earthworms was 3.05 and 0.92 mg/kg respectively, the lowest observed effect concentration of imidacloprid about hatchability, growth, AChE activity and DNA damage was 0.02, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively.

  8. Prediction of injuries caused by explosive events: A case study of a hand grenade incident in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whyte, TN

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available injuries when the subject is in very close proximity to the explosive charge is still unknown. Further such case studies and research into injury mechanisms and injury criteria are necessary to enable injuries caused by explosive events to be accurately...

  9. Significance of 8-oxoG in the spectrum of DNA damages caused by ionising radiation of different quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Václav; Davídková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 122, 1-4 (2007), s. 113-115 ISSN 0144-8420. [Symposium on Microdosimetry /14./. Venezia, 13.11.2005-18.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4048401; GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : DNA damage * 8-oxoguanine * ionizing radiation * theoretical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  10. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted <4% of subject trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  11. Brief communication: On-site data collection of damage caused by flash floods: Experiences from Braunsbach, Germany, in May/June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Jonas; Rözer, Viktor; Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    At the end of May and beginning of June 2016, several municipalities in Southern Germany suffered from severe flash floods and debris flows which have been triggered by intense rainfall in Central Europe. Overall, the insured losses of these events amounted to EUR 1.2 billion in Germany. Especially the strong and unexpected flash flood on May 29th in Braunsbach (Baden Wurttemberg) - a small village counting about 1,000 residents - attracted media and policymakers due to its devastating character. The understanding of damage caused by flash floods requires ex-post collection of relevant but yet sparsely available information, linking process intensities to damage by using adequate methods of data gathering. Thus, on-site data collection was carried out after the flash flood event in Braunsbach, using open source software as helpful and efficient tool for data acquisition and evaluation. A digital survey was designed and conducted by a team of five researchers who investigated all buildings affected by water and debris flows. The collected data includes an estimation of a particular damage class, the inundation depth, and other relevant information. A post - hoc data analysis was done with R 3.3.1 and QGIS 2.14.3, performing both, a Random Forest Model (RF) and Random Generalized Linear Model (RGLM) as well as preparing a Spearman's rank correlation matrix. For visual interpretation and better overview of the study area and analysis results, a "process intensity" map was created, revealing important links of damage driving factors. We find that not only the water depth, which is often considered as only damage driving factor in riverine flood loss modelling, but also the exposition of a building to the flow direction and susceptible building parts like e.g. shop windows seem to be risk factors in flash-flood prone regions. Although no significant correlations were found, the analyses indicate that also building material (i.e. half-timbered or masonry) and structural

  12. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). There were no major differences between the incidence, severity, nature or cause of training injuries

  13. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: match injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study of American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all match injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Match exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 25.43 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 23.92 on grass (incidence ratio 1.06; p = 0.46) and for women was 19.15 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 21.79 on grass (incidence ratio = 0.88; p = 0.16). For men, the mean severity of non-season ending injuries was 7.1 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.4 days (median 5) on grass and, for women, 11.2 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.9 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and contusion injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of match injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 24.60, grass 22.91; p = 0.40; women: artificial turf 18.29, grass 20.64; p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 14.73, grass 13.34; p = 0.37; women: artificial turf 10.72; grass 11.68; p = 0.50). There were no major differences in the incidence, severity, nature or cause of match injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and

  14. Prospective pilot study on the incidence of infections caused by peripheral venous catheters at a general surgical ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Device-associated infections comprise a significant proportion of all nosocomial infections. In this prospective, observational pilot study the incidence of infections in 89 peripheral venous catheters (PVCs was documented on a general surgical ward employing an infection data sheet developed by the Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Greifswald in adherence to CDC standards for infections. 16 of 20 infections were documented during a four-week time period when medical students in the first four months of their practical year performed their compulsory rotation on the general surgical ward. Insufficient knowledge of adequate hygienic measures as well as non-compliance to aseptical procedural measures prior to and following insertion of a peripheral venous catheter are the assumed instigators of these infections. In order to ensure a uniform hygienic standard in the performance of applied procedures, it is essential that medical students during this practical year receive not only theoretical, but also hands-on schooling prior to initiation of their subsequent official residency.

  15. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, L; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After...... adjustment for potential confounders, higher MMP-2 plasma levels were significantly associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular events [HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11; 1.99)], and higher plasma levels of MMP-1 [1.38 (1.07; 1.78)], MMP-2 [1.60 (1.19; 2.15)] and MMP-3 [1.39 (1.05; 1.85)] were associated with all...

  16. Effects of combinations of ROS scavengers on oxidative DNA damage caused by visible-light-activated camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Pagoria, Dustin; Raigrodski, Ariel; Geurtsen, Werner

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze whether various combinations of the ROS scavengers glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and vitamins C and E decrease DNA damage due to visible-light-irradiated (VL-irradiated) camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (CQ/DMT) compared with individual vitamin C or E. PhiX-174 RF plasmid DNA was used to determine single and double strand breaks as parameters of DNA damage. Individual ROS scavengers and combinations of the antioxidants were added to plasmid DNA treated with VL-irradiated CQ/DMT/Cu (II). After incubation, DNA was loaded into a 1% agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, gels stained with 0.5 microg/mL ethidium bromide were photographed under ultraviolet illumination and analyzed with NIH ImageJ software. Results were evaluated between groups for statistical significance using Student's paired t-test (p < 0.05). Glutathione significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage at all test concentrations when combined with vitamin C or vitamin E. The concentration of damaged DNA observed in the presence of combinations of GSH with vitamin C or vitamin E was significantly lower compared with all other combinations of antioxidants investigated in our study (p < 0.05). In contrast to GSH, NAC was not able to compensate the pro-oxidative effects of vitamin C and vitamin E. Only at a concentration of 2 mM, NAC combined with vitamin C efficiently prevented CQ/DMT/Cu (II)-associated DNA damage. Our data indicate that solely the combinations of GSH with vitamin C or vitamin E significantly reduce the severity of oxidative DNA damage caused by CQ/DMT, whereas NAC may even increase the pro-oxidant activity of vitamin C and vitamin E.

  17. Study of the damage rate caused by intervertebral foramen type inside and outside and the pass of the intervertebral DRG RF puncture way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    This paper was to analyze and contrast the damage rate on the thoracic segment different position of the dorsal root ganglion(dorsal root ganglion, DRG) caused by different puncture path in radiofrequency ablation, thus the best RF target way for the thoracic segment of different types of DRG was confirmed. According to the difference of puncture and ablation damage way, 14 segmental spinal specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and then conducted DRG radiofrequency damage on percutaneous puncture path according to the type of DRG position.The damage effect of different puncture path by the judgment standard of the result of pathology analyzed. The experiment showed that RF damage of group A were 72.58 ± 18.88%, 54.16 ± 24.84% and 32.85 ± 28.11%; that of group B were 771.86 ± 15.15% and 72.02 ± 17.86%, 57.14 ± 18.02% and 52.47 ± 20.64%, 68.75 ± 14.63% and 71.78 ± 16.00%; and that of group C were 82.46 ± 14.10%, 81.53 ± 11.81% and 80.83 ± 13.33%. It was concluded that the singleness of DRG puncture route is one of the important reasons for the poor thoracic segments DRG radiofrequency (RF) ablation effect. While according to the type of DRG different positions with double joint puncture path can significantly improve the rate of DRG RF damage.

  18. Incidence and main causes of severe maternal morbidity in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pierre Moraes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of severe maternal morbidity has been used in monitoring of maternal health. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence and main causes in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective longitudinal study, carried out in two public high-risk maternity hospitals and two public intensive care units (ICUs for referral of obstetric cases from the municipality. METHODS: Between March 1, 2009, and February 28, 2010, all cases of severe maternal morbidity according to the Mantel and Waterstone criteria were identified. The sociodemographic and healthcare characteristics of the extremely severe cases were compared with the less severe cases, using the Fisher, Χ2, Student t and Mann-Whitney tests, with a significance level of < 0.05. RESULTS: 127 cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified among 8,493 deliveries, i.e. an incidence of 15.0/1000 deliveries. Out of 122 cases interviewed, 121 cases were within the Waterstone criteria and 29 were within the Mantel criteria, corresponding to incidences of 14.1/1000 and 3.4/1000 deliveries, respectively. These rates were lower than those described in the literature, possibly due to case loss. The main causes were hypertension during pregnancy, which was more frequent in less severe cases (P = 0.001 and obstetric hemorrhage, which was more common among extremely severe cases (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Direct obstetric disorders were the main causes of severe maternal morbidity in São Luís, Maranhão. Investigation and monitoring of severe morbidity may contribute towards improving obstetric care in the municipality.

  19. [All-cause mortality and incidence of major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with ASCOT-type profile in a Spanish population setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Mediterranean populations are traditionally considered to be associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE). However, this might not be homogeneous throughout different patient strata. The goal was to compare the incidence of CVE and all-causes mortality in hypertensive patients with an ASCOT-type profile with that of the rest hypertensive subjects. A retrospective analysis was carried out using a claim database. Hypertensive patients without known cardiovascular disease on antihypertensive therapy included during year 2006 were followed up for two consecutive years to ascertain the incidence of all-causes mortality and any CVE. CVE included any of the following: coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and peripheral artery disease. Patients with ASCOT and ASCOT-LLA type profiles were identified and compared with non-ASCOT-type profile hypertensive subjects. A total of 11,104 were included in the analysis; 68.0+/-11.4 years, 41.6% males. More than 73% of subjects fulfilled criteria for ASCOT-type profile. All-causes mortality were numerically higher in ASCOT and ASCOT-LLA subjects compared with non-ASCOT-type; hazard ratio (95% CI)=1.3 (0.8-1.9) and 1.6 (0.9-2.8), respectively. However, any-coronary event rate was significantly higher in ASCOT-type [2.3 (1.8-2.8), plikely to have any cardiovascular event than those hypertensive patients without ASCOT profile in a Mediterranean setting in Spain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying of centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose and viscosity measurement to estimate damage caused by gamma irradiation in lymphocyte DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinski, R.

    1977-01-01

    DNA isolated from limphocytes of pig blood was irradiated by γ radiation in the range of 0.5-50 Krads. Changes caused by irradiation (single and double breaks) were determined by using viscosity measurement and centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Study of DNA chromatograms showed possibility to apply centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose to estimate changes caused by irradiation. (author)

  1. Probable causes of damage of heat-exchange tubes of low-pressure-exchanges of PND-3 type and repair methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Esin, S. B.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Modestov, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The structures of low-pressure heaters (LPH), which are installed at nuclear power plants with the K-1000-60/1500 type turbine plants are considered. It was revealed that only the PND-3 type low-pressure heaters have the damages of the heat exchange tubes. For a short operation life, the number of the damaged heat-exchange tubes of PND-3 is approximately 50 pcs for Kalinin NPP and 100-150 pcs for Balakovo NPP. The low-pressure heaters were manufactured at AO Ural Plant of Chemical Machine-Building "Uralkhimmash," OAO Taganrog Boiler-Making Works "Krasny Kotelshchik," and Vitkovice Machinery Group, but the damage nature of the heat-exchange tubes is identical for all PND-3. The damages occur in the place of passage of the heat exchange tubes through the first, the second, and the third partitions over the lower tube plate (the first path of the turbine condensate). Hydraulic shocks can be one of the possible causes of the damage of the heat-exchange tubes of PND-3. The analysis of the average thermal and dynamic loads of the tube systems of PND-1-PND-4 revealed that PND-3 by the thermal power are loaded 1.4-1.6 times and by the dynamic effects are loaded 1.8-2.0 times more than the remaining LPHs. Another possible cause of damage can be the cascaded drain of the separate into PND-4 and then through the drainage heat exchange into PND-3. An additional factor can be the structure of the condensate drainage unit. The advanced system of the heating steam flow and pumping scheme of the separate drain using the existing drainage pumps of PND-3 for K-1000-60/1500 turbine plants for Balakovo and Kalinin NPPs were proposed. The considered decisions make it possible to reduce the flow rate of the heating steam condensate from PND-3 into PND-4 and the speed of the heating steam in the tube space of PND-3 and eliminate the occurrence of hydraulic shocks and damages of the heat exchanger tubes.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; de Souza, Russell J; Meyre, David; Anand, Sonia S; Mente, Andrew

    2016-01-28

    Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and quantify associations between nut consumption and CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality. Five electronic databases (through July 2015), previous reviews and bibliographies of qualifying articles were searched. In the twenty included prospective cohort studies (n 467 389), nut consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (ten studies; risk ratio (RR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·85 for highest v. lowest quantile of intake, P het=0·04, I 2=43 %), CVD mortality (five studies; RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·78; P het=0·31, I 2=16 %), all CHD (three studies; RR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·91; P het=0·0002, I 2=88 %) and CHD mortality (seven studies; RR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·76; P het=0·65, I 2=0 %), as well as a statistically non-significant reduction in the risk of non-fatal CHD (three studies; RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·03; P het=0·03, I 2=72 %) and stroke mortality (three studies; RR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·00; P het=0·54, I 2=0 %). No evidence of association was found for total stroke (two studies; RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·61; P het=0·04, I 2=77 %). Data on total CVD and sudden cardiac death were available from one cohort study, and they were significantly inversely associated with nut consumption. In conclusion, we found that higher nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, total CVD, CVD mortality, total CHD, CHD mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  3. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, L; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    , and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 337 type 1 diabetic patients [mean age 41.4 years (9.6), 39% female], 170 with and 167 without diabetic nephropathy, with median follow-up of 12.3 years. Survival analyses were applied to investigate...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After......BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1...

  4. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  5. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute otitis media among children in Southern Catalonia throughout 2007-2013: Incidence, serotype distribution and vaccine's effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gondar, O; Figuerola-Massana, E; Vila-Corcoles, A; Aguirre, C A; de Diego, C; Satue, E; Gomez, F; Raga, X

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated incidence and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute otitis media (AOM) in Catalonian children, evaluating vaccination effectiveness in the current era of extended valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Population-based surveillance study that included all AOM cases with isolation of pneumococcus (from otic fluids/otorrea) identified among children ≤14 years in the region of Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain) from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2013. Prevalence of infections caused by serotypes covered by the different PCVs formulations were calculated for the periods before and after 30/06/2010 (date of PCV7/PCV13 replacement). The indirect cohort method was used to estimate PCV7/13 effectiveness against vaccine-type infections. A total of 78 children with a pneumococcal AOM were identified across study period, which meant an incidence rate of 23 cases per 100,000 population-year. Thirty-six cases (46.2%) occurred within the late PCV7 era and 42 cases (53.8%) during the early PCV13 era. Overall, the most common serotypes were type 19A (21.7%), type 3 (13.3%) and type 15B (6.7%). Prevalence of cases caused by serotypes included in PCV7 did not substantially change between the first and the second study period (from 10.3% to 12.9%), whereas prevalence of cases caused by PCV13 serotypes showed a decreasing trend between both periods (from 65.5% to 48.4%). The aggregate PCV7/13 effectiveness against vaccine-type infections was 72% (95% confidence interval: -26 to 94). Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination appears an acceptable preventive option to prevent pneumococcal AOM in infants. However, its serotype coverage and clinical effectiveness are not optimal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: Sleep Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Pollock, Benjamin D; Mittleman, Murray A; Buysse, Daniel J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Redline, Susan

    2018-03-07

    To quantify the association between insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population. We conducted a time-to-event analysis of Sleep Heart Health Study data. Questionnaires and at-home polysomnography were performed between 1994 -1998. Participants were followed for a median 11.4 years (Q1-Q3, 8.8-12.4 years) until death or last contact. The primary exposure was insomnia or poor sleep with short sleep defined as: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty returning to sleep, early morning awakenings, or sleeping pill use, 16-30 nights/month; and total sleep insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep and CVD, as well as all-cause mortality. Among 4,994 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 11.1 years), 14.1% reported insomnia or poor sleep, of which 50.3% slept insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep group compared with the reference group (HR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.00, 1.66), but neither the insomnia/poor sleep only nor short sleep only groups were associated with higher incident CVD. Insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.33). Insomnia/poor sleep with PSG-short sleep was associated with higher risk of incident CVD. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions to improve insomnia with PSG-short sleep on CVD.

