WorldWideScience

Sample records for incident categories violence

  1. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  2. School Size and Incidents of Violence among Texas Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Elizabeth A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted regarding (a) school violence in middle schools and (b) the size of schools, to date, no researcher appears to have examined the role that the size of the middle school plays in determining incidents of violence specifically fighting, assaults, and aggravated assaults. Thus, the purpose of this study was…

  3. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gessner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims of violence in the household and outside of the family environment, as victims or viewers of violence. The violence was experienced at home, mostly toward girls, with marked overtones of gender violence. More than indicating the magnitude of the issue, this study can give information to help qualify the assistance given to victimized people and address how to face this issue.

  4. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.

  5. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  6. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  7. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  8. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02 and 4 (2008-09 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28 higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37 of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  9. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting

  10. Sources, incidence and effects of non-physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013-2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31·76 years and the average number of years practising as nurse was 7·38. Twelve per cent of the participants experienced at least one incident of sexual harassment and 52·2% were exposed to verbal abuse. The majority of perpetrators of sexual harassment were medical doctors (50%). Relatives of patients emerged as the most frequent verbal abusers (45·5%). Chi-square test showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence and between workplace violence and intention to quit the nursing profession. The effects of workplace violence ranged from having disturbing memories about the incident to being 'super alert' and vigilant. Establishing the incidence of workplace violence is a necessary step towards addressing the problem. It is concluded that educational programs must be designed for healthcare workers and the general public to foster awareness of the effects of workplace violence. Clear policies must also be instituted to address the problem.

  11. Survey of Wife Abuse and Influencing Social Factors Incidence of Domestic Violence in Tehranian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.

  12. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender......, age, cohabitation, education, income, social support from colleagues, social support from supervisor, and influence and quantitative demands at work. Work-related violence was associated with purchasing antidepressants alone (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.75) or in combination...

  13. Incidence, Type, Related Factors, and Effect of Workplace Violence on Mental Health Nurses: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing Xiang; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A; Morris, Diana L

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence and its impact on mental health nurses have yet to be thoroughly explored in China. This study aims to investigate the incidence, type, related factors, and effects of workplace violence on mental health nurses as well as identifying coping strategies. A researcher - designed workplace violence questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were distributed to nurses at a mental health hospital in Wuhan, China. Most nurses reported a high incidence of workplace violence (94.6%) in the past year ranging from verbal aggression, sexual harassment, to physical attack. The forms of violence significantly correlated with each other (r>0.5, p=0.000). Working on the psychiatric intensive care unit for adult males and being a male nurse placed nurses at significantly higher risk for workplace violence. Providing routine treatment, caring for male patients, and working the night shift increased the risk of sexual harassment. Nurses who believed that workplace violence was preventable experienced a significantly lower incidence of violence. Burnout levels of the mental health nurses were relatively mild, but increased with age, professional title, years of employment and frequency of workplace violence. The incidence of workplace violence among mental health nurses is common, and its frequency is correlated with nurses' level of burnout. Management and clinical nurses should work together on an organization-wide strategy targeting the major identified risk areas to reduce the incidence of workplace violence and minimize its impact on nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing Police Responses to Domestic Violence Incidents: Reports From Client Advocates in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Delahunty, Jane; Crehan, Anna Corbo

    2016-07-01

    In an online survey about experiences with the police complaint system, 239 client advocates described a recent incident in which a client with grounds to lodge a complaint declined to do so. Almost one third of those incidents involved domestic violence. Thematic analysis of case descriptions revealed that many police did not take domestic violence reports seriously. A typology of problematic police conduct was developed. Many officers failed to observe current procedures and appeared to lack knowledge of relevant laws. Citizens feared retaliatory victimization by police and/or perceived that complaining was futile. Implications of these findings are reviewed in light of procedural justice theory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Pereira Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum.METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression.RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0. Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4. The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3 and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0 of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4, without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9 and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4, had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8, and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9.CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence.

  16. Violent Youth or Violent Schools? A Critical Incident Analysis of Symbolic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Kathryn; Anderson, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing critical incidents primarily from a year-long ethnographic study of a single gender middle school, the authors attempt to capture the mechanisms of symbolic violence as described by Bourdieu and Passeron in "Reproduction in Education," "Society and Culture" and by Bourdieu in latter publications. Our analysis suggests that problems of…

  17. The victimization experiences of women in the workforce: moving beyond single categories of work or violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2011-01-01

    The examination of the co-occurrence of different types of victimization in the lives of women in the workforce appears infrequently in the literature. We examine multiple types of victimization in women's lives across a range of employment and income levels. Our research indicates that more than two-thirds of women in the workplace experienced at least one type of violence against women (VAW). These women hold positions at various workforce levels, indicating that victims of VAW are not limited to the lower employment rungs. This research is a step toward highlighting the scope, prevalence, and interconnectedness of different forms of VAW in the lives of women in the workforce.

  18. Sources, incidence and effects of non?physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. Methods A cross?sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013?2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. Results The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31?76?years and the average number of years practising as nurse ...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I 2 = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I 2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV

  20. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duratio...

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Jane Chiu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  3. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on nursing staffs caring for chronic psychiatric patients in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-11-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  4. A gender-based incidence study of workplace violence in psychiatric and forensic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Scalora, Mario J; Bader, Shannon M; Bornstein, Brian H

    2007-01-01

    Limited data exist analyzing the role of gender in workplace violence in health care settings. This study examined whether different types of threatening incidents with patients (physical, verbal, sexual, or posturing) were salient to male versus female staff across psychiatric settings (inpatient forensic, inpatient acute/chronic psychiatric, and outpatient psychiatric). Results indicated that although women disproportionately experienced sexualized threats, they were not more likely to report such incidents as salient and threatening. The study also assessed the extent to which situational variables contributed to staff's feelings of threat. Results showed that rapport with the patient, quality of relationships with coworkers, and presence of coworkers in the area were not significantly related to how threatened staff felt in a recent threatening incident. Findings are discussed within the context of staff training and organizational benefits.

  5. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2012-08-09

    Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as 'high risk' work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury - there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical abuse. The most incidents of workplace

  6. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashmore Aaron W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71% was more common than physical abuse (29%. The most (44% incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50% incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90% of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93% of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46% or low (52% Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%. Few (6% victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more

  7. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical

  8. Charisma, volatility and violence: assessing the role of crises of charismatic authority in precipitating incidents of millenarian violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author develops some of the points he has made elsewhere regarding the role of what may be termed ‘crises of charismatic authority’ in producing volatility or even violence within marginal apocalyptic religious groups. The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed several incidents where such groups engaged in violent actions against themselves, others in the outside world, or typically both (among them the Peoples Temple in Guayana in 1978, Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas in 1994, Order of the Solar Temple in Switzerland, Quebec and France in 1997, Aum Shirinkyo, Japan in 1995, Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, Uganda in 2000. This notion of ‘crises of charismatic authority’ has in many ways become a central, recurring theme in the author's analysis of these incidents. While accepting that such crises were typically not sufficient in themselves to have precipitated each of the dramatic denouements the author has examined, he has come to the conclusion that they did play a major role in each; such crises played a much more significant role than that played by external opposition in almost all of the cases the author examined (the case of the Branch Davidians being perhaps the exception that proves the rule. In this article, the author discusses what he means by crises of charismatic authority (an important task in itself due to the diverse understandings of ‘charisma’ found within the literature and presents a comparative analysis of some of the ways in which these crises can occur.

  9. A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence: Comparative Analysis of Child-Parent Violence and Parricide Examining Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines 11 years (1995-2005) of National Incident Based Reporting System data comparing victim, offender, and incident characteristics for two types of child-initiated family violence: child-parent violence (CPV) and parricide. The objective is to better understand the victim-offender relationship for CPV and parricide and to…

  10. [Analysis on the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Chi, Guibo; Mo, Sufang; Wang, Shengyong; Zhang, Jingbo; Dong, Xiaomei; Li, Wenhao

    2014-10-01

    To study the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010. Convenience sampling method was used and 2 200 college students from 61 classes of three universities in Guangzhou were interviewed with self-designed questionnaire about the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence in 2010. The valid sample was 2 060. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence between different genders. A total of 66.3% (1 365/2 060) college students reported having experienced at least one kind of psychological violence during the past 12 months, either as a perpetrator or as a victim. The proportion of psychological violence among males (72.3%, 775/1 072) was significantly higher than that in females (59.7%, 590/988)(χ(2) = 36.39, P habits (OR = 1.90). For victimization only, the risk factors were with siblings (OR = 2.42) and prior mistreatment by teachers from primary to senior high school (OR = 1.78). For both perpetration and victimization, the risk factors were with siblings (OR = 1.88), having harmful behavior habits (OR = 1.98), bad family economic conditions (difficult OR = 1.99, general OR = 1.67) and prior mistreatment by teachers from primary to senior high school(OR = 2.07). In females, the risk factors for perpetration only were self-claimed shortage of monthly living expenses(OR = 2.14) or just enough (OR = 2.26), having harmful behavior habits (OR = 1.69) (all P valuescollege students is very serious in Guangzhou in 2010. And the influencing factors of it between different genders are different. Females are affected by a wider ranges of factors than males, and are more influenced by family and parents.

  11. Guns in Intimate Partner Violence: Comparing Incidents by Type of Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The goal of this study was to assess the frequency, nature, and outcome of weapon use in intimate partner violence (IPV) and to assess compliance with related gun policies. Methods: Data were drawn from forms police are mandated to complete at the scene of IPV in the fifth largest U.S. city during 2013. Proportions were calculated and odds ratios were adjusted for demographic and contextual characteristics and a Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical tests was applied. Results: Of the 35,413 incidents, 6,573 involved hands, fists, or feet, and 1,866 involved external weapons of which 576 were guns. Most incidents were male-on-female: 63.4% (no weapon), 77.4% (bodily weapon), 50.2% (nongun external weapon), and 79.5% (gun). Guns were used most often to threaten the partner (69.1%). When a gun (vs. bodily or nongun external weapon) was used, IPV victims were less likely to have visible injuries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.64 and 0.23, respectively)—offenders were less likely to have pushed or shoved, grabbed, punched, or kicked the victim—but (victims) were more likely to be frightened (AOR = 3.13 and 1.49, respectively). Conclusions: Weapon use of any type by an intimate partner is associated with a wide range of violent offender behavior and multiple negative outcomes for victims. The use of a gun has implications that include, but go beyond, physical injury of the victim. Documentation of the enforcement of state law regarding gun removal merits improvement, which has important implications for the evaluation of policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. PMID:28134571

  12. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Spangaro

    Full Text Available Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i survivor care; ii livelihood initiatives; iii community mobilisation; iv personnel initiatives; v systems and security responses; vi legal interventions and vii multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms

  13. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  14. Forum Guide to Crime, Violence, and Discipline Incident Data. NFES 2011-806

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide is designed for use by school, district, and state staff to improve the effectiveness of efforts to collect and use disciplinary incident data, including reporting accurate and timely incident data to the federal government. It provides recommendations on what types of data to collect, why it is critical to collect such data, and how to…

  15. Noble or Malevolent in a Moment of Dismay: How Postsecondary Students Construe and Characterize Bystander Action in School Violence Shooting Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Dyan Whitlow

    2012-01-01

    Multiple incidents of postsecondary school shooting violence have occurred in American society--prompting concern about safety on college campuses, administrators' roles in prevention, and proactive and responsible bystander actions. Active shooter plans have become more established in educational environments, with efforts are directed…

  16. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  17. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...

  18. Child and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important.

  19. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... are subject to negotiation as well as re-configuration and re-stabilization processes. Organized around the themes of biological substances and objects, personhood and the genomic body and the creation and dispersion of knowledge, each of the volume’s chapters reveals the elusive nature of fixity with regard...

  20. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  1. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Retrospective descriptive study. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker's performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. Violence and incivility between hospital employees can contribute to turnover of top performers, hinder effective teamwork and jeopardise the quality of patient care. Identification of common catalysts for worker-to-worker violence and incivility informs the development of mistreatment prevention programmes that can be

  2. Early Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent Event and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François

    2016-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.

  3. Categorial Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastenhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis constitutes an exploration into categorial type logics, attempting the reduction of natural language grammar to proof theory. Originating in Lambek's proposal for a syntactic calculus, the field has since grown to accommodate various competing extensions. For while the suitability of

  4. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2005 Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. (a) Domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. An incident or incidents of actual...

  5. Risk Factors for Sexual Violence in the Military: An Analysis of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Incidents and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    harassment and sexual assault. 17 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I describe the data used for the empirical analysis and the construction...THE MILITARY: AN ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING by William C. Souder, III March 2017 Thesis Advisor...ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William C. Souder, III 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  6. Reporting the incidence of school violence across grade levels in the U.S. using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei

    2004-01-01

    School violence has increasingly captured public attention due to deadly school shootings. Controversy on school violence is demonstrated by a mixed picture of school safety and the lack of consensus on the definitions of violence, which makes comparison of findings across studies difficult. This study extended the application of the Rasch model to school violence research using TIMSS data. The results show that school violence occurred at a level much lower than the predictions of the measurement model. Across all grade levels the most frequently reported type of violence is intimidation or verbal abuse of students and the least frequently reported physical injury to teachers or staff. Copyright 2004

  7. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  8. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  9. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  10. Risk factors for sexual violence in the military: an analysis of sexual assault and sexual harassment incidents and reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Souder, William C., III

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...

  11. Gender Differences in Reporting of Battering Incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat

    1986-01-01

    Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…

  12. Sexual Violence on Religious Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…

  13. Taking action against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  14. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  15. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ...

  16. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  17. VIOLENCE, INTIMIDATION AND PROTEST. DESEGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEESON, JIM

    THIS ARTICLE IS A SHORT ANECDOTAL COLLECTION OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION INCIDENTS WHERE VIOLENCE HAS BEEN EITHER PRESENT OR THREATENED. THE VIOLENCE HAS INCLUDED THE BEATING OF NEGRO CHILDREN, BOMBINGS AND SHOOTINGS, AND NUMEROUS TELEPHONE THREATS AND KU KLUX KLAN INTIMIDATIONS. NEGRO TEACHERS IN PREVIOUSLY WHITE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN TARGETS OF VIOLENCE…

  18. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  19. Incidência de ascite em diferentes categorias genéticas de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de alto nível energético Incidence of ascites on different genetic categories of broilers fed with high-energy diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Garcia Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de ascite em avós, matrizes e frangos de corte, de uma mesma linhagem comercial, alimentados com ração de alto nível energético, de um dia a 39 dias de idade. Todas as aves foram criadas como frangos de corte, recebendo ração ad libitum com 3.050 kcal/EM; foram utilizadas aves da linha fêmea e linha macho e frangos de corte. Um total de 2.700 aves foram usadas, alojadas ao acaso em um galpão experimental de 8x76 m, utilizando-se 27 boxes de 3x3,5 m, com 100 aves por divisão, sendo três repetições por tratamento, em esquema fatorial. A incidência de ascite não dependeu da categoria genética das aves.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of ascites on grand parents, breeders and commercial broilers from the same genetic strain of birds, fed with high energy level ration, from the first day of age to 39 days old. All birds were grown as commercial broilers receiving a ration ad libitum with 3,050 kcal/ME; birds from female line, male line and commercial broilers were tested. A total of 2,700 birds were housed at random in a experimental facility of 8x76 m, with 27 compartments of 3x3.5 m each and 100 birds per division. A factorial design was used with three replications per treatment. The incidence of ascites was not dependent on genetic category.

  20. The Use of Restorative Justice Practices in a School Community Traumatized by an Incident of Planned School Violence: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateer, Susan Carol

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, less than two years after the Columbine High School shootings, a plan to copycat the Columbine shooting in a junior high school was interrupted by police. This was one of the first documented cases of interrupted school violence and the school where this was to occur was traumatized both by the fact that students were planning violence…

  1. Sheafifiable homotopy model categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tibor

    2000-11-01

    If a Quillen model category can be specified using a certain logical syntax (intuitively, ‘is algebraic/combinatorial enough’), so that it can be defined in any category of sheaves, then the satisfaction of Quillen's axioms over any site is a purely formal consequence of their being satisfied over the category of sets. Such data give rise to a functor from the category of topoi and geometric morphisms to Quillen model categories and Quillen adjunctions.

  2. An upbringing to violence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    in the incidence of ciolent behaviour that leads to convictions among adolescents and young men. In this study information from population-based registers covers various aspects both for children, aged between 15 and 27 years, and their parents: health (mental and physical), education, social networks, family...... violence, self-destructive behaviour, parental alcohol or drug abuse, and unemployment....

  3. Violence in Children's Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Sue

    A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…

  4. 78 FR 78375 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence... Collection Title of Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual... that may be used in response to an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence...

  5. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  6. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  7. Inpatient Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kayla

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient violence constitutes a major concern for staff, patients, and administrators. Violence can cause physical injury and psychological trauma. Although violence presents a challenge to inpatient clinicians, it should not be viewed as inevitable. By looking at history of violence, in addition to clinical and other historical factors, clinicians can identify which patients present the most risk of exhibiting violent behavior and whether the violence would most likely flow from psychosis, impulsivity, or predatory characteristics. With that information, clinicians can provide environmental and treatment modifications to lessen the likelihood of violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  9. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  10. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

  11. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  12. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  13. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  14. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  15. Compreendendo a violência doméstica a partir das categorias gênero e geração Comprendiendo la violencia doméstica a partir de las categorías género y generación Understanding domestic violence from the categories gender and generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadielene Pereira Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artigos, livros, dissertações e teses entre 1996 a 2007 com o objetivo de compreender como as categorias gênero e geração influenciam na construção da violência doméstica contra a mulher. Foram estabelecidas duas categorias: violência de gênero e violência intergeracional. A análise dos textos indicou que o núcleo familiar, permeado pela visão patriarcal, configura-se enquanto um espaço de construção da violência de gênero e da violência intergeracional. Faz-se, portanto, necessária a re-estruturação da família com base em relações mais simétricas entre homens e mulheres e entre pais e filhos.El presente estudio trata de una revisión de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artículos, libros, tesis de Maestria y de Doctorado existentes entre 1996 al 2007 con el objetivo de comprender cómo las categorías género y generación influyen en la construcción de la violencia doméstica contra la mujer. Fueron establecidas dos categorías: violencia de género y violencia intergeneracional. El análisis de los textos permitió concluir que el núcleo familiar, impregnado por una visión patriarcal, se configura como un espacio de construcción de la violencia de género y de la violencia intergeneracional. Se hace, por tanto, necesaria la reestructuración de la familia teniendo como base relaciones más simétricas entre hombres y mujeres y entre padres e hijos.This article is a literature review of 20 bibliographic sources, among them articles, books and thesis from 1996 to 2007. Regarding articles, Scielo represented the database consulted most often. The objective consisted of understanding how the categories 'gender' and 'generation' influence the occurrence of domestic violence against women. Two categories had been established about the topic: gender-based violence and intergenerational-based violence. The study showed that

  16. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.

  17. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Amblard, Maxime; Lecomte, Alain; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from...

  18. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  19. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil Rodríguez, Eva Patrícia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  20. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Violence and Impunity in South Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Silence around the topic of sexual violence has increased in South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, even as its incidence has also increased in recent conflicts. The end of violence in Sri Lanka, for example, has not produced open discussion about the use of sexual violence as a ...

  2. The role of media violence in violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Taylor, Laramie D

    2006-01-01

    Media violence poses a threat to public health inasmuch as it leads to an increase in real-world violence and aggression. Research shows that fictional television and film violence contribute to both a short-term and a long-term increase in aggression and violence in young viewers. Television news violence also contributes to increased violence, principally in the form of imitative suicides and acts of aggression. Video games are clearly capable of producing an increase in aggression and violence in the short term, although no long-term longitudinal studies capable of demonstrating long-term effects have been conducted. The relationship between media violence and real-world violence and aggression is moderated by the nature of the media content and characteristics of and social influences on the individual exposed to that content. Still, the average overall size of the effect is large enough to place it in the category of known threats to public health.

  3. Psychosocial Factors Predicting School Violence Tendencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, researchers and laymen have observed high incidence of violence in higher institutions of learning worldwide, particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examined the influence of psychosocial factors on school violence behaviour among students in tertiary institutions in Ibadan. Two hundred volunteered ...

  4. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  5. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  6. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  7. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  8. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it (like when you are very drunk). Dating violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling ... or preventing you from using birth control. Dating violence can cause serious harm to your body and your emotions. If you are in an abusive relationship, get ...

  9. Politicidal Violence and the Problematics of Localized Memory at Civilian Massacre Sites: The Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch'ang Incident Memorial Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Wright

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two South Korean sites dedicated to the remembrance of Korean War–era civilian massacres, the Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch’ang Incident Memorial Park. Specifically, the article explores the sites’ localized, victim-centric epistemology as one that counters nationalist discourses and narratives that privilege the state. While acknowledging that these sites offer a physical mnemonic space for challenging the hegemonic “June 25” (yugio narrative, the author suggests that, in their narrow spatial and ideological orientation, these sites cumulatively fall short of offering a cohesive narrative of the politicidal, anti-Communist state-building project of which they are a consequence. Though of tremendous value in restoring victims’ honor, critiquing human rights abuses of the Republic of Korea, and giving a voice to marginalized groups, these spaces fail to provide historical clarity to a distorted era of South Korea’s past. In addressing this problematic, the article examines the role of family bereavement associations, narrative constructions, and the silencing of the National Guidance League Incident at these locations.

  10. Macroeconomics and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter considers macroeconomic aspects of violence. It moves beyond the usual focus on war to argue\\ud the economic importance of all forms and aspects of armed and unarmed violence. Violence refers to acts of self-harm,\\ud interpersonal violence, and collective violence. Self-harm includes suicide; interpersonal violence includes organized\\ud criminal violence as well as domestic and workplace violence. Collective violence generally denotes political entities that are in, or at risk of...

  11. Workplace violence: an overview of patterns of risk and the emotional/stress consequences on targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Claire; Chappell, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Violence at work (VAW) is a frequent precursor to mental ill health, and to a lesser degree physical injury, among those exposed to this occupational hazard. In this paper an overview is provided of the nature and prevalence of such violence, of the risk factors involved, and of the impact upon victims. The paper examines the definition of VAW which includes both physical and psychological violence. Attention is given to the influential involvement of the UN affiliated International Labour Organisation in setting benchmarks for defining, preventing and responding to VAW. Evidence about the incidence and severity of VAW on a global basis is examined. It is noted that the reliability of information about VAW is quite variable, especially in non-industrialised countries. The available evidence indicates that psychological aggression is widespread across all sectors of employment and physical violence, although far less common, remains a significant problem. Risks of becoming a victim of VAW vary according to numbers of factors including job category, the nature of the work being performed, gender, age and experience. The paper also focuses on research regarding the effects upon persons experiencing or witnessing VAW. This research indicates that the health related consequences of psychological violence can be as severe as those from physical violence. The paper concludes that VAW is a major occupational health and safety hazard in all nations, regardless of their state of development. A reduction or elimination of this violence, and the health problems it creates, requires concerted and integrated strategies, together with rigorous evaluation of preventive measures.

  12. Dealing with anger and preventing workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.

  13. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Silvestri, Monica; Artoni, Cecilia; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the "Violent Incident Form" to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV ( P =0.005, P =0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way ( P =0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were "calling for help during the attack" and "physical injuries suffered in violent attack" ( P =0.02, P =0.03, multiple logistic regression). This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where the aggression occurred. Prevention programs

  14. Gender violence: transgender experiences with violence and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, E L; Wilchins, R A; Priesing, D; Malouf, D

    2001-01-01

    There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.

  15. Phonetic category recalibration: What are the categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Wozny, David R.; Mitterer, Holger; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical or visual context information to recalibrate auditory speech perception. After hearing an ambiguous auditory stimulus between /aba/ and /ada/ coupled with a clear visual stimulus (e.g., lip closure in /aba/), an ambiguous auditory-only stimulus is perceived in line with the previously seen visual stimulus. What remains unclear, however, is what exactly listeners are recalibrating: phonemes, phone sequences, or acoustic cues. To address this question we tested generalization of visually-guided auditory recalibration to 1) the same phoneme contrast cued differently (i.e., /aba/-/ada/ vs. /ibi/-/idi/ where the main cues are formant transitions in the vowels vs. burst and frication of the obstruent), 2) a different phoneme contrast cued identically (/aba/-/ada/ vs. /ama/-/ana/ both cued by formant transitions in the vowels), and 3) the same phoneme contrast with the same cues in a different acoustic context (/aba/-/ada/ vs. (/ubu/-/udu/). Whereas recalibration was robust for all recalibration control trials, no generalization was found in any of the experiments. This suggests that perceptual recalibration may be more specific than previously thought as it appears to be restricted to the phoneme category experienced during exposure as well as to the specific manipulated acoustic cues. We suggest that recalibration affects context-dependent sub-lexical units. PMID:24932053

  16. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  17. Containing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Rodger

    1982-07-01

    The use of behavior modification techniques to control criminal violence has been condemned as a violation of human rights because it destroys the possibility of moral choice, an important component of personality. Beehler examines the conditioning used on Alex in Anthony Burgess's book and film A Clockwork Orange and concludes that Alex was left still capable of moral choice except where acts of violence were involved. He argues that behavior modification to control violence is preferable to imprisonment, psychosurgery, or electronic surveillance, and counters objections that its use destroys autonomy, violates privacy and trust, and depersonalizes offenders.

  18. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  19. Workplace physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Karaşahin, Emine Füsun; Dikmen, Asiye Uğraş; Avci, Emine; Ozkan, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of and risk factors for physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses in a university hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital. A questionnaire form recommended by the WHO and the International Labor Organization was administered through face-to-face interviews to determine the violence experienced in the past 12 months by nurses. The prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing was 13.9%, 41.8%, and 17.1%, respectively. Working more than 40 h per week increased the risk of physical violence by 1.86 times. The majority of nurses who experienced verbal violence and mobbing were significantly more willing to change their work, their institution, and their profession if given the opportunity. Fewer than one-fourth of the victims indicated they reported any incident. We knew that the prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing were high among nurses and that incidents were underreported, and the study corroborated this information. What this study adds to the topic is that long working hours increased the prevalence of physical violence and was defined as an important contributory factor.

  20. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... into more serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen dating violence [187KB, 2Pages, 508] ...

  1. Meromorphic tensor categories

    OpenAIRE

    Soibelman, Yan

    1997-01-01

    We introduce the notion of meromorphic tensor category and illustrate it in several examples. They include representations of quantum affine algebras, chiral algebras of Beilinson and Drinfeld, G-vertex algebras of Borcherds, and representations of GL over a local field. Hopefully the formalism will accomodate various tensor structures arising in relation to the quantized Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and deformed CFT

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge of different aspects related to conjugal violence is highly important for people directly involved, such as researchers, practitioners and the entire society. In this respect, globally, specialised studies continue to advance, offer correct definitions, clear descriptions, convincing assessments to certain issues, encouraging thus long-term research, since some specialists have managed to overcome restrictive or ideological methods and explanations. Moreover, in practice, debates reach almost all social, political and legal dimensions regarding appropriate and efficient forms of preventing conjugal violence. Unfortunately, in Romania there are fewer research and prevention approaches of this social problem. In general, attention is directed to domestic violence and conjugal violence is dealt with only implicitly. Considering the given context, the aim of the paper is to outline, by analysing specialised literature, a new research direction and implicitly, social intervention. I specify that this article represents a stage in the ongoing postdoctoral research project, entitled "Conjugal homicide. Aggressors and victims".

  4. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  5. Examen d'analyses récentes portant sur l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants (ECI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Potter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cette analyse a comme objectif de rassembler les articles évalués par les pairs utilisant des données tirées de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants (ECI publiées depuis novembre 2011 ainsi que des suréchantillons provinciaux de l'ECI, d'évaluer la qualité de leurs conclusions, de les synthétiser et de faire le bilan des variations dans l'utilisation de ces données. Méthodologie : Nous avons sélectionné les articles au moyen du suivi des demandes d'accès aux données de l'ECI effectué par l'Agence de la santé publique du Canada et au suivi des publications produites au moyen de ces données. Deux évaluateurs au moins ont examiné de façon indépendante les articles et en ont évalué la qualité. Résultats : Nous avons conservé 32 articles. Leurs points forts étaient en général les suivants : objectifs de recherche clairement établis, variables de contrôle appropriées, analyses pertinentes, taille de l'échantillon suffisante, conclusions pertinentes et utilité pour les pratiques et politiques. Leur point problématique était le plus souvent une définition floue des variables et des critères d'inclusion des cas. La plupart du temps, les articles mesuraient les associations entre les caractéristiques des mauvais traitements et celles des enfants, des pourvoyeurs de soins, du ménage et de l'organisme ou de la personne à l'origine du signalement et ils s'intéressaient aux conséquences des signalements, par exemple l'ouverture d'un dossier pour une prestation continue de services ou le placement. Conclusion : Les articles utilisant des données de l'ECI ont obtenu des scores positifs pour la plupart des indicateurs de qualité. Dans leurs analyses les plus récentes, les chercheurs se sont concentrés sur les catégories de maltraitance insuffisamment étudiées jusqu'ici (exposition à la violence conjugale, négligence et

  6. Introduction to Ann-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tien Quang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present new concepts of Ann-categories, Ann-functors, and a transmission of the structure of categories based on Ann-equivalences. We build Ann-category of Pic-funtors and prove that each Ann-category can be faithfully embedded into an almost strictly Ann-category.

  7. Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tazeen S Ali,1,2,* Gunilla Krantz,3 Ingrid Mogren4,*1School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 3Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 4Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life.Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied.Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions.Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where

  8. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  9. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  10. Surviving Violence: Transgressing Categories and Boundaries in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, activities intended for the protection of civilians have been steadily incorporated into humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development operations across the globe. Yet, what was initially perceived as a progressive step in the advancement of human security (Goldberg and Hubert 2001 is now coming under increasing scrutiny (Fox 2002; Thakur 2002. The civilian protection agenda involves a series of inter-related activities designed to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and recover from physical harm caused by armed conflict. Despite the steady elaboration and execution of this agenda, however, critics point to key challenges including the lack of compliance by states and non-state armed actors (Ferris 2011, problems with coordination and efficiency among aid organizations (Barnett 2009, under-resourced peacekeeping operations with limited training and equipment (Williams 2013, and the lack of capacity and will on the part of the ‘international community’ (Barr 2010.

  11. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  12. Examining marital violence in India: review and recommendations for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Meghna; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Marital violence has been recognized globally as a grave public health concern with devastating consequences affecting the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. This article is a narrative review about marital violence in India, an understudied subtype of domestic violence. We include both theoretical and empirical studies of legal definitions, incidence and prevalence, correlates of marital violence and the consequences of such violence on survivors (N = 18). In addition to examining the sociocultural context and correlates of marital violence in India, we discuss the implications of current knowledge and recommendations for reducing and responding to marital violence.

  13. Violence among psychiatric inpatients: a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendranathan, D; Chandra, P S; Chaturvedi, S K

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Violence in psychiatric wards results in serious consequences and there is need for research to assess it in various settings to enable improvements in safety within psychiatric facilities. This study aimed to assess the inpatient violence from victims' perspective, in settings where family members accompanied patients during inpatient stay and played a significant role in caregiving. METHODS. A total of 100 consecutive incidents of inpatient violence were examined. Family members present at the time of the incident were interviewed to assess putative causes and behaviour prior to the incident. RESULTS. Bipolar spectrum disorder was the most common diagnosis. Family members were the targets of violence in 70% of the incidents and 81% were provoked episodes. Also, 76% of the patients were identified by family member to be irritable just prior to the episode. As preventive measures, family members suggested a need for more staff, more sedation, and improved communication. CONCLUSIONS. The capability of family members to identify behaviour patterns of patients prior to the episode might help decrease the severity and consequence of violence. It is essential to provide culture-specific interventions to the family, which could enable them in handling violence and give better care for the patient.

  14. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  15. Occurrence of violence and violence-related injuries among 12-18 year-old Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Kannus, Pekka; Rimpelä, Arja

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, nature, and severity of violence and violence-related injuries, and the occurrence of alcohol-related violence among Finnish adolescents. A 12-page questionnaire was mailed to a nationwide representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-olds (n = 10,883). The response rate was 75%. Of the 8,135 respondents, 7.9% (646) reported violence occurrence and 1.7% violence-related injury during the past month. The male-female ratio for violence occurrence was 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2) and for violence-related injury occurrence 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-1.2). Sixteen-year-old girls reported the highest injury rate (23/1,000). Most typically, the violent persons were individuals known by the victim before the incident. Girls were significantly (p fight with, or assailed by, a family member than boys (8%). Although boys' violent actions were related to leisure-time activities (64%), violence rarely took place during sports activities. Alcohol-related violence increased with age. Some 13% of 14-year-olds reported being under the influence of alcohol at the time of violence. The corresponding figures for 16- and 18-year-olds were 41% and 62%, respectively. Moreover, alcohol was closely associated with violence-related injuries. Violence is common among Finnish adolescents. While violence does not always lead to injury, related injuries are an important cause of adolescent morbidity. Alcohol seems to be strongly associated with adolescent violence and related injuries.

  16. Violence today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to approach contemporary violence in its most different expressions, including the use of the most recent developments in biology, bacteriology, chemistry and nuclear physics. The central idea is that violence changes, and with it the way it is perceived and how we react to it. The text, besides putting violence into a historical context, analyzes 1 the big transformation(s in the world: the end of the cold war, the new industrial structure and its consequences for the decline of the labor movement, globalization and the new forms of victimization; 2 in the second part, the author points to new approaches and characterizes novel contemporary subjects.

  17. Marxist aesthetics in Festus Iyayi's "violence" | Anawi | Journal de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Festus Iyayi's novel "Violence" portrays a modern African society in a money economy wherein the possession of the capital is paramount in defining the individual as a member of the community. The characters in "Violence" come into two distinct categories. On the one hand, there are those who own the ...

  18. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  19. Workplace violence against medical staff in healthcare facilities in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, M; Morris, E; Sobers-Grannum, N

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests increasing workplace violence against healthcare workers in the Caribbean, but the prevalence is largely undocumented. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence reported by medical staff at primary care clinics in Barbados. A study utilizing a modified version of the standard World Health Organization Workplace Violence Questionnaire, designed to assess the incidence, types and features of workplace violence. All nursing and physician staff on duty at the island's eight primary care clinics during the study period were invited to participate. Of the 102 respondents (72% response rate), 63% of nursing and physician staff at the polyclinics in Barbados reported at least one episode of violence in the past year. The majority reported being exposed to verbal abuse (60%) and 19% reported being exposed to bullying. Seven percent of the staff reported incidents of sexual harassment, 3% physical violence and another 3% reported racial harassment. Patients emerged as the main perpetrators of violence (64%). Logistic regression showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence. Females and nurses were more predisposed to experience violent incidents than males and physicians. Over a half of medical staff surveyed reported experiencing some type of violence in the past year, female gender being a significant predictor of abuse. Adequate documentation and implementing clear policies and violence prevention programmes in health institutions are crucial steps towards addressing this issue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  1. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  2. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  3. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  4. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims of sexual violence are female. ...

  5. Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...

  6. Characteristics of gender violence at the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Sala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence at the University of Valencia, the victim profile, resources, and beliefs about violence in the university community. The sample consisted of 3404 participants from the research and teaching staff, the administration and services personnel, and students. The results suggest an incidence of gender violence of 20.03%. The victim profile is a women student who is childless, at a perceived slight or moderate risk, who does not go to the police, but who experiences psychological repercussions from gender violence. In total, 86.99% of participants believe that the university has a gender violence service available and that action protocols and prevention programs have been implemented. Between 25% and 40% do not consider controlling behaviour and psychological abuse to constitute domestic violence. Gender violence prevention programs should be implemented.

  7. Physician exposure to violence: a study performed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Öktem, İbrahim Suat; Çetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Turkey, there has been an increase in the number of violent acts against healthcare workers, towards doctors in particular. This study aimed to investigate the extent of violence, the causes of violence and to evaluate proposed solutions to violence. Out of 597 physicians, 86.4% indicated that they were exposed to at least one type of violence (physical, verbal, sexual) throughout their careers. Among the physicians participating in the study, 27.5% suffered physical threats and 68.6% suffered verbal violence in the past year. Only 40.4% reported the physical violence to their institution. Physicians indicated that the top three causes of violent behavior were excessive demands of patients, the expectation that the issue will be solved immediately and blaming physicians for their problems. To stop violence against themselves, physicians need to raise their voices, along with those of their personal or professional organizations, and should report and follow up incidents.

  8. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  9. Constraints on colour category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Y.; Wakui, E.; Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  10. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  11. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  12. Children's Experiences of Domestic Violence: Developing an Integrated Response from Police and Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…

  13. Becoming a "Proper Man": Young People's Attitudes about Interpersonal Violence and Perceptions of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarry, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Whilst public awareness campaigns, interventions and legal reforms have done much to challenge gendered interpersonal violence, the incidence and prevalence of this violence is not decreasing. Furthermore, research with young people reveals significant acceptance and tolerance of interpersonal violence if perpetrated by men within the parameters…

  14. The influence of school culture and school climate on violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National and Provincial Departments of Education in South Africa, which attempt to address violence in ... Barth (2002) defines school culture as a complex pattern of norms, attitudes, beliefs, behaviour, values .... The section on school violence in this questionnaire measured the extent of incidents of school violence.