  7. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low-gr......-related pathophysiological mechanisms. Thus, AGEs may explain, in part, the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality attributable to type 1 diabetes and constitute a specific target for treatment in these patients.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low......-grade inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N...

  8. Effect of certain natural antioxidants in protecting against damage caused by gamma radiation in ischemic rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in various clinical pathologies one of which is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)- induced injury. Intestinal I/R enhances production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators and induces apoptosis. In other hand. the intestinal tract shows a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to a rapid cell turnover and is often implicated in radiation sickness the radiation damage may either be a consequence of a direct effect resulting in disruption of critical molecule (such as an enzyme or DNA) or an indirect effect through ionization of water molecules and formation of ROS. consequently, supplementation of antioxidants may be a beneficial approach to protect against cellular damages associated with oxidative stress. the current study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o.), tomato extract (67 mg/kg. p.o.) and turmeric (100 mg/kg, p.o) against ileal injury induced in rats by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 30 min. Furthermore, this protective effect of the mentioned drugs was extended into injury that could happened in ileal tissues of rats exposed to (6 Gy) gamma radiation followed by intestinal I/R. Drugs were administered one daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the ischemic insult. Damage induced by I/R was manifested by depletion of ileal content of reduced glutathion (GSH) as well as Lactate dehydrogenas (LDH) activity, associated with elevation of ileal contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Intestinal ischemic insults were exacerbated by radiation injury on comparing different untreated controls; except the ileal content of GSH which has elevated due to the preconditioning effect of irradiation. Vitamin E provided a significant protection against the decrease in LDH activity as well as the increase in TBARS

  9. Cell wall damage and oxidative stress in Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Aspergillus niger caused by palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athie-García, Martha Samira; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda Amelia; Muñoz-Castellanos, Laila Nayzzel; Ulloa-Ogaz, Ana Laura; Martínez-Varela, Perla Ivonne; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Duran, Robert; Murillo-Ramirez, José Guadalupe; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2018-04-01

    In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0.5). Reactive Oxygen Species levels were increased in both microorganisms. Confocal, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed cell wall damage and cellular morphology changes, induced by the interaction of PdNPs, in both microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of DNA damages caused by exposure of bacterial cells and spores to the Mars surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew; Robles-Martinez, Jose; Douki, Thierry; Nicholson, Wayne

    Joint NASA and ESA missions are planned for the next decade to investigate the possibility of present or past life on Mars [1]. Evidence of extraterrestrial life will likely rely on the de-tection of biomarkers, highlighting the importance of preventing forward contamination not only with viable microorganisms, but also with biomolecules that could compromise the valid-ity of life-detection experiments [2-4]. The designation of DNA as a high-priority biomarker makes it necessary to evaluate its persistence in extraterrestrial environments, and the effects of exposure on its biological activity. To accomplish this, we deposited naked DNA, cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 or B. pumilus SAFR-032, or cells of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1 onto spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons. Samples were exposed to a simulated Mars surface environment as described in detail previously [4, 5] for various periods of time, and DNA damage was assessed by a number of measurements. Double-and single-strand breaks were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA bipyrimidine pho-toproducts were measured by HPLC-mass spectrometry, as described previously [6, 7]. Loss of functionality of DNA to serve as a template for replication by DNA polymerase was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay [8]. In all cases, DNA damage was directly correlated with time of exposure to simulated martian solar radiation (UV, visible, and infrared wavelengths). Exposure of samples to Mars surface conditions, but shielded from solar radiation, did not result in appreciable damage over the time periods tested, relative to controls. DNA contained within cells or spores was much less susceptible to damage than was naked DNA. Using the qPCR assay, we found that inactivation of naked DNA or DNA extracted from exposed spores of B. subtilis followed a multiphasic dose-response, and that a fraction of DNA molecules retained functionality after

  11. Understanding the distribution of strong motions and the damage caused during the September 19th, 2017 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Quintanar, L.

    2017-12-01

    On September 19, 2017, a normal fault earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.1 occurred 120 km from Mexico City. The quake generated large accelerations, more than 200 cm/s*s at least in two stations in Mexico City, where there was extensive damage. The damage pattern, which includes more than 40 building collapses, differs from the one induced by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. While the observed accelerations in stations located in the Hill and Transition zones are the largest ever recorded, in the Lake zone the intensities were lower than those recorded in 1985. Even though the proximity of the epicenter could partially explain the accelerations, other factors need to be explored to understand the nuances of the ground motion. Unlike 1985, there is a substantially larger number of acceleration records in Mexico City, operated and maintained by different institutions. In this paper, we present the analysis of acceleration records and 3D numerical simulations to understand if effects such as focusing and directionality participate in the amplified motion. Finally, transfer functions between Lake and Hill zones and response and design spectral values are analyzed in regions where the building code requirements were exceeded. Acknowledgments: Records used in this research are obtained, processed and maintained by the National Autonomous University of Mexico through the Seismic Instrumentation Unit of the Institute of Engineering and the National Seismological Service of the Institute of Geophysics. The Centro de Intrumentacion y Registro Sismico A.C. (CIRES) kindly provided their records. This Project was funded in part by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  12. Base excision repair of chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage predominantly causes contractions of expanded GAA repeats associated with Friedreich's ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhao Lai

    Full Text Available Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER. We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced GAA repeat instability was mediated by BER. Further characterization of BER of an abasic site in the context of (GAA20 repeats indicates that the lesion mainly resulted in a large deletion of 8 repeats along with small expansions. This was because temozolomide-induced single-stranded breaks initially led to DNA slippage and the formation of a small GAA repeat loop in the upstream region of the damaged strand and a small TTC loop on the template strand. This allowed limited pol β DNA synthesis and the formation of a short 5'-GAA repeat flap that was cleaved by FEN1, thereby leading to small repeat expansions. At a later stage of BER, the small template loop expanded into a large template loop that resulted in the formation of a long 5'-GAA repeat flap. Pol β then performed limited DNA synthesis to bypass the loop, and FEN1 removed the long repeat flap ultimately causing a large repeat deletion. Our study indicates that chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage can induce large contractions/deletions of expanded GAA repeats through BER in FRDA patient cells. This further suggests the potential of developing chemotherapeutic alkylating agents to shorten expanded GAA repeats for treatment of FRDA.

  13. Incidence, risk factors and causes of death in an HIV care programme with a large proportion of injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Heidi; Nicholas, Sarala; Tang, Zhirong; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar

    2012-10-01

    To identify factors influencing mortality in an HIV programme providing care to large numbers of injecting drug users (IDUs) and patients co-infected with hepatitis C (HCV). A longitudinal analysis of monitoring data from HIV-infected adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2003 and 2009 was performed. Mortality and programme attrition rates within 2 years of ART initiation were estimated. Associations with individual-level factors were assessed with multivariable Cox and piece-wise Cox regression. A total of 1671 person-years of follow-up from 1014 individuals was analysed. Thirty-four percent of patients were women and 33% were current or ex-IDUs. 36.2% of patients (90.8% of IDUs) were co-infected with HCV. Two-year all-cause mortality rate was 5.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.4-6.7). Most HIV-related deaths occurred within 6 months of ART start (36, 67.9%), but only 5 (25.0%) non-HIV-related deaths were recorded during this period. Mortality was higher in older patients (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.42-4.40 for ≥40 compared to 15-29 years), and in those with initial BMI CD4 cell count (HR = 4.55; 95% CI, 1.54-13.41 for <100 compared to ≥100 cells/μl). Risk of death was not associated with IDU status (P = 0.38). Increased mortality was associated with late presentation of patients. In this programme, death rates were similar regardless of injection drug exposure, supporting the notion that satisfactory treatment outcomes can be achieved when comprehensive care is provided to these patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.18 - Who is liable for any loss or damage to HHG incident to an authorized relocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method and a commercial HHG carrier is used, the carrier accepts limited liability for any loss or damage in accordance with HHG carrier tariffs. For transporting HHG by self drive equipment for a do-it-yourself-move and for any loss or damage not covered by the HHG carrier, see part 302-11 of this chapter. ...

  15. Systemic agonistic anti-CD40 treatment of tumor bearing mice modulates hepatic myeloid suppressive cells and causes immune-mediated liver damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Ma, Chi; Duffy, Austin; Eggert, Tobias; Hawk, Nga; Kleiner, David E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immune stimulatory monoclonal antibodies are currently evaluated as anti tumor agents. Although overall toxicity appears to be moderate, liver toxicities have been reported and are not completely understood. We studied the effect of systemic CD40 antibody treatment on myeloid cells in spleen and liver. Naïve and tumor-bearing mice were treated systemically with agonistic anti-CD40 antibody. Immune cell subsets in liver and spleen, serum transaminases and liver histologies were analyzed after antibody administration. Nox2−/−, Cd40−/− as well as bone marrow chimeric mice were used to study the mechanism by which agonistic anti-CD40 mediates its effects in vivo. Suppressor function of murine and human tumor-induced myeloid derived suppressive cells was studied upon CD40 ligation. Agonistic CD40 antibody caused liver damage within 24 hours after injection in two unrelated tumor models and mice strains. Using bone marrow chimeras we demonstrated that CD40 antibody-induced hepatitis in tumor-bearing mice was dependent on the presence of CD40-expressing hematopoietic cells. Agonistic CD40 ligation-dependent liver damage was induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, agonistic CD40 antibody resulted in increased CD80 and CD40 positive liver CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells. CD40 ligation on tumor-induced murine and human CD14+HLA-DRlow PBMC from cancer patients reduced their immune suppressor function. Collectively, agonistic CD40 antibody treatment activated tumor-induced, myeloid cells, caused myeloid dependent hepatotoxicity and ameliorated the suppressor function of murine and human MDSC. Collectively, our data suggests that CD40 may mature immunosuppressive myeloid cells and thereby cause liver damage in mice with an accumulation of tumor-induced hepatic MDSC. PMID:25637366

  16. Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing? A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Swedena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highest annual incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE in Sweden ever recorded by the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI occurred last year, 2011. The number of TBE cases recorded during 2012 up to 6th August 2012 indicates that the incidence for 2012 could exceed that of 2011. In this review of the ecology and epidemiology of TBE in Sweden our main aim is to analyse the possible reasons behind the gradually increasing incidence of human TBE during the last 20 years. The main TBE virus (TBEV vector to humans in Sweden is the nymphal stage of the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The main mode of transmission and maintenance of TBEV in the tick population is considered to be when infective nymphs co-feed with uninfected but infectible larvae on rodents. In most locations the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus is the main host for the reproducing adult I. ricinus ticks. The high number of roe deer for more than three decades has resulted in a very large tick population. Deer numbers have, however, gradually declined from the early 1990s to the present. This decline in roe deer numbers most likely made the populations of small rodents, which are reservoir-competent for TBEV, gradually more important as hosts for the immature ticks. Consequently, the abundance of TBEV-infected ticks has increased. Two harsh winters in 2009–2011 caused a more abrupt decline in roe deer numbers. This likely forced a substantial proportion of the “host-seeking” ticks to feed on bank voles (Myodes glareolus, which at that time suddenly had become very numerous, rather than on roe deer. Thus, the bank vole population peak in 2010 most likely caused many tick larvae to feed on reservoir-competent rodents. This presumably resulted in increased transmission of TBEV among ticks and therefore increased the density of infected ticks the following year. The unusually warm, humid weather and the prolonged vegetation period in 2011 permitted

  17. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. → Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. → More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. → MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA -/- ) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA -/- mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes. MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H 2 O 2 . Corresponding changes in Ca 2+ transients are observed in MsrA -/- cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H 2 O 2 . Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA -/- mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA -/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  18. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, N.

    1979-01-01

    The surface damage of cold worked and annealed polycrystalline Nb irradiated at room temperature with He + ions sequentially at different energies over the range from 0.5 keV to 1.8 MeV has been investigated. The individual energy and the dose of the He + ion was chosen to match the theoretically calculated He + ion spectrum expected in the Tokamak T-20. In one set of irradiations, targets were irradiated at Kurchatov Institute starting with 0.5 keV 4 He + ions and extending up to 90 keV in eleven steps. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at ANL starting at 150 keV and increased in eight steps up to 1.8 MeV. The irradiations were carried out for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . In another set of irradiations the sequence was reversed. Scanning electron microscopy results show formation of blisters and exfoliation. For the same dose the broad energy implant (due to sequential irradiation) appears to decrease the blister diameter and density as compared to irradiation with monoenergetic He + ions at a given energy (in the energy range considered). Some estimates of surface erosion yields due to blistering are given

  19. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  20. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  1. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  2. Restoration of a historic church in the Rhineland brown coal mining area after damage caused by mining; Bergschadensanierung einer historischen Kirche im rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koether, M. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Weiper, H. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Jung, H.H. [Ingenieurgesellschaft J.-F. und P. Jung und Partner GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    From the 1960s onwards, the Catholic parish curch of St. Remigius in Bergheim, the oldest parts of which date back to the 12th century, suffered damage caused by ground subsidences induced by mining operations on a tectonic fault. As a result of the effects of damage on the building over decades and the occurrence of a slip of almost 60 mm along the fault line, the damage to this National Trust edifice was so extensive by the late 1980s that the existence of the three-nave churche was seriously endangered in view of the further ground subsidences that were to be expected. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Die katholische Pfarrkirche St. Remigius in Bergheim, deren aelteste Bauabschnitte aus dem 12. Jahrhundert stammen, wurde seit den 60er Jahren durch bergbaulich induzierte Bodenbewegungen an einer tektonischen Stoerung geschaedigt. Aufgrund der jahrzehntelangen Schadenseinwirkungen auf das Bauwerk und eine Absatzbildung an der Stoerungslinie von insgesamt fast 60 mm fuehrten Ende der 80er Jahre an dem denkmalgeschuetzten Bauwerk zu so starken Schaeden, dass der Bestand der dreischiffigen Kirche unter Beruecksichtigung der noch zu erwartenden Bodenbewegungen gefaehrdet war. (orig./HS)

  3. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris and its clerodane diterpen (caseargrewiin F) protect against DNA damage at low concentrations and cause DNA damage at high concentrations in mice's blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Aline M; dos Santos, André G; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Csipak, Angélica R; Olivato, Camila; da Silva, Isabel C; de Freitas, Maura B; Bassi, Carmen L; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Silva, Dulce H S; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Takahashi, Catarina S; Soares, Christiane P

    2009-11-01

    Casearia sylvestris is used in Brazil as a popular medicine to treat ulcer, inflammation and tumour. Caseargrewiin F is a clerodane diterpene isolated from the ethanolic leaf extract of C.sylvestris. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of the ethanolic extract of C.sylvestris leaves and caseargrewiin F to protect DNA and verify if both the compounds cause some DNA damage, using the micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay in mice. Balb-C mice were treated with the extract [3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] and caseargrewiin F (0.16, 0.32, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 3.8 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. On day 15, DNA damage was induced by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of cyclophosphamide (CP) (i.p.) at 50 mg/kg b.w. after the MN test and comet assay were performed. A protective effect of ethanolic extract was observed in MN test (6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg b.w.) and the comet assay (3.13 and 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg b.w.). Caseargrewiin F showed protective effect at 0.63, 1.3 and 2.5 mg/kg b.w. only in comet assay. We also tested the ability of compounds of C.sylvestris to induce MN and to increase the comet assay tail moment. The experimental design was similar to the DNA protection assay except that in test groups we omitted the CP challenge. We observed increased damage at 50 and 75 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of C.sylvestris and caseargrewiin F at 3.18 mg/kg b.w. in both the MN test and comet assay. We conclude that ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris and caseargrewiin F can protect cells against DNA damage induced by CP at low concentrations, but at high concentrations these compounds also induce DNA damage.