  15. Community Violence in Context: Risk and Resilience in Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Herrenkohl, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Although some community violence research has examined the context of community violence, including the social, economic, and structural organization of neighborhoods, more needs to be learned about family, school, and community-level factors that may promote and lessen the incidence and prevalence of community violence. In addition, further…

  16. Domestic Violence and Its Effects on Children: Fundamental Concepts, Safety Planning and Examples of Alternative Treatment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Sedef Kahraman; Gokce Cokamay

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence is defined as coercive and controlling behaviors that family members show toward each other. These behaviors are frequently seen as repetitive behavior patterns. Research indicates that many domestic violence incidents happen in the presence of children. Being exposed to domestic violence or witnessing domestic violence has similar emotional-behavioral problems in children. In this article, we emphasized different reactions of children to domestic violence within different a...

  17. Violent incidents on a regional secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rïx, G; Seymour, D

    1988-11-01

    This 1-year retrospective study was conducted on a regional secure unit at the Bethlem Royal Hospital, London, using the hospital's data collection sheet for violent incidents. The majority of incidents were minor in nature but there were a few assaults that involved pain, lacerations or bruising. Although violence was common to the majority of patients, two contributed a large number. Those staff at the bottom of the nursing hierachy who spent most time with patients were most at risk. Likewise fellow patients were also often involved in incidents. Violence did not tail off after the breakfast period, as reported in previous studies, but continued to rise until bedtime.

  18. Preventing violence against public servants

    OpenAIRE

    Wikman, Sofia; Rickfors, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Preventing violence against public servants From safety science, we have learned that in light of increasing demands and system complexity, we must adapt our approach to safety. We have to include new practices to look for what goes right, focus on frequent events, remain sensitive to the possibility of failure, to be thorough as well as efficient, and to view an investment in safety as an investment in productivity. But most people still think of safety as the absence of accidents and incide...

  19. Research tracks growing violence against women in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Violence against women and female homicides or femicide, is escalating across Central America. And despite the efforts of women's organizations, human rights groups, regional governments, and civil society to stem these crimes, incidents of violence against women remain vastly underreported.

  20. Gender and Campus Violence: A Study of University of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is an attempt to investigate the incidence of violence among university students using University of Lagos as a case study. A questionnaire on different kinds of violence was administered to 446 students of the university. In addition, four focus group discussion sessions were conducted to assess the types of ...

  1. Religious Violence in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences | Iwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Responsible manipulation of religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence has become a yearly ...

  2. Addressing domestic violence: to what extent does the law provide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high incidence of domestic violence in South Africa calls for a competent legal response. The Constitution as well as international human rights conventions oblige the state to protect human rights, including the rights of victims of domestic violence. The government is, therefore, challenged to enact effective legal ...

  3. Prevalence of domestic violence in Nigeria: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the reported incidence of domestic violence in Nigeria, the different forms of abuse which may occur in the home and the devastating consequences on the individuals involved and the society at large. Some of the predisposing factors of domestic violence are discussed and counselling – preventive ...

  4. School Violence among Culturally Diverse Populations: Sociocultural and Institutional Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marcel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Notes that incidence of violence reflects disproportionate representation of ethnic and racial minorities, especially African Americans and Latinos, as both victims and victimizers. Presents model for understanding cultures in context of American society to help school psychologists develop effective violence prevention strategies. (Author/NB)

  5. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h -index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  6. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Boychenko

    2017-12-01

    the study of violence involves categorizing the problem in terms of good and evil: violence is evil, as opposed to coercion, which can be justified, legitimated - but always from the point of view of promoting the development of society and the individual, encouraging the disclosure of his creative potential. Counterfactuality acts as an important ethical category, which reveals the transformation mechanism applied by human relative to himself and society while focusing on the values of goodness and other constructive and creative values.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence in the United States - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of violence experience physical injury; depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and suicide attempts; and other health conditions such ... or sexual health) in that relationship. 3 By definition, all stalking incidents result in impact because the ...

  8. Domestic Violence against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distress. Your abuser may use such incidents to manipulate you, describing them as proof that you are ... relationship. You may have grown up in a time when domestic violence was simply not discussed. You ...

  9. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Monica Silvestri,1 Cecilia Artoni,2 Rosaria Di Lorenzo3 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing, 2School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio, 3Department of Mental Health, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Workplace violence (WPV against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1 to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2 to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants, who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results: With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%, followed by nursing assistants (18% and physicians (12%. The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression. The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%, emergency department (71%, and in geriatric wards (57%. The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test. Verbal violence (51% was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49% was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent

  10. 78 FR 41800 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “I VetoViolence Because . . .”: Teen Dating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Center), asks violence prevention professionals, allied organizations, students, VetoViolence Facebook... communities. The PSA finalists and winners will be showcased in three categories on the VetoViolence Facebook... Federal entity or Federal employee acting within the scope of their employment; (5) Shall not be an HHS...

  11. Violence against emergency department employees and the attitude of employees towards violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkrıklar, H Í; Yürümez, Y; Güngör, B; Aşkın, R; Yücel, M; Baydemir, C

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of violent incidents in the workplace among the various professional groups working in the emergency department. We characterised the types of violence encountered by different occupation groups and the attitude of individuals working in different capacities. This cross-sectional study included 323 people representing various professional groups working in two distinct emergency departments in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires prepared in advance by the researchers. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows version 15.0). A total of 323 subjects including 189 (58.5%) men and 134 (41.5%) women participated in the study. Their mean (± standard deviation) age was 31.5 ± 6.5 years and 32.0 ± 6.9 years, respectively. In all, 74.0% of participants had been subjected to verbal or physical violence at any point since starting employment in a medical profession. Moreover, 50.2% of participants stated that they had been subjected to violence for more than 5 times. Among those who reported being subjected to violence, 42.7% had formally reported the incident(s). Besides, 74.3% of participants did not enjoy their profession, did not want to work in the emergency department, or would prefer employment in a non-health care field after being subjected to violence. According to the study participants, the most common cause of violence was the attitude of patients or their family members (28.7%). In addition, 79.6% (n=257) of participants stated that they did not have adequate safety protection in their working area. According to the study participants, there is a need for legal regulations to effectively deter violence and increased safety measures designed to reduce the incidence of violence in the emergency department. Violence against employees in the emergency department is a widespread problem. This situation has a strong negative effect on employee

  12. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis......The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  13. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  14. Solving Local Violence by Cosmopolitan Democracy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfil Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of democracy intensified since the fall of the new order era has some failures. One of the factors is violence phenomena still continue in the region. This study aims to discuss the violence in the region by presenting cosmopolitan democracy as a new design of more humane democracy. In addition, this research method uses library research, because library research can understand the problem in-depth to find the pattern and recommendation from the violence problems which happens in Indonesia. This study uses Hannah Arendt observations on the phenomenon of violence. In addition, the concept of cosmopolitan democracy is referred from Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Ulrich Beck is presented as a draft of new democracy direction which is more inclusive and humane. The result of this study discloses that the occurrence of incidence is triggered by failed implementation of the democratic system in Indonesia.

  15. Military Personnel: Status of Implementation of GAO’s 2006 Recommendations on DOD’s Domestic Violence Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    enough to provide reliable statistics on the disposition of domestic violence incidents. Further, according to the Director of OSD’s Office of Law...from the two systems in 2010. This official stated that DIBRS is incapable of providing reliable statistics on the incidence of domestic violence in...official demonstrated that the services provided some data but not enough to provide reliable statistics on domestic violence incidents. An Air Force

  16. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  17. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  18. DoD Needs a Comprehensive Approach to Address Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    hate incidents or crimes, • domestic violence, and • road rage. The DoD community is not immune to the most extreme acts of violence, as shown in...Department of the Army personnel to report any incident of known or suspected espionage, international terrorism, sabotage, subversion , theft or diversion

  19. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  20. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Benjamin H; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Anar D; Fant, Abra L; Gisondi, Michael A; Shah, Kaushal H; Lech, Christie A

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  1. Martial Arts, Violence, and Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Martial arts have become one of the most popular physical activities amongst children and youth worldwide; however, there are concerns among Western parents and school administrators that including these activities in school programs may lead to incidents of violence. Others, however, maintain that this is a concern caused by the false image of martial arts (as propagated in entertainment and pop culture, and stemming from an ignorance of the true values promoted by legitimate Asian martial arts practitioners. This paper explores the philosophical and theoretical concepts upon which Asian martial arts disciplines are founded, and provides ample research to reveal that martial arts as practiced in Eastern tradition de-emphasize violence, competition, and combat. Further, this paper illustrates that practicing martial arts in line with Eastern precepts of martial virtue, promotes a healthy active lifestyle, and can in fact discourage, rather than encourage, incidents of violence at schools.

  2. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  3. Levels of violence among nurses in Cape Town public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Doris

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents findings from a study examining violence in nursing. A combined ethno-phenomenology was identified as the most appropriate approach. Ethnography is to understand the culture of nursing that permits violence to occur within the profession. Phenomenology is to explore and capture nurse-on-nurse experiences of violence. The population is all nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council. The research participants are nurses employed in eight public hospitals in Cape Town during 2005. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION: The first stage of data collection was the distributions of confidential questionnaires to nurses employed in eight hospitals and willing to participate in the study. Responses to close-ended questions were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Responses to open-ended questions were grouped per question. The qualitative data were then compared for similarities and differences in information provided. Six levels of violence exist among nurses. The highest forms of violence among nurses occurred at the psychological level, with the least at the physical level of interaction. The other four levels of violence among nurses were vertical, horizontal, covert, and overt. All categories of nurses in the study had resorted to one or more levels of violence against other nurses during their nursing career. Professional nurses and senior nurse managers were identified as the main category of nurses that frequently resort to mistreating other nurses. However, auxiliary nurses were identified as the main perpetrators of physical violence against other nurses.

  4. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional......-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological taxonomy among the Karam of the New...

  5. INCIDENCIA DE LAS NORMAS DE DISCIPLINA DEPORTIVA EN LAS ACTITUDES QUE GENERAN VIOLENCIA EN EL DEPORTE Incidence of sport disciplinary rules into those attitudes that may generate violence in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jiménez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de una línea de investigación socio jurídica sobre la Disciplina Deportiva, que se está realizando en el departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva de la Universidad de Granada. El objeto de estudio no es la violencia que se genera con ocasión del deporte exógena-, sino la violencia dentro del terreno de juego-endógena-. Se han tratado dos partes claramente diferenciadas: la primera, de análisis y sistematización de textos jurídicos; y la segunda de investigación sociológica mediante una muestra de 120 deportistas.

     

    Summary
    The current essay can be framed into a researching socio-juridical line about Sport Discipline, which is being done in the department of Physical and Sport Education in Granada’s University. The aim of study is not the violence generated by means of sport –exogenous- but violence within the game field –endogenous-. Two parts have been clearly focused: the first, analysing and systematising juridical texts; and a second one about sociological research through a sample of 120 athletes.

    KEY WORDS: sport violence, sport discipline, attitudes.

  6. Third parties, violence, and conflict resolution: the role of group size and collective action in the microregulation of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark; Taylor, Paul J; Best, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Although researchers know much about the causes of aggression, they know surprisingly little about how aggression leads to violence or how violence is controlled. To explore the microregulation of violence, we conducted a systematic behavioral analysis of footage from closed-circuit television surveillance of public spaces. Using 42 incidents involving 312 people, we compared aggressive incidents that ended in violence with those that did not. Behaviors of antagonists and third parties were coded as either escalating or conciliatory acts. Results showed that third parties were more likely to take conciliatory actions than to escalate violence and that this tendency increased as group size increased. This analysis revealed a pattern of third-party behaviors that prevent aggression from becoming violent and showed that conciliatory behaviors are more successful when carried out by multiple third parties than when carried out by one person. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of collective third-party dynamics in understanding conflict resolution.

  7. [Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Kelly Cristina Máxima Pereira; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

    2013-10-01

    This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence). Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  8. Violence During Pregnancy Among Women With or at Risk for HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Linda J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Royce, Rachel A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study estimated the prevalence of violence during pregnancy in relation to HIV infection. Methods. Violence, current partnerships, and HIV risk behaviors were assessed among 336 HIV-seropositive and 298 HIV-seronegative at-risk pregnant women. Results. Overall, 8.9% of women experienced recent violence; 21.5% currently had abusive partners. Violence was experienced by women in all partnership categories (range = 3.8% with nonabusive partners to 53.6% with physically abusive partners). Neither experiencing violence nor having an abusive partner differed by serostatus. Receiving an HIV diagnosis prenatally did not increase risk. Disclosure-related violence occurred, but was rare. Conclusions. Many HIV-infected pregnant women experience violence, but it is not typically attributable to their serostatus. Prenatal services should incorporate screening and counseling for all women at risk for violence. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:367–370) PMID:11867312

  9. Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Maxima Pereira Venancio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence. Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  10. School Violence: Tragedy, Turmoil, Learning and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Newspaper headlines these past couple of months have sent many people reeling, as school violence dominates both K-12 and higher education settings once again. Within the first 15 days of February alone, a total of six shooting incidents took place, resulting in numerous deaths and many injuries. Coupled with the anniversaries of both the Virginia…

  11. Violence Towards Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, Richard J.

    A study involving 1,146 families with children between 3 and 17 years old was conducted to assess the extent and cause of violence and aggression on children by their parents. Research regarding incidence, modes, and patterns of child abuse was reviewed and problems with various methods of data collection were examined. A household interview…

  12. Violence against children within the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACEK J. BŁESZYŃSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e article presents the problem of child abuse in the family. Shows the causes of violence in the family, but also treats children’s rights under the Convention on the Rights of the child, such as the right to an identity, right to expression, the right to live without violence, the right to social assistance, right to education. Th is article presents the family as the basic environment in which the child is born and brought up, because it has strong infl uence on the shaping of his personality. Refers to the fact that the home should be a place where the child feels safe. Pointed out that oft en but this is different, because victims of domestic violence are mostly women and children, as being weak and defenseless against their persecutors. Th e defi nition of domestic violence was quoted. Pointed to factors that protection children from violence, as well as the factors which contribute to harming. Defi ned physical violence against the child, and refers to the normative acts in this area, established as the sexual exploitation of children, studies showing the extent of the problem, and also refers to the legislation, to protect the child from sexual abuse. Th e article refers to the mental abuse and neglect in the family. Distinguished category of emotional abuse, as well as identifi ed other forms of child abuse in the family, such as alcoholism, drug abuse or other negative attitudes of parents, stigmatized by the law.

  13. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design....

  14. Domestic violence in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, J

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  15. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  17. Trends in deliberate interpersonal violence in the Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2002. The Odense study on deliberate interpersonal violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, Christian; Lauritsen, Jens; Brink, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year study was carried out to investigate the development of interpersonal violence based on A and E department and/or forensic data from a Danish urban population. Included in the study were all victims of violence from the Odense municipality treated at the Odense University Hospital...... or subjected to medicolegal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark 1991-2002. Overall 14,316 victims of violence were included in the study. The incidence rates of violence were 9.9 and 3.4 per 1000 population/year for males and females. For males the incidence rate...... decreased in the study period whereas the incidence rate was unchanged among females. Less serious lesions and wounds were the most common type of lesions. The percentage of less serious lesions increased in the study period. The percentage of potential severe lesions such as bone fractures and deep lesions...

  18. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asur Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350. Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.

  19. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  20. Male violence or patriarchal violence? Global Trends in Men and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policies and research have focused recently on men's use of violence against women, and the terms "gender-based violence" or "domestic violence" have often been used rather than "patriarchal violence." This article argues that instead of talking about "male violence," or gender-based violence, a more useful analytical framework is "patriarchal violence." Applying this lens examines how violence is based in complex power relations - with low-income men and men in specific groups, such...

  1. Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Category Accessibility as Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-06

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP category accessibility, social cognition, social or) In categorization, memory 19 ABSTRACT...and explicit memory in a common theoretical framework. Several types of social phenomena may usefully be conceptualized as involving implicit memory ...NO ACCESSION NO 61153N 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Category accessibility as implicit memory 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Smith, Eliot R

  3. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  4. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DEFINING SPATIAL VIOLENCE. BUCHAREST AS A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia GHYKA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the spatial manifestations of violence, aiming to define the category of spatial violence by focusing on the recent urban history of Bucharest; it establishes links with the longer history of natural and inflicted disasters that defined the city, and it explores the spatial, urban, social and symbolical conflicts that occured during the last 25 years, pointing at their consequences on the social and urban substance of the city.

  6. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Violence against nurses in the southern region of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimwemwe K. Banda

    2016-10-01

    Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 190 questionnaires were sent out to nurses from five facilities, 112 were returned completed (60% response rate. The five facilities included two central hospitals, one psychiatric hospital and two health care centres. Results: 86% of the respondents agreed that violence against nurses is a problem in Malawi. The prevalence of violence for the five facilities in the preceding 12 months was 71% (CI 61%–79% and was highest at the psychiatric hospital (100%. The types of violence experienced include verbal abuse (95%, threatening behaviours (73%, physical assaults (22%, sexual harassments (16% and other (3%. Perpetrators of violence were: patients (71%; patients' relatives (47%; and work colleagues (43%. Nurses reacted to incidents of violence by reporting to managers, telling their friends, crying, retaliating, or ignoring the incident. Most (80% nurses perceived that violence has psychological effects on them, which consequently affects their work performance and make them lose interest in the nursing profession. Conclusions: Workplace violence against nurses exists in Malawi and it affects nurses psychologically; may result in poor work performance; and may be a causative factor in the attrition of nurses from the nursing profession. The study recommends that health facilities should adopt policies aimed at minimizing violence against nurses to create motivating and safe working environment for nurses.

  8. Exploring workplace violence among home care workers in a consumer-driven home health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Lindsay; Moss, Helen; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy; Rose, Linda; Anger, W Kent; Hanson, Ginger C; Christian, Mervyn; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Nominal research has examined sexual harassment and workplace violence against home care workers within consumer-driven home care models such as those offered in Oregon. This study examined home care workers' experiences of violence while providing care to consumer employers, the patients who hire and manage home care workers. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in Oregon with 83 home care workers, 99 Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS) employees, and 11 consumer employers. Home care workers reported incidents of workplace physical violence (44%), psychological abuse (65%), sexual harassment (41%), and sexual violence (14%). Further, three themes were identified that may increase the risk of workplace violence: (1) real and perceived barriers to reporting violence; (2) tolerance of violence; and (3) limited training to prevent violence. To ensure worker safety while maintaining quality care, safety policies and training for consumer employers, state DHS employees, and home care workers must be developed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first step in preventing school violence is to understand the extent and nature ...

  10. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 ... violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that ...

  12. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual entitlement weak legal sanctions for sexual violence. Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against ... legislation and develop and implement policies that promote gender equality by: ending discrimination against women in marriage, divorce and custody laws ...

  13. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  14. Is Gun Violence Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Loeffler, Charles; Flaxman, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories of gun violence predict stable spatial concentrations and contagious diffusion of gun violence into surrounding areas. Recent empirical studies have reported confirmatory evidence of such spatiotemporal diffusion of gun violence. However, existing tests cannot readily distinguish spatiotemporal clustering from spatiotemporal diffusion. This leaves as an open question whether gun violence actually is contagious or merely clusters in space and time. Compounding this problem, g...

  15. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  16. Prediction of domestic violence against married women in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining gratuitous violence.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article engages with the question of how to define gratuitous violence. If the term gratuitous is understood to mean 'for ... definition of gratuitous violence relates to the understanding of expressive violence. It seems ... high self-esteem', related to their anger at being criticised or disrespected, is then not 'for nothing'.

  18. School violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-04-01

    School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.

  19. School Violence: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-01-01

    Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…

  20. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  1. Effect of Education on Prevention of Domestic Violence against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noughani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes  and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.

  2. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  3. Older women's experiences of psychological violence in their marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montminy, Lyse

    2005-01-01

    Violence within older couples is a reality, not a myth. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 women ages 60 to 81 who had suffered marital psychological violence. Husbands' psychologically violent behaviors were grouped into 14 categories: control, denigration, deprivation, intimidation, threats, abdication of responsibility, manipulation, blame, harassment, negation of reality, indifference, making the wife feel guilty, sulking, and infantilization. Control behaviors were found to be the central category. Control dynamics increased at retirement, when children left home and when husbands experienced a decrease in health status. Implications for practice are also discussed.

  4. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  5. Human dignity and professional reputation under threat: Iranian Nurses' experiences of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Workplace violence against nurses is a challenging problem in both developed and developing countries. Because the concept of violence bears some cultural load, nurses' understanding is region-specific. This study explores Iranian nurses' perceptions of workplace violence. Using qualitative content analysis, 22 registered nurses underwent unstructured, in-depth interviews. The main themes of threats to human dignity and professional reputation emerged, plus four categories: physical violence, psychological violence, honor insults, and ethnic-religious insults. The term "honor insults," as a unique finding, was used instead of "sexual harassment." These findings may help to redefine workplace violence based on cultural background, design strategies for supporting nurses, and prevent and manage such violence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  7. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  8. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  9. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  10. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  11. Essays on diffusion and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hugten, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Essay’ derives from the French ‘to try’. Accordingly, in this book, I try three new interpretations of diffusion and categories. That is, I try to divide observations into groups in a new way. Some ways of dividing lead to confusion and frustration. For example, people’s default division seems to be

  12. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  13. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  14. Workplace violence against adolescent workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J

    2008-07-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem yet most research on this topic has focused on adults. Despite facing numerous employment conditions that raise their risk for workplace violence, adolescent workers have received inadequate attention. Survey data from 1,171 US students ages 14-17 were analyzed using descriptive statistics to investigate the incidence and perpetrators of physical attacks, verbal threats, and sexual harassment. Nearly one-third of respondents experienced some form of workplace violence: 25% verbally threatened, 10% physically attacked, and 10% sexually harassed. Significant demographic differences were found. The most common perpetrators of physical attacks and verbal threats were customers while sexual harassment most often came from co-workers. Many working adolescents, most with only a few years work experience, have already suffered workplace violence. As youth are likely to be more vulnerable to its effects, developing workplace violence prevention strategies that target adolescent workers should be made a priority. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Intolerance and Violence Against Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2017-10-01

    Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics. There is a need to arrest the development of further distrust between doctors and their patients/relatives, otherwise it will compromise all achievements of medical science and adversely affect healing capabilities of doctors. Rude and aggressive behavior of the patients or their family members, and arrogant and lackadaisical approach of the doctor, adversely affects the doctor-patient relationship and the outcome of the patient. The doctors, hospital administration and government must exercise "zero tolerance" with respect to acts of violence against healthcare professionals. It is possible to reduce the incidence of intolerance against doctors but difficult to eliminate it completely. The healthcare providers should demonstrate greater compassion and empathy with improved communication skills. The hospitals must have adequate infrastructure, facilities and staff to handle emergencies without delay and with due confidence and skills. The security of healthcare providers, especially in sensitive areas, should be improved by having adequate number of security guards, frisking facilities, extensive CCTV network and availability of "Quick response team" to handle unruly mob. In case of any grievances for alleged mismanagement, the public should handle the situation in a civilized manner and seek redressal through Medical Protection Act and legal

  16. Caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Juliana; Grice, Sarah; Garety, Philippa; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour in psychosis is not uncommon. Community provision for people with psychosis has left informal caregivers to take on a greater role in their care. However, few studies have explored links between patient-initiated violence in mental health caregiving relationships and caregiver functioning. Our study investigated caregiver reports of aggressive acts committed by their relative with psychosis and their links to caregiver appraisals of the caregiving relationship and caregiver outcomes. Caregivers of patients with a recent relapse of psychosis, recruited to a psychological therapy trial, completed the audiotaped Camberwell Family Interview at baseline. This semi-structured interview includes questions on the quality of the relationship between caregiver and patient, and patient history of violence. Seventy-two transcripts of interviews were assessed for reports of patient-initiated violence. One-half of the caregiver sample (52.9%) reported an incident of patient-initiated violence during their interview; 62.2% of these involved violence toward themselves, and 24.3% toward property. Reports of patient violence were associated with caregiver ratings of hostility expressed toward patients, lower self-esteem, and emotion-focused coping. People caring on their own were more likely to report incidents of patient violence. Younger patients, males, and inpatients were more frequently identified as having a history of this kind of violence. Our findings suggested that caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis are not uncommon. Mental health staff need to be aware of the risks of such violence for caregivers of people with psychosis, and consider appropriate procedures for minimizing it.

  17. School violence : a critical review of Canadian and American studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Leigh Anne Deana

    2004-01-01

    School violence in Canada and the United States is a topic of public and media concern following several recent shocking incidents of student killings by their classmates in Canada and the United States. This thesis reviews and critically evaluates Canadian and American studies of school violence. Published reports and studies are used as the source of data. The main focus for evaluating the studies is an in-depth analysis of the conceptual frameworks and elements of the research. This includ...

  18. Violence Against Women: Same-Sex Relationship Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am I being abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...

  19. Violence Against Women: Same-Sex Relationship Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...

  20. The path to extreme violence: Nazism and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In people’s minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of ‘organised insanity’ that is extreme violence.

  1. Violence in the Emergency Department: A Global Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Allison; Kiefer, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Violence against health care workers is an unfortunately common event. Because of several inherent factors, emergency departments are particularly vulnerable. Once an incident occurs, it often goes unreported and leads to both physical and mental trauma. Health care workers should learn to recognize the cues that patients are escalating toward violence and be familiar with various options for sedating agitated patients. If sedation is not successful, physical restraint may become necessary. There are measures that can be taken that may help minimize the likelihood of violence toward health care workers. These measures include legislation, physical design, and increased security. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two decades of violence - A cohort study from the Danish municipality of Aarhus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, O; Bitch, O.; Petersen, KK

    2002-01-01

    to 1496. The annual incidence rate decreased to 4.6 victims/1000. The decrease in violence was particularly among the 15-24 year old males. The extent of violence against women remained unchanged in 1999-2000. Foreigners were significantly higher represented among victims. The character and severity......Introduction: Data collected from hospitals and the police has on several occasions proved to be useful in gaining knowledge about violence. The two casualty departments, Institute of Forensic Medicine and the police in Aarhus have co-operated in three earlier studies about interpersonal violence......, the latest in 1993-1994. The purpose of this recent study is to reveal updated information about the incidence and character of violence in Aarhus. Methodology, Dynamic cohort studs during the period the 1st of April 1999 to the 31st of March 2000. Persons who after having been exposed to violence arrived...

  3. In the limelight. The gamma-graphy incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biau, A.

    2000-01-01

    The risks of gamma-graphy incidents are linked to the irradiation level of the gamma sources. They are very important when the sources are out of their protection case. The incidents are classified in two categories: incidents coming from failures or errors of handling, loss or theft of sources. In the first category 87 incidents have been declared to OPRI between 1975 and 2000.In the second category 17 incidents have been counted on the same period. It is important to follow the regulation arrangements and improve the prevention if one wants to keep this testing technique. (N.C.)

  4. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  6. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  7. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  8. Domestic violence and violence against children in Ghana 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...

  9. Corrélats des enquêtes conjointes des services de protection de l'enfance et des services de police sur les abus sexuels d'enfants : résultats de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Dans cette étude, nous examinons la fréquence des enquêtes conjointes menées par les services de protection de l'enfance et les services de police dans les cas d'abus sexuels en comparaison des autres types de maltraitance. Nous examinons également les associations, dans les enquêtes conjointes, entre les caractéristiques relatives à l'enfant, celles relatives au pourvoyeur de soins de l'enfant, celles relatives aux mauvais traitements eux-mêmes et celles relatives à l'enquête, en nous intéressant plus particulièrement aux enquêtes sur les abus sexuels. Méthodologie : Nous avons analysé par régression logistique les données de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants 2008. Résultats : D'après les données, les enquêtes conjointes portent en premier lieu sur les abus sexuels (55 %, puis sur la violence physique, la négligence et la violence psychologique. La corroboration des mauvais traitements, les mauvais traitements graves, le placement, l'intervention des tribunaux de la jeunesse et l'orientation d'un membre de la famille vers des services spécialisés sont plus fréquents quand les services de police participent à l'enquête. Conclusion : Cette étude vient bonifier l'information limitée dont on dispose sur les corrélats des enquêtes conjointes menées par les agences de protection de l'enfance et les services de police. D'autres recherches devront être effectuées pour déterminer l'efficacité de ces enquêtes conjointes.

  10. Revisiting the Link Between Economic Distress, Race, and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, J Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Howden, Wesley

    2017-06-01

    Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock. This study uses mass layoff events reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at the county level ( N = 3,377) for the years 2003-2008. Mass layoff events occur when a firm lays off at least 50 workers and are uncorrelated with individual-level characteristics ( N = 28,939 events, affecting N = 5,337,481 individuals). Domestic violence data are taken from the National Archive of Criminal Justice and defined as occurring when an accused perpetrator is charged, but not necessarily convicted. We use a multivariate regression model to estimate how differences in the change in reported incidences of domestic violence by race correlate with changes in mass layoffs by race. We control for the poverty rate, real per capita income, percent Black, percent women, and percent of females laid off. The standard errors are clustered at the county level and include county and time dummies to account for regional and time specific trends. We observe that an increase in the number of Blacks subject to a mass layoff event do exert a negative associated influence on domestic violence while layoffs of White men exert a positive influence. Our results shed light on how the influence of economic uncertainty on incidences of domestic violence has been found to be positive in some previous research but negative in other research.

  11. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  12. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... hf ngn) = (0 ugn) = 0 and dn−1. C( fg) is an epimorphism. Thus, u = 0. This proves our assertion. D. 2.4 n-Cluster tilting subcategories. Recall that a full subcategory D of an abelian category A is cogenerating if for every object X ∈ A there exists an object Y ∈ D and a monomorphism X → Y. The concept of.

  13. Sexual violence against women: the scope of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence

  14. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  15. Understanding Democracy and Violence in Africa: An Analysis of the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    dataset collection . The fatalities per incident are considered a result of political violence and cannot be defined as criminal violence . Only those...UNDERSTANDING DEMOCRACY AND VIOLENCE IN AFRICA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DATA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  16. [Translated Title: Participatory research to develop a school violence observation instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Santiago, Nilda G; Rivera, Tania Cruz; Rodríguez, Maryanes Trenche; Báez Ávila, Loggina S

    2017-01-01

    School violence has been recognized worldwide as a public health problem that negatively impacts the educational process. However, in Puerto Rico official statistics and the media generally focus on isolated incidents of extreme violence in which weapons are used or property is destroyed. Little data is available about the most common forms of violence that often occur in schools on a daily basis. The Instrumento de Observación de Violencia Escolar (INOVE) , developed with the input of school communities participating in Project VIAS (Violence and Asthma Health Disparity Network) of Universidad del Este (UNE), was used in this study to gather information about the characteristics of violence in two Puerto Rican schools. Among the study findings we highlight gender differences in observed violence and aggressive games and interactions between students. The data collected have served as a basis for decision-making regarding violence prevention in participating schools and have implications for the development of prevention strategies and programs.

  17. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn L; Duncan, Susan M; Estabrooks, Carole A; Reimer, Marlene A; Giovannetti, Phyllis; Hyndman, Kathryn; Acorn, Sonia

    2003-03-01

    Workplace violence is a significant and widespread public health concern among health care workers, including nurses. With growing awareness of how practice environments influence patient outcomes and the retention of health professionals, it is timely to consider the impact of workplace violence in hospitals. Registered nurses in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada were surveyed on their experiences of violence in the workplace over the last five shifts. Our results suggest that nurses are experiencing many incidences of violence in a given work week, particularly in the emergency, psychiatric, and medical-surgical settings. Most violent acts are perpetrated by patients, but there is also a significant portion of violence and abuse committed by hospital co-workers, particularly emotional abuse and sexual harassment. Our results also indicate that the majority of workplace violence is not reported. We suggest that using the Broken Windows theory might be a useful tool to conceptualize why workplace violence occurs, and that this framework be used to begin to develop new violence prevention policies and strategies.

  18. Domestic violence and the criminal justice system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Edna

    2002-01-01

    It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.

  19. Violence Towards Health Care Staff: Risk Factors, Aftereffects, Evaluation and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Annagur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in violence against physicians and healthcare staff in the health-care environment in recent years. The risk of violence remains stronger in people working in health institutions than the ones working in other businesses. Results of previous studies in this issue consistently confirmed the fact that violence in health care business is quite higher in frequency than the violence reported in other business environments. However it has also been reported that only attacks resulting in serious injuries have been considered as incidents of violence and other violence attempts are inclined not to be reported to legal authorities resulting in a much lower official rates. Not only patients but also the relatives of patients have been reported to expose violence against healthcare workers. Verbal violence were found to be more common than physical violence. Violence incidents happen most commonly in the emergency room settings, and psychiatric clinic settings. Health care staff exposed to violence usually suffer from anxiety and restlessness as psychological after-effects. Health care workers are not sufficiently trained about how to cope with acute and chronic effects of violent behavior. This issue should be handled within the framework of medical faculty and related schools’ curriculum. All health care staff including physicians should get sufficient education to take immediate actions on such incidents. Unfortunately in Turkey, there is no specific legal regulation related to violence towards health employees. The verbal attacks, injuries, assault and murder of health workers are subject to general legal provisions. Both rapid changes in health care services, facilities and shortcomings in legal regulations cause gaps in violence prevention and employing safety issues in hospitals and related health care facilities. Training employees and hospital managers, and considering the creation and application of present and

  20. Safer Wards: reducing violence on older people's mental health wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Kwesi, Solomon; Joyce, Maggie; Dusoye, Jenny; Mohamudbucus, Yasin; Shah, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Through the Safer Wards project we aimed to reduce the number of incidents of physical violence on older people's mental health wards. This was done using quality improvement methods and supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Violence can be an indicator of unmet needs in this patient population, with a negative effect on patient care and staff morale. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust. We established a multi-disciplinary group who led on the project on each ward and used a Pareto diagram to establish the focus of our work. We established a dashboard of measures based on our incident reporting system Datix, including number of incidents of violence, days between incidents, days of staff sickness, days between staff injury, use of restraint, and use of rapid tranquilisation (the last two being balancing measures in the reduction of violence). Each team identified factors driving physical violence on the wards, under headings of unmet patient needs, staff needs and staff awareness, which included lack of activity and a safe and therapeutic environment. Using driver diagrams, we identified change ideas that included hourly rounding (proactive checks on patient well-being), the addition of sensory rooms, flexible leave for patients, and a structured activity programme. We also introduced exercise to music, therapeutic groups led by patients, and focused on discharge planning and pet therapy, each of which starting sequentially over the course of a one year period from late 2013 and subject to a cycle of iterative learning using PDSA methods. The specific aim was a 20% decrease in violent incidents on three wards in City and Hackney, and Newham. Following our interventions, days between violent incidents increased from an average of three to an average of six. Days between staff injury due to physical violence rose from an average of

  1. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  2. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (cha...

  3. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  4. Violence narratives of Mexican women treated in mutual-aid residential centers for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Romero-Mendoza, Martha; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo

    2016-11-30

    Violence against women is a social and public health issue in Mexico. The aim of this article is to explore violence among an understudied group of women, who attended Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment and experienced stigma both as women and addicts. These centers are particular kind of addiction treatment services that stem from 12-step philosophy, but that have been found to manipulate said philosophy and exercise extreme forms of psychological and physical violence. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were carried in 2014 and 2015 out with women who resided in at least one of these centers to understand their experiences of violence prior and during their rehabilitation process. The interview guide covered questions regarding substance use initiations, family violence and dynamics, and rehabilitation experiences. Qualitative data was analyzed using interpretative-phenomenological analysis. Two categories emerged: violence and substance use and abuse, and violence against women in recovery. Results show that all participants experienced violence in their family since childhood, particularly sexual and physical violence. As a result, participants experienced guilt, sadness and shame, which led them to contexts of consumption. Violence continued as they explored alcohol and drug use, even though women felt empowered. Treatment reproduced masculine violence constantly, but women felt that they were in a context that helped them understand their addiction. Even though women felt these centers played a crucial role in their recovery, women's particular needs and experiences are not considered in the treatment program.

  5. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Women's Perceptions and Experiences of Domestic Violence: An Observational Study From Hyderabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhani, Farhana I; Karmaliani, Rozina; Patel, Cyra; Bann, Carla M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    This community-based observational study of 1,325 women seen for antenatal care examined how women in Pakistan define violence against women (VAW), with an emphasis on domestic violence, what an acceptable response to violence is, reasons for remaining silent, and whether participants are willing to disclose incidents of domestic violence to others. Nearly half of the study participants believed that physical violence was VAW. Verbal abuse, controlling behavior by the husband, conflict with in-laws, overburdening domestic work, and threatening to leave or remarry were also considered VAW. However, only five respondents (0.4%) considered sexual abuse to be VAW. Most women who screened positive for domestic violence responded by remaining silent or verbal fighting back. None sought professional help. Women who decided to remain silent feared that the abuse would escalate or that responding would not help them. Women cited social stigma and concerns about the impact of the violence on children as reasons for not disclosing violent incidents to others or seeking professional help. Women's lack of autonomy further reduced their ability to take steps against violence. Although societal norms, particularly patriarchal beliefs and women's subordination to men, likely explain women's tolerance of abuse, their recognition of physical abuse as violence indicates that they do not necessarily believe it is always justified. Educational interventions to drive changes in the social norms around gender violence along with effective and enforceable legal measures are likely required to ensure women's safety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Violence among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Maine: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta.