  4. Essential oil of Artemisia scoparia inhibits plant growth by generating reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Kaur, Shalinder; Mittal, Sunil; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the chemical composition and phytotoxicity of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. (red stem wormwood, Asteraceae). GC/GC-MS analyses revealed 33 chemical constituents representing 99.83% of the oil. The oil, in general, was rich in monoterpenes that constitute 71.6%, with beta-myrcene (29.27%) as the major constituent followed by (+)-limonene (13.3%), (Z)-beta-ocimene (13.37%), and gamma-terpinene (9.51%). The oil and beta-myrcene were evaluated in a dose-response bioassay under laboratory conditions for phytotoxicity against three weeds-Avena fatua, Cyperus rotundus, and Phalaris minor. A significant reduction in germination, seedling growth, and dry matter accumulation was observed in the test weeds. At the lowest treatment of 0.07 mg/ml Artemisia oil, germination was reduced by 39%, 19%, and 10.6% in C. rotundus, P. minor, and A. fatua, respectively. However, the inhibitory effect of beta-myrcene was less. In general, a dose-dependent effect was observed and the growth declined with increasing concentration. Among the three weeds, the inhibitory effect was greatest on C. rotundus, so it was selected for further studies. We explored the explanation for observed growth inhibition in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS: lipid peroxidation, membrane integrity, and amounts of conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide)-induced oxidative stress. Exposure of C. rotundus to Artemisia oil or beta-myrcene enhanced solute leakage, indicating membrane disintegration. There were increased levels of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, indicating lipid peroxidation and induction of oxidative stress. We conclude that Artemisia oil inhibits plant root growth through generation of ROS-induced oxidative damage.

  5. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  6. Prevention of noise damages causes by shooting fire of Kalashnikov (AK-47) rifle by regulation of suitable distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Pourtaghi; Hamidreza Mokarami; Firouz Valipour; Mohammad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were control of rifle shooting noise by regulation of suitable distance and investigation of frequency characteristic of the noise caused by single Kalashnikov rifle (AK-47) in an open shooting field. Due to the condition of the trainees and other people in the shooting fields, the measurements were done in 2 stages of individual and groups of 20 individuals and at 1, 30 and 50 meters distance, respectively. At each stage of the experiment the sound pressure level and p...

  7. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed.

  8. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  9. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  10. Effect of silicon and nanosilicon on reduction of damage caused by salt stress in maize (Zea mays seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assieh Behdad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduced the efficiency of agricultural production like maize as one of the most important cereals for food and oil for humans. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the soil and alleviates the biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of silicon and nanosilicon on improvement of salt stress in maize (Zea mays. For this propose, the interaction between the effects of different levels of salinity (0 and 100 mM, silicon and nanosilicon (50, 100 and 150 mg /mL was studied in completely randomized block design with factorial experiments and with three replications. The results showed that salinity significantly decreased root and shoot growth, amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, protein and potassium contents, compared to control. Treating plants with silicon and nanosilicon caused reduction of salinity effects and increase above indices. Salinity stress also caused a significant increase in proline, anthocyanin and soluble carbohydrate contents, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity and treatment with silicon and nanosilicon alleviates effects of salt stress and reduced the amount of above indices. 150 mg/mL of nanosilicon showed the maximum effect on diminishing negative effects of salt stress on all examined parameters. So, the use of this element is proposed as alleviator of salt stress on maize.

  11. Dexamethasone rescues neurovascular unit integrity from cell damage caused by systemic administration of shiga toxin 2 and lipopolysaccharide in mice motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipio Pinto

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS that can lead to fatal encephalopathies. Neurological abnormalities may occur before or after the onset of systemic pathological symptoms and motor disorders are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models. As Stx2 succeeds in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB and invading the brain parenchyma, it is highly probable that the observed neurological alterations are based on the possibility that the toxin may trigger the impairment of the neurovascular unit and/or cell damage in the parenchyma. Also, lipopolysaccharide (LPS produced and secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC may aggravate the deleterious effects of Stx2 in the brain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (i whether Stx2 affects the neurovascular unit and parenchymal cells, (ii whether the contribution of LPS aggravates these effects, and (iii whether an inflammatory event underlies the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the observed injury. The administration of a sub-lethal dose of Stx2 was employed to study in detail the motor cortex obtained from a translational murine model of encephalopathy. In the present paper we report that Stx2 damaged microvasculature, caused astrocyte reaction and neuronal degeneration, and that this was aggravated by LPS. Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory, reversed the pathologic effects and proved to be an important drug in the treatment of acute encephalopathies.

  12. Analysis of the causes and recommendations on elimination of biological damage of structures during the repair and reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. The problems have been considered as for a complex of buildings of the State Biological Museum built in the late nineteenth century which, to the present time, has been operated almost in its original form. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  13. Impact of the Phoretic Phase on Reproduction and Damage Caused by Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) to Its Host, the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piou, Vincent; Tabart, Jérémy; Urrutia, Virginie; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis; Vétillard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the honeybee that causes thousands of colony losses worldwide. The parasite cycle is composed of a phoretic and a reproductive phase. During the former, mites stay on adult bees, mostly on nurses, to feed on hemolymph. During the latter, the parasites enter brood cells and reproduce. We investigated if the type of bees on which Varroa stays during the phoretic phase and if the duration of this stay influenced the reproductive success of the parasite and the damage caused to bees. For that purpose, we used an in vitro rearing method developed in our laboratory to assess egg laying rate and the presence and number of fully molted daughters. The expression level of two Varroa vitellogenin genes (VdVg1 and VdVg2), known to vary throughout reproduction, was also quantified. Results showed that the status of the bees or time spent during the phoretic phase impacts neither reproduction parameters nor the Varroa vitellogenin genes levels of expression. However, we correlated these parameters to the gene expression and demonstrated that daughters expressed the vitellogenin genes at lower levels than their mother. Regarding the damage to bees, the data indicated that a longer stay on adult bees during the phoretic phase resulted in more frequent physical deformity in newborn bees. We showed that those mites carry more viral loads of the Deformed Wing Virus and hence trigger more frequently overt infections. This study provides new perspectives towards a better understanding of the Varroa-honeybee interactions.

  14. Study on the Relationship between Manganese Concentrations in Rural Drinking Water and Incidence and Mortality Caused by Cancer in Huai’an City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer is a significant disease burden in the world. Many studies showed that heavy metals or their compounds had connection with cancer. But the data conflicting about the relationship of manganese (Mn to cancer are not enough. In this paper, the relationship was discussed between Mn concentrations in drinking water for rural residents and incidence and mortality caused by malignant tumors in Huai’an city. Methods. A total of 158 water samples from 28 villages of 14 towns were, respectively, collected during periods of high flow and low flow in 3 counties of Huai’an city, along Chinese Huai’he River. The samples of deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water were simultaneously collected in all selected villages. Mn concentrations in all water samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS 7500a. The correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the Mn concentration and cancer incidence and mortality. Results. Mn concentrations detectable rate was 100% in all water samples. The mean concentration was 452.32 μg/L ± 507.76 μg/L. There was significant difference between the high flow period and low flow period (t=-5.23, P<0.05 and also among deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water (F=5.02, P<0.05. The ratio of superscale of Mn was 75.32%. There was significant difference of Mn level between samples in the high flow period and low flow period (χ2=45.62,  P<0.05 and also among deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and surface water (χ2=10.66, P<0.05. And also we found that, during the low flow period, Mn concentration has positive correlation with cancer incidence and mortality; for a 1 μg/L increase in Mn concentration, there was a corresponding increase of 0.45/100000 new cancer cases and 0.35/100000 cancer deaths (P<0.05. Conclusions. In Huai’an city, the mean concentration of Mn in drinking water was very high. Mn concentration

  15. ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF BEARING DAMAGE OF BRIDGE SUPPORT OF STACKER-RECLAIMER ZGOT 15400.120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz SMOLNICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An example of the analysis of a large-size slewing bearing supporting the bridge of the largest in Poland stacker-reclaimer. The turning node was constructed based on the catalogue slewing bearing with four-point contact. The analysis was performed in order to identify the causes of rapid degradation of the bearing. In addition to the macroscopic tests, not described in this article, to verify the correct configuration of the supporting components and to determine the distribution of the loading, the FEM model was build, including the original replacement elements for modelling balls with four-point contact. The measurements of strain of occurred loading were also conducted. Particular attention was paid to the catalogue selection procedures of slewing bearings. The results of no compatibility between algorithms published by various manufacturers of bearings was shown.

  16. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Finamor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC, and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH. Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  17. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  18. Danos em trigo causados pela infecção de Pyricularia grisea Damages in wheat caused by infection of Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Pereira Goulart

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo quantificar os danos no rendimento de grãos, causados pela infecção natural da brusone (Pyricularia grisea, em diferentes cultivares e linhagens de trigo, na safra agrícola de 2004, no Município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, isoladamente da ocorrência de outras doenças. Trabalhou-se em condições naturais e sem o emprego de fungicidas, em parcelas experimentais, na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste e em Indápolis. Após o espigamento, todas as espigas de trigo com sintomas típicos da brusone (ponto preto de infecção na ráquis foram identificadas e marcadas, em uma área de 1m². As espigas doentes e sadias foram colhidas, contadas e trilhadas separadamente. Os danos foram calculados com base na diferença entre o rendimento real e a estimativa do rendimento potencial. Os resultados mostraram que os danos e a incidência da brusone variaram de acordo com as cultivares/linhagens testadas e a região tritícola avaliada. As menores incidências da brusone foram observadas na cv. BR 18-Terena, com 27% e 42% de espigas infectadas, nos ensaios instalados na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste e em Indápolis, respectivamente. O dano médio devido à brusone, registrado nos 20 materiais testados, foi de 387kg/ha, o que representou 10,5% do rendimento de grãos, no ensaio instalado na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste. Em Indápolis, os danos foram maiores, atingindo, em média, 609kg/ha (13,0% do rendimento de grãos. As perdas em peso por espiga foram maiores (63,4% quando a infecção foi precoce em comparação à infecção tardia (46,0%. Verificou-se que houve uma compensação das perdas causadas pela doença, através do melhor desenvolvimento de grãos produzidos abaixo do ponto de estrangulamento da ráquis. Observou-se, também, que em função das espigas brancas sobressaírem-se das demais, pode-se superestimar as perdas.This work was carried out in order to quantify the damages in wheat yield due to natural

  19. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

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    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  20. Establishment of Economic Threshold by Evaluation of Yield Component and Yield Damages Caused by Leaf Spot Disease of Soybean

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    Hongsik Shim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate yield loss due to soybean leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora sojina Hara and to determine the economic threshold level. The investigations revealed highly significant correlations between disease severity (diseased leaf area and yield components (pod number per plant, total grain number per plant, total grain weight per plant, percent of ripened grain, weight of hundred seed, and yield. The correlation coefficients between leaf spot severity and each component were −0.90, −0.90, −0.92, −0.99, −0.90 and −0.94, respectively. The yield was inversely proportional to the diseased leaf area increased. The regression equation, yield prediction model, between disease severity (x and yield (y was obtained as y = −3.7213x + 354.99 (R2 = 0.9047. Based on the yield prediction model, economic injury level and economic threshold level could be set as 3.3% and 2.6% of diseased leaf area of soybean.

  1. Chitosan-Dextran sulfate coated doxorubicin loaded PLGA-PVA-nanoparticles caused apoptosis in doxorubicin resistance breast cancer cells through induction of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Sumit; Nayak, Anmada; Nayak, Deepika; Bindhani, Birendra Kumar; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2017-05-19

    To overcome the toxicity, pharmacokinetics and drug resistance associated with doxorubicin (DOX), a strategy was developed by encapsulating DOX- loaded-PLGA-PVA- nanoparticles within chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles (CS-DS) [CS-DS-coated-DOX-loaded -PLGA-PVA-NP] and study the sensitivity against DOX- resistance- breast cancer cells (MCF-7-DOX-R). These CS-DS and PLGA-PVA double coated DOX are spherical, stable, polydispersed and have zeta potential +2.89 mV. MCF-7- DOX-R cells were derived by exposing increasing doses of DOX in MCF-7 cells. These cells were resistance to 500 nM of DOX while parental cells were susceptible at 150 nM. The double coated NP caused more cytotoxicity in cancer and MCF-7-DOX-R cells without affecting the normal cells in comparison to DOX-loaded-PLGA-PVA-NP. These NP enhances the uptake of DOX in MCF-7-DOX-R cells and caused apoptosis by increasing apoptotic nuclei, Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, cleaved product PARP-1, tumor suppressor gene p21, p53, topoisomerase inhibition activity, DNA damage and decreasing the migratory potential of cells. An increased S phase arrest was noted in DOX and DOX- loaded- PLGA-PVA-NP treated cells but reduction of S phase and simultaneous increase of Sub-G1 was observed in double coated-NP. Thus, data revealed that CS-DS- DOX- loaded PLGA-PVA- NP caused DOX-resistance cell death by inducing inhibition of topoisomerase activity followed by DNA damage.

  2. First estimates of the potential cost and cost saving of protecting childhood hearing from damage caused by congenital CMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eleri J; Gray, Joanne; Luck, Suzanne; Atkinson, Claire; Embleton, Nicholas D; Kadambari, Seilesh; Davis, Adrian; Griffiths, Paul; Sharland, Mike; Berrington, Janet E; Clark, Julia E

    2015-11-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is an important cause of childhood deafness, which is modifiable if diagnosed within the first month of life. Targeted screening of infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening tests in England is a feasible approach to identify and treat cases to improve hearing outcome. To conduct a cost analysis of targeted screening and subsequent treatment for cCMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in an, otherwise, asymptomatic infant, from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). Using data from the newborn hearing screening programme (NHSP) in England and a recent study of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs within the NHSP, we estimate the cost (in UK pounds (£)) to the NHS. The cost of screening (time, swabs and PCR), assessing, treating and following up cases is calculated. The cost per case of preventing hearing deterioration secondary to cCMV with targeted screening is calculated. The cost of identifying, assessing and treating a case of cCMV-related SNHL through targeted cCMV screening is estimated to be £6683. The cost of improving hearing outcome for an infant with cCMV-related SNHL through targeted screening and treatment is estimated at £14 202. The costs of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs integrated within NHSP resulted in an estimate of cost per case that compares favourably with other screening programmes. This could be used in future studies to estimate the full economic value in terms of incremental costs and incremental health benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy.

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    Thomas Duning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD, an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44 underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis. RESULTS: In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22% CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than

  4. Long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality following incident myocardial infarction in men and women with and without diabetes: Temporal trends from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedkoff, Lee; Knuiman, Matthew; Hung, Joseph; Briffa, Tom G

    2016-08-01

    Long-term mortality following myocardial infarction is higher in diabetic than non-diabetic individuals. Early case-fatality after myocardial infarction has improved but it is unclear whether trends extend to long-term mortality. We aimed to determine whether the disparity in long-term all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality by diabetes status has decreased. All incident myocardial infarction cases were identified from Western Australian whole-population linked data for 1998-2009. Mortality follow-up was available until 30 June 2011. Unadjusted survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Hazard ratios comparing five-year mortality in diabetic versus non-diabetic people across three periods (1998-2001, 2002-2005, 2006-2009) were estimated from multivariable Cox regression models, and adjusted trends calculated from interaction (diabetes status × period) models. There were 22,594 30-day survivors of incident MI. There was little change across the three periods in all-cause mortality in diabetic men (27.1%, 28.2%, 25.5%) and women (34.9%, 36.8%, 36.1%), but small declines from first to last periods in non-diabetic men (14.5% to 12.1%, p = 0.03) and women (21.0% to 19.4%, p = 0.08). There was no temporal change in the increased all-cause mortality hazard ratios in diabetic versus non-diabetic men and women. Multivariable-adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality remained elevated in diabetic women (2006-2009 hazard ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.29, 2.32) but not in men (2006-2009 hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.85, 1.37). The excess long-term mortality associated with diabetes and excess cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic women indicates a need for improved secondary prevention in diabetic patients, especially women. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  5. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

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    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Stehouwer, Coen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Rossing, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known coronary artery disease (CAD). Prospective study including 200 patients receiving multifactorial treatment. Markers of inflammation (TNF-ɑ, sICAM-1, sICAM-3, hsCRP, SAA, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and endothelial dysfunction (thrombomodulin, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sICAM-3, sE-selectin, sP-selectin) were measured at baseline. Adjustment included traditional CVD risk factors, and full adjustment additionally NT-proBNP and CAC. The "SQRT method" assessed CAC progression after 5.8years, and cut-point was an annualised difference >2.5. Occurrence of CVD (n=40) and all-cause mortality (n=26) was traced after 6.1years. In adjusted and fully adjusted Cox models, TNF-ɑ was a determinant of CVD and all-cause mortality (p≤0.007). Further, in adjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression, TNF-ɑ was related to CAC progression (p≤0.042). Of the other biomarkers, sICAM-3 and thrombomodulin were also associated with both endpoints (p≤0.046), IL-1β with CVD endpoints (p=0.021), and sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 with all-cause mortality (p≤0.005). Higher composite z-scores including all markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with CVD and all-cause mortality (p≤0.008). In patients with T2D and microalbuminuria without known CAD and receiving multifactorial treatment, biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were independently associated with CVD, all-cause mortality and CAC progression. Especially TNF-ɑ was a robust determinant, even after adjusting for NT-proBNP and CAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Danos causados pelo impacto de queda na qualidade pós-colheita de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa Damages caused by drop impact on the postharvest quality of arracacha roots

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    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como as raízes de mandioquinha-salsa são frágeis e muito suscetíveis a ferimentos, avaliou-se os danos físicos que ocorrem nas raízes devido ao impacto de queda no manuseio pós-colheita e suas conseqüências na durabilidade do produto. As raízes foram soltas de duas alturas (45 e 90 cm e três posições de queda: horizontal; vertical com "ombro" para baixo (=distal e para cima (=proximal, simulando-se uma situação comum no beneficiamento e na comercialização. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento casualizado com três repetições de 40 raízes por parcela. Após a queda, as raízes foram examinadas individualmente, determinando-se os tipos de ferimentos (quebradas, rachaduras, rupturas, lesões superficiais em relação àquelas aparentemente intactas. A altura de queda afetou diretamente a incidência de injúrias mais graves, como quebras e rupturas. Na queda de 90 cm, a posição de soltura proximal causou 40,7% de rachaduras, 19,2% de rupturas e 22,3% de lesões superficiais; na posição distal causou 45,8% de rupturas e 23,3% de quebra nas raízes. Em outro experimento, avaliou-se a respiração, perda de matéria fresca e a deterioração em raízes submetidas à injúria por impacto de queda (90 cm e armazenadas a 5ºC e 24ºC, comparadas com testemunhas não injuriadas, em três repetições (1,5 kg raízes/parcela distribuídas ao acaso. As raízes submetidas à injúria por queda apresentaram taxas respiratórias superiores em comparação com aquelas intactas quando mantidas na mesma temperatura, e a 24ºC variou de 15,3 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 (intactas a 34,4 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 (injuriadas. As raízes injuriadas mantidas a 24ºC apresentaram 84% de deterioração após quatro dias, enquanto aquelas a 5ºC não apresentaram deterioração.Arracacha roots are very fragile and susceptible to mechanical damage. The postharvest handling system may cause many lesions, mainly by impacts and drops. The effect of drop impact on

  7. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Berlo, Damien van; Shi Tingming; Speit, Guenter; Knaapen, Ad M.; Borm, Paul J.A.; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of high concentrations of respirable quartz particles has been implicated in various lung diseases including lung fibrosis and cancer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism of quartz toxicity. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been considered as nutraceutical because of its strong anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether curcumin can protect lung epithelial cells from the cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory effects associated with quartz (DQ12) exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using the spin-trap DMPO demonstrated that curcumin reduces hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxyl-radical formation by quartz. Curcumin was also found to reduce quartz-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in RLE-6TN rat lung epithelial cells (RLE). Curcumin also inhibited the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) from RLE cells as observed upon treatment with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). However, curcumin failed to protect the RLE cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by quartz, as shown by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay and by immunocytochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In contrast, curcumin was found to be a strong inducer of oxidative DNA damage itself at non-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory concentrations. In line with this, curcumin also enhanced the mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1). Curcumin also caused oxidative DNA damage in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that one should be cautious in considering the potential use of curcumin in the prevention or treatment of lung diseases associated with quartz exposure

  8. Incidência de meningite por Haemophilus influenzae no RS 1999-2010: impacto da cobertura vacinal Incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul 1999-2010: impact of vaccination campaign

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    Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e verificar a situação epidemiológica das meningites causadas pelo agente Haemophilus influenzae tipo b nos últimos 10 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, utilizando o sistema de dados de notificação de meningites, e cobertura vacinal, armazenados em base on line Tabnet - Tabulação de dados Epidemiológicos - CEVS/SES/RS, abrangendo o período de 1999 a 2010. Foram utilizados casos notificados e confirmados, tendo como critério de seleção o ano de inicio dos sintomas, idade, diagnostico e evolução. Foi analisado o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, representado por 19 coordenadorias de saúde. Comparações entre proporções foram avaliadas pelo teste de z. No RS foram notificados 3043 casos confirmados de meningite bacteriana, sendo 6,77% dos casos causados por H. influenzae. O coeficiente de incidência da meningite por H. influenzae, sem considerar faixa etária, caiu significativamente (95,6% após 1999, assim como a mortalidade. Crianças menores de um ano continuam sendo as mais acometidas (52%, não havendo alteração na letalidade. Os resultados apresentados revelaram um impacto positivo das estratégias de vacinação contra Hib no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos últimos dez anos.This article seeks to analyze and update the epidemiological situation of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the past 10 years in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. It is a retrospective, descriptive study, which used the data notification system of meningitis and vaccination campaign coverage, stored in the Epidemiological TABNET online database, for the period from 1999 to 2010. Cases notified and confirmed were used and the selection criteria were the year when the symptoms were detected, age, diagnosis, and evolution. Nineteen health centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. The z-test was used to evaluate comparisons between the proportions. In the

  9. Estimating the willingness to pay to protect coral reefs from potential damage caused by climate change--The evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, William Wei-Chun; Hsu, Shu-Han; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2015-12-30

    Coral reefs constitute the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystem, and provide various goods and services including those related to fisheries, marine tourism, coastal protection, and medicine. However, they are sensitive to climate change and rising temperatures. Taiwan is located in the central part of the world's distribution of coral reefs and has about one third of the coral species in the world. This study estimates the welfare losses associated with the potential damage to coral reefs in Taiwan caused by climate change. The contingent valuation method adopted includes a pre-survey, a face-to-face formal survey, and photo illustrations used to obtain reliable data. Average annual personal willingness to pay is found to be around US$35.75 resulting in a total annual willingness to pay of around US$0.43 billion. These high values demonstrate that coral reefs in Taiwan deserve to be well preserved, which would require a dedicated agency and ocean reserves.

  10. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  11. Impact of the Phoretic Phase on Reproduction and Damage Caused by Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman to Its Host, the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L..

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    Vincent Piou

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the honeybee that causes thousands of colony losses worldwide. The parasite cycle is composed of a phoretic and a reproductive phase. During the former, mites stay on adult bees, mostly on nurses, to feed on hemolymph. During the latter, the parasites enter brood cells and reproduce. We investigated if the type of bees on which Varroa stays during the phoretic phase and if the duration of this stay influenced the reproductive success of the parasite and the damage caused to bees. For that purpose, we used an in vitro rearing method developed in our laboratory to assess egg laying rate and the presence and number of fully molted daughters. The expression level of two Varroa vitellogenin genes (VdVg1 and VdVg2, known to vary throughout reproduction, was also quantified. Results showed that the status of the bees or time spent during the phoretic phase impacts neither reproduction parameters nor the Varroa vitellogenin genes levels of expression. However, we correlated these parameters to the gene expression and demonstrated that daughters expressed the vitellogenin genes at lower levels than their mother. Regarding the damage to bees, the data indicated that a longer stay on adult bees during the phoretic phase resulted in more frequent physical deformity in newborn bees. We showed that those mites carry more viral loads of the Deformed Wing Virus and hence trigger more frequently overt infections. This study provides new perspectives towards a better understanding of the Varroa-honeybee interactions.

  12. Visualisation of γH2AX foci caused by heavy ion particle traversal; distinction between core track versus non-track damage.

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    Nakako Izumi Nakajima

    Full Text Available Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle.

  13. The role of peroxisomal ABC transporters in the mouse adrenal gland: the loss of Abcd2 (ALDR), Not Abcd1 (ALD), causes oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jyh-Feng; Barron-Casella, Emily; Deering, Rebecca; Heinzer, Ann K; Moser, Ann B; deMesy Bentley, Karen L; Wand, Gary S; C McGuinness, Martina; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A; Pujol, Aurora; Smith, Kirby D; Powers, James M

    2007-03-01

    X-linked adreno-leukodystrophy is a progressive, systemic peroxisomal disorder that primarily affects the adrenal cortex, as well as myelin and axons of the central nervous system. Marked phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with disease-causing mutations in ABCD1, which encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein that is a member of the ABC transmembrane transporter proteins. The precise physiological functions of ABCD1 and ABCD2, a closely related peroxisomal membrane half-transporter, are unknown. The abcd1 knockout mouse does not develop the inflammatory demyelination so typical and devastating in adreno-leukodystrophy, but it does display the same lamellae and lipid profiles in adrenocortical cells under the electron microscope as the human patients. The adrenocortical cells in the mouse also exhibit immunohistochemical evidence of oxidative stress at 12 weeks but no evidence of oxidative damage. To better understand the pathogenesis of this complex disease, we evaluate the adrenal lesion of the abcd1 knockout mouse as a function of normal aging, dietary or therapeutic manipulations, and abcd genotype. The loss of abcd2 causes oxidative stress in the adrenal at 12 weeks, as judged by increased immunoreactivity for the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase, in both the inner cortex and medulla. The loss of abcd2 (n=20), but not abcd1 (n=27), results in the spontaneous and premature deposition of ceroid, a known end-product of oxidative damage, predominantly in adrenal medullary cells. These data indicate that the loss of abcd2 results in greater oxidative stress in murine adrenal cells than the loss of abcd1, providing a clue to its cellular function. We also find that the adrenocortical lesion of the abcd1 knockout mouse does not produce functional impairment at ten to nineteen months or overt hypocortisolism at any age, nor does it progress histologically; these and other data align this mouse model closer to human female heterozygotes than to male

  14. Chronic Mild Hyperhomocysteinemia Alters Inflammatory and Oxidative/Nitrative Status and Causes Protein/DNA Damage, as well as Ultrastructural Changes in Cerebral Cortex: Is Acetylsalicylic Acid Neuroprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Moreira, Daniella; Figueiró, Paula W; Siebert, Cassiana; Prezzi, Caroline A; Rohden, Francieli; Guma, Fatima C R; Manfredini, Vanusa; Wyse, Angela T S

    2018-04-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine metabolism. When plasma homocysteine levels exceed 10-15 μM, there is a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia, which occur as a result of an inborn error of methionine metabolism or by non-genetic causes. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acetylsalicylic acid has neuroprotective role on the effect of homocysteine on inflammatory, oxidative/nitrative stress, and morphological parameters in cerebral cortex of rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Wistar male rats received homocysteine (0.03 μmol/g of body weight) by subcutaneous injections twice a day and acetylsalicylic acid (25 mg/Kg of body weight) by intraperitoneal injections once a day from the 30th to the 60th postpartum day. Control rats received vehicle solution in the same volume. Results showed that rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6, and acetylcholinesterase activity and reduced nitrite levels. Homocysteine decreased catalase activity and immunocontent and superoxide dismutase activity, caused protein and DNA damage, and altered neurons ultrastructure. Acetylsalicylic acid totally prevented the effect of homocysteine on acetylcholinesterase activity and catalase activity and immunocontent, as well as the ultrastructural changes, and partially prevented alterations on IL-1β levels, superoxide dismutase activity, sulfhydryl content, and comet assay. Acetylsalicylic acid per se increased DNA damage index. In summary, our findings showed that chronic chemically induced model of mild hyperhomocysteinemia altered some parameters and acetylsalicylic acid administration seemed to be neuroprotective, at least in part, on neurotoxicity of homocysteine.