    Teens and young adults in Maine are at greatest risk for being either the offender or the victim of violence. At present, prevention activities in Maine are limited and fragmented. This document marks the beginning of a study of incidence and impact of violence among Maine youth. The process involved in conducting this was significantly hampered…

  8. Part of the Job? Workplace Violence in Massachusetts Social Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer R.; Slayter, Elspeth; Flanzbaum, Beth; Butler, Nanci Ginty; Domingo, Beryl; Perlstein, Judith; Trust, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious and surprisingly understudied occupational hazard in social service settings. The authors of this study conducted an anonymous, Internet-based survey of Massachusetts social service agencies to estimate the incidence of physical assault and verbal threat of violence in social service agencies, understand how social…

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of Student Violence in Public Schools: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increase in violence in many public schools over the last few decades. While school leaders have attempted to address this problem of violence, no recorded documentation of significant change exists. Teachers are the ones who usually see violent behaviors by students before, during, and after an incident, but many studies do not…

  10. Attitudes toward Police Response to Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y.; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating…

  11. Constructions of Local Culture and Impacts on Domestic Violence in an Australian Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Studies of domestic violence in rural areas have predominantly focused on barriers that keep women trapped in abusive relationships. The literature has frequently suggested that rural culture influences the incidence of domestic violence, the forms it takes, and how it is experienced. Yet there is surprisingly little research on how rural culture…

  12. Family ambiguity and domestic violence in Asia: Reconceptualising law and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    The book Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia (2013; Brighton: Sussex University Press) raises pertinent questions as to why the incidence of domestic violence has remained as a continuing scourge. The Focus section in this issue of The Newsletter provides the abridged version of select

  13. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  14. Narrativas de violências praticadas por parceiros íntimos contra mulheres Narratives of intimate partner violence practiced against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leides Barroso Azevedo Moura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa com mulheres de 15 a 49 anos moradoras de uma área de vulnerabilidade social da capital brasileira para conhecer os discursos femininos sobre suas vivências de violências praticadas por parceiros íntimos. Foi utilizada uma abordagem qualitativa e técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Durante entrevistas realizadas em seus domicílios no período de fevereiro a julho de 2007, 195 mulheres narraram, episódios de violências sofridas ao longo da vida. As entrevistas geraram 32 Discursos do Sujeito Coletivo que foram construídos a partir de 395 expressões-chaves agrupadas em sete blocos temáticos: i Engenharia das VPI (N = 114; 58,5%; ii Histórias de estupro de vulneráveis (N = 77; 39,5%; iii Violências silenciosas ou silenciadas (N = 43; 22%; iv Anos potenciais de vida sofrida (N = 43; 22%; v Um novo tempo, apesar dos pesares (N = 39; 20%; vi E por falar em violências (N = 35; 18%; vii A violência é uma linguagem (N = 34; 17,4%. Três discursos do bloco de maior prevalência, intitulado "A engenharia das VPI", são apresentados integralmente neste trabalho. As narrativas das violências reveladas mostram a intensidade da vulnerabilidade e das agressões sofridas pelas mulheres e a existência de múltiplas dinâmicas violentas nos relacionamentos íntimo-afetivos.Research was conducted with women aged 15 to 49 living in an economically vulnerable area of the Brazilian state capital on the experience of victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV. The study adopted a qualitative technique called Collective Subject Discourse. During the interviews in their homes between February and July, 195 women reported incidents of violence throughout their lives. The discourses were grouped by similar violence using the CSD technique and organized into 7 major categories based on 395 key words; i IPV Engineering (N = 114; 58.5%; ii Rape of vulnerable sex (N = 77; 39.5%; iii Silent or silenced violence (N = 43; 21%; iv

  15. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  16. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Schnapp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. Results: A majority of residents (66%, 78/119 reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119 experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119 had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119 reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe “Occasionally,” “Seldom” or “Never” while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Conclusion: Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  17. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  18. Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-01-02

    Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.

  19. Gun Violence and Victimization of Strangers by Persons With a Mental Illness: Data From the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Henry J; Monahan, John; Pinals, Debra A; Vesselinov, Roumen; Robbins, Pamela Clark

    2015-11-01

    Highly publicized incidents in which people with apparent mental illnesses use guns to victimize strangers have important implications for public views of people with mental illnesses and the formation of mental health and gun policy. The study aimed to provide more data about this topic. MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study data were analyzed to determine the prevalence of violence by 951 patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital, including gun violence, violence toward strangers, and gun violence toward strangers. Two percent of patients committed a violent act involving a gun, 6% committed a violent act involving a stranger, and 1% committed a violent act involving both a gun and a stranger. When public perceptions and policies regarding mental illness are shaped by highly publicized but infrequent instances of gun violence toward strangers, they are unlikely to help people with mental illnesses or to improve public safety.

  20. Violence in public school: reports of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carneiro Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the perception of violence from the reports of teachers of elementary and high school in a public state school in Fortaleza, Ceará. Method: A qualitative descriptive study conducted with 26 teachers, in the period from January to May 2006. To collect the data we adopted the following procedures: the discussion on school violence during the meetings of the teacher training week; the reading of the school regulations and the distribution of an instrument with the guiding question about the concept of violence as from the school reality, among the participants of the study. Afterwards, the thematic analysis of the reports was carried out. Results: Through the reports of teachers emerged the following categories: physical aggression, verbal aggression and fights as the most cited; to hide personal belongings, cursing, shoving and disrespect for the teacher and pranks were also mentioned. Conclusion: From the reports it appears that violence is perceived in physical, dimension moral and symbolic, and these “typologies” corroborate the descriptions found in literature as bullying or incivility, which dominate the school context.

  1. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  2. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study's objective was to explore national news media's reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles.

  3. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  4. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  5. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  6. [Intimate partner violence. Types and risk in primary care health users in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Rovira Alcocer, Gloria; Vital Hernandez, Omar; Pat Espadas, Fany Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence and type of intimate partner violence in women assigned at primary care health and estimates the risks for violence. Case (incident cases)-control. Primary health care unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Women over 18years old living in couple at last 12months. Validated violence scale for Mexican population was evaluated: total partner violence, physical, psychological and sexual violence. History of violence and sociodemographic variables. Chi square for categorical variables and odds ratio (OR) for risk estimate was determined. The total intimate partner violence was 15.05%, psychological violence in 37.3%. Overall violence, age differences, socioeconomic status, marital status, history of violence and alcohol intake by the partner (P<.05) were observed. The risk increased in over 40 years old (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.07 to 4.11), history of violence (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.8 to 12.44) and alcohol intake by partner (OR=12.38; 95%CI: 2.15 to 29.59). Low socioeconomic status (OR: 0.384; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.74) and free union (OR: 0.507; 95%CI: 0.27 to 0.95) were relation factors to lower intimate violence partner. Sexual violence predominated among users of primary health care and the risk that present this behavior increases with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the couple and a history of violence, but the free union and socioeconomic status were possibility protected for violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Violence in the Population of England: Does Comorbidity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A.; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population. Methods We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007), a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders. Results ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01). Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03). Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology. Conclusions The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders. PMID:24086575

  8. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population.We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders.ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology.The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  9. A Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women’s violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious “situational couple violence,” and in relationships in which serious and very violent “intimate terrorism” occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women’s physical violence is more likely than men’s violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men’s physical violence is more likely than women’s to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f ) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women’s and men’s violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096

  10. Using database reports to reduce workplace violence: Perceptions of hospital stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith E; Hamblin, Lydia; Ager, Joel; Aranyos, Deanna; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Luborsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Documented incidents of violence provide the foundation for any workplace violence prevention program. However, no published research to date has examined stakeholders' preferences for workplace violence data reports in healthcare settings. If relevant data are not readily available and effectively summarized and presented, the likelihood is low that they will be utilized by stakeholders in targeted efforts to reduce violence. To discover and describe hospital system stakeholders' perceptions of database-generated workplace violence data reports. Eight hospital system stakeholders representing Human Resources, Security, Occupational Health Services, Quality and Safety, and Labor in a large, metropolitan hospital system. The hospital system utilizes a central database for reporting adverse workplace events, including incidents of violence. A focus group was conducted to identify stakeholders' preferences and specifications for standardized, computerized reports of workplace violence data to be generated by the central database. The discussion was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, processed as text, and analyzed using stepwise content analysis. Five distinct themes emerged from participant responses: Concerns, Etiology, Customization, Use, and Outcomes. In general, stakeholders wanted data reports to provide ``the big picture,'' i.e., rates of occurrence; reasons for and details regarding incident occurrence; consequences for the individual employee and/or the workplace; and organizational efforts that were employed to deal with the incident. Exploring stakeholder views regarding workplace violence summary reports provided concrete information on the preferred content, format, and use of workplace violence data. Participants desired both epidemiological and incident-specific data in order to better understand and work to prevent the workplace violence occurring in their hospital system.

  11. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  12. Violence Against Women at the Workplace in Honduraa, Benin, Moldova, Indonesia: a survey by CNV Internationaal, University of Amsterdam/AIAS, WageIndicator Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; van Klaveren, M.; Zerain, A.; Osse, P.; Ceccon, D.; Pralitasari, N.; Flores, A.; Sèna Alinsato, A.; Popescu, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    The research focussed on violence against women at the workplace in four countries: Honduras, Indonesia, Moldova, and Benin. Each country report starts with an overview concerning the female workforce in that country, followed by a description of the legal framework concerning violence at work. It then tries to provide an overview of the institutional responses to violence at work. Although data on the incidence of violence against women at work are mostly quite scarce, the research tries to ...

  13. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...... of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......, which one also finds between them. The paper ends with an examination of the behavioural consequences of these institutional arrangements, which one also finds elsewehre, i.e. ion Estonia, Iceland, Norway and New Zealand (in the new electoral system currently being implemented there)....

  15. [Intimate partner violence: social and health determinants and responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed.

  16. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  17. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  18. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Elena Andreyeva; Eugenia C. South; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical,...

  19. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  20. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....

  1. Violence against nurses in emergency departments in jordan: nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darawad, Muhammad W; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Ali M; Mustafa, Waddah Mohammad; Odeh, Haifa

    2015-01-01

    Violence against nurses in emergency departments (EDs) has become a widespread phenomenon affecting nurses' job satisfaction and work performance. Literature is scarce regarding prevalence rates and causes of violence directed toward nurses in Jordan. The present study investigated violence experienced by Jordanian nurses in EDs and causes of violence from their perspectives. This descriptive study collected data from 174 Jordanian ED nurses. The majority of the participants (91.4%) reported experiencing violence (verbal 95.3% vs. physical 23.3%). According to participants, the most common causes of violence in the ED were crowding and workload (75.9%), and the least was care of patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (35.6%). Violence is common in Jordanian EDs, giving rise to many heath and behavioral consequences. Health care administrators are obligated to protect nurses from violent incidents by providing adequate safety measures, beneficial administrative procedures, and sincere efforts to overcome the causes of this phenomenon. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Latinos and violence: mental health implications and strategies for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M J

    1998-01-01

    This article seeks to identify mental health issues in regard to violence among Hispanics and Latinos relative to other groups in the United States. A review of the literature provides prevalence and incidence rates, population and demographic information, and unique issues in regard to violence for Latinos and Latinas, including in the areas of battering and wife abuse, child and sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and the complicating effects of racial-ethnic discrimination. Aspects of cultural ideology, including the social construction of gender and its relevance to violence, are discussed, as are theoretical explorations of the impact of violence on familism, a major Hispanic cultural value. Finally, therapeutic implications for clinicians are explored, structured by the American Psychological Association (1993).

  3. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2015-11-18

    Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband's violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women's reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. In the present study, ways of coping with a husband's violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman's capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account.

  4. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Luef, Stefan; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated...... rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. CONCLUSION: Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase...

  5. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. In vino silentium? Individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors in reporting violence to the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Iain R

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors associated with reporting violent victimization to the police. Factors positively associated with reporting included older age and incident severity (the assailant's use of a weapon, incurring injury that required attendance at an emergency department). Factors negatively associated with reporting included higher educational qualifications, assault in the nighttime economy (NTE), and drinking more than two alcoholic drinks immediately prior to victimization. It is possible that drinkers engage in "moratorium" on reporting violence in the NTE. Recognizing and reducing the acceptability of violence in the NTE may help reduce incidence of alcohol-related violence. Organizations that use police records of violence to inform practice and policy should account for uneven distributions in reporting behavior when analyzing trends in violence.

  7. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  8. Violence prevention: reaching adolescents with the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J B; Barone, J E; Stewart, J; Hogan, R J; Sarnelle, J A; Blackwood, M M

    1999-12-01

    To identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large-scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at The Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in four parts: 1) a rap music video created by our violence prevention staff, 2) a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger, 3) a video of a trauma resuscitation in our emergency department, and 4) a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire with a five-point rating scale (1 to 5) was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. Of 99 respondents, the highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video (combined average category ranking of 11.394) and the rap music video (11.182). The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective (10.253 and 9.383, respectively). The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact. Effective communication with adolescents is possible through many avenues. Children of the video age respond well to visual material. A violence prevention program should incorporate effective multimedia presentations. A variety of methods in combination proves to be most effective.

  9. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  10. Constellations and their relationship with categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Victoria; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Constellations are partial algebras that are one-sided generalisations of categories. It has previously been shown that the category of inductive constellations is isomorphic to the category of left restriction semigroups. Here we consider constellations in full generality, giving many examples. We characterise those small constellations that are isomorphic to constellations of partial functions. We examine in detail the relationship between constellations and categories, showing the latter t...

  11. Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency

  12. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  13. Violence Against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  14. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  15. Sexual Violence and Vicarious Trauma: A Case Study | Ilesanmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a case study approach, this quantitative and descriptive analysis explored the incidence and consequences of sexual violence, particularly rape, occurring among Nigerian university students' acquaintance. It discusses the concept of vicarious trauma as a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes ...

  16. Mendicants as victims: scale, scope, and the idiom of violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article establishes the scale of violence perpetrated against mendicant friars in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe, and provides a list of these events in an on-line appendix. It underscores and analyses the wide variety of contexts in which such incidents took place and examines the

  17. Structural Violence; Critical Criminology; Social Harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Rivera Beiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Paper is to analyze three epistemological tools to develop a contemporary and global Critical Criminology. In that sense, by the one hand, we examine the concept of structural violence as the material meaning of fundamental rights and its deprivation. By the other hand, we develop the sociological category of collective memory to try to understand the importance of this tool with the function to fight against impunity of state and corporate crimes. Finally, we examine the concept of social harm in order to go beyond penal and criminological sciences.

  18. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. School Violence and Safety in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J.; Morrison, Gale M.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces miniseries on school violence and safety by discussing prevalence of school violence and school violence findings. Presents methodological caveats in interpreting school violence data and examines issues of crime victimization, fighting and assaults, weapons, and homicide. (NB)

  20. GENDER VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?

  1. Workplace violence and drug use in women workers in a Peruvian Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musayón Oblitas, F Y; Caufield, C

    2007-12-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study explored the relationship between workplace violence and drug use in women. It also explored the perception of women workers on the relationship between workplace violence and drug use. The World Health Organization and the United Nations recognize violence against women and have adopted a definition of it. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention reports that violence in the workplace has increased 300% over the last decade. Alcohol misuse, occupation and gender are associated with aggression in the workplace. Estimations of the incidence of non-fatal injuries sustained because of workplace violence and evaluations of the associated risk factors have rarely been documented. 125 women workers between the ages of 18 and 60 years were surveyed in four suburbs of Zapallal, Lima. Of the 125 women, 28.8% experienced violence in the workplace. Of the 36 women who had experienced violence in the workplace, 16 agreed to participate in interviews to explore their perceptions. The data were saturated with the 16 interviews. Of the 125 workers surveyed 17.6% experienced verbal violence, 9.6%% experienced physical violence, and 1.6% were sexually harassed in their workplace. Women who were verbally abused demonstrated eight times greater risk of drug use than those who did not experience this type of violence in their workplace. This paper contributes to an understanding of the relationships among drug abuse, gender and the incidence of violence in the workplace; it documents the perception women have of these relationships; and it supports the development of programmes and strategies related to the prevention of workplace violence and drug consumption by women workers.

  2. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  3. The ecology of domestic violence: the role of alcohol outlet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Studies have consistently found positive associations between the density of alcohol outlets and levels of violence in areas. Few studies have examined whether this relationship holds for domestic violence. This study assesses whether alcohol outlet density is related to domestic violence and whether this relationship is due to alcohol availability or to co-occurring economic disadvantage and social disorganisation. Cross-sectional data on family incidents, liquor outlets and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained for 217 postcodes in Melbourne, Australia. These data were used to construct models assessing the association between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence, both with and without controlling for socio-demographic factors. Models were tested for spatial autocorrelation, and spatial- error models were developed to control for its influence. Outlet density was significantly associated with rates of domestic violence, even controlling for socio-demographic factors. The density of hotels (pubs) was positively associated with domestic violence rates and the density of restaurants and bars was negatively associated with domestic violence. Socio-economic disadvantage was also associated with domestic violence rates. The density of packaged liquor outlets was not associated with rates of domestic violence. The results present a mixed picture, and further study is required to develop a clearer understanding of the links between alcohol availability and domestic violence.

  4. (Why) do victims become perpetrators? Intergenerational transmission of parental violence in a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Deborah F; Stiller, Anja; Glaubitz, Christoffer; Kliem, Sören

    2018-03-01

    Child maltreatment can severely impair children's emotional and physical well-being as well as their individual development across the life span. In 2011, the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (Germany), conducted a nationally representative victim survey on diverse forms of victimizations (N = 11,428). Among other things, experienced and exerted parental violence as well as participants' knowledge regarding the abolition of the parental right of corporal punishment were assessed. Apart from providing current estimates of the prevalence of experienced and exerted parental violence in Germany, we identified specific risk markers for the intergenerational transmission of parental violence. In summary, 52.6% of the participants reported experiences of at least one incident of at least minor parental violence until the age of 16 years, and 22.9% had exerted at least once at least one act of minor violence against their own children. Nonparametric conditional inference tree analyses revealed experienced parental violence as the most important risk marker for exerting parental violence. Furthermore, the number of children currently cared for, parental age, and origin as well as knowledge about the current legal situation regarding corporal punishment were significantly associated with exerting parental violence. For individuals without a history of parental violence, lack of experienced parental warmth and an age between 33 and 40 years increased the risk of exerting parental violence. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for designing effective prevention and intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey’s emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Setting Country of Turkey. Participants Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians’ personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians’ opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. Results A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Conclusions Our results indicated that ED physicians’ experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. PMID:28663323

  6. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  7. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey's emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-06-29

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Cross-sectional survey study. Country of Turkey. Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians' personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians' opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Our results indicated that ED physicians' experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Sükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner's educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society's attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence.

  9. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... subordinate status. There is evidence that advocacy and empowerment counselling interventions, as well as home visitation are promising in preventing or reducing intimate partner violence against women. Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may ...

  10. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  11. Ethnic Violence in Moldolva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barclay, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Moldovan Transdniester War of 1992 is illustrative of modern day ethno-national violence and yields unique lessons on the role and use of military power in dealing with and resolving such crises...

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of the Brøset Violence Checklist as predictor of violence in forensic psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2014-01-01

    quality of care. AIMS: To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC) as a predictor of violent incidents for Danish forensic psychiatry patients. METHOD: A total of 156 patients were assessed three times daily with the BVC for 24 months. All aggressive or violent...

  13. Domestic Violence and Its Effects on Children: Fundamental Concepts, Safety Planning and Examples of Alternative Treatment Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Sedef Kahraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is defined as coercive and controlling behaviors that family members show toward each other. These behaviors are frequently seen as repetitive behavior patterns. Research indicates that many domestic violence incidents happen in the presence of children. Being exposed to domestic violence or witnessing domestic violence has similar emotional-behavioral problems in children. In this article, we emphasized different reactions of children to domestic violence within different age groups. Safety planning is a commonly used method in Western cultures for professionals either working with adult victims or child victims of domestic violence. Unfortunately, the importance of safety planning is not yet utilized in Turkey. In this article, the phases of safety planning and three different alternative treatment methods that have been proven successful for working with children who were exposed to domestic violence are explained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 321-336

  14. Has the Licensing Act 2003 affected violence rates in England and Wales? A systematic review of hospital and police studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Caitríona M; Boyle, Adrian A

    2017-12-05

    Violence has been declining in the UK for two decades, with most assaults being alcohol related. The Licensing Act 2003 (England and Wales) aimed to reduce alcohol-related crime, giving local authorities control over premises licensing. We performed a systematic review of original research with the primary outcome of change in violence rates since the Act's implementation, including hospital-defined and police-defined measures of violence. Our secondary outcome was temporal distribution of violence. Fifteen studies were included, which were of overall poor quality. Seven found reduced violence rates after the Act's implementation, three found increased rates and five found no significant change. A subset of nine studies analysed temporal distribution, eight finding displacement of incidents later. This is the most complete analysis to date of the effect of this Act on violence, finding a lack of reliable evidence to answer the research question, but little to suggest that the Act has markedly impacted already-declining violence rates.

  15. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  16. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  17. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  18. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  19. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  20. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  1. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  2. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  3. Rape investigation and attrition in acquaintance, domestic violence and historical rape cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, Marianne; Walker, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    The paper looks at the different attrition trajectories of rape cases involving acquaintance rape, rape in the context of domestic violence by intimate (ex)partners and in the context of historical child sexual abuse. Rape in the contexts of domestic violence or historical child sexual abuse have not received much separate attention in previous studies, tending to be included in categories involving alleged offender known to victim or excluded altogether as involving under-16s. The article ex...

  4. Coordinated Community Intervention for Domestic Violence: The Effects of Arrest and Prosecution on Recidivism of Woman Abuse Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…

  5. A health’s view on violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Borges Jacques

    2012-06-01

    rules, when a space is empty, something else occupies it - in this particular case, the criminal organizations. Collective violence arises(4, with violent acts that occur in macro-social, political and economic fields, and characterize the domination by groups and the State. In this category (4, from the social point of view, are included crimes committed by organized groups, crowns and acts of terrorism. In the political field, there are wars andannihilation processes perpetrated against certain people and nations by others(4. In addition to the classification established by the WHO Report (2002, there is another type of violence, called structural violence(4, referring to social, political and economic processes, which are responsible for reproducing hunger, poverty and inequality in social, gender and ethnics aspects, also rendering them chronic and maintaining the adult-centered dominance over children and adolescents. Hardly quantified and apparently without actors, the structural violence perpetuates itself into historical processes, becomes persistent and natural in the culture, taking in its account privileges and forms of domination. Most types of violence previously cited are based on the structural violence (4.Nowadays, one lives in fear and, being afraid, one does not live. Life is for the strong, for those who believe in it and react to adversities. Citizen is afraid to take a stroll in the streets; to flaunt a jewel; to drive a vehicle more powerful than usual, in order not to attract attention. Families fear for their children on the internet because of pedophiles and are afraid of the drug that has spread not only into the capital cities, but also into the countryside. The Brazilian State has neglected its boundaries, drug has come inside and got established, making victims each day and letting families unsettled, frightened, in pain, with nowhere to go. A public policy is needed to protect the youth, to recover theaddicts and safeguard our borders. How

  6. Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylee Trevillion

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex.Systematic review and meta-analysis.Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder.observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years, using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder.Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers.Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds.Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96-3.92, anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39-6.97, and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50-11.98, compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner, or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated.There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify pathways to being a victim of domestic violence to optimise healthcare responses.

  7. Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevillion, Kylee; Oram, Siân; Feder, Gene; Howard, Louise M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO); journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder. observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years), using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder. Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds. Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96-3.92), anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39-6.97), and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50-11.98), compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner), or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated. There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify pathways to being a victim of domestic violence to optimise healthcare responses.

  8. Violence toward health care workers in emergency departments in west Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Unal

    2005-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the epidemiology of violence in Turkish emergency departments (EDs), and to provide a more specific focus on violence. This study was conducted in 18 EDs in west Turkey for 3 months. Emergency staff in the EDs were asked to recall experiences of violence directed at them at work over the previous year. We then put these experiences into five categories: verbal abuse, specific threats, physical action with or without injury, sexual violence, and the last category, acts not falling in the other four categories. The data were analyzed using chi-square test and percent ratios. Of the 195 respondents answering the questions regarding violence against them, 72.3% (141/195) had experienced some form of violence. Most of the respondents stated that they had experienced verbal/emotional abuse (69.5%), followed by specific threats (53.2%), and physical action (8.5%). Groups experiencing the highest percentage of any type of violence during the previous year were as follows: 30-39-year-olds (82.1%), nurses and physicians (80.8% and 78.0%, respectively), public hospital health care staff (81.0%), staff working for 61-120 months (82.8%), those working between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. (81.8%), and those working in low deprivation practices (79.6%). Most of the aggressors were patients' relatives (89%) as compared with patients' themselves (52%). Half of those experiencing physical action (50% [6/12]) during the course of the last year received support and inability reports due to minor injuries. There were no major injuries such as lacerations or fractures. We recommend that training to deal with violence in the workplace be specifically targeted at members of staff who are most likely to be at risk of threats of violence and actual physical aggression.

  9. Workplace violence against nurses in the Gambia: mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisawo, Ebrima J; Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y Arsène; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-04-28

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients' escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence.

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence Against Men with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Monika; Mouradian, Vera E; Fox, Michael H; Pratt, Carter

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined lifetime and past-year sexual violence against men with disabilities and the types of perpetrator-survivor relationships among men with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to document the prevalence of lifetime and past-year sexual violence against men with disabilities in the U.S., compare these estimates with those of men without disabilities and women with and without disabilities, and examine the gender and relationship of the perpetrator of sexual violence against men with disabilities relative to perpetrator characteristics identified in incidents against other adults. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2005-2007 data were analyzed in 2014 using domain analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Men with a disability were more likely than men without a disability to report lifetime sexual violence (8.8% vs 6.0%). They were also more likely than men without a disability to report lifetime experience of attempted or completed nonconsensual sex (5.8% and 2.3% vs 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of men's reports of their relationship to the perpetrator of the most recent incident of sexual violence or perpetrator gender. Men with disabilities are at heightened risk for lifetime and current sexual violence compared with men without disabilities. Given the relatively high prevalence of sexual violence among people with disabilities of both genders, sexual assault screening, prevention, and response efforts need to be inclusive and attentive to all people with disabilities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors of workplace violence at hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Ito, Shinya; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2012-02-01

    Patients and their relatives exposed to mental stress caused by hospitalization or illness might use violence against healthcare staff and interfere with quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to investigate incidences of workplace violence and the attributes of healthcare staff who are at high risk. A questionnaire-based, anonymous, and self-administered cross-sectional survey. Healthcare staff (n = 11,095) of 19 hospitals in Japan. Incidence rates and adjusted odd ratios of workplace violence were calculated to examine the effect of attributes of healthcare staff to workplace violence by using logistic regression analysis. The response rate for survey completion was 79.1% (8711/11,095). Among the respondents, 36.4% experienced workplace violence by patients or their relatives in the past year; 15.9% experienced physical aggression, 29.8% experienced verbal abuse, and 9.9% experienced sexual harassment. Adjusted odds ratios of physical aggression were significantly high in psychiatric wards, critical care centers/intensive care units (ICU)/cardiac care units (CCU), long-term care wards, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of verbal abuse were significantly high in psychiatric wards, long-term care wards, outpatient departments, dialysis departments, and for longer years of work experience, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of sexual harassment were significantly high in dialysis departments, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, technicians, therapists and females. The general ward and direct interaction with patients were common risk factors for each type of workplace violence. The mechanisms and the countermeasures for each type of workplace violence at those high-risk areas should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  13. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo.

  14. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  15. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.

  16. Gender Norms and Beliefs, and Men's Violence Against Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Kazi Nazrul; Camellia, Suborna

    2017-02-01

    Prevention of violence against women requires understanding men's controlling attitudes and behaviors toward women. In Bangladesh, while the incidence of men's violence against women is alarmingly increasing, existing research to understand the determinants of men's violent behavior resulted in contradictory findings. The current study explores rural Bangladeshi men's support for gender norms, beliefs, and attitudes concerning violence against women, and looks at how these are influenced by men's age, marital status, education, and affiliation with organizations that promote gender equality. The study also attempts to understand men's bystander attitudes and responses to incidents of violence against women. Using the theoretical framework of hegemonic masculinity, the study was conducted among a sample of 1,200 men and women. Results indicate that in the study areas, young, unmarried men are less supportive to gender norms, beliefs, and attitudes that promote violence against women. Positive association was observed with men's educational attainment and affiliation with nongovernmental organization (NGO) interventions. Regardless of age, marital status, or education, men's bystander response toward intervening to prevent violence against women was found to be low. Women showed similar level of support for inequitable gender norms, beliefs, and attitudes. Analysis of the findings using a hegemonic masculinity lens reveals more complicated dynamics of power and hegemonic control at work that perpetuate men's violence against women. Based on the findings, the study also identifies possible strategies for violence prevention interventions in Bangladesh.

  17. Violence in the United States: Status, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Mercy, James A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Hillis, Susan D; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-08-04

    Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department's National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100,000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100,000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100,000 in 1992 to 242 per 100,000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16,000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example, meta-analyses indicate that exposure to physical abuse

  18. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  19. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... different. Abuse can include: • physical attacks, including forced sexual relations • verbal abuse or harassment, including disre- spectful ...

  20. Language is not necessary for color categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, O.; Shayan, S.; Liszkowski, U.; Majid, A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4–6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and m...

  1. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (pviolence categories experienced (pviolence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (pviolence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect should receive more research attention, especially in combination with other types of violence. PMID:25591729

  2. French historians and collective violence

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Penny

    2017-01-01

    French historians and French history have dominated the study of early modern violence. This essay addresses why this is so and what has characterized French historians’ approaches to collective violence in particular, whether in the form of popular revolt, confessional division or revolutionary violence. It posits that historians are essentially uncomfortable in defending and explaining popular violence in the past, that they ought to address this issue more directly and not to establish too...

  3. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  4. The utility of mass violence

    OpenAIRE

    Eichelberger, Clinton W.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Violence: the word itself has a distinctly negative connotation. It seems as though our entire society is fixated on preventing violence. Despite our keen desires to repel violence in all of its forms, we are still enthralled by it. Perhaps our fascination with violence is much more than a simple manifestation of the deviant within. Could it be that our violent tendencies are not necessarily all bad? This is precisely the topic we will ex...

  5. Prescription drugs associated with reports of violence towards others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Moore

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Violence towards others is a seldom-studied adverse drug event and an atypical one because the risk of injury extends to others. OBJECTIVE: To identify the primary suspects in adverse drug event reports describing thoughts or acts of violence towards others, and assess the strength of the association. METHODOLOGY: From the Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS data, we extracted all serious adverse event reports for drugs with 200 or more cases received from 2004 through September 2009. We identified any case report indicating homicide, homicidal ideation, physical assault, physical abuse or violence related symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disproportionality in reporting was defined as a 5 or more violence case reports, b at least twice the number of reports expected given the volume of overall reports for that drug, c a χ2 statistic indicating the violence cases were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0.01. RESULTS: We identified 1527 cases of violence disproportionally reported for 31 drugs. Primary suspect drugs included varenicline (an aid to smoking cessation, 11 antidepressants, 6 sedative/hypnotics and 3 drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence of an association was weaker and mixed for antipsychotic drugs and absent for all but 1 anticonvulsant/mood stabilizer. Two or fewer violence cases were reported for 435/484 (84.7% of all evaluable drugs suggesting that an association with this adverse event is unlikely for these drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Acts of violence towards others are a genuine and serious adverse drug event associated with a relatively small group of drugs. Varenicline, which increases the availability of dopamine, and antidepressants with serotonergic effects were the most strongly and consistently implicated drugs. Prospective studies to evaluate systematically this side effect are needed to establish the incidence, confirm differences among drugs and

  6. Breaking the cycle of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Nusseibeh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available For much of the past hundred years the hallmark ofPalestinian resistance has not been violence but non-violence.In light of the victory of Hamas in the recent Palestinianelections, Palestinians risk more than ever being collectivelydismissed as violent and impossible to talk with. In fact,new forms of active non-violence are alive and growing.

  7. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen…

  8. Street Culture and Gun Violence: Exploring the Reputation-Victimization Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeldt, Rick; Thomas, Shaun A; Brown, Timothy C; Walker, Jeffery T

    2017-09-01

    Anderson's thesis of a code of the street has been broadly applied to the study of violence, but race- and gender-specific multilevel analyses of gun violence are scant within the literature. An unresolved debate also surrounds the link between violent victimization and adherence to street culture; underscored by an apparent reputation-victimization paradox among those who engage in street behaviors. The current study contributes to the literature by assessing the direct influence of incident setting and victim-offender familiarity on the likelihood of gun use by Black males in the course of aggravated assaults; and the degree to which the confluence of these factors is conditioned by levels of disadvantage and violence in the community. To accomplish this, we apply hierarchical generalized linear modeling to incident-level data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System in conjunction with contextual-level data from the counties in which the incidents are nested. Our findings suggest victim-offender familiarity and public settings are negatively associated with gun violence and the confluence of these factors further reduces the probability of gun use. This relationship, however, is conditioned by levels of disadvantage and violence in the community, providing preliminary evidence of both the violence increasing and decreasing effects of street culture hypothesized by Anderson.

  9. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent Racial Incidents in Higher Education: A Contemporary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Walter C. Jr.; Jones, Cloyzelle K.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years,there has been a resurgence of racial/ethnic conflict at predominantly White institutions of higher education. Incidents of harassment and violence at the University of Michigan, the University of Massachusetts and other campuses have highlighted the continuing racial/ethnic divisions among majority and minority students (Wilkerson 1988; Farrell 1988a and 1988b; Simpson 1987; Williams 1987). These incidents have emerged during a period when the society, in general, has express...

  11. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  12. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  13. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  14. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  15. Violence and Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irme Salete Bonamigo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the etymological meaning of the term violence, analyzes the multiple possibilities of the definition and practices considered violent today. Contemporaneity is understood through a reference to Ulrich Beck’s theory of the global society of risks, which allows conceiving violence as contemporaneous configurations, linked to imprevisibility and to the risks that compose the current world. It identifies the emerging discourse of security as a possibility to mobilize people and legitimize practices of vigilance and social control, constituting a strategy of access and maintenance of the power of governing a municipality, state or nation. The paper presents some theoretical-methodological proposals for the study of contemporary violence, based on the study conducted and on the sociology of actor-network.

  16. 9 CFR 121.14 - Incident response. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incident response. 11 121.14 Section 121.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... (including information systems); severe weather and other natural disasters; workplace violence; bomb threats...

  17. 7 CFR 331.14 - Incident response. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incident response. 6 331.14 Section 331.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... other natural disasters; workplace violence; bomb threats and suspicious packages; and emergencies such...

  18. Supporting children after single-incident trauma: parents'views.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive

  19. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2010-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  20. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  1. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  2. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  3. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.5 Drug categories. Monographs promulgated pursuant to the provisions of... designated categories: (a) Antacids. (b) Laxatives. (c) Antidiarrheal products. (d) Emetics. (e) Antiemetics. (f) Antiperspirants. (g) Sunburn prevention and treatment products. (h) Vitamin-mineral products. (i...

  4. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  5. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...

  6. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  7. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  8. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  9. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  10. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  11. Rethinking Gun Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This working paper develops the argument of "Gun Violence and Gun Control" (also posted on SSRN), a short piece commissioned by the London Review of Books. We decided not to publish either paper, in part because we felt there were empirical issues that we were not in a position to assess. We welcome comments on either paper. In this Article, we propose a new way of approaching the problem of gun violence, synthesizing features of a number of successful initiatives. We begin, in Pa...

  12. [Psychopathology of intrafamily violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Jacques

    Intrafamily violence is a major public health problem, due to its frequency and the severity of its consequences. The aim is to establish links between violence and psychopathology, for the perpetrators as well as the victims. Data reveal a higher frequency of certain mental health disorders and history of abuse in the perpetrators, without it being systematic. It is important to adopt a global and multidisciplinary approach, and a holistic perspective faced with the people concerned by these acts. Health professionals, from the social sector and associations must therefore work together in a network to manage and attempt to prevent crisis situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical violence against women from the perspective of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz; Galvão, Lílian Lira Lisboa Fagundes; Melo, Carmen Oliveira Medeiros; de Azevedo, George Dantas

    2008-12-01

    To comprehend the perception of health professionals regarding physical violence against women by an intimate partner. This is a qualitative study performed in 2006 on 30 health professionals from three National Health System units in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three thematic topics: ideas associated to physical violence suffered by women; action of the health professional; and the role of health services. The series of interviews included questions on the perception of professionals about gender relations, physical violence, action as a health professional, and the role of health services. Categories were formed from these topics using the thematic content analysis. Health professionals pointed several factors that influence domestic violence situations, among which are machismo, poor economic conditions, alcoholism, and previous experiences of violence in the family environment. The study group reported they did not feel qualified to discuss the subject with the population and stressed the need that health services promote educational activities with this aim. The results suggest the need for systematized and effective actions aimed at humanizing health care for the battered woman.

  14. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  15. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A small number of studies have identified a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. These studies have all been based on cross-sectional data and have been limited to the assessment of ecological correlations between outlet density and domestic violence rates. This study provides the first longitudinal examination of this relationship. Cross-sectional time-series using aggregated data from small areas. The relationships between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence were assessed over time using a fixed-effects model. Controls for the spatial autocorrelation of the data were included in the model. The study uses data for 186 postcodes from within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia for the years 1996 to 2005. Alcohol outlet density measures for three different types of outlets (hotel/pub, packaged liquor, on-premise) were derived from liquor licensing records and domestic violence rates were calculated from police-recorded crime data, based on the victim's postcode. Alcohol outlet density was associated significantly with rates of domestic violence, over time. All three licence categories were positively associated with domestic violence rates, with small effects for general (pub) and on-premise licences and a large effect for packaged liquor licences. In Melbourne, the density of liquor licences is positively associated with rates of domestic violence over time. The effects were particularly large for packaged liquor outlets, suggesting a need for licensing policies that pay more attention to o off-premise alcohol availability. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Attitudes toward police response to domestic violence: a comparison of Chinese and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating the topic from an international, comparative perspective. Based on survey data gathered from approximately 550 college students in China and the United States, this study analyzes the effects of background characteristics, personal and vicarious experiences of crime, and perceptions of gender roles and violence on attitudes toward proactive and traditional police response to domestic violence. Compared to their American counterparts, Chinese students were less likely to favor proactive response and more likely to support traditional response. Chinese and American students' attitudes toward police response to domestic violence were shaped by some different and common factors. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

  17. Understanding Youth Violence in Kumasi: Does Community Socialization Matter? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asamani Jonas Barnie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of social disorder in urban settlements. This study assesses the causes and consequences of youth violence in the Kumasi metropolis. The study design was a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey. A mixed method approach facilitated the random sampling of 71 young people in the Kumasi metropolis through a stratified procedure between December 2014 and November 2015. Ten (10 participants were purposively selected and enrolled in a focus group discussion. Descriptive statistics formed the basis for the analysis. This was supported with a matched discourse analysis of the emerging themes. More than half of the youth (39, 54.9% demonstrated history of ever engaging in violence in the past one year of whom 24 (61.5% were without formal education. The frequency of the violence perpetuation ranged from daily engagement (3, 4% to weekly engagement in violence (12, 17%. Principally, the categories of youth violence were manifested in noise making, rape, murder, stealing, drug addiction, obscene gestures, robbery, sexual abuse, and embarrassment. Peer pressure and street survival coping approaches emerged as the pivotal factors that induced youth violence. Addressing youth violence requires an integrative framework that incorporates youth perspectives, government, chiefs, and nongovernmental organizations in Ghana, and religious bodies.

  18. Occupational and demographic factors associated with violence in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Donna; Gillespie, Gordon; Kowalenko, Terry; Succop, Paul; Sanker, Maria; Farra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Violence against health care workers is a serious and growing problem. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (a) describe the frequency of workplace violence (WPV) against emergency department (ED) workers; (b) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to WPV; and (c) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to feelings of safety and level of confidence when dealing with WPV. Survey data were collected from 213 workers at 6 hospital EDs. Verbal and physical violence was prevalent in all 6 EDs. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of violence for age, job title, patient population, and hospital location. Sexual harassment was the only category of violence affected by gender with females having a greater frequency. Feelings of safety were positively related to the frequency of WPV. Females were significantly more likely to feel unsafe and have less confidence in dealing with WPV. The study findings indicate that all ED workers are at risk of violence, regardless of personal and occupational characteristics. Feelings of safety are related to job satisfaction and turnover. Violence has serious consequences for the employers, employees, and patients. It is recommended that administration, managers, and employees collaborate to develop and implement prevention strategies to reduce and manage the violence.

  19. INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: UNDERSTANDING OF COMMUNITY HEALTH AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisama Nascimento Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrafamily violence against children and adolescents constitutes a public health problem and can present itself in various forms. The professionals who compose the family health team, among them the community health agent (ACS, are in a strategic position to identify risks and potential victims of family violence against children and adolescents. This study has as objective: identify the understanding of ACS about domestic violence against children and adolescents. Descriptive study, with a qualitative nature, which had as scenario two Family Health Units in the city of Jequié/BA, and as subjects nine ACS of these units. Data were analyzed according to content analysis. From empirical data Violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes emerged three categories: understanding of intrafamily violence, understanding of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents and types of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents. The results revealed that the ACS have a broad understanding in violence, which enable them to identify cases more easily. In this context, we emphasize that effective coping of violence against children and adolescents can only be done ifsociety gather multiple efforts, congregating areas and creating attention networks, especially at the local level.

  20. Sexual Violence Against Older People: A Review of the Empirical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bows, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Aging and sexual violence are both established areas of research, but little attention has been paid to research into sexual violence against older people. This article presents a critical review of the literature reporting empirical research in three overlapping fields of inquiry: elder abuse, domestic violence, and sexual violence, identifying points of theoretical and methodological similarity and difference across academic disciplines. Using a range of search terms combining age, sexual violence, and elder abuse, the following databases were searched: EBSCOHOST, Ingenta-Ingenta connect, and JSTOR. In total, the databases searches returned 31 relevant articles and an additional 9 relevant articles were found through manual searches of bibliographies and Google searches, which were grouped into three categories: elder abuse, domestic violence in later life, and sexual violence against older people. Four themes common across these fields emerged: prevalence, characteristics of victims and risk factors, impacts and coping strategies, and perpetrator and assault characteristics. The findings in each area are discussed in detail, exposing gaps in knowledge and understandings of sexual violence against older women. The article ends by defining a future research agenda for this underexplored phenomenon that is of increasing importance in a context of global aging.

  1. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  2. Nurses' intention to resign and avoidance of emergency department violence: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Fang; Chao, Minston; Shih, Chih-Ting

    2017-10-10

    Studies that examined the negative impact of violence in emergency departments on nurses' leave and avoidance behavior are well-documented. However, few studies provided an integrated model of how and when violence influences their leave and avoidance behavior. The study adopted Affective Events Theory to propose and examine a model of violent events, negative emotions, and (leave and avoidance) behaviors on nurses in emergency departments and further analyzed whether the model is salient to nurses' occupational burnout, nursing experience, and nursing rank. The sample included 123 emergency department nurses at a teaching hospital in northern, Taiwan. All participants had experienced violent incidents within the preceding 6 months. Moderated mediation analysis suggested that nurses experienced one of two emotional processes following violent incidents: "violence-negative feelings toward work-intention to resign" or "violence-negative emotion and physical symptoms-avoidance tendencies." Moreover, nurses with high burnout levels expressed weaker intention to resign after violent incidents, while nurses with more experience and higher rank were less likely to avoid violence after violent incidents. Emergency nurses do not simply elect to escape but may engage in avoidance behavior. This study revealed that how violent incidents affect nurses' resignation or avoidance behaviors depends on how they feel. Occupational burnout and nurses' attributes affected their behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence--a qualitative study from urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-18

    Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights

  4. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to

  5. Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300

  6. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  7. When violence strikes the head, neck, and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Ole

    2009-01-01

    significantly more frequent among women. Ten percent of the women had been exposed to strangulation attempts. DISCUSSION: The findings support former studies that HNF injuries might be considered as markers of violence. Thus, the staff at A&E Departments must consider anyone with these types of injuries...... as potential victims of violence. The A&E Department may be the primary entrance for the victims and the main way in which to offer help. The high incidence of women who had been assaulted with strangulation, which is a potentially very dangerous trauma mechanism, intensifies the importance of conducting...... a careful medical examination, in part, because of the possible legal implications. CONCLUSION: HNF injuries are characteristic among victims of violence, although significant differences exist in the type of injuries, the location, and the trauma mechanism between men and women....

  8. Verbal and physical violence in emergency departments: a survey of nurses in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Rukiye; Ucmak, Firdevs

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perceived verbal and physical violence and related factors experienced by nurses in emergency settings. Studies on violence in emergency departments indicate an increasing frequency of these incidents. However, little is known about the violence experienced by the Turkish nurses working in emergency departments. Survey. The study population included 255 nurses. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Verbal violence was reported with a frequency of 91.4%. Of the nurses, 74.9% had been exposed to physical violence in at least several episodes during the previous 12 months. Patients' relatives were the main perpetrators, followed by patients, most of whom were male. After experiencing violence, most of the nurses reported that, they had felt fear and only 3% described that they took sick leave, while 80% did not report the incidences of violence they experienced. The nurses described that, after a violent incident, they sought support mainly from their colleagues in emergency departments rather than from the administration. Over half of the nurses (65%) felt safe 'none of the time' in emergency departments, and 89.8% of them described that patients and patient relatives may potentially exhibit violent behaviours towards the staff when they are first admitted to emergency department, while 73.7% believed that the staffing pattern and physical environment of their emergency departments were not adequate to prevent violence. Most of the nurses (83.5%) stated that they should be provided with the training that will help them prevent and manage violence as part of their in-service education, whereas 82.7% of them had not received any such training. The findings have implications for occupational health and safety from both employer and employee perspective. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  10. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  11. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  12. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  13. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  14. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  15. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  16. The Grammar of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration of viole......Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... on the compounds hustruvold ‘wife vold’ and politivold ‘police vold’, the paper explores the hidden conceptual syntax embedded in such coinages. Exploring more recent constructs, such as forældrevold ‘parent vold’, it is argued that Danish ethnosyntax embodies a view of the world in which traditional authority...... figures are coded as aggressors: men, police, parents, whereas women, citizens and children are coded as victims....

  17. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David S.; Guy, Lydia; Perry, Brad; Sniffen, Chad Keoni; Mixson, Stacy Alamo

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews approaches for developing comprehensive strategies that stop violence before initial perpetration occurs. Using feminist theory and public health perspectives as its foundation, the use of educational sessions, community mobilization, social norms, social marketing, and policy work are all explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Standing Up to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, R. Craig

    1995-01-01

    More U.S. young people have been gunned down during the past 13 years than died in the Vietnamese War. Crimes against juveniles are increasing; also, the intensity of today's youth violence is increasing. Over 3 million crimes (11% of all crimes) occur each year in America's 85,000 public schools. Sources, predictors, and solutions are discussed.…

  19. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids and solving problems in nonviolent ways. • Social-development strategies teach children how to handle tough social situations. They learn how to resolve problems without using violence. • Mentoring programs pair an adult with a young person. The adult serves as a positive role ...

  20. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  1. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  2. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A survey of violence against staff working in the emergency department in ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Melek Serpil; Kocaöz, Semra; Akgüç, Selma

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence in the emergency department is a significant problem world wide. The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of staff subjected to the types of violence, its sources, factors affecting violence experiences, reporting the incidence and the emotions of the victims after violence. This descriptive study was conducted between March and August 2009 in the the emergency department of six hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected from 270 staff working in various emergency settings. The instrument was a 36-item questionnaire on types of violence, its sources, feelings, and ways to cope with violent behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. The results showed 85.2% of participants had been subjected to at least one kind of violence: 41.1% to physical assault, 79.6% to verbal abuse, 55.5% to verbal threats and 15.9% to sexual harassment. Patients' companions (90.9%) were identified as the primary perpetrators of violence. The rates of violence types were highest towards security officers and housekeepers. The most common reactions to violence were sadness and anger. "Did nothing and keeping silent" was the coping method used most commonly by the staff. Participants exposed to physical assaults and verbal threat did not report the incidence of violence to managers were at 43.3% and 65.3% respectively. Based on results of the study, it is suggested that every hospital institute reliable reporting procedures that staff members feel comfortable using, and also provide a comprehensive program of support services for staff that has been assaulted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    OpenAIRE

    P Tripathi; R Tiwari; R Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study...

  5. Workplace violence in a tertiary care Israeli hospital - a systematic analysis of the types of violence, the perpetrators and hospital departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran-Tikva, Sigal; Zelker, Revital; Stern, Zvi; Chinitz, David

    2017-08-23

    Worldwide, there is a widespread and disturbing pattern of violence towards healthcare workers. However, violent occurrences in Israeli hospitals have often been unrecognized and underreported. Moreover, most studies have not sufficiently differentiated among the different types of violence. To examine the different types of violence experienced by nurses and physicians, the types of perpetrators and the specialty fields involved. A quantitative questionnaire was used to assess the incidence of a "basket" of violent behaviors, divided into eight types of violent manifestations. The study population consisted of 729 physicians and nurses in a variety of hospital divisions and departments (surgery, oncology, intensive care, ambulatory services including day care, and emergency room) in a large general hospital. Six hundred seventy-eight of them responded to the survey for a response rate of 93%; about two thirds of respondents (446) were nurses and about one third (232) were physicians. The questionnaires were completed during staff meetings and through subsequent follow-up efforts. In the 6 months preceding the survey, the respondents experienced about 700 incidents of passive aggressive behavior, 680 of verbal violence and 81 of sexual harassment. Types of violence differed between patients and companions; for example, the latter exhibited more verbal, threatening and passive aggressive behaviors. Violence was reported in all departments (ranging from 52-96%), with the departments most exposed to violence being the emergency room and outpatient clinics. Nurses in the emergency room were 5.5 times at a higher risk of being exposed to violence than nurses in the internal medicine department. Nurses were exposed to violence almost twice as much as physicians. There was a positive association between the physician's rank and his/her exposure to violence. A multiple regression model found that being older reduced the risk of being exposed to violence, for both

  6. Hospital staff responses to workplace violence in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 222 nurses, nursing assistants, and clerks at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan on responses to workplace violence, treatment of violent patients, and reporting behavior. Staff reported 78 incidents of physical violence (PV), 113 of verbal abuse (VA), 35 of bullying/ mobbing (BM), 21 of sexual harassment (SH), and 10 of racial harassment (RH) over the course of one year. Among affected staff, only 31% of those experiencing PV and consequences, especially for BM, and shame for SH. Reliable systems for responding to and reporting patient violence should be developed.

  7. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  8. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  9. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  10. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  11. Associations of neighborhood-level workplace violence with workers' mental distress problems: a multilevel analysis of Taiwanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Li-Chung; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Liang, Kuei-Min; Cheng, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is known to pose mental health risks. However, whether or not workplace violence in a surrounding area might further increase the risk of mental distress in workers has rarely been examined. The study subjects were 9,393 male and 7,716 female employees who participated in a nationwide survey in 2010. Their personal experiences of workplace violence over the past 1 year were ascertained by a standardized questionnaire. Also assessed were their psychosocial work characteristics and mental distress problems. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was computed based on aggregated data at the county level and was categorized into low-, medium-, and high-level categories. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between neighborhood-level workplace violence and individual-level mental distress problems, with adjustment of individual-level experience of workplace violence. The neighborhood-level prevalence of workplace violence ranged from 4.7 to 14.7% in men and from 6.4 to 14.8% in women across 22 counties. As compared with those who live in counties of the lowest tertile of workplace violence, female workers who lived in counties of the highest tertile of workplace violence had a 1.72-fold increased risk for mental distress problems after controlling for individual experience of workplace violence and other psychosocial work characteristics. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was associated with poor mental health in female workers. Preventative strategies targeting workplace violence should pay attention to neighborhood factors and gender-specific effects that might influence societal tolerance of abusive work practices and workers' vulnerability to mental health impacts of workplace violence.

  12. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  13. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...

  14. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  15. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  16. Violence, insecurity, and the risk of polio: A systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Guarino

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread.Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country's Fragile States Index (FSI and Global Peace Index (GPI, aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (p< 0.01, even after controlling for established risk factors. These effects of violence and insecurity must be mediated through immunity and exposure to poliovirus, coarse measures of which are included in our model. This also implies that in our study, and in risk models in general, the interpretation depends on the quality and granularity of available data.National virologic and immunologic indicators understate the risk of poliovirus spread in areas with violence and insecurity, and the inclusion of such factors improves precision. In addition, the link between violence and incidence of disease highlights the broader challenge of implementing health interventions in conflict areas. We discuss practical implications of this work in understanding and measuring the risks to

  17. Workplace violence against nursing staff in a Saudi university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet

    2016-06-01

    Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Language is not necessary for color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ozge; Shayan, Shakila; Liszkowski, Ulf; Majid, Asifa

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and more seriously, other labs have reported failing to replicate the basic findings at all. In the current study we used eye-tracking to test 8-month-old infants' categorical perception of a previously attested color boundary (green-blue) and an additional color boundary (blue-purple). Our results show that infants are faster and more accurate at fixating targets when they come from a different color category than when from the same category (even though the chromatic separation sizes were equated). This is the case for both blue-green and blue-purple. Our findings provide independent evidence for the existence of color categories in pre-linguistic infants, and suggest that categorical perception of color can occur without color language. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  20. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  1. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  2. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  3. Violence against women and gastroschisis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-10-17

    Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  4. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  5. Understanding, preventing urban violence in Kinshasa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa. How can a public health approach to reducing violence in South Africa be improved? View moreUsing psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...

  6. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  7. Violence Against Health Care Providers: A Mixed-Methods Study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Lubna Ansari; Shaikh, Shiraz; Polkowski, Maciej; Ali, Syeda Kausar; Jamali, Seemin; Mazharullah, Lubna; Soomro, Marium; Kumari, Bhavita; Memon, Sobia; Maheshwari, Greesh; Arif, Saleema

    2018-02-12

    Violence against health care providers (HCPs) remains a significant public health problem in developing countries, affecting their performance and motivation. To report the quantity and perceived causes of violence committed upon HCPs and identify strategies intended to prevent and de-escalate it. This was a mixed-methods concurrent study design (QUAN-QUAL). A structured questionnaire was filled in on-site by trained data collectors for quantitative study. Sites were tertiary care hospitals, local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) providing health services, and ambulance services. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions at these same sites, as well as with other stakeholders including media and law enforcement agencies. One-third of the participants had experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. Verbal violence was experienced more frequently (30.5%) than physical violence (14.6%). Persons who accompanied patients (58.1%) were found to be the chief perpetrators. Security staff and ambulance staff were significantly more likely to report physical violence (p = 0.001). Private hospitals and local NGOs providing health services were significantly less likely to report physical violence (p = 0.002). HCPs complained about poor facilities, heavy workload, and lack of preparedness to deal with violence. The deficiencies highlighted predominantly included inadequate security and lack of training to respond effectively to violence. Most stakeholders thought that poor quality of services and low capacity of HCPs contributed significantly to violent incidents. There is a great need to design interventions that can help in addressing the behavioral, institutional, and sociopolitical factors promoting violence against HCPs. Future projects should focus on designing interventions to prevent and mitigate violence at multiple levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for workplace violence in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors and mental health consequences of physical and psychological violence for clinical nurses working in healthcare settings in Taiwan. Registered nurses working in hospitals in Taiwan report high incidences of workplace violence. However, previous studies rarely report psychological abuse among nursing staff, while the relationships between personal factors and workplace violence remain unclear. This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were invited to complete the Workplace Violence Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess types of workplace violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing and sexual harassment), the characteristics of perpetrators and victims and victims' reactions to their abuse. A total of 521 nurses completed the questionnaire. Of the participants, 102 (19.6%) indicated that they had experienced physical violence, 268 (51.4%) had experienced verbal abuse, 155 (29.8%) had experienced bullying/mobbing and 67 (12.9%) had experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that age under 30 years (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.34-4.46) and anxiety (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.24-18.12) increased the odds of verbal abuse, while bullying was associated with anxiety (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-6.93). Night work shift increased the odds of experiencing sexual harassment (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-4.16), while physical violence was associated with bachelor's degree (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-6.73). The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder.   Exposure to psychological violence often has a great impact on clinical nurses. For violence prevention, interventions should be sensitive to personal factors. Healthcare institutions should initiate counselling programs to help nurses cope with the stress related to workplace violence.

  9. The second wave of violence scholarship: South African synergies with a global research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Brett; Stevens, Garth; Eagle, Gillian; Langa, Malose; Kramer, Sherianne; Kiguwa, Peace; Nduna, Mzikazi

    2015-12-01

    Violence is a serious public health and human rights challenge with global psychosocial impacts across the human lifespan. As a middle-income country (MIC), South Africa experiences high levels of interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence, taking physical, sexual and/or psychological forms. Careful epidemiological research has consistently shown that complex causal pathways bind the social fabric of structural inequality, socio-cultural tolerance of violence, militarized masculinity, disrupted community and family life, and erosion of social capital, to individual-level biological, developmental and personality-related risk factors to produce this polymorphic profile of violence in the country. Engaging with a concern that violence studies may have reached something of a theoretical impasse, 'second wave' violence scholars have argued that the future of violence research may not lie primarily in merely amassing more data on risk but rather in better theorizing the mechanisms that translate risk into enactment, and that mobilize individual and collective aspects of subjectivity within these enactments. With reference to several illustrative forms of violence in South Africa, in this article we suggest revisiting two conceptual orientations to violence, arguing that this may be useful in developing thinking in line with this new global agenda. Firstly, the definition of our object of enquiry requires revisiting to fully capture its complexity. Secondly, we advocate for the utility of specific incident analyses/case studies of violent encounters to explore the mechanisms of translation and mobilization of multiple interactive factors in enactments of violence. We argue that addressing some of the moral and methodological challenges highlighted in revisiting these orientations requires integrating critical social science theory with insights derived from epidemiology and, that combining these approaches may take us further in understanding and addressing the

  10. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  11. The gender gap in domestic violence in older adults in Latin America: the IMIAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Taurino Guedes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of domestic violence in older men and women in Natal, Brazil, and Manizales, Colombia and explore whether the differences by gender are due to lifetime differences in social and financial status. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a random sampling of 802 men and women in the IMIAS Study (International Mobility in Aging Study (65-74 years old conducted in Natal (Brazil and Manizales (Colombia. Incidents that occurred in the last six months and any time during their lives were evaluated using the HITS scale. Poisson regression was used to estimate the reasons for the prevalence of violence against women by men. RESULTS: Experience of physical violence occurring any time in life ranged from 2.2% to 18.3%, depending on the city and the sex. Psychological violence was higher in women: violence perpetrated by partners affected 25.7% of women in Natal and 19.4% in Manizales; and by the family, 18.3% in Manizales and 10% in Natal. Almost half of the participants reported suffering psychological violence at some time during their life. Experience of current violence or at some time during life was most frequent in women, even after adjustment for co-variables, with prevalence ratios of 1.60 to 2.14. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of prevalence of domestic violence in older adults show that women are more affected, which means that they should be considered a priority in the prevention policies on Latin America's health agenda.

  12. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  13. Children's and parents' perceptions of children's exposure to violence in urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H M; Jones, L P

    1997-04-01

    This study examined child and parent perceptions of children's exposure to community violence in a sample of 9 to 12 year olds from high- and low-violence neighborhoods in Washington, DC. More than 75% of the African-American elementary school children sampled indicated that they had witnessed incidents of community violence ranging from homicides to nonfatal shootings, physical assaults, gang violence, robbery with assaults, and rape in their neighborhoods. Yet, almost half of the parents in the study denied that their children had been exposed to any community violence. When these discrepancies were examined, results revealed that children whose parents were in disagreement regarding their exposure to community violence were less likely to experience social support from their peers. Parents' possible lack of awareness as to the experience of their children may place them at further risk by eliminating the possibility for adult-child interaction and guidance regarding their experience with violence in their neighborhoods. Recommendations are provided to assist adults in addressing the needs of children exposed to community violence.

  14. Reports to the Navy's Family Advocacy Program: impact of removal of mandatory reporting for domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Snipes, Marie A; Rau, Terri; Busch, Jeanne M; Zelig, Craig M; Magann, Everett F

    2012-06-01

    The impact of mandatory reporting laws on domestic violence reports is unclear. In 2006, the Department of Defense removed its requirement for mandatory reporting of domestic violence against adults. Our objective was to determine if there was a change in the incidence of domestic violence reports to the Navy's Family Advocacy Program after the shift from mandatory reporting to a policy allowing restricted reporting. Reports of domestic violence to the Navy Central Registry between fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2010 were studied. Frequencies and rates of domestic violence reports, type of abuse, and victim and offender gender were studied. Over the past 11 years, the total number of unrestricted domestic violence reports to the Navy Central Registry has decreased by just over a third. In addition, the number of substantiated reports has decreased by approximately 50%. Since the collection of data on restricted reports in 2008, the aggregated reporting rate of substantiated reports is significantly smaller, 0.87% for FYs 2008 to 2010 compared to 1.34% for FYs 2000 to 2005, p Domestic violence reports to the Navy Central Registry have declined over the past 11 years, even with the removal of the requirement for mandatory reporting of domestic violence.

  15. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts...... Orthodoxy and violence. The Orthodox perspectives and positions on religion and violence will be drawn from concrete examples of its historical and contemporary theological teachings....

  16. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relation...

  17. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  18. Children's experiences of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  19. 'Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse': future male leaders' views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men's perceptions are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men's perceptions of violence against women. Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles - patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists - sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men's right to punish; multiple factors cause violence - alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women - both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes.

  20. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  1. Girls' perceptions of violence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Silverstein, Joni

    2012-01-01

    This research examines girls' perceptions of violence and its prevention. A purposive sample of 32 young women ages 12-18 who were incarcerated, affiliated with the juvenile justice system, or self-identified as living in disadvantaged neighborhoods participated in 1 of 4 focus groups. Recursive, iterative analysis yielded seven themes, including: violence is learned, violence is contagious, violence is unstoppable, violence is necessary to manage stress and conflict, violence is belonging, violence is connected to other crime, and maybe it can be stopped. These themes provide important insights into young women's thoughts on violence and may inform policies and programs as prevention strategies. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  3. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  4. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... the ways we understand and classify behavioural, emotional and cognitive processes, such as gendered practices, to social fields of practice, and points to the consequences of not doing so. In order to develop the analysis of concrete difficulties victims experience Bourdieu's concept will be supplemented...... on the personal and social meanings of  "trauma" developed in an empirical research project on the aftermaths of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion...

  5. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Garc?a, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; S?nchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; C?novas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomar?z-Pe?alver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; C?rceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Mart?nez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  6. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  7. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...

  9. Violence against women from different relationship contexts and health care utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Isabel; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Talavera, Marta; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Studies reported an excess of health services utilization among women with violence by an intimate partner (IPV). However, little is known about health utilization by women victims of other forms of interpersonal violence than IPV. This study aimed to determine the effect of violence from different relationship contexts on health care utilization. A cross-sectional study following a multistage cluster sampling scheme was conducted. Women aged 18 to 70 years were randomly selected according to their scheduled health care visit. The number of women invited to participate was 16,419 and 73% accepted. After exclusion, the final sample consisted of 10,815 women. The outcome variables were health care utilization (primary care, specialty services, emergency rooms, and hospital admissions) and the predictor variable was interpersonal violence from different relationship contexts. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to assess the independent effect of each violence relationship context on health care utilization. Compared with never abused women, use of health services was significantly higher for abused women, although the rates varied depending on the violence relationship context. The greatest probability of service use was among women whose abuse was perpetrated by both a partner and others. Comparing the magnitude of effect of each violence category by perpetrators other than a partner, this effect was stronger for violence in a social context in the case of emergency rooms only. Regardless of the perpetrator, lifetime violence increased health services utilization. Violence affects women's behavior in terms of how they use health services. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  11. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  12. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of 'reactions to trauma' is dominated by concepts like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The use of such concepts has been criticised but simultaneously integrated in folk-psychology. Connecting emotional and cognitive processes as well as acts - such as in gendered practices - to...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  13. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  14. [Science, public health and nursing: highlighting the gender and generation categories in the episteme of praxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2013-09-01

    This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.

  15. Interpersonal Violence among College Students: Does Sexual Orientation Impact Risk of Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…

  16. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  17. Political Violence, Domestic Violence, and Children's Health: The Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Parlow, Anton

    2017-01-01

    I estimate the impact of political violence (i.e. terrorism) and domestic violence (i.e. intimate partner violence) on child health outcomes. Given that there is a strand of literature showing that armed conflicts, and thus, political violence, increase the likelihood of violence within a household, I test for this possible link as well as the combined effect of these two types of violence on children's height. I find a separate negative effect of both violence outcomes on children'...

  18. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  19. School Safety Strategies and Their Effects on the Occurrence of School-Based Violence in U.S. High Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent incidents of school-based violence have resulted in the widespread implementation of school safety strategies across the United States. While research on these strategies has grown over the past decade, there is little understanding about their collective influence on indicators of school violence. Using data from the 2007-2008 School…

  20. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.

  2. How much does "how much" matter? Assessing the relationship between children's lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine

    2013-04-01

    The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.

  3. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  4. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  5. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  6. Violence against elderly: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenir de Araújo Lago

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aging population and increasing life expectancy are remarkable in the world and in Brazil, bringing implications in all areas of everyday life. However, the current context of violence that is evident is a security risk and loss of quality of life given the frailty of the physiological state and stigmas imposed by society to the elderly. This study aims to identify national and international scientific production on violence against older people, published in journals in the health’s area. It is a bibliometric review related to scientific production on the subject in 2002-2011 period, through the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. After reading the summaries and subsequently the complete articles, were highlighted the study variables to be analyzed. The results were described and presented characterizing the professionals categories involved in authoring, the journals in which the articles were published, the place of publication, the focus of the thematic and trends that point. Concludes that it is important to stimulate scientific research on mistreatment of the elderly, in different regions of Brazil, as most publications awarded the southeast, restricting the prospects of regional differences related to the topic

  7. PRESENTATION OF VIOLENCE IN L OVE THEMED TV SERIES IN TURKE Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem TAŞ ALİCENAP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is an inseparable part of our lives. Mass media is the public domain in which the violence is widely presented. Among all the mass media mediums which have numerous functions in our daily lives such as informing, entertaining, educating, etc.; television, without a doubt, takes the highest amount of time. In recent years, the number of television series on channels has increased and the fact of violence has been presented in these programs. Here in this research it has been questioned whether physical, psychological and verbal violence are used in love-themed TV series or not; and if yes, it has been questioned who is inflicting violence towards whom. In this context four love-themed TV series which were broadcasted in four Turkish channels with the highest rating record between the years of 2006 and 2010 were studied by using content analysis method in accordance with the violence categories. The data gathered by the analysis has shown that not only the series based on action; but also the series based on human affairs such as family, friendship, love, etc. include violence.

  8. Violence against women and postpartum depression: the experience of Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelopana, Ana M

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the findings from a cross-sectional study of women (N = 163) who were at least two weeks postpartum and attending primary care clinics in Arica, Chile. The researcher in this study examined the prevalence of history of violence and its association with postpartum depression. The Women Abuse Screen and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-Spanish version were used to assess interpersonal violence and postpartum depression. A history of violence was reported by 64% of the women. Of those who experienced abuse, 44% reported ongoing abuse during their pregnancy. Women who experienced violence screened positive for elevated symptoms categories of postpartum depression such as anxiety/insecurity, emotional lability, and mental confusion compared to women who had not experienced violence. Postpartum depression symptom reporting decreased with increasing number of pregnancies (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.97) and greater social support (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88). Postpartum depression symptom reporting increased with smoking (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.00-2.86), and with reporting history of violence (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.34). Acknowledgment of the strong association between domestic violence and postpartum depression should lead to routine screening during prenatal and postpartum periods as a way to isolate risk for postpartum depression.

  9. A Pilot Study on Developing a Standardized and Sensitive School Violence Risk Assessment with Manual Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael

    2017-09-01

    School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.

  10. Domestic Violence Against Women In Turkey: A Systematic Review And Meta Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Günaydın, Sevil; Çitil, Elif Tuğçe

    2016-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for domestic violence against women in Turkey. The data about domestic violence against women point out a serious problem all around the world along with including cultural differences. The prevalence of domestic violence against women was determined through a meta-analysis, and the risk factors were determined through a systematic review. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. In this study, 34 primary studies that were published between January 2000 and January 2015 were examined. The highest prevalence belonged to verbal violence followed by physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence. Despite different questioning methods, it was determined that 22 risk factors were most commonly examined in the studies, and these risk factors were summed up under three separate categories: socio demographical characteristics, well-being related characteristics and marriage related characteristics. It is of further interest that the most commonly examined characteristics were socio demographic characteristics. Just as throughout the world, domestic violence is a common problem in Turkey. Nurses and midwives should focus not only on women's disorders but also on the difficulties the patient faces in regard to being a family. It presents valid evidence to produce policies on violence prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nurses’ experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a trauma and emergency department in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Kennedy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to explore the experiences and coping mechanisms of nurses regarding workplace violence. The purposive sample comprised eight nurses working in the Trauma and Emergency Department in the Western Cape, South Africa. Thematic analysis was done of the semi-structured interviews. Four main themes and 10 categories were identified. Nurses are experiencing physical threats, verbal abuse and psychological and imminent violence on a regular basis. They tend to ‘normalise’ abusive patient behaviour because of the perception that workplace abuse ‘comes with the territory’, which resulted in under-reporting. However, perpetrators received compromised care by being avoided, ignored or given only minimal nursing care. Coping mechanisms ranged from using colleagues as sounding boards, helping out with duties, taking a smoke break and using friends and family to get it ‘off their chest’. The tolerance of non-physical violence and the absence of policies to deal with the violence, contribute to under-reporting.

  12. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  13. Comparing supervised and unsupervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C

    2002-12-01

    Two unsupervised learning modes (incidental and intentional unsupervised learning) and their relation to supervised classification learning are examined. The approach allows for direct comparisons of unsupervised learning data with the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) seminal studies in supervised classification learning. Unlike supervised classification learning, unsupervised learning (especially under incidental conditions) favors linear category structures over compact nonlinear category structures. Unsupervised learning is shown to be multifaceted in that performance varies with task conditions. In comparison with incidental unsupervised learning, intentional unsupervised learning is more rule like, but is no more accurate. The acquisition and application of knowledge is also more laborious under intentional unsupervised learning.

  14. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  15. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round .... of bullying and social learning of abuse; however, abusers' efforts to dominate their .... delivery and low birth weight babies.[7]. 3. Psychological effect: Violence against.

  16. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  17. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Wells

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be

  18. School violence in the context of political violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Dobrinka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is a widely spread phenomenon. All researchers of school violence agree that this is a socio-cultural phenomenon which is affected by numerous factors, including the presence of political violence in a society. The paper discusses the influence of political violence, still present in different regions of the world nowadays, on exhibiting violent behaviour in school children. Browsing through relevant literature on the subject one comes to the conclusion that this is a problem that has not been sufficiently explored. The available empirical data can generally be classified into two groups: the findings that confirm the hypothesis that political violence influences an increase in school violence and the findings that not only call into question this hypothesis but point out quite the contrary - under certain conditions (e.g. if the school takes over a protective role, i.e. the role of the mediator of external influences, political violence can contribute to the decrease in school violence. The explanation of the inconsistencies in the obtained findings can be found in the complexity of the studied phenomena and the differences in their conceptualization (and hence both operationalization and measuring, then in the absence of research studies conducted properly in terms of methodology, and especially in limitations during the process of merging the findings obtained in individual studies. The issue of the extent to which school violence is conditioned by out-of-school influences, such as political violence, has indisputable social significance and deserves to be the subject of future research and an extensive scientific analysis.

  19. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  20. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  1. Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchecki, K.; Salah, A.A.; Gao, C.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, as a social phenomenon of collaborative knowledge creation, has been studied extensively from various points of view. The category system of Wikipedia, introduced in 2004, has attracted relatively little attention. In this study, we focus on the documentation of knowledge, and the

  2. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  3. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  4. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  5. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  6. Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid race classification. Z Erasmus. Abstract. South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education ...

  7. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the

  8. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  9. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...

  10. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  11. Screen violence and youth behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M.; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A.; Green, C. Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C.; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J.; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous

  12. Domestic violence: Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranda Shatri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, domestic violence is present in all countries and is having bad impact in the family development. In this manuscript we will analyze the domestic violence in Kosovo. Cases of domestic violence after the war in Kosovo from year to year have increased and given its consequences not only for the family, but also for the society, which imposes the need for a research. There are many factors that affect social life, domestic violence is one of them that is having a very bad impact and in this paper it will be analyzed the number of cases and also the factors that are causing the domestic violence in Kosovo. To analyze the situation of domestic violence in Kosovo we have used primary and secondary data. Based on results domestic violence is present in females at around 81% and males around 19%. The treatment of domestic violence is even worse in the urban areas. This paper can also serve as a sufficient reference for future research in measuring economic growth and development pace of the country.

  13. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  14. violence in South African society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This includes violence in childrearing, intimate relationships, education, sport, film and television, ... academic background in Psychology and Cultural. Studies. ..... Parents should use it to resolve disputes, and teachers should use it to maintain control. The important thing is not just that the violence be seen, but that.

  15. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  16. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  17. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  18. Correlates of Sexual Violence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Stockman, Jamila K; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-05-01

    Sexual violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20 %) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and underwent a 2-h baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization.

  19. Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujilban, Sanaa; Mrayan, Lina; Al-Modallal, Hanan; Isaa, Esra'a

    2015-09-07

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization's (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn's birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Correlates of sexual violence among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence against men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20%) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent a two-hour baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization. PMID:27178173