  15. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  16. Piper nigrum ethanolic extract rich in piperamides causes ROS overproduction, oxidative damage in DNA leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrini Ramos; Ourique, Fabiana; Porfirio Will Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni; Andreguetti, Rafaela Rafognato; Gomes Correia, João Francisco; Filho, Danilo Wilhem; Pich, Claus Tröger; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2016-08-02

    Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine and tribal people use herbal preparations containing Piper nigrum fruits for the treatment of many health disorders like inflammation, fever, asthma and cancer. In Brazil, traditional maroon culture associates the spice Piper nigrum to health recovery and inflammation attenuation. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Piper nigrum ethanolic extract and its antitumor activity. The plant was macerated in ethanol. Extract constitution was assessed by TLC, UV-vis and ESI-IT-MS/MS spectrometry. The cytotoxicity, proliferation and intracellular ROS generation was evaluated in MCF-7 cells. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA, plasmid DNA cleavage and oxidative damage in CT-DNA. Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress were assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Extraction yielded 64mg/g (36% piperine and 4.2% piperyline). Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced cell viability (EC50=27.1±2.0 and 80.5±6.6µg/ml in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells, respectively), inhibiting cell proliferation by 57% and increased ROS generation in MCF-7 cells (65%). Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by the extract, which caused reduction of tumor growth (60%), elevated survival time (76%), cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. The treatment with extract increased Bax and p53 and inhibited Bcl-xL and cyclin A expression. It also induced an oxidative stress in vivo verified as enhanced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl proteins content and increased activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. GSH concentration was decreased in tumor tissue from mice. The ethanolic extract has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and antitumor effect in vivo probably due to ROS overproduction

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Stefan Schaper

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 843-846. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos, cuyo principal vector es Aedes aegypti. Este mosquito coloniza muchas áreas tropicales donde la enfermedad es endémica. La acción más obvia contra el dengue es el ataque a su vector. El control biológico parece una buena alternativa, empleando enemigos naturales de los mosquitos, como los copépodos. Por lo tanto, es importante el estudio morfológico del daño causado por los copépodos para comprender su capacidad depredadora. Veinticinco larvas de A. aegypti fueron expuestas a la actividad depredadora del copépodo Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. Mediante microscopia electrónica de rastreo se evaluó el daño causado por los copépodos. Éstos atacaron principalmente el segmento anal, el sifón y el abdomen de las larvas; sólo vimos tres ataques a la cabeza. El tamaño del sifón podría ser de importancia para predecir si los copépodos pudiesen atacar larvas de determinado mosquito.

  18. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  19. Risk Factors for Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality in a Middle Eastern Population over a Decade Follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

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    Mahsa Sardarinia

    Full Text Available To examine the association between potentially modifiable risk factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality and to quantify their population attributable fractions (PAFs among a sample of Tehran residents.Overall, 8108 participants (3686 men aged≥30 years, were investigated. To examine the association between risk factors and outcomes, multivariate sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were conducted, using age as time-scale in two models including general/central adiposity: 1adjusted for different independent variables including smoking, education, family history of CVD and sex for both outcomes and additionally adjusted for prevalent CVD for all-cause mortality 2further adjusted for obesity mediators (hypertension, diabetes, lipid profile and chronic kidney disease. Separate models were used including either general or central adiposity.During median follow-up of >10 years, 827 first CVD events and 551 deaths occurred. Both being overweight (hazard ratio (HR, 95%CI: 1.41, 1.18-1.66, PAF 13.66 and obese (1.51, 1.24-1.84, PAF 9.79 played significant roles for incident CVD in the absence of obesity mediators. Predicting CVD, in the presence of general adiposity and its mediators, significant positive associations were found for hypercholesterolemia (1.59, 1.36-1.85, PAF 16.69, low HDL-C (1.21, 1.03-1.41, PAF 12.32, diabetes (1.86, 1.57-2.27, PAF 13.87, hypertension (1.79, 1.46-2.19, PAF 21.62 and current smoking (1.61, 1.34-1.94, PAF 7.57. Central adiposity remained a significant positive predictor, even after controlling for mediators (1.17, 1.01-1.35, PAF 7.55. For all-cause mortality, general/central obesity did not have any risk even in the absence of obesity mediators. Predictors including diabetes (2.56, 2.08-3.16, PAF 24.37, hypertension (1.43, 1.11-1.84, PAF 17.13, current smoking (1.75, 1.38-2.22, PAF 7.71, and low education level (1.59, 1.01-2.51, PAF 27.08 were associated with higher risk

  20. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

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    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  1. Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Yang, Min; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhao, Bing; Sun, Xuejun; Gao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a leading cause of acute kidney injury. The pathophysiological process involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. This study explored the protective effect of pretreatment with HRS on the development of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis acute kidney injury. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 was given 50% glycerol (10 mL/kg, intramuscular), group 3 was given glycerol after 7 d pretreatment with high dose HRS (10 mL/kg/d, intraperitoneal), and group 4 was given glycerol after 7 d pretreatment with low dose HRS (5 mL/kg/d, intraperitoneal). Renal health was monitored by serum creatinine (Cr), urea, and histologic analysis; rhabdomyolysis was monitored by creatine kinase (CK) levels; and oxidative stress was monitored by kidney tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. Inflammation was monitored by interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) evaluation. Glycerol administration resulted in an increase in the mean histologic damage score, serum Cr, urea and CK, kidney tissue ROS, malondialdehyde, 8-OH-dG, GSH-PX, IL-6, and TNF-α, and a decrease in kidney tissue superoxide dismutase activity. All these factors were significantly improved by both doses of HRS, but the mean histologic damage score, urea, Cr, CK, ROS, 8-OH-dG, GSH-PX, IL-6, and TNF-α for the high dose HRS treatment group were even lower. Pretreatment by HRS ameliorated renal dysfunction in glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis by inhibiting oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA damage stress and inhibition of Jak2-V617F cause its degradation and synergistically induce apoptosis through activation of GSK3β.

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    Toshikage Nagao

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Jak2 plays a crucial role in cytokine receptor signaling in hematopoietic cells. The activated Jak2-V617F mutant is present in most cases of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and constitutively activates downstream signals from homodimeric cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR. Here we examine the effects of DNA damage stress on Jak2 or Jak2-V617F and on induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells. Etoposide or doxorubicin dose-dependently decreased the expression level of Jak2 in UT7 or 32D cells expressing EpoR in the absence of Epo and that of exogenously expressed Jak2-V617F in UT7 cells when cotreated with the Jak2 inhibitor JakI-1 or AG490. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic manipulations further showed that downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to the activation of GSK3β may be involved in downregulation of Jak2 or Jak2-V617F as well as in synergistic induction of Bax activation and apoptosis. The downregulation of Jak2 was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or by expression of both of loss-of-function mutants of c-Cbl and Cbl-b, E3 ubiquitin ligases which facilitated ubiquitination of Jak2-V617F when co-expressed in 293T cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-d-fmk also inhibited the Jak2 downregulation as well as appearance of a 100-kDa fragment that contained the N-terminal portion of Jak2 in response to DNA damage. Together, these data suggest that DNA damage stress with simultaneous inhibition of the kinase activity causes degradation of Jak2 or Jak2-V617F by caspase cleavage and proteasomal degradation through GSK3β activation, which is closely involved in synergistic induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells.

  3. Protection by Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract from liver damage of mice caused by carbon tetrachloride is maybe mediated by modulation of QR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jia; Lim, Ji-Sun; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kang, Hui Jung; Yoon Park, Jung Han; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2010-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura (Compositae) has the potential to induce detoxifying enzymes such as NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 (EC 1.6.99.2) (NQO1, QR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In this study we further fractionated methanolic extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii and investigated the detoxifying enzyme-inducing potential of each fraction. The fraction (CZ-6) shown the highest QR-inducing activity was found to contain (+)-(3S,4S,5R,8S)-(E)-8-acetoxy-4-hydroxy-3-isovaleroyloxy-2-(hexa-2,4-diynyliden)-1,6-dioxaspiro [4,5] decane and increased QR enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CZ-6 fraction caused a dose-dependent enhancement of luciferase activity in HepG2-C8 cells generated by stably transfecting antioxidant response element-luciferase gene construct, suggesting that it induces antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes through antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcriptional activation of the relevant genes. Although CZ-6 fraction failed to induce hepatic QR in mice over the control, it restored QR activity suppressed by CCl(4) treatment to the control level. Hepatic injury induced by CCl(4) was also slightly protected by pretreatment with CZ-6. In conclusion, although CZ-6 fractionated from methanolic extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii did not cause a significant QR induction in mice organs such as liver, kidney, and stomach, it showed protective effect from liver damage caused by CCl(4).

  4. [Effect of oxidative stress-associated damage to the lung tissue caused by different body mass index in the rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Zhang, X J; Zhao, J H; Xu, J Y

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the influence of different diets on serum protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the activities of Trx and TrxR, and to explore the effect of damage to the lung tissue and the underlying mechanisms of different body mass index caused by different diets in the rat models . Method: Healthy clean male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, emaciation group and fat group, which were raised by different diets for 6 months.Then the rats were sacrificed and the serum and lung tissue were prepared. The levels of 4-HNE, Trx and TrxR in peripheral blood were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of Trx and TrxR were measured by chemical methods. Results: Compared with the normal group, the lung tissue had more apparent emphysema in the emaciation and the fat groups under light microscope, and more inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar septum was observed in the fat group.The levels of 4-HNE in the fat group[(24.7±8.7)mg/L]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(15.4±4.7)mg/L, P 0.05)in the levels of 4-HNE between the emaciation and the normal groups. The levels of TrxR in the emaciation group[(7.7±1.4)μg/ml]was significantly higher than that in the normal and the fat groups[(6.2±1.1), (4.9±1.4)μg/ml, all P 0.05). The activity of Trx in the emaciation group[(32.4±8.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(19.6±3.3)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]and the fat group[(11.3±7.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 , all P 0.05). Conclusion: Both high BMI and low BMI can affect the oxidative stress of the body, resulting in increased oxidants and decreased antioxidants, and can cause damage to the lung tissue in the rat models.

  5. DANOS CAUSADOS POR LARVAS E ADULTOS DE DIABROTICA SPECIOSA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE EM MILHO DAMAGES CAUSED BY LARVAE AND ADULTS OF DIABROTICA SPECIOSA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE IN CORN

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    GILBERTO BATISTA CASTOR MARQUES

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 é, tradicionalmente, na fase adulta, uma praga polífaga, embora apresente certa preferência por folhas do feijoeiro e soja. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, a fase de larva deste crisomelídeo adquiriu o status de praga, à semelhança de outras espécies do mesmo gênero nos EUA, causando consideráveis danos ao sistema radicular do milho. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar os danos causados por diferentes níveis populacionais de larvas de D. speciosa às raízes de milho, e, pelos adultos às folhas de milho, soja, feijoeiro e arroz. Desde as menores densidades populacionais de larvas, houve redução significativa no peso seco das raízes do milho, peso seco da parte aérea e na altura das plantas em relação à testemunha. Constatou-se que o nível de controle está aquém de 40 larvas por planta. Os adultos tiveram significativa preferência por folhas do feijoeiro e soja, sendo o milho e o arroz menos consumidos.Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 is traditionally a polyphagous pest during the adult phase although with some preference for bean and soybean leaves. In the past years, however, the larval phase of this chrysomelid achieved the pest status likewise other species of the genus in the USA causing severe damages to the root system of corn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the damages caused by different population levels of D. speciosa to corn roots and by adults to corn, soybean, bean and rice leaves. A significant decrease in the dry weight of corn roots, in the dry weight of the upper part, and in plant height in comparison with the control plant was observed even in small larvae population densities. The economic threshold level was less than 40 larvae per plant. The adults had significant preference for bean and soybean leaves while corn and rice were less consumed.

  6. Analysis of the damage caused by natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Italy, on the basis of a nation-wide chronological catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Parise, Mario; Salvati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    where alluvial sediments are present; they definitely have a lower impact on the built-up environment, mostly affecting rural areas. Trigger of the sinkholes can be due to rainfall or seismic events, or to man-made works (realization and/or maintenance of pipelines, quarrying activities, etc.). Further, other important features of sinkholes are shown in the catalogue, covering morphometric characters (width and depth), lithologies involved, and occurrence as first collapse or as a re-activation of a former sinkhole. The regions with the highest number of documented sinkholes are: Campania (246), Sicily (117), Latium (107) and Apulia (88). Only two Italian regions (Molise and Valle d'Aosta) so far are not present in the catalogue with any documented sinkhole. Sinkholes have repeatedly caused in Italy heavy damage to the society. Water supply systems, sewer systems, roads and other communication routes were often damaged; in addition, damage and/or collapse of buildings, with the deriving casualties, had also to be registered in several circumstances. In the time span covered by the catalogue, casualties (which include deaths, missing persons, and injured people) are reported in 3.5 % of the events, whilst damage are documented in 32.6 % of the cases. The numbers above are underestimated, because most of the sources typically provide generic information, that often simply refer to the occurrence of an unspecified number of deaths and injured people (especially as regards the oldest reports). This, together with the ancient date of many events, is at the origin of the difficulty in precisely quantifying the intensity of the sinkholes, in terms of their effects on the society. Most of the damage was registered in central-southern Italy, and in particular in the aforementioned regions. This is partly due to the geological setting of these territories, and to availability of specific studies on sinkholes carried out in these regions (especially in the towns of Palermo, Naples

  7. Three-dimensional wave propagation analysis of simple two-dimensional basin structures with special reference to `the basin-edge effect`. Cause of the damage belt during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake; Edge koka ni chakumokushita tanjunna nijigen bonchi kozo no sanjigen hadoba kaiseki. Hyogoken nanbu jishin no sai no shinsaitai no seiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawase, H.; Matsushima, S. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Graves, R.; Somerville, P. [Woodward-Clyde, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1998-03-13

    Analysis was made on the cause of a damage belt in Hyogo- ken Nanbu earthquake paying attention to the basin-edge effect. The basin-edge effect is derived from the constructive interference between vertical direct S-wave and horizontally propagating basin-induced diffracted/ surface waves, and occurs at basin edges regardless of kinds of incident wave fields. An energy concentration theory based on refraction of transverse cylindrical wave is not correct. Edge-induced wave is classified into edge-induced wave-I with the same phase as incident wave mainly composed of diffracted P-wave, and edge-induced wave-II with a inverse phase mainly composed of diffracted S-wave and Rayleigh wave. Singular amplification within 1km around a fault is mainly caused by edge-induced wave-II. Although the basin-edge effect is affected by incident wave frequency and phase, 3 kinds of waveforms of nearly equal 1s, in pulse period produce the same edge- induced wave. As the result based on bedrock wave inversely estimated from observed data, the contribution of edge- induced waves in Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was estimated to be 50cm/s. 41 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Branco, Vasco; Figueiredo, Neusa; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Cristina; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is a global paradigm that raises concern in relation to environmental and human health. This study investigated toxic effects of microplastics and mercury in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely used as food for humans. A short-term (96 h) laboratory bioassay was done by exposing juvenile fish to microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L) and binary mixtures of the two substances using the same concentrations, through test media. Microplastics alone and mercury alone caused neurotoxicity through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, increased lipid oxidation (LPO) in brain and muscle, and changed the activities of the energy-related enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). All the mixtures caused significant inhibition of brain AChE activity (64-76%), and significant increase of LPO levels in brain (2.9-3.4 fold) and muscle (2.2-2.9 fold) but not in a concentration-dependent manner; mixtures containing low and high concentrations of microplastics caused different effects on IDH and LDH activity. Mercury was found to accumulate in the brain and muscle, with bioaccumulation factors of 4-7 and 25-40, respectively. Moreover, in the analysis of mercury concentrations in both tissues, a significant interaction between mercury and microplastics was found. The decay of mercury in the water increased with microplastics concentration, and was higher in the presence of fish than in their absence. Overall, these results indicate that: microplastics influence the bioaccumulation of mercury by D. labrax juveniles; microplastics, mercury and their mixtures (ppb range concentrations) cause neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and damage, and changes in the activities of energy-related enzymes in juveniles of this species; mixtures with the lowest and highest concentrations of their components induced different effects on some biomarkers. These findings and other published

  9. CT patterns of pleuro-pulmonary damage caused by inhalation of pumice as a model of pneumoconiosis from non-fibrous amorphous silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Chiara; Ascenti, Giorgio; Scribano, Emanuele; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Gaeta, Michele; Fenga, Concettina; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to correlate the radiological features of pleuro-pulmonary damage caused by inhalation of pumice (an extrusive volcanic rock classified as a non-fibrous, amorphous, complex silicate) with exposure conditions. 36 subjects employed in the pumice quarries were evaluated for annual follow-up in a preventive medical surveillance program including spirometry, chest CT lasting from 1999 to 2014. They were only male subjects, mean age 56.92 ± 16.45 years. Subjects had worked in the quarries for an average of 25.03 ± 9.39 years. Domestic or occupational exposure to asbestos or other mineral dusts other than pumice was excluded. Subjects were also classified as smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. Among the 36 workers examined, we identified four CT patterns which resulted to be dependent on exposure duration and intensity, FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not on cigarette smoking. The most common symptoms reported by clinical examination were dyspnoea, cough and asthenia. In no case it was proven an evolution of CT findings during follow-up for 10 years. Liparitosis, caused by pumice inhalation, can be considered a representative example of pneumoconiosis derived by amorphous silica compounds, which are extremely widespread for industrial manufacturing as well as for applicative uses, such as nano-materials. Moreover, being pumice free of quartz contamination, it can represent a disease model for exposure to pure non-fibrous silicates.

  10. The effect of tadalafil therapy on kidney damage caused by sepsis in a polymicrobial septic model induced in rats: a biochemical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Benli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Sepsis is an inflammatory reaction to bacteria involving the whole body and is a significant cause of mortality and economic costs. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tadalafil exhibits a preventive effect on sepsis in a septic model induced in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Materials and Methods Rats were randomly separated into groups, 10 rats in each: (i a sham (control group, (ii an untreated sepsis group, (iii a sepsis group treated with 5mg/kg tadalafil and (iv a sepsis group treated with 10mg/kg tadalafil. A polymicrobial sepsis model was induced in rats using CLP. Rats were sacrificed after 16h, and blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological study. Results Levels of the inflammatory parameter IL-6 decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil in comparison with the untreated sepsis group (p<0.05. In terms of histopathology, inflammation scores investigated in kidney tissues decreased significantly in the sepsis groups receiving tadalafil compared to the untreated sepsis group (p<0.05. In addition, levels of creatinine and cystatin C measured in septic rats receiving tadalafil were lower by a clear degree than in septic rats (p<0.05. Conclusion In this study, tadalafil exhibited a preventive effect for sepsis-related damage by suppressing inflammation in serum and kidney tissue of septic rats in a polymicrobial sepsis model induced with CLP.

  11. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative damage caused by Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae to upland rice cultivated in new agricultural frontier of the Amazon rainforest (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851 is one of the stink bug species of great economic importance for rice producers in Brazil of irrigated, flood and upland cropping systems. These pentatomids are known as stink bugs of panicles, because both nymphs and adults feed mainly on panicles. Stink bug attacks result in pecky (spots seeds, lower mass, germinative reduction and deformed grains. Bearing these factors in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative losses in commercial cultivars of upland rice (Cambará variety, submitted to different population levels of stink bugs of panicles, O. poecilus, at different reproductive growth stages. The results show that in upland rice (Cambará variety, the rice grains are susceptible to quantitative (number and weight and qualitative (pecky, atrophy, chalky and broken grains damage during all panicle development. However, when the insects feed during anthesis/caryopsis and milky stage cause significantly greater percentage of empty grains (up to 83% than when they feed of grains during later phases of panicle development. This characteristic was also observed for the reduction in grain weight. This information may benefit producers and other researchers, allowing them to focus on the monitoring efforts of O. poecilus in most susceptible phases of the attack of this insect. This will enable decision-making about what control measures should be taken, and when, in order to control stink bugs of panicles.

  13. Suspended C{sub 60} nanoparticles protect against short-term UV and fluoranthene photo-induced toxicity, but cause long-term cellular damage in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Y. [Department of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Edelmann, R.E. [Electron Microscopy Facility, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Oris, J.T., E-mail: orisjt@muohio.edu [Department of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The increased production of nanotechnology materials is a potential source of nano-sized particles (NSPs) in aquatic ecosystems. Meanwhile, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the presence of ecologically relevant levels of ultraviolet radiation (UV), can be acutely toxic to aquatic species including fish and invertebrates. Considering that suspended carbon-based NSPs (e.g., C{sub 60} fullerenes) may act in similar ways as dissolved organic matter (DOM) by altering the bioavailability of PAHs, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of suspended C{sub 60} on the photo-induced toxicity of fluoranthene. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of C{sub 60} protected cellular components (e.g., mitochondria, microvilli, and basal infoldings) in organisms exposed to UV and fluoranthene phototoxicity in short-term exposures. However, we found that long-term exposure (21 d) of low-level C{sub 60} caused significant cellular damage in the Daphnia magna alimentary canal. This paper highlights the importance of examining the interactions between existing stressors and nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  14. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: a 12-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Merces Ferreira, Isabel Maria

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct...

  16. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG) [de

  17. The role of social media in providing crisis information in China: a critical evaluation of the Tianjin fire incident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiangfei; Boersma, F.K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focusses on the information asymmetry in crisis news after a serious incident in Tianjin, China, in 2015. The incident caused enormous damage and resulted in societal unrest because of the lack of reliable information from the formal media channels. Social media-micro blogs-played a major

  18. Automatic recognition of damaged town buildings caused by earthquake using remote sensing information: Taking the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake and the 1976 Tangshan, China, earthquake as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Hang; Shan, Xin-Jian; Yin, Jing-Yuan

    2004-11-01

    In the high-resolution images, the undamaged buildings generally show a natural textural feature, while the damaged or semi-damaged buildings always exhibit some low-grayscale blocks because of their coarsely damaged sections. If we use a proper threshold to classify the grayscale of image, some independent holes will appear in the damaged regions. By using such statistical information as the number of holes in every region, or the ratio between the area of holes and that of the region, etc, the damaged buildings can be separated from the undamaged, thus automatic detection of damaged buildings can be realized. Based on these characteristics, a new method to automatically detect the damage buildings by using regional structure and statistical information of texture is presented in the paper. In order to test its validity, 1-m-resolution iKonos merged image of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and grayscale aerial photos of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake are selected as two examples to automatically detect the damaged buildings. Satisfied results are obtained.

  19. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  20. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Martz

    Full Text Available At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE. By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  1. Economic Assessment of Environmental Pollution Damages Caused by Industry on Agriculture: The Case of Samsun Fertilizer (TÜGSAS) and Karadeniz Copper (KBI) Industries

    OpenAIRE

    TANRIVERMİŞ, Harun; MÜLAYİM, Z. Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to assess the environmental pollution damages to agriculture the case of TÜGSAS and KBI industries were chosen. For this aim, change-in-productivity, preventive/defensive expenditures and contingent valuation approaches are applied to the selected case for assessing the pollution damage. The result indicates that the value of pollution damages to major agricultural crops in 1994 are estimated as 70.8 billion TL in Tekkeköy region. It has been determined that there is an inverse...

  2. Meningococcal disease in The Netherlands, 1958-1990: a steady increase in the incidence since 1982 partially caused by new serotypes and subtypes of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Poolman, J. T.; Kuipers, B.; Caugant, D. A.; van Alphen, L.; Dankert, J.; Valkenburg, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to explain a threefold increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease in the Netherlands during the 1980s, we serotyped and subtyped Neisseria meningitidis isolates recovered between 1958 and 1990 from > 3,000 patients with systemic disease. No single strain could be held responsible

  3. Damage of the Unit 1 reactor building overhead bridge crane at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and its repair works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugamata, Norihiko

    2014-01-01

    The driving shaft bearings of the Unit 1 overhead bridge crane were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. The situation, investigation and repair works of the bearing failure are introduced in this paper. (author)

  4. Damage to DNA caused by UV-B radiation in the desert cyanobacterium Scytonema javanicum and the effects of exogenous chemicals on the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Deng, Songqiang; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yongding; Chen, Lanzhou; Hu, Chaozhen

    2012-07-01

    Radiation with UV-B increased the damage to DNA in Scytonema javanicum, a desert-dwelling soil microorganism, and the level of damage varied with the intensity of UV-B radiation and duration of exposure. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increased because of the radiation. Different exogenous chemicals (ascorbate acid, ASC; N-acetylcysteine, NAC; glyphosate, GPS; and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA-Na) differed in their effect on the extent of DNA damage and ROS production: whereas NAC and ASC protected the DNA from damage and resulted in reduced ROS production, the herbicides (GPS and MCPA-Na) increased the extent of damage, lowered the rate of photosynthesis, and differed in their effect on ROS production. The chemicals probably have different mechanisms to exercise their effects: NAC and ASC probably function as antioxidant agents or as precursors of other antioxidant molecules that protect the DNA and photosynthetic apparatus directly from the ROS produced as a result of UV-B radiation, and GPS and MCPA-Na probably disrupt the normal metabolism in S. javanicum to induce the leaking of ROS into the photosynthetic electron transfer pathway following UV-B radiation, and thereby damage the DNA. Such mechanisms have serious implications for the use of environment-friendly herbicides, which, because they can destroy DNA, may prove harmful to soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  6. Low-dose testosterone alleviates vascular damage caused by castration in male rats in puberty via modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ge-Li; Wei, Ying; Jiang, Li-Hong; Bao, Peng-Li; Yang, Qing-Yan

    2016-09-01

    increases in the mRNA levels of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K, compared with the low dose group. Castration induced marked disorders of glucolipid metabolism and vascular injuries in the pubescent male rats. Low‑dose testosterone treatment was found to ameliorate the vascular damage caused by castration via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  7. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Ruba Abuamsha; Mohammed Abueid; Hajaj Hajjeh; Mazen Salman

    2013-01-01

    Twelve olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS) disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivar...

  8. Elucidating the underlying causes of oral cancer through spatial clustering in high-risk areas of Taiwan with a distinct gender ratio of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ting Chiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate whether or not high-risk clusters of oral cancer (OC incidence spatially correlate with the prevalence rates of betel quid chewing (BQC and cigarette smoking (CS in Taiwan. The spatial autocorrelation and potential clusters of OC incidence among the 307 townships and heavy metal content of soil throughout Taiwan were identified using the Anselin’s local Moran test. Additionally, the spatial correlations among the incidence of OC, the prevalence of BQC and CS and heavy metal content of soil were determined based on a comparison of spatial clusters. High-risk OC (Moran’s I = 0.638, P <0.001 clusters were located in central and eastern Taiwan, while “hot spots” of BQC and CS prevalence were located mainly in eastern Taiwan. The distributions of BQC and CS lifestyle factors (P <0.001 were spatially autocorrelated. The “hot spots” of OC largely coincided with the “hot spots” of BQC, except for the Changhua and Yunlin counties, which are located in central Taiwan. However, high soil contents of nickel and chromium (P <0.001 in central Taiwan also coincided with the high-risk areas of OC incidence. In particular, Changhua county has incurred several decades of serious heavy-metal pollution, with inhabitants living in polluted areas having high-risk exposure to these metals. Results of this study suggest that, in addition to BQC and CS, anthropogenic pollution may profoundly impact the complexity of OC aetiology in central Taiwan.

  9. Is poor oral health a risk marker for incident cardiovascular disease hospitalisation and all-cause mortality? Findings from 172 630 participants from the prospective 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshy, Grace; Arora, Manish; Korda, Rosemary J; Chalmers, John; Banks, Emily

    2016-08-30

    To investigate the relationship between oral health and incident hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and all-cause mortality. Prospective population-based study of Australian men and women aged 45 years or older, who were recruited to the 45 and Up Study between January 2006 and April 2009; baseline questionnaire data were linked to hospitalisations and deaths up to December 2011. Study exposures include tooth loss and self-rated health of teeth and gums at baseline. New South Wales, Australia. Individuals aged 45-75 years, excluding those with a history of cancer/cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline; n=172 630. Incident hospitalisation for IHD, HF, ischaemic stroke and PVD and all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 3239 incident hospitalisations for IHD, 212 for HF, 283 for ischaemic stroke and 359 for PVD, and 1908 deaths, were observed. Cox proportional hazards models examined the relationship between oral health indicators and incident hospitalisation for CVD and all-cause mortality, adjusting for potential confounding factors. All-cause mortality and incident CVD hospitalisation risk increased significantly with increasing tooth loss for all outcomes except ischaemic stroke (ptrendhealth of teeth and gums (ptrendpoor versus very good health of teeth and gums, risks were increased for IHD (1.19, 1.03 to 1.38), PVD (1.66, 1.13 to 2.43) and all-cause mortality (1.76, 1.50 to 2.08). Tooth loss and, to a lesser extent, self-rated health of teeth and gums, are markers for increased risk of IHD, PVD and all-cause mortality. Tooth loss is also a marker for increased risk of HF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  11. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  12. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(en)yl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Sook; Endoh, Daiji; Ishida, Yushi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shuji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS) and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS) derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential. PMID:22919357

  13. Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation as a cause of transition radiation anomalous intensity in case of electron grazing incidence on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of the Vavilov-Cherenkov effect the anomaly in the transition radiation (TR) spectrum is explained which has been first observed by Boersch for grazing particle incidence on the silver surface. The contribution of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to the angle distribution of photons of the TR is estimated. Special attention is drawn to a possibility of the nonthreshold character of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in such a medium as silver, and to a necessity of creating a complete theory of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation for absorbing media

  14. Assessment of safety distance between components of nuclear plant and study of the vulnerabiliy of the damage caused by an explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaila, Aminu; Md Kasmani, Rafiziana; Meng-Hock, Koh; Termizi Ramli, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of external explosion, resulting from accidental release of jet fuel from the large commercial airliner in the nuclear power plant (NPP). The study used three widely prediction methods such as Trinitrotoluene (TNT), multi energy (TNO) and Baker-strehow (BST) to determine the unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE) overpressure within the distances of 100-1400 m from the first impact location. The containment building was taken as the reference position. The fatalities of persons and damage of structures was estimated using probit methodology. Analysis of the results shows that both reactor building and control-room will be highly damaged with risk consequences and probability, depending on the assumed position of the crash. The structures at the radial distance of 600 m may suffer major structural damage with probability ranging from 25 to 100%. The minor structural damage was observed throughout the bounds of the plant complex. The people working within 250 m radius may get affected with different fatality ranging from 28 to 100%. The findings of this study is valuable to evaluate the safety improvement needed on the NPP site and on the risk and consequences associated with the hydrocarbon fuel release/fires due to external hazards.

  15. Assessment of safety distance between components of nuclear plant and study of the vulnerabiliy of the damage caused by an explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Aminu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of external explosion, resulting from accidental release of jet fuel from the large commercial airliner in the nuclear power plant (NPP. The study used three widely prediction methods such as Trinitrotoluene (TNT, multi energy (TNO and Baker-strehow (BST to determine the unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE overpressure within the distances of 100-1400 m from the first impact location. The containment building was taken as the reference position. The fatalities of persons and damage of structures was estimated using probit methodology. Analysis of the results shows that both reactor building and control-room will be highly damaged with risk consequences and probability, depending on the assumed position of the crash. The structures at the radial distance of 600 m may suffer major structural damage with probability ranging from 25 to 100%. The minor structural damage was observed throughout the bounds of the plant complex. The people working within 250 m radius may get affected with different fatality ranging from 28 to 100%. The findings of this study is valuable to evaluate the safety improvement needed on the NPP site and on the risk and consequences associated with the hydrocarbon fuel release/fires due to external hazards.

  16. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...

  17. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim...... by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis...

  18. Possible restructuring of the worldwide oil market caused by the incidence of carbon tax; Possivel reestruturacao do mercado mundial de petroleo diante da incidencia da taxacao de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Anna Cecilia J. de; Szklo, Alexandre; Cohen, Claude; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    In the context of global climate change, carbon taxes, which vary positively with the carbon content of fuels, are seen as one of the main mitigative alternatives.. The incidence of this taxation will impact the relative prices of the different oil products and, possibly, change the demand curves for these products. Also, it will impact oil companies, which will have to adapt themselves to this new policy, so as to avoid, or to minimize, market share losses. However, only in the long term more complex changes in the market structures will be observed. As such, this paper aims at analyzing the relationships between the consumption of oil products in the short and long terms, and their corresponding consumers' income and price elasticities of demand due to carbon taxation, so as to assess their impacts on the World Petroleum Industry (WPI). (author)

  19. DNA polymerase I is crucial for the repair of potentially lethal damage caused by the indirect effects of X irradiation in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1985-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I was measured in the presence of OH radical scavengers. The extreme X-ray sensitivity of the mutant could be abolished by OH radical scavengers if a sufficiently high level of radioprotector was present. There was a direct correlation between the OH radical scavenging activity of the chemicals tested (NO 2 - , n-butanol, glycerol, t-amyl alcohol, and t-butanol) and their protective ability. The author interprets the data as showing that the indirect actions of X rays (primarily OH radicals) result in major damage to the bacterial DNA which in large part consists of potentially lethal lesions. This potentially lethal damage is repaired through an enzymatic pathway requiring DNA polymerase I. I. In the mutant lacking DNA polymerase I, these potentially lethal lesions are expressed as cell lethality

  20. Acetylsalicylic acid-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane reduces colon mucosal damage without causing gastric side effects in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabriella; Ugocsai, Melinda; Hartmann, Petra; Lajkó, Norbert; Molnár, Réka; Szűcs, Szilárd; Jász, Dávid Kurszán; Érces, Dániel; Ghyczy, Miklós; Tóth, Gábor; Boros, Mihály

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel compound from acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) precursors with ASA-like anti-inflammatory efficacy and reduced the mucosa-damaging side-effects. Our aim was to examine local and remote consequences of ASA-Tris administration in 2-,4-,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis as compared to ASA or mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate) treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups (n = 6, each), and TNBS enemas were performed. Group 1 was the negative control; group 2 was the untreated colitis group. 12 hour after colitis induction repeated doses of ASA, ASA-Tris (both 0.55 mmol/kg) and mesalamine (0.77 mmol/kg) were given 3 times daily for 3 days to groups 3-5. On day 3 of colitis, the in vivo histology of the colon and stomach was investigated. Tissue xanthine-oxidoreductase, myeloperoxidase, nitrite/nitrate changes, and circulating TNF-alpha levels were measured. In addition, liver mitochondria were examined with high-resolution respirometry to analyze alterations in the electron transport chain. TNBS enema significantly elevated inflammatory enzyme activities, NO production, TNF-alpha concentration, and induced morphological damage in the colon. ASA-treatment reduced the inflammatory marker levels and mucosal injury in the colon, but gastric tissue damage was present. ASA-Tris- and mesalamine-treatments significantly reduced the cytokine levels, inflammatory enzyme activities, and colonic mucosal damage without inducing gastric injury. Also, ASA significantly reduced the Complex IV-linked respiration of liver mitochondria, which was not observed after ASA-Tris-treatment. As compared to ASA, ASA-Tris conjugation provides significant protection against the colonic injury and cytokine-mediated progression of inflammatory events in experimental colitis without influencing the gastric epithelial structure.

  1. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  2. Cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in HIV-positive patients in Northeastern Algeria before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since 1998, the proportion of HIV-positive patients treated with HAART increased, reaching 84% in 2010, all-cause mortality decreased, and cancer remained rare. However, almost all patients who died during the study seemed to be diagnosed at a late stage of the disease, emphasizing the need for earlier diagnosis of HIV in Algeria.

  3. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  4. Is HLA the cause of the high incidence of type 1 diabetes in the Canary Islands? Results from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Del Pino, Angelo; Medina-Rodríguez, Nathan; Hernández-García, Marta; Nóvoa-Mogollón, Francisco J; Wägner, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    Incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Canary Islands is the highest reported so far in Spain, and among the highest worldwide. The HLA region accounts for approximately half the genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to assess distribution of high-risk and protective HLA haplotypes in the Canarian families included in the T1DGC, as compared to the rest of Spain. The T1DGC study, an international project to study the genetics and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, enrolled more than 3000 families with type 1 diabetes worldwide. Spain provided 149 of these families, of whom 42 were from Tenerife and Gran Canaria. HLA was genotyped centrally using a PCR-based, sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe system. Haplotypes were reconstructed using the deterministic algorithm alleHap in the R programming environment. Based on prior T1DGC results in Caucasian population, haplotypes DRB1*0405-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, DRB1*0401-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201, DRB1*0402-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 and DRB1*0404-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 were considered high-risk. DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303, DRB1*1401-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0503, DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602, DRB1*1101-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301, DRB1*1104-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301, DRB1*1303-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301, DRB1*1301-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0603 and DRB1*0403-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 were considered protective. The distribution of protective, high-risk, and other haplotypes in the (first two) affected siblings and unaffected parents from Canarian and non-Canarian Spanish families was compared (Chi-square test). No significant differences were found between the regions in distribution of the HLA haplotypes in the affected siblings or in the non-affected parents. The high incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in the Canarian population does not appear to be explained by a greater prevalence of high-risk class II HLA haplotypes in families with the disease. However, sample size limits the differences that can be detected

  5. [Increase in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 19A prior to the implementation of the expanded pneumococcal vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Martínez, F; Saavedra Lozano, J; Navarro Gómez, M L; Santos Sebastián, M M; Rodríguez Fernández, R; González Sánchez, M; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiology, clinical syndromes and microbiological characteristics of serotype 19A as the main cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Spain. A retrospective (1998-2004) and prospective (2005-2009) study was conducted on children with IPD produced by serotype 19A. The study was divided into three periods (P): P1 (1998-2001) when PCV7 had not been commercialized; P2 (2002-2005) with 40% vaccine coverage among children; and P3 (2006-2009) when the vaccine was added to the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Madrid. A total of 155 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) producing IPD were analysed, with 21 of them being serotype 19A (14%). An increased prevalence of serotype 19A was found: 2/45 cases (4.4%) in P1, 3/41 cases (7.3%) in P2 and 16/69 cases (23.2%) in P3. It occurred mostly in children younger than 2 years (16/21; 76%). This serotype was the main cause of meningitis (5/20; 25%), pleural empyema (3/22; 14%) and bacteraemic mastoiditis (2/4; 50%). Thirteen isolates (61.5%) had an MIC ≥ 0.12μ/ml for penicillin in extra-meningeal infections, and 3 of the 5 isolates causing meningitis (60%) had an MIC ≥ 1μ/ml for cefotaxime. Serotype 19A was the main causal agent of IPD in the PCV7 era (P3), with high antibiotic resistance rates. This serotype was responsible for all types of IPD, being the main cause of meningitis. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Pipework failures - a review of historical incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blything, K.W.; Parry, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the gathering of historical pipework incident data and its analysis to determine the causes and underlying reasons for failure. The following terms of reference were agreed: (a) To review data on failures associated with pipework to establish the principal causes of failure. This should include not only rupture of the pipe itself, but also pipework induced failures, such as severe flange leaks and excessive strains resulting in failure of connected equipment. (b) To suggest an incident classification for pipework systems which will alert design, construction, maintenance, and operating personnel to the need for special care. (c) To advise non-piping specialists of the type of situation which could result in failure if not allowed for in the design, e.g. dynamic and transient conditions. (d) To recommend, possibly as the result of (a) above, areas where present procedures and codes of practice may require amplification. Brief descriptions are given of selected incidents where the consequences are considered to be serious in terms of damage and financial loss. For consequence analysis, the release rate is an important parameter and, where possible, the proportion of incidents in the failure mode categories, leaks, ''ruptures/severances'' are given. Although not one of the agreed objectives, the determination of failure rates was recognised as an important requirement in the risk assessment of pipework systems. The quality of data gathered however was found to be inadequate for any statistical analysis and no failure rate values are given in this report. (author)

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by the urban air pollutant 3-NBA and its isomer 2-NBA in human lung cells analyzed with three independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Eszter; Johansson, Clara; Zeisig, Magnus; Möller, Lennart

    2005-11-15

    The air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), emitted in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and genotoxin. 3-NBA can isomerise to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which can become more than 70-fold higher in concentration in ambient air. In this study, three independent methods have been employed to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 2-NBA compared to 3-NBA in the human A549 lung cell line. HPLC-EC/UV was applied for measurements of oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), (32)P-HPLC for measurements of lipophilic DNA-adducts, and the Comet assay to measure a variety of DNA lesions, including oxidative stress. No significant oxidative damage from either isomer was found regarding formation of 8-oxodG analysed using HPLC-EC/UV. However, the Comet assay (with FPG-treatment), which is more sensitive and detects more types of damages compared to HPLC-EC/UV, showed a significant effect from both 3-NBA and 2-NBA. (32)P-HPLC revealed a strong DNA-adduct formation from both 3-NBA and 2-NBA, and also a significant difference between both isomers compared to negative control. These results clearly show that 2-NBA has a genotoxic potential. Even if the DNA-adduct forming capacity and the amount of DNA lesions measured with the (32)P-HPLC and Comet assay is about one third of 3-NBA, the high abundance of 2-NBA in ambient air calls for further investigation and evaluation of its health hazard.

  8. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by the urban air pollutant 3-NBA and its isomer 2-NBA in human lung cells analyzed with three independent methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Eszter; Johansson, Clara; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    The air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), emitted in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and genotoxin. 3-NBA can isomerise to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which can become more than 70-fold higher in concentration in ambient air. In this study, three independent methods have been employed to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 2-NBA compared to 3-NBA in the human A549 lung cell line. HPLC-EC/UV was applied for measurements of oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyg...

  9. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  10. Incidence and control of onion fly, Delia antiqua , at some irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted between 1994 and 1997 on the incidence, distribution, and control of the onion fly Delia antiqua in northern Ghana. Results showed that the insect is prevalent in most of the onion-growing areas and is capable of causing up to 33 per cent crop damage. It was also established that early transplanting ...

  11. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  12. Root-Zone Redox Dynamics - In Search for the Cause of Damage to Treated-Wastewater Irrigated Orchards in Clay Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, David; Shenker, Moshe; Schwartz, Amnon; Assouline, Shmuel; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Treated wastewater (TW) has become a common source of water for agriculture. However recent findings raise concern regarding its use: a marked decrease (up to 40%) in yield appeared in orchards irrigated with TW compared with fresh water (FW) irrigated orchards. These detrimental effects appeared predominantly in orchards cultivated in clay soils. The association of the damage with clay soils rather than sandy soils led us to hypothesize that the damage is linked to soil aeration problems. We suspected that in clay soils, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and high levels of organic material, both typical of TW, may jointly lead to an extreme decrease in soil oxygen levels, so as to shift soil reduction-oxidation (redox) state down to levels that are known to damage plants. Two-year continuous measurement of redox potential, pH, water tension, and oxygen were conducted in the root-zone (20-35 cm depth) of avocado trees planted in clay soil and irrigated with either TW or FW. Soil solution composition was sampled periodically in-situ and mineral composition was sampled in tree leaves and woody organs biannually. In dry periods the pe+pH values indicated oxic conditions (pe+pH>14), and the fluctuations in redox values were small in both TW and FW plots. Decreases in soil water tension following irrigation or rain were followed by drops in soil oxygen and pe+pH values. TW irrigated plots had significantly lower minimum pe+pH values compared with FW-irrigated plots, the most significant differences occurred during the irrigation season rather than the rain season. A linear correlation appeared between irrigation volume and reduction severity in TW-irrigated plots, but not in the FW plots, indicating a direct link to the irrigation regime in TW-irrigated plots. The minimum pe+pH values measured in the TW plots are indicative of suboxic conditions (9water tension and oxygen concentration levels. The consequences of our findings to plant health will be discussed, and

  13. Incidence and influence of hospitalization for recurrent syncope and its effect on short- and long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Numé, Anna-Karin; Lamberts, Morten; Hansen, Carolina M; Hansen, Morten L; Vinther, Michael; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Jim; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2014-05-15

    Recurrence of syncope is a common event, but the influence of recurrent syncope on the risk of death has not previously been investigated on a large scale. We examined the prognostic impact of recurrent syncope in a nationwide cohort of patients with syncope. All patients (n = 70,819) hospitalized from 2001 to 2009 in Denmark with a first-time diagnosis of syncope aged from 15 to 90 years were identified from national registries. Recurrence of syncope was incorporated as a time-dependent variable in multivariable-adjusted Cox models on the outcomes of 30-day, 1-year, and long-term all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 ± 2.6 years, a total of 11,621 patients (16.4%) had at least 1 hospitalization for recurrent syncope, with a median time to recurrence of 251 days (33 to 364). A total of 14,270 patients died, and 3,204 deaths were preceded by a hospitalization for recurrent syncope. The long-term risk of all-cause death was significantly associated with recurrent syncope (hazard ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.54 to 2.75) compared with those with no recurrence. On 1-year mortality, recurrent syncope was associated with a 3.2-fold increase in risk and on 30-day mortality associated with a threefold increase. The increased mortality risk was consistent over age groups 15 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 to 89 years, and a similar pattern of increase in both long-term and short-term risk of cardiovascular death was evident. In conclusion, recurrent syncope is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality across all age groups exhibiting a high prognostic influence. Increased awareness on high short- and long-term risk of adverse events in subjects with recurrent syncope is warranted for future risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  15. Effects of damage caused by non-ionizing energy loss in Si mini-pad sensors for the PHENIX MPC-EX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J. S.; Ghergherehchi, M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hah, K. I. [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-12-15

    The PHENIX MPC-EX is an W/Si pre-shower detector operating at small angles with respect to the beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The Si Mini-Pad sensors are the active element of the detector. The expected hadron flux to the Si Mini-Pad sensors will generate significant non-ionizing energy loss in the sensors, which may damage the crystalline structure of the sensor's bulk material. We investigated the nature of the hadron flux to the Si Mini-Pad sensors through a full simulation and determined its effect on the sensor's characteristics based on a beam test. The investigation showed key issues in designing a preshower detector using silicon sensors and operating under a large neutron fluence and offered valuable information on the operation of the MPC-EX detector.

  16. The Law of the Sea a its Effective in International Context: An Analysis of Liability for Damages Caused in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Kiwonghi Bizawu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Law of the Sea seeks to settle conflicts between sovereign states and encourage a legal order for the seas and oceans, making international communications and the protection and conservation of the marine environment, making effective the state´s responsibility in case of damage to the marine environment. The objective is to analyze the UNCLOS and the creation of the Law of the Sea Tribunal as peaceful resolution tool labors internationally. Use shall  be  descriptive  research  with  deductive  method,  with  a  view  to  environmental international responsibility of the State and the need to strengthen the friendly relations between nations

  17. Effects of damage caused by non-ionizing energy loss in Si Mini-Pad sensors for the PHENIX MPC-EX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, J.-S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Hahn, K. I.; Han, S. Y.; Jeong, I. W.; Joo, K. S.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. G.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Kwon, Y.; Lajoie, J. G.; Li, Z.; Lee, J. H.; Lim, K. S.; Lim, S. H.; Park, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Park, S. Y.; Song, H. S.; Sue, D. G.; Sukhanov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The PHENIX MPC-EX is an W/Si pre-shower detector operating at small angles with respect to the beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The Si Mini-Pad sensors are the active element of the detector. The expected hadron flux to the Si Mini-Pad sensors will generate significant non-ionizing energy loss in the sensors, which may damage the crystalline structure of the sensor's bulk material. We investigated the nature of the hadron flux to the Si Mini-Pad sensors through a full simulation and determined its effect on the sensor's characteristics based on a beam test. The investigation showed key issues in designing a preshower detector using silicon sensors and operating under a large neutron fluence and offered valuable information on the operation of the MPC-EX detector.

  18. Preincubation of macrophages alveolar of rate with vitamin C or E attenuate the damage to the plasmatic membrane caused by exhibition to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The damaging effects of a 60 minute ozone exposure (0.594 ppm) on the cell membrane of rat alveolar macrophages was assessed by measuring specific release of 51 Cr label from the cells. Preincubation of the macrophages in the presence of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) or vitamine E (DL α tocoferol) prior the ozone exposure significantly diminished 51 Cr release. The protective effect of vitamin E was dose dependent. A proposal accounting for the protective effect of vitamins E and C on the cell membrane is presented, and our findings are discussed in relation to recent reports showing that antioxidant supplementation contributes to preserve pulmonary function in ozone-exposed normal and asthmatic volunteers. (Author) [es

  19. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  20. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  1. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2014-12-01

    From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.

  2. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  3. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  4. Incidence and Influence of Hospitalization for Recurrent Syncope and Its Effect on Short- and Long-Term All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Numé, Anna-Karin; Lamberts, Morten

    2014-01-01

    by a hospitalization for recurrent syncope. The long-term risk of all-cause death was significantly associated with recurrent syncope (hazard ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.54 to 2.75) compared with those with no recurrence. On 1-year mortality, recurrent syncope was associated with a 3.2-fold increase in risk...... from 2001 to 2009 in Denmark with a first-time diagnosis of syncope aged from 15 to 90 years were identified from national registries. Recurrence of syncope was incorporated as a time-dependent variable in multivariable-adjusted Cox models on the outcomes of 30-day, 1-year, and long-term all...... and on 30-day mortality associated with a threefold increase. The increased mortality risk was consistent over age groups 15 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 to 89 years, and a similar pattern of increase in both long-term and short-term risk of cardiovascular death was evident. In conclusion, recurrent syncope...

  5. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  6. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  7. Reducing the level of leaves damage of (Brassica rapa) caused by armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) through liquid bioinsecticide formulation of bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhatika, Sri; Ermavitalini, Dini; Saputro, Triono Bagus; Budiarti, Dwi Setia

    2017-06-01

    Bioinsecticide formulation conducted by adjuvant addition to improve its effecetiveness in the application. Its addition was only help to work whereas active compound and ingredient as a main core originated from plant simplicia. This research was utilized bintaro (Cerbera odollam) as simplicia. It already began to use it as bioinsecticide against armyworm (Spodoptera litura F) even formulation approachment was not conducted in mustard (Brassica rapa) in previous research. Mustard commodity commonly measured based on leaves performences, when its performance broke by pest such as armyworm might decline the commercial value. So this research aimed to determine the effectiveness of liquid biopesticide formulation of the active ingredient from bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaf extract in pressing the attack larvae of S. litura F. Larvae deployed in mustard leaves (16 HST). Liquid bioinsecticide concentration formulated in 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. Spraying method used to against S. litura F. consisted on preventive (15 HST) and curative (17 HST). Leaves damage observation conducted at day - 35th (HST). The result showed the formulation suppressed larvae from 40% concentration in preventive way 15 HST and 60% concentration as curative way at 17 HST.

  8. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with /sup 4/He/sup +/ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, N.

    1979-01-01

    The surface damage of cold worked and annealed polycrystalline Nb irradiated at room temperature with He/sup +/ ions sequentially at different energies over the range from 0.5 keV to 1.8 MeV has been investigated. The individual energy and the dose of the He/sup +/ ion was chosen to match the theoretically calculated He/sup +/ ion spectrum expected in the Tokamak T-20. In one set of irradiations, targets were irradiated at Kurchatov Institute starting with 0.5 keV /sup 4/He/sup +/ ions and extending up to 90 keV in eleven steps. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at ANL starting at 150 keV and increased in eight steps up to 1.8 MeV. The irradiations were carried out for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm/sup 2/. In another set of irradiations the sequence was reversed. Scanning electron microscopy results show formation of blisters and exfoliation. For the same dose the broad energy implant (due to sequential irradiation) appears to decrease the blister diameter and density as compared to irradiation with monoenergetic He/sup +/ ions at a given energy (in the energy range considered). Some estimates of surface erosion yields due to blistering are given.

  9. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD. Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4 were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue.

  10. Modelos de ponto crítico para estimar danos causados pela ferrugem da folha da aveia branca Critical yield models to estimate the damage caused by leaf rust in white oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Em experimentos conduzidos no campo, nas safras agrícolas de 1995 e 1996, gerou-se o gradiente da intensidade da ferrugem da folha da aveia branca, cultivar UPF 13, pela aplicação nos órgãos aéreos de doses crescentes do fungicida triadimenol. As equações das funções de dano foram obtidas pela correlação entre o rendimento de grãos e a incidência da doença em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura. Na safra de 1995 as equações obtidas foram R= 2.103,5 - 17,983I e R= 2.404,6 - 12,832I, respectivamente para alongamento e emborrachamento, e em 1996, R= 3.889,2 - 27,871I e R= 5.366,4 - 20,999I, respectivamente para emborrachamento e floração (R= rendimento de grãos e I= incidência foliar. Estas equações, contendo o coeficiente de dano, permitem calcular o limiar de dano econômico (LDE tomado como critério indicador do momento para o início do controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia. As reduções no rendimento de grãos, no peso do hectolitro e no peso de mil sementes, atingiram, respectivamente 57,13%, 16,64% e 21,49% na safra 1995 e 19,79%, 13,39% e 16,33%, na safra 1996.In field experiments carried out in the 1995 and 1996 growing seasons, the gradient of leaf rust intensity on the white oat cultivar UPF 13 was generated by spraying the above ground plant parts of the crop with different rates of the fungicide triadimenol. Damage equations were obtained relating grain yield and disease incidence at different growing stages. In the 1995 growing season the equations were: R= 2,103.5 -17.983I and R= 2,404.6 - 12.832I, for elongation and boot stage, respectively, and for 1996, R= 3,889.2 - 27.871I and R= 5,366.4 - 20.999I (where R= grain yield; I= disease as foliar incidence, for booting and flowering stages respectively. These equations, having the damage coefficient, may be used to calculate the economic damage threshold (LDE as a criterion to indicate the moment for the fungicide application to control leaf

  11. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin and adrenaline mobilizes ECL-cell histamine in rat stomach, and causes mucosal damage: a microdialysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernsand, M; Ericsson, P; Björkqvist, M; Zhao, C -M; Håkanson, R; Norlén, P

    2003-01-01

    Rat stomach ECL cells release histamine in response to gastrin. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin or adrenaline, known to cause vasoconstriction and gastric lesions, mobilized striking amounts of histamine. While the histamine response to gastrin is sustainable for hours, that to endothelin and adrenaline was characteristically short-lasting (1–2 h).The aims of this study were to identify the cellular source of histamine mobilized by endothelin and adrenaline, and examine the differences...

  12. Point mutation in D8C domain of Tamm-Horsfall protein/uromodulin in transgenic mice causes progressive renal damage and hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijie; Liu, Yan; Landry, Nichole K; El-Achkar, Tarek M; Lieske, John C; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary mutations in Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP/uromodulin) gene cause autosomal dominant kidney diseases characterized by juvenile-onset hyperuricemia, gout and progressive kidney failure, although the disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that targeted expression in transgenic mice of a mutation within the domain of 8 cysteines of THP in kidneys' thick ascending limb (TAL) caused unfolded protein response in younger (1-month old) mice and apoptosis in older (12-month old) mice. While the young mice had urine concentration defects and polyuria, such defects progressively reversed in the older mice to marked oliguria, highly concentrated urine, fibrotic kidneys and reduced creatinine clearance. Both the young and the old transgenic mice had significantly higher serum uric acid and its catabolic product, allantoin, than age-matched wild-type mice. This THP mutation apparently caused primary defects in TAL by compromising the luminal translocation and reabsorptive functions of NKCC2 and ROMK and secondary responses in proximal tubules by upregulating NHE3 and URAT1. Our results strongly suggest that the progressive worsening of kidney functions reflects the accumulation of the deleterious effects of the misfolded mutant THP and the compensatory responses. Transgenic mice recapitulating human THP/uromodulin-associated kidney diseases could be used to elucidate their pathogenesis and test novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devdas S Samala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6 th day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist. Results: The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia. The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine and Group I (Control group. Conclusion: The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.

  14. To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Devdas S; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Sanghvi, Beejal V; Vageriya, Natasha L; Paradkar, Bhupesh A; Kandalkar, Bhuvaneshwari M; Sathe, Pragati A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis. A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group) 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group) 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group) 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6(th) day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist. The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group) in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group) as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia). The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine) and Group I (Control group). The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.

  15. Germline mutations affecting the histone H4 core cause a developmental syndrome by altering DNA damage response and cell cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessadori, Federico; Giltay, Jacques C; Hurst, Jane A; Massink, Maarten P; Duran, Karen; Vos, Harmjan R; van Es, Robert M; Scott, Richard H; van Gassen, Koen L I; Bakkers, Jeroen; van Haaften, Gijs

    2017-11-01

    Covalent modifications of histones have an established role as chromatin effectors, as they control processes such as DNA replication and transcription, and repair or regulate nucleosomal structure. Loss of modifications on histone N tails, whether due to mutations in genes belonging to histone-modifying complexes or mutations directly affecting the histone tails, causes developmental disorders or has a role in tumorigenesis. More recently, modifications affecting the globular histone core have been uncovered as being crucial for DNA repair, pluripotency and oncogenesis. Here we report monoallelic missense mutations affecting lysine 91 in the histone H4 core (H4K91) in three individuals with a syndrome of growth delay, microcephaly and intellectual disability. Expression of the histone H4 mutants in zebrafish embryos recapitulates the developmental anomalies seen in the patients. We show that the histone H4 alterations cause genomic instability, resulting in increased apoptosis and cell cycle progression anomalies during early development. Mechanistically, our findings indicate an important role for the ubiquitination of H4K91 in genomic stability during embryonic development.

  16. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Kent, E-mail: Kent.fitzgerald@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bergeron, Marcelle, E-mail: Marcelle.bergeron@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Willits, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.willits@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bowers, Simeon, E-mail: Simeon.bowers@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Aubele, Danielle L., E-mail: Danielle.aubele@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Goldbach, Erich, E-mail: Erich.goldbach@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Tonn, George, E-mail: George.tonn@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ness, Daniel, E-mail: Dan.ness@elan.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Olaharski, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.olaharski@agios.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Kent; Bergeron, Marcelle; Willits, Christopher; Bowers, Simeon; Aubele, Danielle L.; Goldbach, Erich; Tonn, George; Ness, Daniel; Olaharski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646 decreased

  18. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  19. Bisphenol A Causes Liver Damage and Selectively Alters the Neurochemical Coding of Intrahepatic Parasympathetic Nerves in Juvenile Porcine Models under Physiological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thoene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an extremely common polymer that is used in typical everyday products throughout the world, especially in food and beverage containers. Within the last ten years, it has been found that the BPA monomer tends to leach into foodstuffs, and nanogram concentrations of it may cause a variety of deleterious health effects. These health problems are very evident in developing children and in young adults. The aim of this study was to expose developing pigs to dietary BPA at both legally acceptable and ten-fold higher levels. Livers that had been exposed to BPA showed vacuolar degeneration, sinusoidal dilatation, vascular congestion and glycogen depletion that increased with exposure levels. Furthermore, the livers of these models were then examined for irregularities and double-labeled immunofluorescence was used to check the innervated hepatic samples for varying neuronal expression of selected neuronal markers in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS. It was found that both the PSNS and all of the neuronal markers showed increased expression, with some of them being significant even at recommended safe exposure levels. The implications are quite serious since these effects have been observed at recommended safe levels with expression increasing in-line with exposure levels. The increased neuronal markers studied here have been previously correlated with behavioral/psychological disorders of children and young adults, as well as with childhood obesity and diabetes. However, further research must be performed in order to develop a mechanism for the above-mentioned correlations.

  20. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  1. Fototerapia causa danos ao DNA de leucócitos mononucleares periféricos em recém-nascidos a termo Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aycicek

    2008-04-01

    bilirubin, total oxidant status and oxidative stress levels in either phototherapy group (p > 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both conventional phototherapy and intensive phototherapy cause endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage in jaundiced term infants.

  2. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  3. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  4. MULTIPLE DAMAGE OF THE TIBIAL POLYETHYLENE INSERT IN KNEE JOINT PROSTHESIS (CAN EXCELLENT POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOME BE THE CAUSE OF FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL INSERT? CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in prosthesis technology and use of high-quality materials in recent years, the number of revisions related to implant failures (4.7% remains high. Several phenomena were reported in literature as reasons for dislocation and fracture of tibial insert in mobile bearing prosthesis: incorrect positioning of components, discrepancy of extension and flexion balancing or ligament weakness. However, in our cases neither of these causes were observed. The authors consider that bio-physiological and biomechanical aspects of total knee arthroplasty and knee joint prosthesis should be thoroughly studied and implemented into the clinical practice. In the described cases, multiple damage of the insert due to flexion instability and “twist-hyperflexion” in overweight patients is perceived as the reason for failures.

  5. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Significant Cause of Deafness and Mental Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Sarah K.

    1982-01-01

    Research on cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes virus causing neurological damage (hearing problems and/or mental retardation) in 10 percent of infants born with the condition, is reviewed. Incidence of hearing and retardation in CMV cases is reported and current treatment described. (CL)

  6. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  7. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self....... The forensic examination showed lesions of intracranial surgery and minor bruises on the arms. No sign of defense injuries was found. There were no signs of malfunction of the nail gun-wielding robot. On the side of the machine, there were a handheld nail gun and the police investigated the case as a possible...... criminal act. They found bloodstains on the back of the machine. When awake, the man explained, that by accident, he had hit his head against a nail gun and as a result of this, the nail gun delivered a nail into his skull. Conclusion Sometimes, the circumstances of a case are not clear...

  8. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  9. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability t