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Sample records for incident categories violence

  1. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  2. [Analysis on violence injury incidence and prevention in China].

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    Er, Yuliang; Gao, Xin; Duan, Leilei; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Ji, Cuirong; Ye, Pengpeng; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong

    2016-01-01

    To understand the incidence of violence injury and its prevention in China, and provide reference for the prevention and control of violence injury. The violence injury data in China were collected from national death surveillance data set (2006-2013) and national injury surveillance system (2013) for the descriptive epidemiological analysis on the incidence of violence injury and related death. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention, related data collection capacity and violence injury prevention programs in China were described. The violence injury mortality declined by 46.3% during 2006-2013 from 1.21/100000 to 0.65/100000. The incidence of violence injury death in males peaked in age group 30-34 years (1.42/100000), and it was low in age groupviolence injury death were found in females, i.e. 0.84/100000 in infants, 0.72/100000 in age group 30-34 years and 1.18/100000 in age group≥85 years. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention were imperfect, and the data about violence injury were limited. Most prevention programs were limited in scale and duration. The crude and standardized violence injury mortality declined in China during 2006-2013. It is necessary to conduct gender specific prevention strategies and improve the related law and policy development, data collection and prevention service.

  3. School Size and Incidents of Violence among Texas Middle Schools

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    Kohler, Elizabeth A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted regarding (a) school violence in middle schools and (b) the size of schools, to date, no researcher appears to have examined the role that the size of the middle school plays in determining incidents of violence specifically fighting, assaults, and aggravated assaults. Thus, the purpose of this study was…

  4. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

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    Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.

  5. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

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    Rafaela Gessner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims of violence in the household and outside of the family environment, as victims or viewers of violence. The violence was experienced at home, mostly toward girls, with marked overtones of gender violence. More than indicating the magnitude of the issue, this study can give information to help qualify the assistance given to victimized people and address how to face this issue.

  6. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

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    Norris, Alison; Hachey, Kevin; Curtis, Andrew; Bourdeaux, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question. We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices) and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009. We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404). The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  7. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

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    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  8. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  9. Physical and Sexual Violence and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj = 1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims. PMID:19245303

  10. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

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    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety.

  11. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

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    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  12. Police Response to Children Present at Domestic Violence Incidents.

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    Swerin, Danielle D; Bostaph, Lisa Growette; King, Laura L; Gillespie, Lane Kirkland

    2018-01-01

    Police response to domestic violence (DV) has continued to change and expand over the past several decades. Although DV was originally considered a private matter, it now represents one of the most common calls for service received by police agencies. While police response to DV incidents has improved substantially, intervention when children are present remains an undeveloped area of research and practice. The present study examined 345 police reports from an agency in the Northwestern United States to explore police response to DV incidents when children are present. Regression analyses indicated that child presence was a statistically significant predictor of victim-directed intervention, victim-directed follow-up, and arrest although in differing directions. While child presence increased the odds of victim-directed intervention and victim-directed follow-up, it decreased the odds of arrest. Findings further indicated that the frequency of police interaction with children present at DV incidents was minimal. Based on these findings, recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. Healthy organizational practices against violence at work. Study of incidence

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    Miguel Ángel Gimeno Navarro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence at work is a growing problem for organizations. It involves significant costs for the organization, its members and the community. In its various dimensions, organized violence is one of the least investigated. This study provides evidence of the relevance of this dimension has on the development of violent behavior in the workplace. The results indicate that practices an organization implements an impact on levels of violence that occur at work. For the development of healthy organizations, free of violence, the company management must take a holistic approach and look at best practices related to human resource management, with leadership factors or job design

  14. Intimate partner violence among Egyptian pregnant women: incidence, risk factors, and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

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    Ibrahim, Z M; Sayed Ahmed, W A; El-Hamid, S A; Hagras, A M

    2015-01-01

    To assess incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy among a sample of women from Egypt and to evaluate its impact on maternal and fetal adverse health outcomes. After obtaining ethical approval, a total of 1,857 women aged 18 - 43 years completed the study and were investigated using an interview questionnaire. The questionnaire contains five main items: demographic characteristics of women, intimate partner characteristics, assessment of IPV during current pregnancy, and assessment of maternal as well as fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes. Women were also examined to detect signs of violence and identify injuries. Exposure to IPV during pregnancy was reported among 44.1% of the studied women. Emotional violence was the most common form. Women exposed to violence were of younger age, higher parity, and lower educational level. Their partners were older, less educated, and more likely to be addicted to drugs and alcohol. Women were also found to have significantly higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membrane), and fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes (fetal distress, fetal death, and low birth weight). A total of 297 cases had been exposed to physical violence (15.9%) vs 32.6% and 10% exposed to emotional and sexual violence, respectively. The most common form of physical violence was kicking. Violence during pregnancy is prevalent among Egyptian women. Exposure to violence was a significant risk factor for multiple adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes.

  15. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  16. Sources, incidence and effects of non-physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana.

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    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013-2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31·76 years and the average number of years practising as nurse was 7·38. Twelve per cent of the participants experienced at least one incident of sexual harassment and 52·2% were exposed to verbal abuse. The majority of perpetrators of sexual harassment were medical doctors (50%). Relatives of patients emerged as the most frequent verbal abusers (45·5%). Chi-square test showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence and between workplace violence and intention to quit the nursing profession. The effects of workplace violence ranged from having disturbing memories about the incident to being 'super alert' and vigilant. Establishing the incidence of workplace violence is a necessary step towards addressing the problem. It is concluded that educational programs must be designed for healthcare workers and the general public to foster awareness of the effects of workplace violence. Clear policies must also be instituted to address the problem.

  17. Survey of Wife Abuse and Influencing Social Factors Incidence of Domestic Violence in Tehranian Families

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    M. Latifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.

  18. Incidence, Type, Related Factors, and Effect of Workplace Violence on Mental Health Nurses: A Cross-sectional Survey.

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    Yang, Bing Xiang; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A; Morris, Diana L

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence and its impact on mental health nurses have yet to be thoroughly explored in China. This study aims to investigate the incidence, type, related factors, and effects of workplace violence on mental health nurses as well as identifying coping strategies. A researcher - designed workplace violence questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were distributed to nurses at a mental health hospital in Wuhan, China. Most nurses reported a high incidence of workplace violence (94.6%) in the past year ranging from verbal aggression, sexual harassment, to physical attack. The forms of violence significantly correlated with each other (r>0.5, p=0.000). Working on the psychiatric intensive care unit for adult males and being a male nurse placed nurses at significantly higher risk for workplace violence. Providing routine treatment, caring for male patients, and working the night shift increased the risk of sexual harassment. Nurses who believed that workplace violence was preventable experienced a significantly lower incidence of violence. Burnout levels of the mental health nurses were relatively mild, but increased with age, professional title, years of employment and frequency of workplace violence. The incidence of workplace violence among mental health nurses is common, and its frequency is correlated with nurses' level of burnout. Management and clinical nurses should work together on an organization-wide strategy targeting the major identified risk areas to reduce the incidence of workplace violence and minimize its impact on nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing Police Responses to Domestic Violence Incidents: Reports From Client Advocates in New South Wales.

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    Goodman-Delahunty, Jane; Crehan, Anna Corbo

    2016-07-01

    In an online survey about experiences with the police complaint system, 239 client advocates described a recent incident in which a client with grounds to lodge a complaint declined to do so. Almost one third of those incidents involved domestic violence. Thematic analysis of case descriptions revealed that many police did not take domestic violence reports seriously. A typology of problematic police conduct was developed. Many officers failed to observe current procedures and appeared to lack knowledge of relevant laws. Citizens feared retaliatory victimization by police and/or perceived that complaining was futile. Implications of these findings are reviewed in light of procedural justice theory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Association Between Old Firm Football Matches and Reported Domestic (Violence Incidents in Strathclyde, Scotland

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    Damien J. Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Media reports have suggested that the number of reports of domestic violence may increase when Scotland’s two largest, Glasgow-based football (soccer clubs, Rangers and Celtic (traditionally referred to as the “Old Firm” play one another. This study considers the number of domestic (violence incidents reported to Strathclyde Police between 2008 and 2011 in the 24 hours following these matches, and compares it with the number reported during two appropriate comparator periods. There is a statistically significant increase in the number of reports following Old Firm matches compared with the comparator periods. This preliminary analysis confirms previous speculation concerning the association between Old Firm matches and reports of domestic violence, and highlights the need to better understand the factors leading to such violence to inform preventive interventions.

  1. Violence

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    ... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...

  2. The victimization experiences of women in the workforce: moving beyond single categories of work or violence.

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    Potter, Sharyn J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2011-01-01

    The examination of the co-occurrence of different types of victimization in the lives of women in the workforce appears infrequently in the literature. We examine multiple types of victimization in women's lives across a range of employment and income levels. Our research indicates that more than two-thirds of women in the workplace experienced at least one type of violence against women (VAW). These women hold positions at various workforce levels, indicating that victims of VAW are not limited to the lower employment rungs. This research is a step toward highlighting the scope, prevalence, and interconnectedness of different forms of VAW in the lives of women in the workforce.

  3. Sources, incidence and effects of non?physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. Methods A cross?sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013?2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. Results The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31?76?years and the average number of years practising as nurse ...

  4. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

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    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  5. Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

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    Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I 2 = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I 2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

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    Hsien-Jane Chiu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  7. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on nursing staffs caring for chronic psychiatric patients in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-11-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence on Nursing Staffs Caring for Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2009-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duratio...

  9. Using the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version in sexual violence risk assessments: Updated risk categories and recidivism estimates from a multisite sample of treated sexual offenders.

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    Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-30

    The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical

  11. Workplace violence in a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective review of incident management records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashmore Aaron W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71% was more common than physical abuse (29%. The most (44% incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50% incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90% of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93% of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46% or low (52% Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%. Few (6% victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more

  12. [Sexual violence and co-occurrences suffered by children and adolescents: study of incidents over a decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jacqueline Reiter; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Santos, Clarice Alves; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Ohana Cunha

    2014-03-01

    The study analyzes the evolution of the incidence of sexual violence (SV) and co-occurrences between 2001 and 2010. The records of the Guardianship Councils in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil were used and the incidence rates and graphs of the events during the period were calculated. Of the total of the different types of violence, 21.8 % involved co-occurrences, the majority being female, most frequently during adolescence. There was a high proportion of abuse in male children, with most offenders bring family members or acquaintances. The incidence of SV revealed an increasing trend in both sexes during the decade, more significantly in females in 2002 and 2009. The age groups indicated the same trend, with a higher proportion of cases in adolescence. The record of co-occurrences with SV was more pronounced in the second half of the decade, namely psychological violence in 2008, neglect in 2008 and physical violence in 2009. The conclusion is that the increase in the coefficients of sexual violence and co-occurrences may indicate an improvement of the reporting system of instances in reference, as well as greater citizen participation through the Dial 100 complaint hotline. The indicators help to prevent and control violence against children.

  13. Charisma, volatility and violence: assessing the role of crises of charismatic authority in precipitating incidents of millenarian violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author develops some of the points he has made elsewhere regarding the role of what may be termed ‘crises of charismatic authority’ in producing volatility or even violence within marginal apocalyptic religious groups. The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed several incidents where such groups engaged in violent actions against themselves, others in the outside world, or typically both (among them the Peoples Temple in Guayana in 1978, Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas in 1994, Order of the Solar Temple in Switzerland, Quebec and France in 1997, Aum Shirinkyo, Japan in 1995, Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, Uganda in 2000. This notion of ‘crises of charismatic authority’ has in many ways become a central, recurring theme in the author's analysis of these incidents. While accepting that such crises were typically not sufficient in themselves to have precipitated each of the dramatic denouements the author has examined, he has come to the conclusion that they did play a major role in each; such crises played a much more significant role than that played by external opposition in almost all of the cases the author examined (the case of the Branch Davidians being perhaps the exception that proves the rule. In this article, the author discusses what he means by crises of charismatic authority (an important task in itself due to the diverse understandings of ‘charisma’ found within the literature and presents a comparative analysis of some of the ways in which these crises can occur.

  14. Analysis of recent incidents of on-field violence in sport: legal decisions and additional considerations from psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, John H

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two recent incidents of serious on-field violence in sports and the legal consequences for those involved. The two incidents occurred in Dutch football (soccer) and became infamous owing to the nature of the violent incidents and widespread media coverage. The legal outcomes of these two incidents are described, and some of the difficulties that legal authorities face in considering assaults on the sports field are discussed. A new way of categorizing such violent incidents and the motivation behind them, based on an established psychological theory [reversal theory, Apter, 1982, 2001] is proposed. Taken along with the other points made in this article, being aware of when and how individuals cross the boundaries between play and anger, power or thrill violence may provide an additional perspective to making informed decisions about illegal violent acts on the sports field. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence: Comparative Analysis of Child-Parent Violence and Parricide Examining Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines 11 years (1995-2005) of National Incident Based Reporting System data comparing victim, offender, and incident characteristics for two types of child-initiated family violence: child-parent violence (CPV) and parricide. The objective is to better understand the victim-offender relationship for CPV and parricide and to…

  16. First contact: acute stress reactions and experiences of emergency department consultations following an incident of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Philippa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore women's emotional and affective responses following an incident of intimate partner violence experienced during emergency department attendances. A growing body of research has explored women's experiences of emergency departments following intimate partner violence still little remains known about the experience and impact of emotional and affective responses during these attendances. A descriptive qualitative design was used, underpinned theoretically by critical realism and postmodern complexity theory to attend to multiple, intersecting mechanisms that lie behind events and experiences. Semistructured interviews with six women who had attended an emergency department directly following an incident of intimate partner violence. Interview data were transcribed and thematically analysed in nvivo9 using a coding framework. There were three interconnected key findings. First, was the commonality of acute stress experiences among women attending an emergency department following partner violence, second was that these acute stress reactions negatively impacted women's consultations, and third was the need for specialist domestic violence services at the point of first contact to assist service users navigate an effective consultation. Acute stress reactions were an important feature of women's experiences of emergency department consultations following intimate partner violence. Attending to psychological first aid; providing a safe and quiet space; and affording access to specialist violence advocacy services at the point of first contact will limit harm and improve health consultation outcomes for this population. This research provides an account of emotional and affective responses experienced by women attending emergency departments following intimate partner violence and explicates how these acute stress reactions impacted their consultation. This research has relevance for practitioners in many first contact health

  17. Piloting violence and incident reporting measures on one acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phil; Ashley, Carolyn; Kayto, Denise; Heusdens, Carol

    2008-05-01

    During May, 2006, on one acute mental health inpatient unit, nursing staff evaluated each patient three times a day (i.e., once each nursing shift) using the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC). Associated data were collected using the Staff Observation and Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) if an adverse incident occurred. At the end of the data collection period, the nursing staff were asked to complete a short questionnaire anonymously to evaluate how useful they had found the instruments. N = 93 patients were admitted to the unit during the month of study. Seven incidents were reported using the SOAS-R. A slight trend was noted for higher BVC score in aggressive patients. A potential high occurrence of underreporting on incidents was observed. There was limited feedback data from nursing staff at the end of the study, but the responses received were encouraging for continued use of the instruments in practice. The pilot study fulfilled its purpose in two ways. First, it allowed staff on the unit to experience using structured instruments to support their practice. Second, it allowed an opportunity to raise awareness of potential underreporting and tolerance of aggression on the unit.

  18. The incidence of sexual violence among children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Cláudia Alves de; Silva, Maria Arleide da; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2018-05-01

    The scope of this study was to establish the incidence of sexual violence against children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco (Brazil) between 2012 and 2013. Data was collected from the records of rape examination reports carried out at the Recife Institute of Forensic Medicine. Of the 867 cases recorded, 328 of the victims were children and adolescents. An incidence of 3.67 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in the 0 to 18 age range was identified. The majority of the victims were female (92.1%) between 10 and 14 years of age (59.2%). In two thirds of the cases, rape was the most frequent type of sexual abuse and the majority of perpetrators were known to the victim (57.8%). An association between the type of sexual violence and the age and sex of the victim and perpetrator (p < 0.001) was determined. The most common type of sexual violence was rape among adolescents and sexual abuse not involving rape among children. The cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents shown in this study increase the visibility of this serious health problem and the need for preventive public policies.

  19. Loss of social resources predicts incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Murray, Sarah M; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.

  20. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nurses in a Chinese top-level teaching hospital: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Lv, Ming; Wang, Min; Wang, Xiufeng; Liu, Junyan; Zheng, Nan; Liu, Chunlan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the incidence of workplace violence involving nurses and to identify related risk factors in a high-quality Chinese teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study design was used. The final sample comprised responses from 1831 registered nurses collected with a whole-hospital survey from June 1 to June 15, 2016. The demographic characteristics of the nurses who had experienced any form of violence were collected, and logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors for nurses related to workplace violence. Out of the total number of nurses surveyed, 904 (49.4%) nurses reported having experienced any type of violence in the past year. The frequencies of exposure to physical and non-physical violence were 6.3% (116) and 49.0% (897), respectively. All the incidence rates of violence were lower than those of other studies based on regional hospitals in China and were at the same level found in developed countries and districts. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses at levels 2 to 4 and female nurses in clinical departments were the most vulnerable to non-physical violence. For physical violence, the two independent risk factors were working in an emergency department and having 6-10 years of work experience. Workplace violence directly threatens nurses from high-quality Chinese teaching hospitals. However, the incidence of WPV against nurses in this teaching hospital was better than that in regional hospitals. This study also provides reference material to identify areas where nurses encounter relatively high levels of workplace violence in high-quality Chinese teaching hospitals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Classificatory multiplicity: intimate partner violence diagnosis in emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Philippa

    2017-08-01

    To explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. Theoretically, this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis. Research design was an applied, descriptive and explanatory, multiple-method approach that combined qualitative semistructured interviews with service-users (n = 8) and emergency department practitioners (n = 9), and qualitative and quantitative document analysis of emergency department health records (n = 28). This study found that multiple classifications of intimate partner violence were mobilised during emergency department consultations and that these different versions of intimate partner violence held different diagnostic categories, processes and consequences. The construction of different versions of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations could explain variance in people's experiences and outcomes of consultations. The research found that the classificatory threshold for 'intimate partner violence' was too high. Strengthening systems of diagnosis (identification and intervention) so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence' would reduce the incidence of missed cases and afford earlier specialist intervention to reduce violence and limit its harms. This research found that identification of and response to intimate partner violence, even in contexts of severe physical violence, was contingent. By lowering the classificatory threshold so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence', practitioners could make a significant contribution to reducing missed intimate partner violence during consultations and improving health outcomes for this population. This

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ajduković, Marina; Rimac, Ivan; Rajter, Miroslav; Sušac, Nika

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of epidemiological research on the extent of family violence on children in the Republic of Croatia. The research used a two-phase design with a probability sample of children aged 11, 13 and 16 regularly enrolled into Croatian primary and secondary schools (N=3.644). Data was obtained within the international research FP7 project “BECAN – Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect“. The research used the revised version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screen...

  3. Noble or Malevolent in a Moment of Dismay: How Postsecondary Students Construe and Characterize Bystander Action in School Violence Shooting Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Dyan Whitlow

    2012-01-01

    Multiple incidents of postsecondary school shooting violence have occurred in American society--prompting concern about safety on college campuses, administrators' roles in prevention, and proactive and responsible bystander actions. Active shooter plans have become more established in educational environments, with efforts are directed…

  4. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  5. The results of the “Blue Cards” questionnaire analysis with respect to the incidence of violence among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giezek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Implementation of the “Blue Cards” procedure has resulted in an increase in reported acts of violence, including those concerning the elderly, not because violence has become more widespread, but because the principles of the fight against domestic violence have been established and competencies of the relevant services have been distributed. Objectives. The aim of the study is to review the “Blue Cards” questionnaires of people over the age of 60 involved in domestic violence. Material and methods . The study involved 1,299 “Blue Cards” questionnaires, which were obtained in the years 2012–2013 by the Interdisciplinary Team dealing with domestic violence prevention in Szczecin. From this sample, 312 forms obtained from individuals above the age of 60 were analyzed. Results . Elderly people are involved in violence in three ways: as individuals experiencing violence, as those who use violence or as individuals who witnesses violence. Without a doubt, the majority of people who are affected by violence are women who are harmed by their husbands. Domestic violence amongst elderly people is usually disclosed after 1–3 years of its duration; however, it occasionally happens after more than 7 years. The dominant emotion in victims of domestic violence is fear, and in perpetrators – aggression. Conclusions . There are still many cases of domestic violence amongst people over 60 years of age that remain undisclosed, hence co-operation amongst services is extremely important, as well as continuously raising the competence of police officers, education, social assistance and health care specialists. The aim is to counteract violence amongst the elderly and to restore balance to their daily functioning.

  6. Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

  7. The use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in forensic medicine following incidents of sexual violence in Hamburg, Germany: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Julia; Sperhake, Jan Peter; Degen, Olaf; Schröder, Ann Sophie

    2018-05-18

    In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016. One thousand two hundred eighteen incidents of sexual violence were reviewed. In 18% of these cases, HIV PEP was initially prescribed by the FMS. HIV PEP indication depended on the examination occurring within 24 h after the incident, no/unknown condom use, the occurrence of ejaculation, the presence of any injury, and the perpetrator being from population at high risk for HIV. Half of the HIV PEP recipients returned for a reevaluation of the HIV PEP indication by an infectious disease specialist, and just 16% completed the full month of treatment. Only 131 potential perpetrators were tested for HIV, with one found to be HIV positive. No HIV seroconversion was registered among the study sample. Provision of HIV PEP by an FMS after sexual assault ensures appropriate and prompt care for victims. However, patient compliance and completion rates are low. HIV testing of perpetrators must be carried out much more rigorously.

  8. Utility of the triglyceride level for predicting incident diabetes mellitus according to the fasting status and body mass index category: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ayumi; Heianza, Yoriko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Doi, Mikio; Shimano, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Ota, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The levels of lipids, especially triglycerides (TG), and obesity are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Although typically measured in fasting individuals, non-fasting lipid measurements play an important role in predicting future DM. This study compared the predictive efficacy of lipid variables according to the fasting status and body mass index (BMI) category. Data were collected for 39,196 nondiabetic men and 87,980 nondiabetic women 40-79years of age who underwent health checkups in Ibaraki-Prefecture, Japan in 1993 and were followed through 2007. The hazard ratios (HRs) for DM in relation to sex, the fasting status and BMI were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 8,867 participants, 4,012 men and 4,855 women, developed DM during a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. TG was found to be an independent predictor of incident DM in both fasting and non-fasting men and non-fasting women. The multivariable-adjusted HR for DM according to the TG quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.34) in the non-fasting men with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9). This trend was also observed in the non-fasting women with a normal BMI. That is, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for DM for TG Q2, Q3 and Q4 compared with Q1 were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.23), 1.17 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.34) and 1.48 (95%CI: 1.30, 1.69), respectively. The fasting and non-fasting TG levels in men and non-fasting TG levels in women are predictive of future DM among those with a normal BMI. Clinicians must pay attention to those individuals at high risk for DM.

  9. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  10. El Convenio de Estambul y los sujetos de la violencia de género. El cuestionamiento de la violencia doméstica como categoría jurídica // The Istanbul Convention and the subjects of gender violence. The questioned legal category of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Ventura Franch

    2016-12-01

    the definition of gender violence and subjects who exercise and suffer. To determine what is gender violence is needed start from the concepts by which it is built juridically and argumentatively the violence product of patriarchy as a social structure and gender as a consequence of that organization. From these criteria the conceptualization of violence that includes the Convention is analyzed, observing some contradictions that could introduce elements of confusion by raising a legal category of domestic violence and not to determine the active and passive subjects of gender violence. On this basis, an interpretation of the concept of violence as specified in Article 3 of the Convention, according to the parameters established by the doctrine to gender violence, while it intends to begin the process of tabling amendments proposed its modification provided for in the Convention itself.

  11. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  12. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Retrospective descriptive study. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker's performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. Violence and incivility between hospital employees can contribute to turnover of top performers, hinder effective teamwork and jeopardise the quality of patient care. Identification of common catalysts for worker-to-worker violence and incivility informs the development of mistreatment prevention programmes that can be

  13. Reporting the incidence of school violence across grade levels in the U.S. using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei

    2004-01-01

    School violence has increasingly captured public attention due to deadly school shootings. Controversy on school violence is demonstrated by a mixed picture of school safety and the lack of consensus on the definitions of violence, which makes comparison of findings across studies difficult. This study extended the application of the Rasch model to school violence research using TIMSS data. The results show that school violence occurred at a level much lower than the predictions of the measurement model. Across all grade levels the most frequently reported type of violence is intimidation or verbal abuse of students and the least frequently reported physical injury to teachers or staff. Copyright 2004

  14. Domestic violence : evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...

  15. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  16. Risk factors for sexual violence in the military: an analysis of sexual assault and sexual harassment incidents and reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Souder, William C., III

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...

  17. Gender Differences in Reporting of Battering Incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat

    1986-01-01

    Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…

  18. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  19. Sexual Violence on Religious Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…

  20. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.

  1. Antecedents and consequences of workplace violence against nurses: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    To explore Iranian nurses' perceptions of and experiences with the antecedents and consequences of workplace violence perpetrated by patients, patients' relatives, colleagues and superiors. Workplace violence against nurses is a common problem worldwide, including in Iran. Although many studies have reviewed the antecedents and consequences of workplace violence, limited information is available on this topic. An understanding of the predisposing factors for violence and the consequences of violence is essential to developing programs to prevent and manage workplace violence. Qualitative descriptive design. In this qualitative study, 22 unstructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with registered nurses who had experienced workplace violence and who were selecting using purposive sampling in nine hospitals. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five categories emerged as predisposing factors: unmet expectations of patients/relatives, inefficient organisational management, inappropriate professional communication, factors related to nurses and factors related to patients, patients' relatives and colleagues. Individual, familial and professional consequences were identified as outcomes of workplace violence against nurses. Workplace violence by patients/their relatives and colleagues/superiors is affected by various complicated factors at the individual and organisational levels. In addition to negatively affecting nurses' individual and family lives, workplace violence may lead to a lower quality of patient care and negative attitudes towards the nursing profession. Identifying factors, which lead to workplace violence, could help facilitate documenting and reporting such incidents as well as developing the necessary interventions to reduce them. Furthermore, native instruments must be developed to predict and monitor violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Taking action against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  3. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  4. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  5. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  6. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  7. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned

  8. The Use of Restorative Justice Practices in a School Community Traumatized by an Incident of Planned School Violence: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateer, Susan Carol

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, less than two years after the Columbine High School shootings, a plan to copycat the Columbine shooting in a junior high school was interrupted by police. This was one of the first documented cases of interrupted school violence and the school where this was to occur was traumatized both by the fact that students were planning violence…

  9. Incidência de ascite em diferentes categorias genéticas de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de alto nível energético Incidence of ascites on different genetic categories of broilers fed with high-energy diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Garcia Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de ascite em avós, matrizes e frangos de corte, de uma mesma linhagem comercial, alimentados com ração de alto nível energético, de um dia a 39 dias de idade. Todas as aves foram criadas como frangos de corte, recebendo ração ad libitum com 3.050 kcal/EM; foram utilizadas aves da linha fêmea e linha macho e frangos de corte. Um total de 2.700 aves foram usadas, alojadas ao acaso em um galpão experimental de 8x76 m, utilizando-se 27 boxes de 3x3,5 m, com 100 aves por divisão, sendo três repetições por tratamento, em esquema fatorial. A incidência de ascite não dependeu da categoria genética das aves.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of ascites on grand parents, breeders and commercial broilers from the same genetic strain of birds, fed with high energy level ration, from the first day of age to 39 days old. All birds were grown as commercial broilers receiving a ration ad libitum with 3,050 kcal/ME; birds from female line, male line and commercial broilers were tested. A total of 2,700 birds were housed at random in a experimental facility of 8x76 m, with 27 compartments of 3x3.5 m each and 100 birds per division. A factorial design was used with three replications per treatment. The incidence of ascites was not dependent on genetic category.

  10. Violence in Children's Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Sue

    A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…

  11. An upbringing to violence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    in the incidence of ciolent behaviour that leads to convictions among adolescents and young men. In this study information from population-based registers covers various aspects both for children, aged between 15 and 27 years, and their parents: health (mental and physical), education, social networks, family...... violence, self-destructive behaviour, parental alcohol or drug abuse, and unemployment....

  12. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  13. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  14. Research tracks growing violence against women in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Violence against women and female homicides or femicide, ... these crimes, incidents of violence against women remain vastly underreported. ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru.

  15. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  16. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  17. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  18. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

  19. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  20. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  1. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tačík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...

  2. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  3. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  4. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  5. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  6. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  7. Association between Domestic Violence and School Violence: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Usually, one investigates marital violence, children victimization, and school violence in an isolated way. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between domestic violence and school violence, suggesting actions to deal with these serious issues. With this goal in mind, two studies are described in this paper. The first one evaluates if boys who behave aggressively in school, in comparison with their non-aggressive peers, have more incidence of domestic violence exposure and victimization. The second study investigates if exposure to domestic violence and child victimization are factors associated with bullying. These studies indicated that there is a relation between the violence experienced in these two contexts; however they emphasize the need for further investigations with more participant and longitudinal studies. Teacher in-service training is suggested, aimed at: identifying students living in families with a history of domestic violence; supporting teachers and principals in case of disclosures in the school setting; social skills training for students; class discussions about healthy and non-violent family relationships and, psychotherapy referral to students who are victimized.

  8. Compreendendo a violência doméstica a partir das categorias gênero e geração Comprendiendo la violencia doméstica a partir de las categorías género y generación Understanding domestic violence from the categories gender and generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadielene Pereira Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artigos, livros, dissertações e teses entre 1996 a 2007 com o objetivo de compreender como as categorias gênero e geração influenciam na construção da violência doméstica contra a mulher. Foram estabelecidas duas categorias: violência de gênero e violência intergeracional. A análise dos textos indicou que o núcleo familiar, permeado pela visão patriarcal, configura-se enquanto um espaço de construção da violência de gênero e da violência intergeracional. Faz-se, portanto, necessária a re-estruturação da família com base em relações mais simétricas entre homens e mulheres e entre pais e filhos.El presente estudio trata de una revisión de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artículos, libros, tesis de Maestria y de Doctorado existentes entre 1996 al 2007 con el objetivo de comprender cómo las categorías género y generación influyen en la construcción de la violencia doméstica contra la mujer. Fueron establecidas dos categorías: violencia de género y violencia intergeneracional. El análisis de los textos permitió concluir que el núcleo familiar, impregnado por una visión patriarcal, se configura como un espacio de construcción de la violencia de género y de la violencia intergeneracional. Se hace, por tanto, necesaria la reestructuración de la familia teniendo como base relaciones más simétricas entre hombres y mujeres y entre padres e hijos.This article is a literature review of 20 bibliographic sources, among them articles, books and thesis from 1996 to 2007. Regarding articles, Scielo represented the database consulted most often. The objective consisted of understanding how the categories 'gender' and 'generation' influence the occurrence of domestic violence against women. Two categories had been established about the topic: gender-based violence and intergenerational-based violence. The study showed that

  9. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  10. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  11. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dating Violence among College Students: Key Issues for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…

  13. 77 FR 60611 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For far too long, domestic violence was ignored or treated as a private matter where victims were... reducing the incidence of domestic violence. But we also know that we have not come far enough, and that...

  14. 75 FR 62303 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... silence surrounding domestic violence to reach thousands of survivors, prevent countless incidences of abuse, and save untold numbers of lives. While these are critical achievements, domestic violence...

  15. The role of media violence in violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Taylor, Laramie D

    2006-01-01

    Media violence poses a threat to public health inasmuch as it leads to an increase in real-world violence and aggression. Research shows that fictional television and film violence contribute to both a short-term and a long-term increase in aggression and violence in young viewers. Television news violence also contributes to increased violence, principally in the form of imitative suicides and acts of aggression. Video games are clearly capable of producing an increase in aggression and violence in the short term, although no long-term longitudinal studies capable of demonstrating long-term effects have been conducted. The relationship between media violence and real-world violence and aggression is moderated by the nature of the media content and characteristics of and social influences on the individual exposed to that content. Still, the average overall size of the effect is large enough to place it in the category of known threats to public health.

  16. Strategies for Reducing Criminal Violence among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffo, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…

  17. Domestic violence: recognition, intervention, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Martin, F

    1995-02-01

    Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.

  18. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  19. Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…

  20. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  1. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  2. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  3. Politicidal Violence and the Problematics of Localized Memory at Civilian Massacre Sites: The Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch'ang Incident Memorial Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Wright

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two South Korean sites dedicated to the remembrance of Korean War–era civilian massacres, the Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch’ang Incident Memorial Park. Specifically, the article explores the sites’ localized, victim-centric epistemology as one that counters nationalist discourses and narratives that privilege the state. While acknowledging that these sites offer a physical mnemonic space for challenging the hegemonic “June 25” (yugio narrative, the author suggests that, in their narrow spatial and ideological orientation, these sites cumulatively fall short of offering a cohesive narrative of the politicidal, anti-Communist state-building project of which they are a consequence. Though of tremendous value in restoring victims’ honor, critiquing human rights abuses of the Republic of Korea, and giving a voice to marginalized groups, these spaces fail to provide historical clarity to a distorted era of South Korea’s past. In addressing this problematic, the article examines the role of family bereavement associations, narrative constructions, and the silencing of the National Guidance League Incident at these locations.

  4. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  5. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  6. Gender violence: transgender experiences with violence and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, E L; Wilchins, R A; Priesing, D; Malouf, D

    2001-01-01

    There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.

  7. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Silvestri, Monica; Artoni, Cecilia; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent attack” (P=0.02, P=0.03, multiple logistic regression). Conclusion This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where

  8. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  9. Workplace physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Karaşahin, Emine Füsun; Dikmen, Asiye Uğraş; Avci, Emine; Ozkan, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of and risk factors for physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses in a university hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital. A questionnaire form recommended by the WHO and the International Labor Organization was administered through face-to-face interviews to determine the violence experienced in the past 12 months by nurses. The prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing was 13.9%, 41.8%, and 17.1%, respectively. Working more than 40 h per week increased the risk of physical violence by 1.86 times. The majority of nurses who experienced verbal violence and mobbing were significantly more willing to change their work, their institution, and their profession if given the opportunity. Fewer than one-fourth of the victims indicated they reported any incident. We knew that the prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing were high among nurses and that incidents were underreported, and the study corroborated this information. What this study adds to the topic is that long working hours increased the prevalence of physical violence and was defined as an important contributory factor.

  10. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  11. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  12. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  13. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  14. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  15. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  16. Examen d'analyses récentes portant sur l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants (ECI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Potter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cette analyse a comme objectif de rassembler les articles évalués par les pairs utilisant des données tirées de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants (ECI publiées depuis novembre 2011 ainsi que des suréchantillons provinciaux de l'ECI, d'évaluer la qualité de leurs conclusions, de les synthétiser et de faire le bilan des variations dans l'utilisation de ces données. Méthodologie : Nous avons sélectionné les articles au moyen du suivi des demandes d'accès aux données de l'ECI effectué par l'Agence de la santé publique du Canada et au suivi des publications produites au moyen de ces données. Deux évaluateurs au moins ont examiné de façon indépendante les articles et en ont évalué la qualité. Résultats : Nous avons conservé 32 articles. Leurs points forts étaient en général les suivants : objectifs de recherche clairement établis, variables de contrôle appropriées, analyses pertinentes, taille de l'échantillon suffisante, conclusions pertinentes et utilité pour les pratiques et politiques. Leur point problématique était le plus souvent une définition floue des variables et des critères d'inclusion des cas. La plupart du temps, les articles mesuraient les associations entre les caractéristiques des mauvais traitements et celles des enfants, des pourvoyeurs de soins, du ménage et de l'organisme ou de la personne à l'origine du signalement et ils s'intéressaient aux conséquences des signalements, par exemple l'ouverture d'un dossier pour une prestation continue de services ou le placement. Conclusion : Les articles utilisant des données de l'ECI ont obtenu des scores positifs pour la plupart des indicateurs de qualité. Dans leurs analyses les plus récentes, les chercheurs se sont concentrés sur les catégories de maltraitance insuffisamment étudiées jusqu'ici (exposition à la violence conjugale, négligence et

  17. Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tazeen S Ali,1,2,* Gunilla Krantz,3 Ingrid Mogren4,*1School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 3Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 4Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life.Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied.Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions.Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where

  18. DoD Needs a Comprehensive Approach to Address Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    respond to an act of workplace violence, which could jeopardize their safety during a workplace violence threat or incident. Workplace Violence Prevention... Management Command (IMCOM) Prevention of Workplace Violence Program (U),” September 21, 2012. 18 OPORD 14-091, “U.S. Army Installation Management ... Safety and Health Administration’s definition of workplace violence25 and applies to military, civilian, and contractor personnel. 22 SECNAVINST

  19. An investigation of school violence through Turkish children's drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or witnessed. Children mostly drew pictures of violent events among children (33 pictures). Also, there were pictures of violent incidents perpetrated by teachers and directors against children. It was observed that violence influenced children. Violence was mostly depicted in school gardens (38 pictures), but there were violent incidents everywhere, such as in classrooms, corridors, and school stores as well. Moreover, it was found that brute force was the most referred way of violence in the children's depictions (38 pictures). In conclusion, children clearly indicated that there was violence in schools and they were affected by it.

  20. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  1. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  2. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  3. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  4. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  5. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  6. Marxist aesthetics in Festus Iyayi's "violence" | Anawi | Journal de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Festus Iyayi's novel "Violence" portrays a modern African society in a money economy wherein the possession of the capital is paramount in defining the individual as a member of the community. The characters in "Violence" come into two distinct categories. On the one hand, there are those who own the ...

  7. Net Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.

  8. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  9. Workplace violence against medical staff in healthcare facilities in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, M; Morris, E; Sobers-Grannum, N

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests increasing workplace violence against healthcare workers in the Caribbean, but the prevalence is largely undocumented. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence reported by medical staff at primary care clinics in Barbados. A study utilizing a modified version of the standard World Health Organization Workplace Violence Questionnaire, designed to assess the incidence, types and features of workplace violence. All nursing and physician staff on duty at the island's eight primary care clinics during the study period were invited to participate. Of the 102 respondents (72% response rate), 63% of nursing and physician staff at the polyclinics in Barbados reported at least one episode of violence in the past year. The majority reported being exposed to verbal abuse (60%) and 19% reported being exposed to bullying. Seven percent of the staff reported incidents of sexual harassment, 3% physical violence and another 3% reported racial harassment. Patients emerged as the main perpetrators of violence (64%). Logistic regression showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence. Females and nurses were more predisposed to experience violent incidents than males and physicians. Over a half of medical staff surveyed reported experiencing some type of violence in the past year, female gender being a significant predictor of abuse. Adequate documentation and implementing clear policies and violence prevention programmes in health institutions are crucial steps towards addressing this issue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Violence in youth sports: hazing, brawling and foul play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S K; Collins, C L; Comstock, R D

    2010-01-01

    By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence has not yet been widely recognised as a public health concern. This review shows that sports-related violence, including hazing, brawling and foul play, occurs among youth athletes of all ages and in a variety of different sports. The few studies to address this issue have all acknowledged the dangers of sports-related violence; however, no incident tracking method has been developed. Future research must provide accurate national estimates of the incidence of sports-related violence among youth, identify associated risk factors, evaluate preventive interventions and identify effective methods of distributing and implementing evidence-based interventions. Monitoring the magnitude and distribution of the burden of sports-related violence and building the scientific infrastructure necessary to support the development and widespread application of effective sports-related prevention interventions are essential first steps toward a reduction in the incidence of sports-related violence.

  11. Surviving Violence: Transgressing Categories and Boundaries in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, activities intended for the protection of civilians have been steadily incorporated into humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development operations across the globe. Yet, what was initially perceived as a progressive step in the advancement of human security (Goldberg and Hubert 2001 is now coming under increasing scrutiny (Fox 2002; Thakur 2002. The civilian protection agenda involves a series of inter-related activities designed to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and recover from physical harm caused by armed conflict. Despite the steady elaboration and execution of this agenda, however, critics point to key challenges including the lack of compliance by states and non-state armed actors (Ferris 2011, problems with coordination and efficiency among aid organizations (Barnett 2009, under-resourced peacekeeping operations with limited training and equipment (Williams 2013, and the lack of capacity and will on the part of the ‘international community’ (Barr 2010.

  12. Violence prevention at work. A business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C W

    2001-02-01

    The risk of workplace violence varies depending on the type and location of the business. Business managers should assess violence risk and develop a program based on the level of risk faced by their employees. This assessment should include: (1) a review of workplace security and identification of positions with increased risk of exposure to violence, (2) risk reduction through environmental design and employee training, (3) development of a plan and identification of professional resources to respond to incidents should they occur, and (4) communication of the employer's commitment to providing a safe work environment for employees. For most businesses, threat assessment and management comprise the cornerstone of a workplace violence-prevention program. Planning and preparation are key to workplace violence prevention.

  13. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  14. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  15. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  16. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  17. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  18. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  19. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling you names or insisting on seeing you ... in immediate danger, dial 911. If you are thinking about ending an abusive ... in mind: - Create a safety plan, like where you can go if you are in ...

  20. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  1. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  2. Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    2010-01-01

    Following the 2007 disputed Kenyan Presidential election unprecedented levels of violence erupted across the country adding to the history of troubled elections in Africa. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative evidence on the incidence, impacts and issues that triggered electoral violence. Using two surveys conducted before and after the election we find that one out of three Kenyans were affected by the violence regardless of their ethnicity and wealth. The chances of being a victim...

  3. Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...

  4. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  5. Characteristics of gender violence at the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Sala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence at the University of Valencia, the victim profile, resources, and beliefs about violence in the university community. The sample consisted of 3404 participants from the research and teaching staff, the administration and services personnel, and students. The results suggest an incidence of gender violence of 20.03%. The victim profile is a women student who is childless, at a perceived slight or moderate risk, who does not go to the police, but who experiences psychological repercussions from gender violence. In total, 86.99% of participants believe that the university has a gender violence service available and that action protocols and prevention programs have been implemented. Between 25% and 40% do not consider controlling behaviour and psychological abuse to constitute domestic violence. Gender violence prevention programs should be implemented.

  6. Physician exposure to violence: a study performed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Öktem, İbrahim Suat; Çetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Turkey, there has been an increase in the number of violent acts against healthcare workers, towards doctors in particular. This study aimed to investigate the extent of violence, the causes of violence and to evaluate proposed solutions to violence. Out of 597 physicians, 86.4% indicated that they were exposed to at least one type of violence (physical, verbal, sexual) throughout their careers. Among the physicians participating in the study, 27.5% suffered physical threats and 68.6% suffered verbal violence in the past year. Only 40.4% reported the physical violence to their institution. Physicians indicated that the top three causes of violent behavior were excessive demands of patients, the expectation that the issue will be solved immediately and blaming physicians for their problems. To stop violence against themselves, physicians need to raise their voices, along with those of their personal or professional organizations, and should report and follow up incidents.

  7. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  9. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  10. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  11. Childhood experiences of female family-violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiski, Pia; Flinck, Aune; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help. The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence. The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article. The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  13. The American Organization of Nurse Executives and American Hospital Association Initiatives Work to Combat Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Violence affecting healthcare workers and healthcare organizations continues to be a serious safety issue. In this Leadership Perspectives column, Karen Wray, an American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) member who has experienced a mass causality incident 1st hand, outlines AONE's continuing work to promote safety and combat violence. She discusses recent work on violence issues by the American Hospital Association, AONE's parent organization.

  14. Children's Experiences of Domestic Violence: Developing an Integrated Response from Police and Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…

  15. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.

  16. Gender and Campus Violence: A Study of University of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is an attempt to investigate the incidence of violence among university students using University of Lagos as a case study. A questionnaire on different kinds of violence was administered to 446 students of the university. In addition, four focus group discussion sessions were conducted to assess the types of ...

  17. Religious Violence in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences | Iwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Responsible manipulation of religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence has become a yearly ...

  18. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  19. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Boychenko

    2017-12-01

    the study of violence involves categorizing the problem in terms of good and evil: violence is evil, as opposed to coercion, which can be justified, legitimated - but always from the point of view of promoting the development of society and the individual, encouraging the disclosure of his creative potential. Counterfactuality acts as an important ethical category, which reveals the transformation mechanism applied by human relative to himself and society while focusing on the values of goodness and other constructive and creative values.

  20. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  1. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  2. Violence against nurses in the southern region of Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chimwemwe Kwanjo Banda

    reporting to managers, telling their friends, crying, retaliating, or ignoring the incident. Most ... Conclusions: Workplace violence against nurses exists in Malawi and it affects nurses ... safety, well-being or health” (WHO, 2010, p. 1).

  3. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Monica Silvestri,1 Cecilia Artoni,2 Rosaria Di Lorenzo3 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing, 2School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio, 3Department of Mental Health, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Workplace violence (WPV against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1 to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2 to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants, who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results: With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%, followed by nursing assistants (18% and physicians (12%. The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression. The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%, emergency department (71%, and in geriatric wards (57%. The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test. Verbal violence (51% was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49% was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent

  4. 78 FR 41800 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “I VetoViolence Because . . .”: Teen Dating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Center), asks violence prevention professionals, allied organizations, students, VetoViolence Facebook... communities. The PSA finalists and winners will be showcased in three categories on the VetoViolence Facebook... place of business in the United States, and in the case of an individual, whether participating singly...

  5. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  6. Violence against emergency department employees and the attitude of employees towards violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkrıklar, H Í; Yürümez, Y; Güngör, B; Aşkın, R; Yücel, M; Baydemir, C

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of violent incidents in the workplace among the various professional groups working in the emergency department. We characterised the types of violence encountered by different occupation groups and the attitude of individuals working in different capacities. This cross-sectional study included 323 people representing various professional groups working in two distinct emergency departments in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires prepared in advance by the researchers. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows version 15.0). A total of 323 subjects including 189 (58.5%) men and 134 (41.5%) women participated in the study. Their mean (± standard deviation) age was 31.5 ± 6.5 years and 32.0 ± 6.9 years, respectively. In all, 74.0% of participants had been subjected to verbal or physical violence at any point since starting employment in a medical profession. Moreover, 50.2% of participants stated that they had been subjected to violence for more than 5 times. Among those who reported being subjected to violence, 42.7% had formally reported the incident(s). Besides, 74.3% of participants did not enjoy their profession, did not want to work in the emergency department, or would prefer employment in a non-health care field after being subjected to violence. According to the study participants, the most common cause of violence was the attitude of patients or their family members (28.7%). In addition, 79.6% (n=257) of participants stated that they did not have adequate safety protection in their working area. According to the study participants, there is a need for legal regulations to effectively deter violence and increased safety measures designed to reduce the incidence of violence in the emergency department. Violence against employees in the emergency department is a widespread problem. This situation has a strong negative effect on employee

  7. Updates on adolescent dating and sexual violence prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L

    2018-05-09

    Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.

  8. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  9. Solving Local Violence by Cosmopolitan Democracy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfil Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of democracy intensified since the fall of the new order era has some failures. One of the factors is violence phenomena still continue in the region. This study aims to discuss the violence in the region by presenting cosmopolitan democracy as a new design of more humane democracy. In addition, this research method uses library research, because library research can understand the problem in-depth to find the pattern and recommendation from the violence problems which happens in Indonesia. This study uses Hannah Arendt observations on the phenomenon of violence. In addition, the concept of cosmopolitan democracy is referred from Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Ulrich Beck is presented as a draft of new democracy direction which is more inclusive and humane. The result of this study discloses that the occurrence of incidence is triggered by failed implementation of the democratic system in Indonesia.

  10. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  11. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Benjamin H; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Anar D; Fant, Abra L; Gisondi, Michael A; Shah, Kaushal H; Lech, Christie A

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  12. Martial Arts, Violence, and Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Martial arts have become one of the most popular physical activities amongst children and youth worldwide; however, there are concerns among Western parents and school administrators that including these activities in school programs may lead to incidents of violence. Others, however, maintain that this is a concern caused by the false image of martial arts (as propagated in entertainment and pop culture, and stemming from an ignorance of the true values promoted by legitimate Asian martial arts practitioners. This paper explores the philosophical and theoretical concepts upon which Asian martial arts disciplines are founded, and provides ample research to reveal that martial arts as practiced in Eastern tradition de-emphasize violence, competition, and combat. Further, this paper illustrates that practicing martial arts in line with Eastern precepts of martial virtue, promotes a healthy active lifestyle, and can in fact discourage, rather than encourage, incidents of violence at schools.

  13. Levels of violence among nurses in Cape Town public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Doris

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents findings from a study examining violence in nursing. A combined ethno-phenomenology was identified as the most appropriate approach. Ethnography is to understand the culture of nursing that permits violence to occur within the profession. Phenomenology is to explore and capture nurse-on-nurse experiences of violence. The population is all nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council. The research participants are nurses employed in eight public hospitals in Cape Town during 2005. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION: The first stage of data collection was the distributions of confidential questionnaires to nurses employed in eight hospitals and willing to participate in the study. Responses to close-ended questions were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Responses to open-ended questions were grouped per question. The qualitative data were then compared for similarities and differences in information provided. Six levels of violence exist among nurses. The highest forms of violence among nurses occurred at the psychological level, with the least at the physical level of interaction. The other four levels of violence among nurses were vertical, horizontal, covert, and overt. All categories of nurses in the study had resorted to one or more levels of violence against other nurses during their nursing career. Professional nurses and senior nurse managers were identified as the main category of nurses that frequently resort to mistreating other nurses. However, auxiliary nurses were identified as the main perpetrators of physical violence against other nurses.

  14. Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Maxima Pereira Venancio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence. Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  15. Violence During Pregnancy Among Women With or at Risk for HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Linda J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Royce, Rachel A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study estimated the prevalence of violence during pregnancy in relation to HIV infection. Methods. Violence, current partnerships, and HIV risk behaviors were assessed among 336 HIV-seropositive and 298 HIV-seronegative at-risk pregnant women. Results. Overall, 8.9% of women experienced recent violence; 21.5% currently had abusive partners. Violence was experienced by women in all partnership categories (range = 3.8% with nonabusive partners to 53.6% with physically abusive partners). Neither experiencing violence nor having an abusive partner differed by serostatus. Receiving an HIV diagnosis prenatally did not increase risk. Disclosure-related violence occurred, but was rare. Conclusions. Many HIV-infected pregnant women experience violence, but it is not typically attributable to their serostatus. Prenatal services should incorporate screening and counseling for all women at risk for violence. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:367–370) PMID:11867312

  16. Autonomy as a Predictor of Marital Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christina A.; And Others

    Recent qualitative investigations of abusive men have indicated that power and control of the wife are central themes in incidents of marital violence. Furthermore, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that abusive husbands hold more traditional sex-role stereotypes, are more possessive and jealous, and are more controlling than nonabusive…

  17. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  18. Violence against children within the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACEK J. BŁESZYŃSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e article presents the problem of child abuse in the family. Shows the causes of violence in the family, but also treats children’s rights under the Convention on the Rights of the child, such as the right to an identity, right to expression, the right to live without violence, the right to social assistance, right to education. Th is article presents the family as the basic environment in which the child is born and brought up, because it has strong infl uence on the shaping of his personality. Refers to the fact that the home should be a place where the child feels safe. Pointed out that oft en but this is different, because victims of domestic violence are mostly women and children, as being weak and defenseless against their persecutors. Th e defi nition of domestic violence was quoted. Pointed to factors that protection children from violence, as well as the factors which contribute to harming. Defi ned physical violence against the child, and refers to the normative acts in this area, established as the sexual exploitation of children, studies showing the extent of the problem, and also refers to the legislation, to protect the child from sexual abuse. Th e article refers to the mental abuse and neglect in the family. Distinguished category of emotional abuse, as well as identifi ed other forms of child abuse in the family, such as alcoholism, drug abuse or other negative attitudes of parents, stigmatized by the law.

  19. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  20. Youth violence: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leonardo Díaz Galvis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to summarize the principal concepts around the biological and psychological contributions that explain the juvenile violence. In the genetic part we talk about adoption, twins studies and the genes that had been related with violence. In the area of neurotransmitters we selective talk about serotonine. We outline the relationship between sexual y physical abuse with violence and the link of those that consume alcohol and drugs with violence conducts. We also briefly view the roll of TV and radio with juvenile violence. Finally the article describes the different kinds of treatment of violence.

  1. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surviving wife rape: how women define and cope with the violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, R K

    1995-06-01

    This article investigates how women define their experiences of marital rape and cope with the violence. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted among 35 survivors of marital rape. It found out that women's definition of sexual violence often change over the course of the relationship in a similar manner, from seeing the sexual attacks as an aberrant incident, to redefining the incident as rape, to terminating the relationship with a ¿rapist¿. This study further describes the 6 stages through which women pass in coping with the violence, which include entering a violent relationship; managing the violence; experiencing a loss of self; redefining the violence; ending the violence; and recovering from the trauma. This study, however, gives particular attention to understanding how women manage the violence and redefine their experiences as rape. It concludes by acknowledging that marital rape is a serious problem with very real consequences for the women who experience it.

  3. Trends in deliberate interpersonal violence in the Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2002. The Odense study on deliberate interpersonal violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, Christian; Lauritsen, Jens; Brink, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year study was carried out to investigate the development of interpersonal violence based on A and E department and/or forensic data from a Danish urban population. Included in the study were all victims of violence from the Odense municipality treated at the Odense University Hospital...... or subjected to medicolegal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark 1991-2002. Overall 14,316 victims of violence were included in the study. The incidence rates of violence were 9.9 and 3.4 per 1000 population/year for males and females. For males the incidence rate...... decreased in the study period whereas the incidence rate was unchanged among females. Less serious lesions and wounds were the most common type of lesions. The percentage of less serious lesions increased in the study period. The percentage of potential severe lesions such as bone fractures and deep lesions...

  4. Physician-led committee tackles youth-violence problem in one of Canada's fastest-growing cities.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien-Bell, J

    1995-01-01

    Dr. John O'Brien-Bell, a past president of the CMA, recently chaired the Advisory Committee on Youth Violence in Surrey, BC. It studied issues such as the incidence of violence, the evolution taking place in the city and society, and the erosion of traditional social values. In its final report, the committee recommended 78 possible steps for reducing violence among young Canadians.

  5. Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hydatidiform mole resulting from sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezett Jefferson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidiform mole (HM is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition.

  7. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  9. A retrospective audit of the extent and nature of domestic violence cases identified over a three year period in the two district command units of the police service of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T R; Goodall, E A; Moore, C B T

    2008-10-01

    The work load of forensic medical officers (FMOs) who provide medical cover for the Coleraine and Limavady district command units (DCU) of the police service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) in dealing with domestic violence was investigated over a three year period from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2006. A total of 128 cases involving domestic violence were identified during this three year period. There was a significant increase from 4% (32/791) in the first year to 6.6% (56/851, p<0.01) in the number of cases of identified domestic violence in the second year which dropped to 4.2% (40/956) in the third year. Victims were identified in 38% of these domestic violence cases with 62% being identified as assailants. It was noted that there was a significant difference in the proportion of male assailants (96.2%) from female assailants (3.8%). Fifty-four percent of victims were noted to have injuries in accordance with the more serious injury categories of assault of actual bodily harm (AOABH) and grievous bodily harm (GBH). Domestic incidents occurred at the home in 91% of cases, with the FMO being the primary contact in 97% of cases. Alcohol was implicated in 56% of all domestic violence cases recorded.

  10. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  12. Industry Television Ratings for Violence, Sex, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Traore, Aminata; Stoolmiller, Mike; Bergamini, Elaina; Sargent, James D

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether the industry-run television (TV) Parental Guidelines discriminate on violence, sexual behavior, alcohol use, and smoking in TV shows, to assess their usefulness for parents. Seventeen TV shows (323 episodes and 9214 episode minutes) across several TV show rating categories (TVY7, TVPG, TV14, and TVMA) were evaluated. We content-coded the episodes, recording seconds of each risk behavior, and we rated the salience of violence in each one. Multilevel models were used to test for associations between TV rating categories and prevalence of risk behaviors across and within episodes or salience of violence. Every show had at least 1 risk behavior. Violence was pervasive, occurring in 70% of episodes overall and for 2.3 seconds per episode minute. Alcohol was also common (58% of shows, 2.3 seconds per minute), followed by sex (53% of episodes, 0.26 seconds per minute), and smoking (31% of shows, 0.54 seconds per minute). TV Parental Guidelines did not discriminate prevalence estimates of TV episode violence. Although TV-Y7 shows had significantly less substance use, other categories were poor at discriminating substance use, which was as common in TV-14 as TV-MA shows. Sex and gory violence were the only behaviors demonstrating a graded increase in prevalence and salience for older-child rating categories. TV Parental Guidelines ratings were ineffective in discriminating shows for 3 out of 4 behaviors studied. Even in shows rated for children as young as 7 years, violence was prevalent, prominent, and salient. TV ratings were most effective for identification of sexual behavior and gory violence. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. DEFINING SPATIAL VIOLENCE. BUCHAREST AS A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia GHYKA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the spatial manifestations of violence, aiming to define the category of spatial violence by focusing on the recent urban history of Bucharest; it establishes links with the longer history of natural and inflicted disasters that defined the city, and it explores the spatial, urban, social and symbolical conflicts that occured during the last 25 years, pointing at their consequences on the social and urban substance of the city.

  14. BEING DELIVERED: SPIRITUALITY IN SURVIVORS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical framework explaining how survivors of sexual violence use spirituality to respond to or recover from sexual violence is presented. Data were drawn from open-ended interviews of 27 women and 23 men who participated in a larger, ongoing study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence. Grounded theory methodology was used to develop the core category of Being Delivered, reflecting the participants’ experiences of being rescued, saved, or set free from the effects of sexual violence by a spiritual being or power. The theoretical framework describing Being Delivered is composed of three dimensions: Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Journey, and Spiritual Transformation. The framework can be used by clinicians to guide discussions of spirituality and healing with survivors of sexual violence. PMID:18382913

  15. Symbolic violence among adolescents in affective dating relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Borges Bittar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Understanding how adolescents signify their affective relationships and situations of conflict/violence within the dating context. Method A qualitative research with an empirical group comprised of adolescents from a state/public school, using focus group techniques and interviews. The analysis was performed through the interpretation of meanings method based on the hermeneutic-dialectical perspective. Results A total of 19 adolescents participated in the study. Two central theme categories emerged: “Meanings of adolescents’ affective relationships” and “From the (deconstruction of symbolic violence to the expression of other forms of violence”. Conclusion The results show that it is possible to understand situations from affective adolescent relationships in which the legitimation of symbolic violence against women is identified. We believe that acting on the origin of violence at the beginning of adolescents’ relationships is the best way to fight or minimize it, aiming for democratizing gender relations and preventing conjugal violence.

  16. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are ... Gynecologists (FIGO) and the UN Joint Programme on Essential Services Package for Women Subject to Violence. (1) ...

  17. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...

  19. Exploring workplace violence among home care workers in a consumer-driven home health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Lindsay; Moss, Helen; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy; Rose, Linda; Anger, W Kent; Hanson, Ginger C; Christian, Mervyn; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Nominal research has examined sexual harassment and workplace violence against home care workers within consumer-driven home care models such as those offered in Oregon. This study examined home care workers' experiences of violence while providing care to consumer employers, the patients who hire and manage home care workers. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in Oregon with 83 home care workers, 99 Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS) employees, and 11 consumer employers. Home care workers reported incidents of workplace physical violence (44%), psychological abuse (65%), sexual harassment (41%), and sexual violence (14%). Further, three themes were identified that may increase the risk of workplace violence: (1) real and perceived barriers to reporting violence; (2) tolerance of violence; and (3) limited training to prevent violence. To ensure worker safety while maintaining quality care, safety policies and training for consumer employers, state DHS employees, and home care workers must be developed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Violence Towards Family Caregivers by Their Relative with Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Fujii, Chiyo

    2018-06-01

    There have been several violence-related deaths in Japan due to family violence by persons with severe mental illness against their caregivers. However, it is not often acknowledged that these violent acts are mainly directed at family members. This study aimed to clarify what acts of violence family caregivers experienced from their relative with schizophrenia, and how frequently these violent incidents occurred in their lifetime. We also examined caregivers' thoughts of death about themselves and their relatives, as well as their consultation efforts and escape from the violence perpetrated by their relative. Of the 277 caregivers, 87.7% had experienced psychological violence and 75.8% had experienced physical violence perpetrated by their relative. Of 210 caregivers who had experienced physical violence, 26.7% had thought of murder-suicide and 31.0% had wished for their relative's death. Family violence by persons with schizophrenia is not rare but a common occurrence in Japan and may have fatal consequences.

  1. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  2. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  3. Physicians and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Joslin, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...

  4. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  5. School violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-04-01

    School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.

  6. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  7. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  8. Morphology of School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Irene

    This paper discusses school violence, examining pertinent research, media, and policy documents. Section 1 examines the evolution of terminologies related to youth violence. Section 2 explains that when reviewing researchers' conclusions on school violence, it is important to consider the role perception had in determining those views. Section 3…

  9. Prediction of domestic violence against married women in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two decades of violence - A cohort study from the Danish municipality of Aarhus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, O; Bitch, O.; Petersen, KK

    2002-01-01

    , the latest in 1993-1994. The purpose of this recent study is to reveal updated information about the incidence and character of violence in Aarhus. Methodology, Dynamic cohort studs during the period the 1st of April 1999 to the 31st of March 2000. Persons who after having been exposed to violence arrived...... to 1496. The annual incidence rate decreased to 4.6 victims/1000. The decrease in violence was particularly among the 15-24 year old males. The extent of violence against women remained unchanged in 1999-2000. Foreigners were significantly higher represented among victims. The character and severity...

  11. An evolution in interdisciplinary competencies to prevent and manage patient violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Paula G

    2002-01-01

    Patient violence is a growing problem in healthcare institutions. Incidents of violence lead to injuries and increased operating costs. An innovative organizational approach to this problem is inclusion of interdisciplinary competency-based staff education and practice, as a key component of a comprehensive violence prevention program.Interdisciplinary competencies include a variety of behavioral responses, aimed at prevention, environmental, interpersonal, and physical interventions and postvention techniques for aggression and violence. Methods to maintain, monitor, document, and improve staff performance and skills are delineated. Organizational investment in such interdisciplinary competency-based education and practice evolves over time. Results include fewer incidents and injuries and enhanced interdisciplinary cooperation.

  12. Workplace violence against nurses in Indonesian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorana Zahra, Anggri; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the experiences of violent incidents by nurses in Indonesian emergency departments. The World Health Organization's structured questionnaire on workplace violence in the health sector was modified and translated into Bahasa. The study participants were 169 nurses working in emergency departments in six hospitals in Jakarta and Bekasi, Indonesia. The gathered data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression. Ten percent of emergency nurses reported experiencing physical violence, perpetrated mostly by patients, whereas more than half of emergency nurses (54.6%) reported experiencing non-physical violence, with patients' relative as the main perpetrators. A majority of nurses (55.6%) did not have encouragement to report workplace violence, and very few nurses (10.1%) had received any information or training about workplace violence. The findings of this study highlighted the seriousness of violence in Indonesian emergency departments. Support from management, encouragement to report violence, and access to workplace violence training were expected to mitigate and manage violence against nurses in emergency departments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  14. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  15. Human dignity and professional reputation under threat: Iranian Nurses' experiences of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Workplace violence against nurses is a challenging problem in both developed and developing countries. Because the concept of violence bears some cultural load, nurses' understanding is region-specific. This study explores Iranian nurses' perceptions of workplace violence. Using qualitative content analysis, 22 registered nurses underwent unstructured, in-depth interviews. The main themes of threats to human dignity and professional reputation emerged, plus four categories: physical violence, psychological violence, honor insults, and ethnic-religious insults. The term "honor insults," as a unique finding, was used instead of "sexual harassment." These findings may help to redefine workplace violence based on cultural background, design strategies for supporting nurses, and prevent and manage such violence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  17. Junior nursing students' experiences of vertical violence during clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P; Burk, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal violence is a form of workplace violence, a phenomenon that is prevalent in the nursing profession. Research has revealed a variety of negative peer-to-peer behaviors that lower morale and lead to turnover. However, little research has been conducted on "eating our young" (violence occurring between individuals with unequal power, such as staff nurse and student). We propose "vertical violence" as the appropriate term when abusive registered nurse (RN) behavior is directed towards students. We report a content analysis of stories written by junior nursing students about incidents of injustice perpetrated by staff RNs during their clinical experiences. Four levels of injustice were described. Nursing leadership, both in hospitals and educational institutions, must become engaged in efforts to eradicate vertical violence towards students.

  18. Workplace violence against adolescent workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J

    2008-07-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem yet most research on this topic has focused on adults. Despite facing numerous employment conditions that raise their risk for workplace violence, adolescent workers have received inadequate attention. Survey data from 1,171 US students ages 14-17 were analyzed using descriptive statistics to investigate the incidence and perpetrators of physical attacks, verbal threats, and sexual harassment. Nearly one-third of respondents experienced some form of workplace violence: 25% verbally threatened, 10% physically attacked, and 10% sexually harassed. Significant demographic differences were found. The most common perpetrators of physical attacks and verbal threats were customers while sexual harassment most often came from co-workers. Many working adolescents, most with only a few years work experience, have already suffered workplace violence. As youth are likely to be more vulnerable to its effects, developing workplace violence prevention strategies that target adolescent workers should be made a priority. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  20. Sexual assault and other types of violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Intolerance and Violence Against Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2017-10-01

    Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics. There is a need to arrest the development of further distrust between doctors and their patients/relatives, otherwise it will compromise all achievements of medical science and adversely affect healing capabilities of doctors. Rude and aggressive behavior of the patients or their family members, and arrogant and lackadaisical approach of the doctor, adversely affects the doctor-patient relationship and the outcome of the patient. The doctors, hospital administration and government must exercise "zero tolerance" with respect to acts of violence against healthcare professionals. It is possible to reduce the incidence of intolerance against doctors but difficult to eliminate it completely. The healthcare providers should demonstrate greater compassion and empathy with improved communication skills. The hospitals must have adequate infrastructure, facilities and staff to handle emergencies without delay and with due confidence and skills. The security of healthcare providers, especially in sensitive areas, should be improved by having adequate number of security guards, frisking facilities, extensive CCTV network and availability of "Quick response team" to handle unruly mob. In case of any grievances for alleged mismanagement, the public should handle the situation in a civilized manner and seek redressal through Medical Protection Act and legal

  2. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...

  3. Caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Juliana; Grice, Sarah; Garety, Philippa; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour in psychosis is not uncommon. Community provision for people with psychosis has left informal caregivers to take on a greater role in their care. However, few studies have explored links between patient-initiated violence in mental health caregiving relationships and caregiver functioning. Our study investigated caregiver reports of aggressive acts committed by their relative with psychosis and their links to caregiver appraisals of the caregiving relationship and caregiver outcomes. Caregivers of patients with a recent relapse of psychosis, recruited to a psychological therapy trial, completed the audiotaped Camberwell Family Interview at baseline. This semi-structured interview includes questions on the quality of the relationship between caregiver and patient, and patient history of violence. Seventy-two transcripts of interviews were assessed for reports of patient-initiated violence. One-half of the caregiver sample (52.9%) reported an incident of patient-initiated violence during their interview; 62.2% of these involved violence toward themselves, and 24.3% toward property. Reports of patient violence were associated with caregiver ratings of hostility expressed toward patients, lower self-esteem, and emotion-focused coping. People caring on their own were more likely to report incidents of patient violence. Younger patients, males, and inpatients were more frequently identified as having a history of this kind of violence. Our findings suggested that caregiver reports of patient-initiated violence in psychosis are not uncommon. Mental health staff need to be aware of the risks of such violence for caregivers of people with psychosis, and consider appropriate procedures for minimizing it.

  4. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  5. Violence in the Emergency Department: A Global Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Allison; Kiefer, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Violence against health care workers is an unfortunately common event. Because of several inherent factors, emergency departments are particularly vulnerable. Once an incident occurs, it often goes unreported and leads to both physical and mental trauma. Health care workers should learn to recognize the cues that patients are escalating toward violence and be familiar with various options for sedating agitated patients. If sedation is not successful, physical restraint may become necessary. There are measures that can be taken that may help minimize the likelihood of violence toward health care workers. These measures include legislation, physical design, and increased security. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The path to extreme violence: nazism and serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In people's minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of "organised insanity" that is extreme violence.

  7. The path to extreme violence: Nazism and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In people’s minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of ‘organised insanity’ that is extreme violence.

  8. Domestic violence and violence against children in Ghana 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...

  9. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  10. Revisiting the Link Between Economic Distress, Race, and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, J Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Howden, Wesley

    2017-06-01

    Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock. This study uses mass layoff events reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at the county level ( N = 3,377) for the years 2003-2008. Mass layoff events occur when a firm lays off at least 50 workers and are uncorrelated with individual-level characteristics ( N = 28,939 events, affecting N = 5,337,481 individuals). Domestic violence data are taken from the National Archive of Criminal Justice and defined as occurring when an accused perpetrator is charged, but not necessarily convicted. We use a multivariate regression model to estimate how differences in the change in reported incidences of domestic violence by race correlate with changes in mass layoffs by race. We control for the poverty rate, real per capita income, percent Black, percent women, and percent of females laid off. The standard errors are clustered at the county level and include county and time dummies to account for regional and time specific trends. We observe that an increase in the number of Blacks subject to a mass layoff event do exert a negative associated influence on domestic violence while layoffs of White men exert a positive influence. Our results shed light on how the influence of economic uncertainty on incidences of domestic violence has been found to be positive in some previous research but negative in other research.

  11. Corrélats des enquêtes conjointes des services de protection de l'enfance et des services de police sur les abus sexuels d'enfants : résultats de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Dans cette étude, nous examinons la fréquence des enquêtes conjointes menées par les services de protection de l'enfance et les services de police dans les cas d'abus sexuels en comparaison des autres types de maltraitance. Nous examinons également les associations, dans les enquêtes conjointes, entre les caractéristiques relatives à l'enfant, celles relatives au pourvoyeur de soins de l'enfant, celles relatives aux mauvais traitements eux-mêmes et celles relatives à l'enquête, en nous intéressant plus particulièrement aux enquêtes sur les abus sexuels. Méthodologie : Nous avons analysé par régression logistique les données de l'Étude canadienne sur l'incidence des signalements de cas de violence et de négligence envers les enfants 2008. Résultats : D'après les données, les enquêtes conjointes portent en premier lieu sur les abus sexuels (55 %, puis sur la violence physique, la négligence et la violence psychologique. La corroboration des mauvais traitements, les mauvais traitements graves, le placement, l'intervention des tribunaux de la jeunesse et l'orientation d'un membre de la famille vers des services spécialisés sont plus fréquents quand les services de police participent à l'enquête. Conclusion : Cette étude vient bonifier l'information limitée dont on dispose sur les corrélats des enquêtes conjointes menées par les agences de protection de l'enfance et les services de police. D'autres recherches devront être effectuées pour déterminer l'efficacité de ces enquêtes conjointes.

  12. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  13. Sexual violence against women: the scope of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence

  14. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  16. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  17. The Effect of Media on Domestic Violence Norms: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhuk Bhushan; Prakarsh Singh

    2014-01-01

    Greater access to media may influence norms about domestic violence. It may lead to greater acceptance of violence due to an increase in the incidence of violence or to lower acceptance due to a change in gender norms. Applying a difference-in-differences methodology to the National Family Health Survey, India (1998-99 and 2005-06), we find evidence that regularly accessing television and radio leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in the probability of women accepting dome...

  18. [Translated Title: Participatory research to develop a school violence observation instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Santiago, Nilda G; Rivera, Tania Cruz; Rodríguez, Maryanes Trenche; Báez Ávila, Loggina S

    2017-01-01

    School violence has been recognized worldwide as a public health problem that negatively impacts the educational process. However, in Puerto Rico official statistics and the media generally focus on isolated incidents of extreme violence in which weapons are used or property is destroyed. Little data is available about the most common forms of violence that often occur in schools on a daily basis. The Instrumento de Observación de Violencia Escolar (INOVE) , developed with the input of school communities participating in Project VIAS (Violence and Asthma Health Disparity Network) of Universidad del Este (UNE), was used in this study to gather information about the characteristics of violence in two Puerto Rican schools. Among the study findings we highlight gender differences in observed violence and aggressive games and interactions between students. The data collected have served as a basis for decision-making regarding violence prevention in participating schools and have implications for the development of prevention strategies and programs.

  19. Domestic violence and the criminal justice system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Edna

    2002-01-01

    It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.

  20. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn L; Duncan, Susan M; Estabrooks, Carole A; Reimer, Marlene A; Giovannetti, Phyllis; Hyndman, Kathryn; Acorn, Sonia

    2003-03-01

    Workplace violence is a significant and widespread public health concern among health care workers, including nurses. With growing awareness of how practice environments influence patient outcomes and the retention of health professionals, it is timely to consider the impact of workplace violence in hospitals. Registered nurses in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada were surveyed on their experiences of violence in the workplace over the last five shifts. Our results suggest that nurses are experiencing many incidences of violence in a given work week, particularly in the emergency, psychiatric, and medical-surgical settings. Most violent acts are perpetrated by patients, but there is also a significant portion of violence and abuse committed by hospital co-workers, particularly emotional abuse and sexual harassment. Our results also indicate that the majority of workplace violence is not reported. We suggest that using the Broken Windows theory might be a useful tool to conceptualize why workplace violence occurs, and that this framework be used to begin to develop new violence prevention policies and strategies.

  1. Violence Towards Health Care Staff: Risk Factors, Aftereffects, Evaluation and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Annagur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in violence against physicians and healthcare staff in the health-care environment in recent years. The risk of violence remains stronger in people working in health institutions than the ones working in other businesses. Results of previous studies in this issue consistently confirmed the fact that violence in health care business is quite higher in frequency than the violence reported in other business environments. However it has also been reported that only attacks resulting in serious injuries have been considered as incidents of violence and other violence attempts are inclined not to be reported to legal authorities resulting in a much lower official rates. Not only patients but also the relatives of patients have been reported to expose violence against healthcare workers. Verbal violence were found to be more common than physical violence. Violence incidents happen most commonly in the emergency room settings, and psychiatric clinic settings. Health care staff exposed to violence usually suffer from anxiety and restlessness as psychological after-effects. Health care workers are not sufficiently trained about how to cope with acute and chronic effects of violent behavior. This issue should be handled within the framework of medical faculty and related schools’ curriculum. All health care staff including physicians should get sufficient education to take immediate actions on such incidents. Unfortunately in Turkey, there is no specific legal regulation related to violence towards health employees. The verbal attacks, injuries, assault and murder of health workers are subject to general legal provisions. Both rapid changes in health care services, facilities and shortcomings in legal regulations cause gaps in violence prevention and employing safety issues in hospitals and related health care facilities. Training employees and hospital managers, and considering the creation and application of present and

  2. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  3. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  4. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  5. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  6. Effects of Violence Prevention Behavior on Exposure to Workplace Violence and Threats: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann; Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie

    2018-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats-in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.

  7. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  8. Stalking and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D

    2016-12-01

    The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Grammar of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... of violence, vold, and similar concepts, the paper aims to open a new ethnolinguistic research agenda for the study of negative sociality constructs and the positive value system hidden in such concepts. The Danish ethnosyntax of vold ‘violence, abuse’ hidden in compound morphology is scrutinized. Focusing...

  10. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged dating violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  12. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  13. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  14. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  15. Women's Perceptions and Experiences of Domestic Violence: An Observational Study From Hyderabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhani, Farhana I; Karmaliani, Rozina; Patel, Cyra; Bann, Carla M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    This community-based observational study of 1,325 women seen for antenatal care examined how women in Pakistan define violence against women (VAW), with an emphasis on domestic violence, what an acceptable response to violence is, reasons for remaining silent, and whether participants are willing to disclose incidents of domestic violence to others. Nearly half of the study participants believed that physical violence was VAW. Verbal abuse, controlling behavior by the husband, conflict with in-laws, overburdening domestic work, and threatening to leave or remarry were also considered VAW. However, only five respondents (0.4%) considered sexual abuse to be VAW. Most women who screened positive for domestic violence responded by remaining silent or verbal fighting back. None sought professional help. Women who decided to remain silent feared that the abuse would escalate or that responding would not help them. Women cited social stigma and concerns about the impact of the violence on children as reasons for not disclosing violent incidents to others or seeking professional help. Women's lack of autonomy further reduced their ability to take steps against violence. Although societal norms, particularly patriarchal beliefs and women's subordination to men, likely explain women's tolerance of abuse, their recognition of physical abuse as violence indicates that they do not necessarily believe it is always justified. Educational interventions to drive changes in the social norms around gender violence along with effective and enforceable legal measures are likely required to ensure women's safety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Teachers' Perceptions of Student Violence in Public Schools: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increase in violence in many public schools over the last few decades. While school leaders have attempted to address this problem of violence, no recorded documentation of significant change exists. Teachers are the ones who usually see violent behaviors by students before, during, and after an incident, but many studies do not…

  17. Attitudes toward Police Response to Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y.; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating…

  18. Family ambiguity and domestic violence in Asia: Reconceptualising law and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    The book Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia (2013; Brighton: Sussex University Press) raises pertinent questions as to why the incidence of domestic violence has remained as a continuing scourge. The Focus section in this issue of The Newsletter provides the abridged version of select

  19. Part of the Job? Workplace Violence in Massachusetts Social Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer R.; Slayter, Elspeth; Flanzbaum, Beth; Butler, Nanci Ginty; Domingo, Beryl; Perlstein, Judith; Trust, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious and surprisingly understudied occupational hazard in social service settings. The authors of this study conducted an anonymous, Internet-based survey of Massachusetts social service agencies to estimate the incidence of physical assault and verbal threat of violence in social service agencies, understand how social…

  20. Coming to Self-Awareness--In Search of an Education for Non-Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, Crain

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on intentionality systems theory to begin a discussion about the relationship between the act of violence and thinking. The context against which the paper is developed is the widespread incidence of violence amongst young male South Africans. With the objective of beginning a discussion about an education which responds to this…

  1. Constructions of Local Culture and Impacts on Domestic Violence in an Australian Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Studies of domestic violence in rural areas have predominantly focused on barriers that keep women trapped in abusive relationships. The literature has frequently suggested that rural culture influences the incidence of domestic violence, the forms it takes, and how it is experienced. Yet there is surprisingly little research on how rural culture…

  2. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Schnapp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods: This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. Results: A majority of residents (66%, 78/119 reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119 experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119 had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119 reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe “Occasionally,” “Seldom” or “Never” while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Conclusion: Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  3. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Benjamin H.; Slovis, Benjamin H.; Shah, Anar D.; Fant, Abra L.; Gisondi, Michael A.; Shah, Kaushal H.; Lech, Christie A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. Results A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe “Occasionally,” “Seldom” or “Never” while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Conclusion Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts. PMID:27625721

  4. Gun Violence and Victimization of Strangers by Persons With a Mental Illness: Data From the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Henry J; Monahan, John; Pinals, Debra A; Vesselinov, Roumen; Robbins, Pamela Clark

    2015-11-01

    Highly publicized incidents in which people with apparent mental illnesses use guns to victimize strangers have important implications for public views of people with mental illnesses and the formation of mental health and gun policy. The study aimed to provide more data about this topic. MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study data were analyzed to determine the prevalence of violence by 951 patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital, including gun violence, violence toward strangers, and gun violence toward strangers. Two percent of patients committed a violent act involving a gun, 6% committed a violent act involving a stranger, and 1% committed a violent act involving both a gun and a stranger. When public perceptions and policies regarding mental illness are shaped by highly publicized but infrequent instances of gun violence toward strangers, they are unlikely to help people with mental illnesses or to improve public safety.

  5. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  6. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  7. Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-01-02

    Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.

  8. Violence in public school: reports of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carneiro Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the perception of violence from the reports of teachers of elementary and high school in a public state school in Fortaleza, Ceará. Method: A qualitative descriptive study conducted with 26 teachers, in the period from January to May 2006. To collect the data we adopted the following procedures: the discussion on school violence during the meetings of the teacher training week; the reading of the school regulations and the distribution of an instrument with the guiding question about the concept of violence as from the school reality, among the participants of the study. Afterwards, the thematic analysis of the reports was carried out. Results: Through the reports of teachers emerged the following categories: physical aggression, verbal aggression and fights as the most cited; to hide personal belongings, cursing, shoving and disrespect for the teacher and pranks were also mentioned. Conclusion: From the reports it appears that violence is perceived in physical, dimension moral and symbolic, and these “typologies” corroborate the descriptions found in literature as bullying or incivility, which dominate the school context.

  9. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  10. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  12. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  13. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  14. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  15. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  16. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  17. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...

  18. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  19. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  1. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  2. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  3. [Intimate partner violence. Types and risk in primary care health users in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Rovira Alcocer, Gloria; Vital Hernandez, Omar; Pat Espadas, Fany Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence and type of intimate partner violence in women assigned at primary care health and estimates the risks for violence. Case (incident cases)-control. Primary health care unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Women over 18years old living in couple at last 12months. Validated violence scale for Mexican population was evaluated: total partner violence, physical, psychological and sexual violence. History of violence and sociodemographic variables. Chi square for categorical variables and odds ratio (OR) for risk estimate was determined. The total intimate partner violence was 15.05%, psychological violence in 37.3%. Overall violence, age differences, socioeconomic status, marital status, history of violence and alcohol intake by the partner (P<.05) were observed. The risk increased in over 40 years old (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.07 to 4.11), history of violence (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.8 to 12.44) and alcohol intake by partner (OR=12.38; 95%CI: 2.15 to 29.59). Low socioeconomic status (OR: 0.384; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.74) and free union (OR: 0.507; 95%CI: 0.27 to 0.95) were relation factors to lower intimate violence partner. Sexual violence predominated among users of primary health care and the risk that present this behavior increases with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the couple and a history of violence, but the free union and socioeconomic status were possibility protected for violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population.We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders.ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology.The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  5. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  6. Using database reports to reduce workplace violence: Perceptions of hospital stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith E; Hamblin, Lydia; Ager, Joel; Aranyos, Deanna; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Luborsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Documented incidents of violence provide the foundation for any workplace violence prevention program. However, no published research to date has examined stakeholders' preferences for workplace violence data reports in healthcare settings. If relevant data are not readily available and effectively summarized and presented, the likelihood is low that they will be utilized by stakeholders in targeted efforts to reduce violence. To discover and describe hospital system stakeholders' perceptions of database-generated workplace violence data reports. Eight hospital system stakeholders representing Human Resources, Security, Occupational Health Services, Quality and Safety, and Labor in a large, metropolitan hospital system. The hospital system utilizes a central database for reporting adverse workplace events, including incidents of violence. A focus group was conducted to identify stakeholders' preferences and specifications for standardized, computerized reports of workplace violence data to be generated by the central database. The discussion was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, processed as text, and analyzed using stepwise content analysis. Five distinct themes emerged from participant responses: Concerns, Etiology, Customization, Use, and Outcomes. In general, stakeholders wanted data reports to provide ``the big picture,'' i.e., rates of occurrence; reasons for and details regarding incident occurrence; consequences for the individual employee and/or the workplace; and organizational efforts that were employed to deal with the incident. Exploring stakeholder views regarding workplace violence summary reports provided concrete information on the preferred content, format, and use of workplace violence data. Participants desired both epidemiological and incident-specific data in order to better understand and work to prevent the workplace violence occurring in their hospital system.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  8. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Elena Andreyeva; Eugenia C. South; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical,...

  9. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  10. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  11. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....

  12. Prejudice and Discrimination as Expressions of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Bandeira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the construction of prejudice – and the visibility of the ensuing discriminations – associated with the emergence of differences, be it through the affirmation and manipulation of the conditions of difference or through their denial and dissimulation. In both cases, there is a lack of recognition of, or disrespect for, differences that is constitutive of new patterns of violence. This essay builds a bridge between discrimination and violence, emphasizing the diverse forms of discrimination and exclusion, which include: the juridical parameters related to co-existence and re-cognition; the social sciences approach to the construction of differences/non-similarities; the conceptual framework of the category ‘prejudice‘ and its derivative forms of discrimination and social exclusion; the mechanisms of prejudice; and the difference-prejudice relation, image and rationalization of the Other .

  13. Violence against nurses in emergency departments in jordan: nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darawad, Muhammad W; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Ali M; Mustafa, Waddah Mohammad; Odeh, Haifa

    2015-01-01

    Violence against nurses in emergency departments (EDs) has become a widespread phenomenon affecting nurses' job satisfaction and work performance. Literature is scarce regarding prevalence rates and causes of violence directed toward nurses in Jordan. The present study investigated violence experienced by Jordanian nurses in EDs and causes of violence from their perspectives. This descriptive study collected data from 174 Jordanian ED nurses. The majority of the participants (91.4%) reported experiencing violence (verbal 95.3% vs. physical 23.3%). According to participants, the most common causes of violence in the ED were crowding and workload (75.9%), and the least was care of patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (35.6%). Violence is common in Jordanian EDs, giving rise to many heath and behavioral consequences. Health care administrators are obligated to protect nurses from violent incidents by providing adequate safety measures, beneficial administrative procedures, and sincere efforts to overcome the causes of this phenomenon. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. HUBUNGAN PENGGUNAAN JENIS MEDIA MASSA DENGAN KEJADIAN DATING VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekti Satriyandari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrack: The study aimed to determine the correlation between the use of mass media and dating violence occurrence at State Senior High School 1 Pajangan Bantul Yogyakarta. The correlation study used cross sectional approach. Samples were 108 students (total sampling. The measuring instruments were checklists and questionnaires. The data were analyzed using Chi Square. That was indicated by the value x 2 (12.531 with the significant value (p = 0.002 <0.05, and the contingency coefficient (0,322. There was a correlation between the use of mass media and dating violence occurrence at State Senior High School 1 Pajangan Bantul Yogyakarta. It is expected that teenagers do not date in order to avoid the incidence of dating violence and are able to use information technology properly and appropriately.Keywords: the use of mass media, dating violence

  15. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  16. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  17. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  18. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  19. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  20. Sexual Violence as a Key Contributor to Poor Mental Health Among Japanese Women Subjected to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoko; Wynter, Karen; Yokota, Jinko; Tran, Thach; Ujiie, Yuri; Niwa, Madoka; Nakayama, Michi; Ito, Fumie; Kim, Yoshiharu; Fisher, Jane; Kamo, Toshiko

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative experiences. The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences. The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.

  1. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2015-11-18

    Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband's violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women's reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. In the present study, ways of coping with a husband's violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman's capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account.

  3. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  4. Violence Against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  5. Femmes, genre et violence

    OpenAIRE

    Castan-Vicente, Florys; Benevent, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Le présent article s’attache à comparer deux ouvrages sur la violence et les femmes, parus à quinze ans d’intervalle : De la violence et des femmes (1997) et Penser la violence des femmes (2012). Il s’agira de dégager de cette comparaison des conclusions sur l’évolution, entre ces deux dates, de ce champ d’étude, très neuf lors de la parution du premier ouvrage, et ayant connu un développement important par la suite.

  6. Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency

  7. Urban teens and young adults describe drama, disrespect, dating violence and help-seeking preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R

    2012-07-01

    Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols

  8. Nurses' attitudes towards the reporting of violence in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Kathryn M; Beattie, Jill; Morphet, Julia

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of workplace violence against nurses in emergency departments is underreported. Thus, the true nature and frequency of violent incidents remains unknown. It is therefore difficult to address the problem. To identify the attitudes, barriers and enablers of emergency nurses to the reporting of workplace violence. Using a phenomenological approach, two focus groups were conducted at a tertiary emergency department. The data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Violent incidents in this emergency department were underreported. Nurses accepted violence as part of their normal working day, and therefore were less likely to report it. Violent incidents were not defined as 'violence' if no physical injury was sustained, therefore it was not reported. Nurses were also motivated to report formally in order to protect themselves from any possible future complaints made by perpetrators. The current formal reporting system was a major barrier to reporting because it was difficult and time consuming to use. Nurses reported violence using methods other than the designated reporting system. While emergency nurses do report violence, they do not use the formal reporting system. When they did use the formal reporting system they were motivated to do so in order to protect themselves. As a consequence of underreporting, the nature and extent of workplace violence remains unknown. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  10. Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiying; Lin, Shaowei; Ruan, Qishuang; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2016-11-01

    The present study was to evaluate workplace violence and examine its effect on job burnout and turnover attempt among medical staff in China. A total of 2,020 medical employees were selected from Fujian province by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to measure the workplace violence and job burnout, respectively. Other potential influencing factors for job burnout and turnover attempt were collected using a structured questionnaire. The incidence of workplace violence among medical staff was 48.0%. Workplace violence had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a negative correlation with professional efficacy. Workplace violence, marital status, employment type, working time (≥ 10 h/day), performance recognition, and life satisfaction were significant predictors for turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

  11. Managing Workplace Violence With Evidence-Based Interventions: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Angel Johann Solorzano

    2016-09-01

    Workplace violence in health care settings is an occupational issue concerning nurses and other health care professionals. Patient aggression against nurses is often the most common form of violence in clinical settings, occurring in emergency departments, inpatient psychiatric settings, and nursing homes. Physical and verbal assaults are the major forms of workplace violence encountered by nurses. Current research has identified staff, environmental, and patient risk factors as the major precursors of workplace violence initiated by patients. Nurses often experience significant physical and psychological negative consequences after an episode of workplace violence. A review of the evidence was conducted to identify current evidence-based interventions that can help nurses minimize the incidence of workplace violence. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 31-36.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Differences among incarcerated women with assaultive offenses: isolated versus patterned use of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    A majority of the existing research on women's use of violence focuses on intimate partner violence, often excluding other types of violence for which women may be incarcerated. The current study expands this area of research by assessing between and within-group differences among a randomly selected group of incarcerated women (n = 543). Comparisons between violent and nonviolent offense types among women found few differences, but significant differences among women with an assaultive offense, based on the presence or absence of a self-reported uncaught violence, were found. Differences in women with isolated (i.e., single incident of violence perpetration through a review of formal and self-report data) and patterned uses of violence were present in relation to issues of mental health, substance abuse, criminogenic risk, and expressions of anger and personality factors. These findings have important implications for intervention as well as future research.

  13. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...

  14. Workplace violence: trends and risk groups in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Taris, T.W.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Incidence rates of physical violence in Europe have increased in the past decade, but little is known about the causes. It has been suggested that the growth of the service sector (leading to more interactions with clients) and the intensification of work (more time pressure, less control, more use

  15. GENDER VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?

  16. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Workplace violence and drug use in women workers in a Peruvian Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musayón Oblitas, F Y; Caufield, C

    2007-12-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study explored the relationship between workplace violence and drug use in women. It also explored the perception of women workers on the relationship between workplace violence and drug use. The World Health Organization and the United Nations recognize violence against women and have adopted a definition of it. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention reports that violence in the workplace has increased 300% over the last decade. Alcohol misuse, occupation and gender are associated with aggression in the workplace. Estimations of the incidence of non-fatal injuries sustained because of workplace violence and evaluations of the associated risk factors have rarely been documented. 125 women workers between the ages of 18 and 60 years were surveyed in four suburbs of Zapallal, Lima. Of the 125 women, 28.8% experienced violence in the workplace. Of the 36 women who had experienced violence in the workplace, 16 agreed to participate in interviews to explore their perceptions. The data were saturated with the 16 interviews. Of the 125 workers surveyed 17.6% experienced verbal violence, 9.6%% experienced physical violence, and 1.6% were sexually harassed in their workplace. Women who were verbally abused demonstrated eight times greater risk of drug use than those who did not experience this type of violence in their workplace. This paper contributes to an understanding of the relationships among drug abuse, gender and the incidence of violence in the workplace; it documents the perception women have of these relationships; and it supports the development of programmes and strategies related to the prevention of workplace violence and drug consumption by women workers.

  18. Prevalence and co-occurrence of violence against children in the Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine; Joly, Jacques; Cyr, Mireille; Baril, Karine

    2008-08-01

    A literature review on the incidence of different forms of child maltreatment revealed that rates in Australia and Quebec (Canada) were similar. This study sought to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of various forms of violence (physical, sexual and psychological) and explore gender and age difference. A telephone inquiry was conducted with a representative sample of 1,002 adults from the province of Quebec. More than one in three adults (37%) reported having experienced at least one of three forms of violence in childhood. Twelve per cent (12%) of the adults experienced two forms of violence while 4% of the respondents reported having experienced all three forms of violence in childhood. Psychological violence (22%) was the form most frequently reported, followed by physical violence (19%) and sexual violence (16%). The different prevalence rates did not vary as a function of age. However, regarding gender, women were more likely to report having been sexually victimised (rape and fondling) and less likely to report having experienced physical violence. A lower percentage of women reported having sustained no form of childhood victimisation and a higher percentage of women reported have experienced both sexual and psychological violence compared to men. These results, including both the global rates and those particular to each gender, are comparable to findings in similar North American studies. The co-occurrence rates noted are salient enough to necessitate particular attention to diverse clinical clientele and need to be considered in future research exploring the risk factors of violence and its subsequent repercussions.

  19. (Why) do victims become perpetrators? Intergenerational transmission of parental violence in a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Deborah F; Stiller, Anja; Glaubitz, Christoffer; Kliem, Sören

    2018-03-01

    Child maltreatment can severely impair children's emotional and physical well-being as well as their individual development across the life span. In 2011, the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (Germany), conducted a nationally representative victim survey on diverse forms of victimizations (N = 11,428). Among other things, experienced and exerted parental violence as well as participants' knowledge regarding the abolition of the parental right of corporal punishment were assessed. Apart from providing current estimates of the prevalence of experienced and exerted parental violence in Germany, we identified specific risk markers for the intergenerational transmission of parental violence. In summary, 52.6% of the participants reported experiences of at least one incident of at least minor parental violence until the age of 16 years, and 22.9% had exerted at least once at least one act of minor violence against their own children. Nonparametric conditional inference tree analyses revealed experienced parental violence as the most important risk marker for exerting parental violence. Furthermore, the number of children currently cared for, parental age, and origin as well as knowledge about the current legal situation regarding corporal punishment were significantly associated with exerting parental violence. For individuals without a history of parental violence, lack of experienced parental warmth and an age between 33 and 40 years increased the risk of exerting parental violence. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for designing effective prevention and intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Nurse violence in the workplace: a study of experiences and related factors in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheuan; Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Yen, Wen-Jiuan

    2010-04-01

    Workplace violence is an issue that recognizes no national boundaries. Nurses face a higher than average level of violence in the healthcare institutions in which they work. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of workplace violence and its related factors amongst nurses in healthcare settings in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study using a convenience sampling technique was conducted. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed, with 525 valid returns received. Results showed that 294 (56%) nurses reported having experienced physical violence. One hundred and three nurses (19.6%) reported experiencing psychological violence and 271 reported experiencing verbal abuse (51.6%). Factors found in this study to have a significant relationship with violence included age, gender, education background, job seniority and work shift status. The most significant groups of violence perpetrators were, in order of importance, patients, patient families/relatives, and co-workers. Despite the high prevalence of violence at healthcare institutions, only 198 (37.7%) participants agreed that their workplace had established violence reporting guidelines. Results provide specific data and insights into the prevalence of workplace violence faced by nurses in Taiwan. These findings may help nursing administrators, educators and healthcare managers prevent, reduce, and control such incidents in the future.

  1. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey's emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-06-29

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Cross-sectional survey study. Country of Turkey. Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians' personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians' opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Our results indicated that ED physicians' experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey’s emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Setting Country of Turkey. Participants Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians’ personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians’ opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. Results A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Conclusions Our results indicated that ED physicians’ experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. PMID:28663323

  3. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  4. Violence, xenophobia and crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prominent domestic and international media coverage of threats of xenophobic violence, predicted to start ..... 2010; V Igglesden, T Monson et al., Humanitarian. Assistance to ... Johannesburg, CoRMSA, Crisis in Zimbabwe. Coalition, FMS ...

  5. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Press Room Social Media Publications ...

  6. Ethnic Violence in Moldolva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barclay, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Moldovan Transdniester War of 1992 is illustrative of modern day ethno-national violence and yields unique lessons on the role and use of military power in dealing with and resolving such crises...

  7. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  8. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  9. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Evaluating Domestic Violence Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of the Brøset Violence Checklist as predictor of violence in forensic psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2014-01-01

    quality of care. AIMS: To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC) as a predictor of violent incidents for Danish forensic psychiatry patients. METHOD: A total of 156 patients were assessed three times daily with the BVC for 24 months. All aggressive or violent...

  12. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  13. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  14. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  15. A longitudinal perspective on violence in the lives of South African children from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort study in JohannesburgSoweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Richter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Violence against children is a significant cause of personal suffering and long-term ill health, poor psychological adjustment, and a range of social difficulties, including adverse effects intergenerationally.Objectives. Using a large corpus of longitudinal data collected in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, to give an overview of exposure to and experience of violence, as well as perpetration of violence, across childhood, reported contemporaneously by several informants. This overcomes limitations of retrospectively recalled information collected from one person at one point in time.Methods. We identified 280 data points relating to exposure to and perpetration of violence in 14 of the 21 waves of data collection from birth to 22 years of age. Data were classified into four developmental stages (preschool, primary school years, adolescence and young adulthood and seven categories (exposure to violence in the community, home and school; exposure to peer violence; being a victim of violence, excluding sexual violence; sexual violence; and perpetration of violence. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyse the data.Results. Over the past two decades, only 1% of the sample had not been exposed to or experienced violence in their home, school and/or community. Two-thirds of children of schoolgoing age were reported as having been exposed to community violence, and more than half of all children to violence in their home. Reports of sexual violence increased from 10% among primary school-aged children to ~30% among adolescents and young adults. Over the course of their lives, ~40% of children were reported as having been exposed to or being victims of five or six of the categories of violence coded in this analysis. High levels of violence perpetration were reported across childhood. Age and gender differences in exposure to and experience and perpetration of violence were evident, and all categories of

  16. Violence against new graduated nurses in clinical settings: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Hassankhani, Hadi; Negarandeh, Reza; Jeffrey, Carol; Azizi, Azim

    2017-09-01

    Ethical studies in nursing are very important topics, and it is particularly crucial with vulnerable populations such as new graduated nurses. Neglecting ethical principles and violence toward graduates can lead to their occupational burnout, job dissatisfaction, and leaving the nursing profession. This study was designed with the aim of understanding the experience of Iranian experienced nurses' use of lateral and horizontal violence against new graduated nurses. This qualitative study used a conventional content analysis approach; it was conducted with 18 experienced nurses. Data were collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews of various general hospital departments in northwest of Iran and analyzed using methods as described by Graneheim and Lundman. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. "Psychological violence," "Verbal violence," "Physical violence," and "Source of violence" were four categories extracted through data analysis. Violence behaviors are instances of workplace maltreatment that damage individual nurses, quality of care, and the ethical climate of the healthcare settings. The lateral and hierarchical violence in nursing were explained by oppressed group model. This study provided the context for identifying details of various types of workplace violence against new graduated nurses. It should be approached as a health system priority that requires specific multi-dimensional methods to manage consisting of identification, strategic planning, policymaking, prevention, education, and research.

  17. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  18. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic; Ljubisa Milosavljevic; Radovan Karadzic; Aleksandra Antovic

    2006-01-01

    Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and d...

  19. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  20. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  1. Coordinated Community Intervention for Domestic Violence: The Effects of Arrest and Prosecution on Recidivism of Woman Abuse Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…

  2. A health’s view on violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Borges Jacques

    2012-06-01

    rules, when a space is empty, something else occupies it - in this particular case, the criminal organizations. Collective violence arises(4, with violent acts that occur in macro-social, political and economic fields, and characterize the domination by groups and the State. In this category (4, from the social point of view, are included crimes committed by organized groups, crowns and acts of terrorism. In the political field, there are wars andannihilation processes perpetrated against certain people and nations by others(4. In addition to the classification established by the WHO Report (2002, there is another type of violence, called structural violence(4, referring to social, political and economic processes, which are responsible for reproducing hunger, poverty and inequality in social, gender and ethnics aspects, also rendering them chronic and maintaining the adult-centered dominance over children and adolescents. Hardly quantified and apparently without actors, the structural violence perpetuates itself into historical processes, becomes persistent and natural in the culture, taking in its account privileges and forms of domination. Most types of violence previously cited are based on the structural violence (4.Nowadays, one lives in fear and, being afraid, one does not live. Life is for the strong, for those who believe in it and react to adversities. Citizen is afraid to take a stroll in the streets; to flaunt a jewel; to drive a vehicle more powerful than usual, in order not to attract attention. Families fear for their children on the internet because of pedophiles and are afraid of the drug that has spread not only into the capital cities, but also into the countryside. The Brazilian State has neglected its boundaries, drug has come inside and got established, making victims each day and letting families unsettled, frightened, in pain, with nowhere to go. A public policy is needed to protect the youth, to recover theaddicts and safeguard our borders. How

  3. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  4. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  5. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  6. Workplace violence against nurses in the Gambia: mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisawo, Ebrima J; Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y Arsène; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-04-28

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients' escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence.

  7. Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylee Trevillion

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex.Systematic review and meta-analysis.Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder.observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years, using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder.Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers.Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds.Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96-3.92, anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39-6.97, and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50-11.98, compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner, or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated.There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify pathways to being a victim of domestic violence to optimise healthcare responses.

  8. Violence toward health care workers in emergency departments in west Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Unal

    2005-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the epidemiology of violence in Turkish emergency departments (EDs), and to provide a more specific focus on violence. This study was conducted in 18 EDs in west Turkey for 3 months. Emergency staff in the EDs were asked to recall experiences of violence directed at them at work over the previous year. We then put these experiences into five categories: verbal abuse, specific threats, physical action with or without injury, sexual violence, and the last category, acts not falling in the other four categories. The data were analyzed using chi-square test and percent ratios. Of the 195 respondents answering the questions regarding violence against them, 72.3% (141/195) had experienced some form of violence. Most of the respondents stated that they had experienced verbal/emotional abuse (69.5%), followed by specific threats (53.2%), and physical action (8.5%). Groups experiencing the highest percentage of any type of violence during the previous year were as follows: 30-39-year-olds (82.1%), nurses and physicians (80.8% and 78.0%, respectively), public hospital health care staff (81.0%), staff working for 61-120 months (82.8%), those working between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. (81.8%), and those working in low deprivation practices (79.6%). Most of the aggressors were patients' relatives (89%) as compared with patients' themselves (52%). Half of those experiencing physical action (50% [6/12]) during the course of the last year received support and inability reports due to minor injuries. There were no major injuries such as lacerations or fractures. We recommend that training to deal with violence in the workplace be specifically targeted at members of staff who are most likely to be at risk of threats of violence and actual physical aggression.

  9. Risk factors of workplace violence at hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Ito, Shinya; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2012-02-01

    Patients and their relatives exposed to mental stress caused by hospitalization or illness might use violence against healthcare staff and interfere with quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to investigate incidences of workplace violence and the attributes of healthcare staff who are at high risk. A questionnaire-based, anonymous, and self-administered cross-sectional survey. Healthcare staff (n = 11,095) of 19 hospitals in Japan. Incidence rates and adjusted odd ratios of workplace violence were calculated to examine the effect of attributes of healthcare staff to workplace violence by using logistic regression analysis. The response rate for survey completion was 79.1% (8711/11,095). Among the respondents, 36.4% experienced workplace violence by patients or their relatives in the past year; 15.9% experienced physical aggression, 29.8% experienced verbal abuse, and 9.9% experienced sexual harassment. Adjusted odds ratios of physical aggression were significantly high in psychiatric wards, critical care centers/intensive care units (ICU)/cardiac care units (CCU), long-term care wards, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of verbal abuse were significantly high in psychiatric wards, long-term care wards, outpatient departments, dialysis departments, and for longer years of work experience, and for longer working hours. Adjusted odds ratios of sexual harassment were significantly high in dialysis departments, for nurses, nursing aides/care workers, technicians, therapists and females. The general ward and direct interaction with patients were common risk factors for each type of workplace violence. The mechanisms and the countermeasures for each type of workplace violence at those high-risk areas should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  11. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  12. Sexual violence in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  13. Sexual violence in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  14. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  15. The science of violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years after Rodrigo Guerrero-Velasco treated violence like a disease, using epidemiology to find the causes, his approach to violence prevention has been taken up across the Americas. He talks to Alyssa Greenhouse.

  16. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John

    2009-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712

  17. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.

  18. Workplace violence-a survey of diagnostic radiographers working in public hospitals in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kris; Yeung, Joanne; Cheung, Ivy; Chung, Andrew; White, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of workplace violence involving radiographers in Hong Kong, to evaluate underlying factors contributing to incidents and their impact, and to suggest improvements in management and training. Frontline radiographers, from seven regional hospitals, who performed duties in general radiography, were provided with a workplace violence questionnaire. General radiography refers to plain film X-ray services in general rooms (including out patient clinics), A&E and portable services on wards. Materials relating to workplace violence, for example guidelines and training information, were provided by hospital managers. Out of 281 questionnaires, 150 were returned (response rate of 53%). Sixty-one percent of radiographers had experienced violence in the past 3 yr and 34% of victims had encountered incidents more than 5 times. From respondents who had experienced abuse, verbal abuse (97%) was most frequently reported, and the predominant source of violence was patients (pwork stress, job dissatisfaction, depression and increased sick leave, were highlighted as negative consequences of violence. 77% of respondents felt that support from departments was inadequate and only 11% had attended courses on prevention of occupational violence. Workplace violence is a critical problem in Hong Kong. Further research is recommended to investigate the problem.

  19. Preventing violence : service station employer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    According to part 3 of British Columbia's Workers Compensation Act, employers must ensure the health and safety of their employees and any other workers present at their worksite. Workers are also responsible for following established safe work procedures and protecting their own health and safety. This handbook was designed for service station employers who do not already have adequate violence-prevention procedures. In addition to providing guidelines, it describes employment standards for workplace health and safety. It describes general duties of supervisors, owners and suppliers and includes the forms needed to fill out, notably an inspection list; an action plan; a violent incident report for workers to fill out in the event of a violent incident; a suspect and vehicle identification form; an employer incident investigation report; and a safety and security feedback report for workers. Regulations that relate to young and new worker orientation and training were also provided along with regulations for working alone or in isolation, violence in the workplace, and high-visibility apparel.

  20. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  1. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (pviolence categories experienced (pviolence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (pviolence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect should receive more research attention, especially in combination with other types of violence. PMID:25591729

  3. Violence in Children's Literature Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Maureen

    Because violence is an inescapable reality of the world, this paper asks the question, "Does violence have any place in children's literature?" For centuries, children's literature has encompassed stories in which the virtuous were rewarded and evildoers suffered retribution. Historically, violence was frequently part of punishment.…

  4. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  5. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  6. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  7. Survey of incidents in West German nuclear power plants in the last quarter of the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    There were 79 incidents reported. Six incidents belong to reporting category E (immediate notification), the remaining 73 incidents belong to reporting category N (normal notification). The survey covers all incidents reported to GRS until the 15th of February 1989 and also includes incidents that happened before the last quarter of 1988 but were recorded later. There was no release of radioactivity involved in the incidents, and there are no effects on man or the environment reported. (orig./HP) [de

  8. "PREVALENCE, MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS AND BIRTH OUTCOME OF PHYSICAL, SEXUAL AND EMOTIONAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy varies widely in different societies. To assess the incidence of self-reported physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and describe the association with maternal complication and birth outcomes, 3275 women who gave birth to live-born infants from October 2002 to November 2003 were assessed for self-reported violence in postpartum units of Obstetrics Department of Babol university of Medical Sciences. Outcome data included maternal antenatal hospitalizations, labor and delivery complications and low birth weights and preterm births. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence, maternal morbidity and birth outcomes. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 9.1%, 30.8% and 19.2%. Compared with those not reporting physical, sexual and emotional violence, women who did were more likely to deliver by cesarean and to have abnormal progress of labor, premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, preterm birth and any hospitalization before delivery. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence during pregnancy was high and was associated with adverse fetal and maternal conditions. These findings support routine screening for physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and postpartum period to prevent consequences of domestic violence.

  9. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  10. Violence and Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irme Salete Bonamigo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the etymological meaning of the term violence, analyzes the multiple possibilities of the definition and practices considered violent today. Contemporaneity is understood through a reference to Ulrich Beck’s theory of the global society of risks, which allows conceiving violence as contemporaneous configurations, linked to imprevisibility and to the risks that compose the current world. It identifies the emerging discourse of security as a possibility to mobilize people and legitimize practices of vigilance and social control, constituting a strategy of access and maintenance of the power of governing a municipality, state or nation. The paper presents some theoretical-methodological proposals for the study of contemporary violence, based on the study conducted and on the sociology of actor-network.

  11. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  12. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  13. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  14. Improving coordinated responses for victims of intimate partner violence: law enforcement compliance with state-mandated intimate partner violence documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-07-01

    New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  16. Children and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C

    2006-01-01

    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  17. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  18. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed,…

  19. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  20. National arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) 1982/83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is presented of the data on incidents notified under the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR), extending the data previously reported to include information for 1982/83. The categories of incidents discussed include transport, damaged sources or containers, undamaged sources, empty containers found and hoaxes or false alarms. It is concluded that the Arrangements continue to demonstrate their value in minimizing the alarm potentially inherent in even minor incidents involving radioactive materials. (U.K.)

  1. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  2. Psychopathy and criminal violence: the moderating effect of ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the cross-ethnic stability of the predictive relationship of psychopathy for violence. Participants were 424 adult male jail inmates. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and criminal violence was assessed using a comprehensive database of arrests for violent crimes. Ethnic categories included the groups that make up the vast majority of U.S. inmates: European American (EA, n = 166), African American (AA, n = 174), and Latino American (LA, n = 84). Ethnically aggregated Cox regression survival analyses identified predictive effects for psychopathy. Disaggregated analyses identified ethnic differences: Psychopathy was more strongly predictive of violence among EA (R² = .13, 95% CI [.04, .22], p violence among LA participants (R² = .02, 95% CI [.00, .08], p = .22). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses yielded an equivalent pattern of results. These findings add to a growing literature suggesting cross-ethnic variability in the predictive power of psychopathy for violence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Violence in the emergency department: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C M; Bouthillette, F; Raboud, J M; Bullock, L; Moore, C F; Christenson, J M; Grafstein, E; Rae, S; Ouellet, L; Gillrie, C; Way, M

    1999-11-16

    Violence in the workplace is an ill-defined and underreported concern for health care workers. The objectives of this study were to examine perceived levels of violence in the emergency department, to obtain health care workers' definitions of violence, to determine the effect of violence on health care workers and to determine coping mechanisms and potential preventive strategies. A retrospective written survey of all 163 emergency department employees working in 1996 at an urban inner-city tertiary care centre in Vancouver. The survey elicited demographic information, personal definition of violence, severity of violence, degree of stress as a result of violence and estimate of the number of encounters with violence in the workplace in 1996. The authors examined the effects of violence on job performance and job satisfaction, and reviewed coping and potential preventive strategies. Of the 163 staff, 106 (65%) completed the survey. A total of 68% (70/103) reported an increased frequency of violence over time, and 60% (64/106) reported an increased severity. Most of the respondents felt that violence included witnessing verbal abuse (76%) and witnessing physical threats or assaults (86%). Sixty respondents (57%) were physically assaulted in 1996. Overall, 51 respondents (48%) reported impaired job performance for the rest of the shift or the rest of the week after an incident of violence. Seventy-seven respondents (73%) were afraid of patients as a result of violence, almost half (49%) hid their identities from patients, and 78 (74%) had reduced job satisfaction. Over one-fourth of the respondents (27/101) took days off because of violence. Of the 18 respondents no longer working in the emergency department, 12 (67%) reported that they had left the job at least partly owing to violence. Twenty-four-hour security and a workshop on violence prevention strategies were felt to be the most useful potential interventions. Physical exercise, sleep and the company of

  4. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A small number of studies have identified a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. These studies have all been based on cross-sectional data and have been limited to the assessment of ecological correlations between outlet density and domestic violence rates. This study provides the first longitudinal examination of this relationship. Cross-sectional time-series using aggregated data from small areas. The relationships between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence were assessed over time using a fixed-effects model. Controls for the spatial autocorrelation of the data were included in the model. The study uses data for 186 postcodes from within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia for the years 1996 to 2005. Alcohol outlet density measures for three different types of outlets (hotel/pub, packaged liquor, on-premise) were derived from liquor licensing records and domestic violence rates were calculated from police-recorded crime data, based on the victim's postcode. Alcohol outlet density was associated significantly with rates of domestic violence, over time. All three licence categories were positively associated with domestic violence rates, with small effects for general (pub) and on-premise licences and a large effect for packaged liquor licences. In Melbourne, the density of liquor licences is positively associated with rates of domestic violence over time. The effects were particularly large for packaged liquor outlets, suggesting a need for licensing policies that pay more attention to o off-premise alcohol availability. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Workplace Violence Toward Mental Healthcare Workers Employed in Psychiatric Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele d'Ettorre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace violence (WPV against healthcare workers (HCWs employed in psychiatric inpatient wards is a serious occupational issue that involves both staff and patients; the consequences of WPV may include increased service costs and lower standards of care. The purpose of this review was to evaluate which topics have been focused on in the literature and which are new in approaching the concern of patient violence against HCWs employed in psychiatric inpatient wards, in the past 20 years. Methods: We searched for publications in PubMed and Web of Science using selected keywords. Each article was reviewed and categorized into one or more of the following four categories based on its subject matter: risk assessment, risk management, occurrence rates, and physical/nonphysical consequences. Results: Our search resulted in a total of 64 publications that matched our inclusion criteria. The topics discussed, in order of frequency (from highest to lowest, were as follows: “risk assessment,” “risk management,” “occurrence rates,” and “physical/nonphysical consequences.” Schizophrenia, young age, alcohol use, drug misuse, a history of violence, and hostile-dominant interpersonal styles were found to be the predictors of patients’ violence. Conclusion: Risk assessment of violence by patients appeared the way to effectively minimize the occurrence of WPV and, consequently, to better protect mental HCWs. We found paucity of data regarding psychologic sequelae of WPV. According to these findings, we suggest the need to better investigate the psychologic consequences of WPV, with the aim of checking the effective interventions to assist HCW victims of violence and to prevent psychologic illness. Keywords: assaults, psychiatric inpatients, risk assessment, risk management, violence

  6. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  7. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  8. Violence against women and increases in the risk of diarrheal disease and respiratory tract infections in infancy: a prospective cohort study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2009-10-01

    To explore whether different forms of violence against women were associated with increased incidence rates of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections among infants. A 12-month follow-up study embedded in a food and micronutrient supplementation trial. Rural Bangladesh. Pregnant women and their 3132 live-born children. Maternal exposure to physical, sexual, and emotional violence and level of controlling behavior in the family. Infants' risk of falling ill with diarrheal diseases and respiratory tract infections in relation to mothers' exposure to different forms of violence. Adjusted for household economic conditions, mother's education level, parity, and religion. Fifty percent of the women reported lifetime experience of family violence. Infants of mothers exposed to different forms of family violence had 26% to 37% higher incidence of diarrhea. Any lifetime family violence was positively associated with increased incidence of diarrheal diseases (adjusted rate ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.30) and lower respiratory tract infections (adjusted rate ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.46). Further, all forms of family violence were also independently positively associated with infant illness, and the highest incidence rates were found among the daughters of severely physically abused mothers. Family violence against women was positively associated with an increased risk of falling ill with diarrheal and respiratory tract infections during infancy. The present findings add to increasing evidence of the magnitude of public health consequences of violence against women.

  9. A Theoretical Synthesis of Telecommuting and Incidence of Family Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Watson Frank

    2000-01-01

    The rapid advancement of computer and telecommunications technology has made working in the home a practicality. Dubbed ?telecommuting,? this manner of work describes a circumstance where the employee, through the use of some form of telecommunications device (most often a computer with some form of modem), works at a location other than a centralized office (Hill, Hawkings & Miller, 1996). In many cases, the location of work is the home. Current estimates place the number of telecommuters ...

  10. Occupational and demographic factors associated with violence in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Donna; Gillespie, Gordon; Kowalenko, Terry; Succop, Paul; Sanker, Maria; Farra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Violence against health care workers is a serious and growing problem. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (a) describe the frequency of workplace violence (WPV) against emergency department (ED) workers; (b) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to WPV; and (c) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to feelings of safety and level of confidence when dealing with WPV. Survey data were collected from 213 workers at 6 hospital EDs. Verbal and physical violence was prevalent in all 6 EDs. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of violence for age, job title, patient population, and hospital location. Sexual harassment was the only category of violence affected by gender with females having a greater frequency. Feelings of safety were positively related to the frequency of WPV. Females were significantly more likely to feel unsafe and have less confidence in dealing with WPV. The study findings indicate that all ED workers are at risk of violence, regardless of personal and occupational characteristics. Feelings of safety are related to job satisfaction and turnover. Violence has serious consequences for the employers, employees, and patients. It is recommended that administration, managers, and employees collaborate to develop and implement prevention strategies to reduce and manage the violence.

  11. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  12. The relationship between emotional labor status and workplace violence among toll collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Scale (K-ELS), and a questionnaire was used to examine the presence or absence, and type and frequency of workplace violence experienced by the subjects. A linear regression analysis was also performed to analyze the relationship between workplace violence and emotional labor. The scores on "emotional demanding and regulation ( p  workplace violence, whereas they were "normal" of emotional labor in those who did not. Even after being adjusted in the linear regression analysis, the emotional labor scores for the above 4 sub-categories were still significantly high in those who experienced workplace violence. On comparing the present scores with 13 other service occupations, it was found that toll collectors had the highest level in "emotional disharmony and hurt," "organizational surveillance and monitoring," and "organizational supportive and protective system". This study found that the toll collectors engaged in a high level of emotional labor. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between emotional labor and the experience of workplace violence among the toll collectors.

  13. Urban children's perceptions of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Karen; Kim, Lynn E; Galvin, John P

    2004-01-01

    To determine how preadolescent urban children conceptualize and experience violence in their lives. This qualitative study reports the results of focus groups designed to examine perceptions of violence among preadolescent urban children. Program directors were trained to conduct the sessions using a semistructured script. All groups were audiotaped or videotaped. The summaries were analyzed for recurring themes. A community-based visual arts program for children designed to be a secondary violence-prevention program. There were 12 focus groups of volunteer participants. Each consisted of 3 to 6 children aged 8 to 12 years, separated by sex and age. Fifty children participated: 27 boys and 23 girls. These children defined violence in a broader way than most adults would. Not only did the children identify shootings and stabbings as examples of violence, but they also considered violence to be any act that might hurt someone's feelings (such as cheating and lying) or any act accompanying violence (such as cursing and yelling). The boys and girls were very similar in their views except regarding the issue of intimate-partner violence. The girls were almost universally concerned about this issue, but the boys seemed noticeably unaware that intimate-partner violence was considered a form of violence. Most children felt safe at home, and almost no child felt safe at school. They looked to trusted adults to keep them safe. Future investigators measuring the effect of violence-prevention activities on preteen children should be aware that their definition of violence may differ from that of young children and should be cognizant of potential sex differences, especially around the topic of intimate-partner violence. Those designing violence-prevention programs for children should consider engaging adult family members as well because children usually turn to them for safety.

  14. Nurses' intention to resign and avoidance of emergency department violence: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Fang; Chao, Minston; Shih, Chih-Ting

    2017-10-10

    Studies that examined the negative impact of violence in emergency departments on nurses' leave and avoidance behavior are well-documented. However, few studies provided an integrated model of how and when violence influences their leave and avoidance behavior. The study adopted Affective Events Theory to propose and examine a model of violent events, negative emotions, and (leave and avoidance) behaviors on nurses in emergency departments and further analyzed whether the model is salient to nurses' occupational burnout, nursing experience, and nursing rank. The sample included 123 emergency department nurses at a teaching hospital in northern, Taiwan. All participants had experienced violent incidents within the preceding 6 months. Moderated mediation analysis suggested that nurses experienced one of two emotional processes following violent incidents: "violence-negative feelings toward work-intention to resign" or "violence-negative emotion and physical symptoms-avoidance tendencies." Moreover, nurses with high burnout levels expressed weaker intention to resign after violent incidents, while nurses with more experience and higher rank were less likely to avoid violence after violent incidents. Emergency nurses do not simply elect to escape but may engage in avoidance behavior. This study revealed that how violent incidents affect nurses' resignation or avoidance behaviors depends on how they feel. Occupational burnout and nurses' attributes affected their behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beuys’ Chair and the Violence of the Other: Toward a Theory of Aesth-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Pimentel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most rare are those works of art that, in a simple visual gesture, succeed in formulating a dilemma that occupies culture as a whole. Such is the artwork of Joseph Beuys entitled Fat Chair. The work—viewed mainly from a phenomenological perspective—is comprised of two elements holding a tension: a chair on the one hand, and a lump of fat placed on top of it on the other. The tension between these elements, so the article argues, manifests the tension between two types of violence: following Benjamin, these are termed “the violence of the Father” and “the violence of the Other” (or in Hebrew, “the Violence of ha-Rav”. The violence of the Father refers mainly to the violence of culture: the violence of the concept and the category from the side of the object, and the violence of the law/name of the Father from the side of the subject. The violence of the Other, transgressing distinctions between good and evil and subject and object, is the violence of the pre-cultural and the primordial, before law and language. This primal violence cannot appear in its full presence, either in culture in general or in art in particular; it can only appear as a leftover and a spectre. Beuys' artwork manifests this aporetic appearance in a paradigmatic manner, and in this sense, it could serve as a paradigm for the possibility of hospitality in art. In fact, the article opens the way for an argument of a larger scale, according to which art, and not the social sphere—as Levinas maintains—should be viewed as the sphere of the  hospitality of the entirely Other. The study of such hospitality in art should therefore be termed “Aesth-ethics.”

  16. Workplace violence experienced by registered nurses: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Madangeng, Judee; Wilson, Denise

    2009-11-01

    Workplace violence toward nurses has increased during the last decade with serious consequences that may extend beyond individual nurses to an entire health care organisation. The variety of definitions of workplace violence experienced by registered nurses contribute to a lack of clarity about what it constitutes, which in turn jeopardizes the reporting of incidences by nurses. Drawing on the relevant literature from 1990 to 2005, a concept analysis using Walker and Avant's framework was undertaken to develop an operational definition of this phenomenon as experienced by registered nurses (excluding mental health nurses). Having a clear understanding of workplace violence assists with the creation of strategies aimed at preventing and/or resolving this problem.

  17. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence--a qualitative study from urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-18

    Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights

  18. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to

  19. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  20. Verbal and physical violence in emergency departments: a survey of nurses in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Rukiye; Ucmak, Firdevs

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perceived verbal and physical violence and related factors experienced by nurses in emergency settings. Studies on violence in emergency departments indicate an increasing frequency of these incidents. However, little is known about the violence experienced by the Turkish nurses working in emergency departments. Survey. The study population included 255 nurses. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Verbal violence was reported with a frequency of 91.4%. Of the nurses, 74.9% had been exposed to physical violence in at least several episodes during the previous 12 months. Patients' relatives were the main perpetrators, followed by patients, most of whom were male. After experiencing violence, most of the nurses reported that, they had felt fear and only 3% described that they took sick leave, while 80% did not report the incidences of violence they experienced. The nurses described that, after a violent incident, they sought support mainly from their colleagues in emergency departments rather than from the administration. Over half of the nurses (65%) felt safe 'none of the time' in emergency departments, and 89.8% of them described that patients and patient relatives may potentially exhibit violent behaviours towards the staff when they are first admitted to emergency department, while 73.7% believed that the staffing pattern and physical environment of their emergency departments were not adequate to prevent violence. Most of the nurses (83.5%) stated that they should be provided with the training that will help them prevent and manage violence as part of their in-service education, whereas 82.7% of them had not received any such training. The findings have implications for occupational health and safety from both employer and employee perspective. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  2. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  3. Defining gratuitous violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    special report on South Africa, released to coincide with the opening of ... difficult to answer questions about whether or not violence in South ... forward attempts to answer this question, partly because ... be due to the fact that this causes 'losses of self- esteem' .... cases other factors shape the motivations of the perpetrator ...

  4. Viewer Definitions of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deanna Campbell; And Others

    Segments of primetime and Saturday morning television programing were viewed by 225 people who then reported what criteria they used to assess violence on commercial and public television. The subjects also provided data on their visual media experience, their viewing habits, their viewing attitudes, and demographic characteristics. The subjects…

  5. Violence and Community Capabilities:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ous cities boast community-based initiatives that significantly reduce the ..... account the ambiguous yet critical role that gangs can play at the local level. .... promote and exercise other forms of violence, such as extortion, sexual abuse, and ... of employment that comes without any rights or protection, and making informal.

  6. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in adulthood. 1 Perpetrating bullying in early middle school is associated with sexual harassment perpetration in adolescence. 5 How can we stop sexual violence before it starts? CDC developed a technical package to help ... family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and ...

  7. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  8. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  9. Vaccinating Children against Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    A firm commitment to prevention and a caring curriculum are a school's best defense against student violence. Few educators have training for meeting students' psychological needs or techniques for working with angry, frustrated youngsters. If loners' need for recognition is not met, they will eventually act out or withdraw. (MLH)

  10. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  11. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A survey of violence against staff working in the emergency department in ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Melek Serpil; Kocaöz, Semra; Akgüç, Selma

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence in the emergency department is a significant problem world wide. The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of staff subjected to the types of violence, its sources, factors affecting violence experiences, reporting the incidence and the emotions of the victims after violence. This descriptive study was conducted between March and August 2009 in the the emergency department of six hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected from 270 staff working in various emergency settings. The instrument was a 36-item questionnaire on types of violence, its sources, feelings, and ways to cope with violent behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. The results showed 85.2% of participants had been subjected to at least one kind of violence: 41.1% to physical assault, 79.6% to verbal abuse, 55.5% to verbal threats and 15.9% to sexual harassment. Patients' companions (90.9%) were identified as the primary perpetrators of violence. The rates of violence types were highest towards security officers and housekeepers. The most common reactions to violence were sadness and anger. "Did nothing and keeping silent" was the coping method used most commonly by the staff. Participants exposed to physical assaults and verbal threat did not report the incidence of violence to managers were at 43.3% and 65.3% respectively. Based on results of the study, it is suggested that every hospital institute reliable reporting procedures that staff members feel comfortable using, and also provide a comprehensive program of support services for staff that has been assaulted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  14. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    OpenAIRE

    P Tripathi; R Tiwari; R Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study...

  15. Workplace violence in a tertiary care Israeli hospital - a systematic analysis of the types of violence, the perpetrators and hospital departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran-Tikva, Sigal; Zelker, Revital; Stern, Zvi; Chinitz, David

    2017-08-23

    Worldwide, there is a widespread and disturbing pattern of violence towards healthcare workers. However, violent occurrences in Israeli hospitals have often been unrecognized and underreported. Moreover, most studies have not sufficiently differentiated among the different types of violence. To examine the different types of violence experienced by nurses and physicians, the types of perpetrators and the specialty fields involved. A quantitative questionnaire was used to assess the incidence of a "basket" of violent behaviors, divided into eight types of violent manifestations. The study population consisted of 729 physicians and nurses in a variety of hospital divisions and departments (surgery, oncology, intensive care, ambulatory services including day care, and emergency room) in a large general hospital. Six hundred seventy-eight of them responded to the survey for a response rate of 93%; about two thirds of respondents (446) were nurses and about one third (232) were physicians. The questionnaires were completed during staff meetings and through subsequent follow-up efforts. In the 6 months preceding the survey, the respondents experienced about 700 incidents of passive aggressive behavior, 680 of verbal violence and 81 of sexual harassment. Types of violence differed between patients and companions; for example, the latter exhibited more verbal, threatening and passive aggressive behaviors. Violence was reported in all departments (ranging from 52-96%), with the departments most exposed to violence being the emergency room and outpatient clinics. Nurses in the emergency room were 5.5 times at a higher risk of being exposed to violence than nurses in the internal medicine department. Nurses were exposed to violence almost twice as much as physicians. There was a positive association between the physician's rank and his/her exposure to violence. A multiple regression model found that being older reduced the risk of being exposed to violence, for both

  16. Hospital staff responses to workplace violence in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 222 nurses, nursing assistants, and clerks at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan on responses to workplace violence, treatment of violent patients, and reporting behavior. Staff reported 78 incidents of physical violence (PV), 113 of verbal abuse (VA), 35 of bullying/ mobbing (BM), 21 of sexual harassment (SH), and 10 of racial harassment (RH) over the course of one year. Among affected staff, only 31% of those experiencing PV and consequences, especially for BM, and shame for SH. Reliable systems for responding to and reporting patient violence should be developed.

  17. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  18. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  19. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  20. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  1. The effects of intimate partner violence duration on individual and partner-related sexual risk factors among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Lee-St John, Terrence J; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among women, but less is known about mechanisms of this association and if length of relationship violence is a factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the duration of IPV and both individual and partner-related sexual risk factors that may increase women's risk for STIs and HIV. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the medical records of 2000 women. Four distinct categories defined the duration of partner violence: violence in the past year only, past year and during the past 5 years, past year plus extending for greater than 5 years, and no past year violence but a history of partner violence. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the duration of partner violence and individual sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of sexual partners, drug and/or alcohol use, anal sex) and partner-related sexual risk factors (eg, nonmonogamy, STI risk, condom nonuse). Nearly 30% of the women in the study reported a history of partner violence during their lifetime. All of the individual risk factors, as well as partner-related risk factors, were significantly associated (P violence and duration of violence. The study findings extend the knowledge related to partner violence as a risk factor for STIs/HIV, highlighting the effects of partner violence duration on the health of women. Assessing for lifetime experiences of partner violence may improve outcomes for women and their families. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Associations of neighborhood-level workplace violence with workers' mental distress problems: a multilevel analysis of Taiwanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Li-Chung; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Liang, Kuei-Min; Cheng, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is known to pose mental health risks. However, whether or not workplace violence in a surrounding area might further increase the risk of mental distress in workers has rarely been examined. The study subjects were 9,393 male and 7,716 female employees who participated in a nationwide survey in 2010. Their personal experiences of workplace violence over the past 1 year were ascertained by a standardized questionnaire. Also assessed were their psychosocial work characteristics and mental distress problems. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was computed based on aggregated data at the county level and was categorized into low-, medium-, and high-level categories. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between neighborhood-level workplace violence and individual-level mental distress problems, with adjustment of individual-level experience of workplace violence. The neighborhood-level prevalence of workplace violence ranged from 4.7 to 14.7% in men and from 6.4 to 14.8% in women across 22 counties. As compared with those who live in counties of the lowest tertile of workplace violence, female workers who lived in counties of the highest tertile of workplace violence had a 1.72-fold increased risk for mental distress problems after controlling for individual experience of workplace violence and other psychosocial work characteristics. Neighborhood-level workplace violence was associated with poor mental health in female workers. Preventative strategies targeting workplace violence should pay attention to neighborhood factors and gender-specific effects that might influence societal tolerance of abusive work practices and workers' vulnerability to mental health impacts of workplace violence.

  3. Violence, insecurity, and the risk of polio: A systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Guarino

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread.Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country's Fragile States Index (FSI and Global Peace Index (GPI, aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (p< 0.01, even after controlling for established risk factors. These effects of violence and insecurity must be mediated through immunity and exposure to poliovirus, coarse measures of which are included in our model. This also implies that in our study, and in risk models in general, the interpretation depends on the quality and granularity of available data.National virologic and immunologic indicators understate the risk of poliovirus spread in areas with violence and insecurity, and the inclusion of such factors improves precision. In addition, the link between violence and incidence of disease highlights the broader challenge of implementing health interventions in conflict areas. We discuss practical implications of this work in understanding and measuring the risks to

  4. Workplace violence against nursing staff in a Saudi university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet

    2016-06-01

    Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  5. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  6. Junior staffing changes and the temporal ecology of adverse incidents in acute psychiatric wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowers, L.; Jeffery, D.; Simpson, A.; Daly, C.; Warren, J.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports in examination of the relationship between adverse incident rates, the arrival of new junior staff on wards, and days of the week oil acute Psychiatric wards. Background. Incidents of violence, absconding and self-harm in acute inpatient services pose risks to patients and

  7. Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing variables on acute psychiatric wards: the Tompkins Acute Ward study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowers, L.; Simpson, A.; Warren, J.; Allan, T.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Adverse incidents (violence, self-harm and absconding) can cause significant harm to patients and staff, are difficult to predict, and are driving an increase in security measures and defensive practice. Aims: To explore the relationship between adverse incidents on acute psychiatric

  8. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability), and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the r...

  9. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  10. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  11. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  12. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  13. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  14. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  15. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  16. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  17. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  18. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  19. Ending gender violence | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... In no way should gender-based violence and sexual harassment be ... against women are men, any long-term solution to prevent violence and harassment ... roles in both preventing and condemning violence against women.

  20. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  1. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  2. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  3. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  4. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  5. Risk factors for workplace violence in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors and mental health consequences of physical and psychological violence for clinical nurses working in healthcare settings in Taiwan. Registered nurses working in hospitals in Taiwan report high incidences of workplace violence. However, previous studies rarely report psychological abuse among nursing staff, while the relationships between personal factors and workplace violence remain unclear. This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were invited to complete the Workplace Violence Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess types of workplace violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing and sexual harassment), the characteristics of perpetrators and victims and victims' reactions to their abuse. A total of 521 nurses completed the questionnaire. Of the participants, 102 (19.6%) indicated that they had experienced physical violence, 268 (51.4%) had experienced verbal abuse, 155 (29.8%) had experienced bullying/mobbing and 67 (12.9%) had experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that age under 30 years (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.34-4.46) and anxiety (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.24-18.12) increased the odds of verbal abuse, while bullying was associated with anxiety (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-6.93). Night work shift increased the odds of experiencing sexual harassment (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-4.16), while physical violence was associated with bachelor's degree (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-6.73). The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder.   Exposure to psychological violence often has a great impact on clinical nurses. For violence prevention, interventions should be sensitive to personal factors. Healthcare institutions should initiate counselling programs to help nurses cope with the stress related to workplace violence.

  6. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  7. The second wave of violence scholarship: South African synergies with a global research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Brett; Stevens, Garth; Eagle, Gillian; Langa, Malose; Kramer, Sherianne; Kiguwa, Peace; Nduna, Mzikazi

    2015-12-01

    Violence is a serious public health and human rights challenge with global psychosocial impacts across the human lifespan. As a middle-income country (MIC), South Africa experiences high levels of interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence, taking physical, sexual and/or psychological forms. Careful epidemiological research has consistently shown that complex causal pathways bind the social fabric of structural inequality, socio-cultural tolerance of violence, militarized masculinity, disrupted community and family life, and erosion of social capital, to individual-level biological, developmental and personality-related risk factors to produce this polymorphic profile of violence in the country. Engaging with a concern that violence studies may have reached something of a theoretical impasse, 'second wave' violence scholars have argued that the future of violence research may not lie primarily in merely amassing more data on risk but rather in better theorizing the mechanisms that translate risk into enactment, and that mobilize individual and collective aspects of subjectivity within these enactments. With reference to several illustrative forms of violence in South Africa, in this article we suggest revisiting two conceptual orientations to violence, arguing that this may be useful in developing thinking in line with this new global agenda. Firstly, the definition of our object of enquiry requires revisiting to fully capture its complexity. Secondly, we advocate for the utility of specific incident analyses/case studies of violent encounters to explore the mechanisms of translation and mobilization of multiple interactive factors in enactments of violence. We argue that addressing some of the moral and methodological challenges highlighted in revisiting these orientations requires integrating critical social science theory with insights derived from epidemiology and, that combining these approaches may take us further in understanding and addressing the

  8. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  9. A qualitative meta-synthesis of emergency department staff experiences of violence and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca Angharad; Morris, Lucy; Smith, Ian

    2018-01-08

    Patient and visitor violence or aggression against healthcare workers in the Emergency Department (ED) is a significant issue worldwide. This review synthesises existing qualitative studies exploring the first-hand experiences of staff working in the ED to provide insight into preventing this issue. A meta-ethnographic approach was used to review papers. Four concepts were identified: 'The inevitability of violence and aggression'; 'Staff judgments about why they face violence and aggression'; 'Managing in isolation'; and 'Wounded heroes'. Staff resigned themselves to the inevitability of violence and aggression, doing this due to a perceived lack of support from the organisation. Staff made judgements about the reasons for violent incidents which impacted on how they coped and subsequently tolerated the aggressor. Staff often felt isolated when managing violence and aggression. Key recommendations included: Staff training in understanding violence and aggression and clinical supervision. Violence and aggression in the ED can often be an overwhelming yet inevitable experience for staff. A strong organisational commitment to reducing violence and aggression is imperative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The gender gap in domestic violence in older adults in Latin America: the IMIAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Taurino Guedes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of domestic violence in older men and women in Natal, Brazil, and Manizales, Colombia and explore whether the differences by gender are due to lifetime differences in social and financial status. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a random sampling of 802 men and women in the IMIAS Study (International Mobility in Aging Study (65-74 years old conducted in Natal (Brazil and Manizales (Colombia. Incidents that occurred in the last six months and any time during their lives were evaluated using the HITS scale. Poisson regression was used to estimate the reasons for the prevalence of violence against women by men. RESULTS: Experience of physical violence occurring any time in life ranged from 2.2% to 18.3%, depending on the city and the sex. Psychological violence was higher in women: violence perpetrated by partners affected 25.7% of women in Natal and 19.4% in Manizales; and by the family, 18.3% in Manizales and 10% in Natal. Almost half of the participants reported suffering psychological violence at some time during their life. Experience of current violence or at some time during life was most frequent in women, even after adjustment for co-variables, with prevalence ratios of 1.60 to 2.14. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of prevalence of domestic violence in older adults show that women are more affected, which means that they should be considered a priority in the prevention policies on Latin America's health agenda.

  11. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  12. How common is domestic violence against women? The definition of partner abuse in prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, K; Roberts, G

    1998-02-01

    We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.

  13. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  14. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  15. Children's experiences of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  16. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  17. 'Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse': future male leaders' views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men's perceptions are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men's perceptions of violence against women. Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles - patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists - sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men's right to punish; multiple factors cause violence - alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women - both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes.

  18. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  19. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  20. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  1. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  2. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  4. Violence against women from different relationship contexts and health care utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Isabel; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Talavera, Marta; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Studies reported an excess of health services utilization among women with violence by an intimate partner (IPV). However, little is known about health utilization by women victims of other forms of interpersonal violence than IPV. This study aimed to determine the effect of violence from different relationship contexts on health care utilization. A cross-sectional study following a multistage cluster sampling scheme was conducted. Women aged 18 to 70 years were randomly selected according to their scheduled health care visit. The number of women invited to participate was 16,419 and 73% accepted. After exclusion, the final sample consisted of 10,815 women. The outcome variables were health care utilization (primary care, specialty services, emergency rooms, and hospital admissions) and the predictor variable was interpersonal violence from different relationship contexts. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to assess the independent effect of each violence relationship context on health care utilization. Compared with never abused women, use of health services was significantly higher for abused women, although the rates varied depending on the violence relationship context. The greatest probability of service use was among women whose abuse was perpetrated by both a partner and others. Comparing the magnitude of effect of each violence category by perpetrators other than a partner, this effect was stronger for violence in a social context in the case of emergency rooms only. Regardless of the perpetrator, lifetime violence increased health services utilization. Violence affects women's behavior in terms of how they use health services. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Violence originated from Facebook: A case study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Minar, Matiur Rahman; Naher, Jibon

    2018-01-01

    Facebook as in social network is a great innovation of modern times. Among all social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular social network all over the world. Bangladesh is no exception. People use Facebook for various reasons e.g. social networking and communication, online shopping and business, knowledge and experience sharing etc. However, some recent incidents in Bangladesh, originated from or based on Facebook activities, led to arson and violence. Social network i.e. Facebook ...

  6. Electoral Violence in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo, Eldrigde; Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi; Nyström, Daniel; Utas, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategie...

  7. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  8. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  9. Workplace Violence Toward Mental Healthcare Workers Employed in Psychiatric Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Pellicani, Vincenza

    2017-12-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers (HCWs) employed in psychiatric inpatient wards is a serious occupational issue that involves both staff and patients; the consequences of WPV may include increased service costs and lower standards of care. The purpose of this review was to evaluate which topics have been focused on in the literature and which are new in approaching the concern of patient violence against HCWs employed in psychiatric inpatient wards, in the past 20 years. We searched for publications in PubMed and Web of Science using selected keywords. Each article was reviewed and categorized into one or more of the following four categories based on its subject matter: risk assessment, risk management, occurrence rates, and physical/nonphysical consequences. Our search resulted in a total of 64 publications that matched our inclusion criteria. The topics discussed, in order of frequency (from highest to lowest), were as follows: "risk assessment," "risk management," "occurrence rates," and "physical/nonphysical consequences." Schizophrenia, young age, alcohol use, drug misuse, a history of violence, and hostile-dominant interpersonal styles were found to be the predictors of patients' violence. Risk assessment of violence by patients appeared the way to effectively minimize the occurrence of WPV and, consequently, to better protect mental HCWs. We found paucity of data regarding psychologic sequelae of WPV. According to these findings, we suggest the need to better investigate the psychologic consequences of WPV, with the aim of checking the effective interventions to assist HCW victims of violence and to prevent psychologic illness.

  10. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  11. Domestic violence in pregnancy among antenatal attendees at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, I; Kalio, G B; Oriji, Vaduneme K

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is common worldwide. When it occurs in pregnancy it is associated with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is a human rights violation with medical implication which is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This study sought to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors that promotes domestic violence at the family unit. A cross sectional study of antenatal clients seen at the antenatal booking clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from 1st June to 31st December 2007. Five hundred clients selected from a simple random technique completed an interviewer administered structured questionnaire which sought information on domestic violence. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed using the statistical package SPSS 15.00 for Windows. The prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in this group was 7.8%. Those who experienced domestic violence were mainly those with low education and low parity. The commonest form of domestic violence was verbal abuse (shouting, cursing) occurring in 43.5% of those who have been abused in the index pregnancy and 1.2% of the victims of domestic violence suffered physical injuries from domestic violence in previous pregnancies. However, less than one third disclosed the incident. Women whose husbands indulge in substance abuse or are without jobs were more likely to experience domestic violence. Abdominal pain and miscarriage were the commonest obstetric complications following domestic violence-in pregnancy in this group. Eight percent of our antenatal mothers suffer domestic violence and many of them are unlikely to report it. Unemployment and substance abuse in the partners are major associated factors. Domestic violence in pregnancy has far-reaching adverse consequence on the mother and her unborn fetus such as miscarriage especially when it occasions bodily harm.

  12. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  13. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  14. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  15. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  16. School Safety Strategies and Their Effects on the Occurrence of School-Based Violence in U.S. High Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent incidents of school-based violence have resulted in the widespread implementation of school safety strategies across the United States. While research on these strategies has grown over the past decade, there is little understanding about their collective influence on indicators of school violence. Using data from the 2007-2008 School…

  17. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear accident evacuee bullying and structural violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiuchi, Takuya

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accident sufferers should be now referred to as nuclear accident victims. The authors discuss why nuclear accident victims receive not only psychological bullying where no peculiar causes exist, but also corporal and physical bullying and mental suffering, based on the results of questionnaire survey conducted by the authors from January to February 2017, the 'survey on bullying problems related to evacuation from the nuclear accident.' The reasons why the nuclear power evacuation bullying has become a problem at present can be largely classified to the following three categories: (1) opinion that 'bullying' that originally existed just after the nuclear accident became surfaced recently, (2) opinion that latent problems exist as background, and (3) opinion that socially underlying issues are involved in the generation of bullying. Thus, various factors existing under nuclear power evacuation bullying were structurally clarified. In the background of children's nuclear evacuation bullying, adult nuclear power evacuation bullying exists, and there are 'lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination against nuclear power and Fukushima' under that. The author thought that 'structural violence' to create the disparity, discrimination, inequality, and injustice of society exists as the basis of such lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination, and discussed the 'structural violence' as the basis of bullying. As the upper structure of structural violence associated with nuclear accidents, there are two big phenomena: (1) setting of evacuation/return area not based on reasonable radiation dose standards and (2) fabricated safety and carefreeness myth. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's report on nuclear bullying could give an impression that 'nuclear power evacuation bullying' is 'not so big problem'. (A.O.)

  19. Serenity: Violence, Inequality, and Recovery on the Edge of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a sharp increase in drug addiction in Mexico, especially among the urban poor. During the same period, unregulated residential treatment centers for addiction, known as anexos, have proliferated throughout the country. These centers are utilized and run by marginalized populations and are widely known to engage in physical violence. Based on long-term ethnographic research in Mexico City, this article describes why anexos emerged, how they work, and what their prevalence and practices reveal about the nature of recovery in a context where poverty, drugs, and violence are existential realities. Drawing attention to the dynamic relationship between violence and recovery, pain, and healing, it complicates categories of violence and care that are presumed to have exclusive meaning, illuminating the divergent meanings of, and opportunities for, recovery, and how these are socially configured and sustained. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. Unique Outcomes in the Narratives of Young Adults Who Experienced Dating Violence as Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Smith, Carolyn; Mazurczyk, Jill; Thomas, Destini; Ramirez, Patricia; McNealy, Kim; Thomas, Jade; Martsolf, Donna S

    2016-01-01

    Narrative therapy, an approach based on the reauthoring of life narratives, may be a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for youth who have experienced dating violence. A cornerstone of narrative therapy is the concept of unique outcomes, which are moments that stand in contrast to a client's otherwise problem-saturated narratives. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize unique outcomes embedded in narratives about adolescent dating violence. Text units representing unique outcomes were extracted from transcripts of interviews with 88 young adults who had experienced dating violence and were categorized using standard content analytic techniques. Six categories of unique outcome stories were identified: facing-facts stories, standing-up-for-myself stories, cutting-it-off stories, cutting-'em-loose stories, getting-back-on-track stories, and changing-it-up stories. This typology of unique outcomes can inform clinicians who work with clients who have a history of adolescent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Workplace violence against medical staff of Chinese children's hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Yan, Chun-Mei; Shi, Lei; Mu, Hui-Tong; Li, Xin; Li, An-Qi; Zhao, Cheng-Song; Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Fan, Li-Hua; Mu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In China, medical staff of children's hospitals are commonly exposed to violence. However, few studies on medical violence are conducted in the settings of children's hospitals. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences, and potential risk factors of workplace violence (WPV) against medical staff of children's hospitals. A retrospective cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data on 12 children's hospitals. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 2,400 medical staff; 1,932 valid questionnaires were collected. A chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. A total of 68.6% of respondents had experienced at least one WPV incident involving non-physical and/or physical violence in the past year. The perpetrators were mainly family members of patients (94.9%). Most of the WPV occurred during the day shift (70.7%) and in wards (41.8%). Males were 1.979 times (95% CI, 1.378 to 2.841) more likely than females to experience physical violence. Emergency departments were more exposed to physical violence than other departments. Oncology was 2.733 times (95% CI, 1.126 to 6.633) more exposed to non-physical violence than the emergency department. As a result of WPV, victims felt aggrieved and angry, work enthusiasm declined, and work efficiency was reduced. However, only 5.6% of the victims received psychological counseling. Medical staff are at high risk of violence in China's children's hospitals. Hospital administrators and related departments should pay attention to the consequences of these incidents. There is a need for preventive measures to protect medical staff and provide a safer workplace environment. Our results can provide reference information for intervention strategies and safety measures.

  2. Interpersonal Violence among College Students: Does Sexual Orientation Impact Risk of Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…

  3. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.

  4. Violence toward health workers in Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services’ emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeea, Faisal; Al Ansari, Ahmed; Abbas, Ehab M; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Abu Zeid, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Employees working in emergency departments (EDs) in hospital settings are disproportionately affected by workplace violence as compared to those working in other departments. Such violence results in minor or major injury to these workers. In other cases, it leads to physical disability, reduced job performance, and eventually a nonconducive working environment for these workers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional exploratory questionnaire was used to collect data used for the examination of the incidents of violence in the workplace. This study was carried out at the ED of the Bahrain Defense Force (BDF) Hospital. Participants for the study were drawn from nurses, support staff, and emergency physicians. Both male and female workers were surveyed. Results The study included responses from 100 staff in the ED of the BDF Hospital in Bahrain (doctors, nurses, and support personnel). The most experienced type of violence in the workers in the past 12 months in this study was verbal abuse, which was experienced by 78% of the participants, which was followed by physical abuse (11%) and then sexual abuse (3%). Many cases of violence against ED workers occurred during night shifts (53%), while physical abuse was reported to occur during all the shifts; 40% of the staff in the ED of the hospital were not aware of the policies against workplace violence, and 26% of the staff considered leaving their jobs at the hospital. Conclusion This study reported multiple findings on the number of workplace violence incidents, as well as the characteristics and factors associated with violence exposure in ED staff in Bahrain. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of addressing the issue of workplace violence in EDs in Bahrain and can be used to demonstrate the strong need for interventions. PMID:29184452

  5. In Search of Effective Solutions to Curb Workplace Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Judith; Lipscomb, Jane; Ogaitis, Joanne

    2017-04-01

    Investigators have applied epidemiological principles to the study of workplace violence, producing results that offer intriguing information to hospitals struggling for a way forward on this issue. In a randomized, to hospitals struggling for a wary forward on this issue. In a randomized, controlled trial, the researchers found that a one-time, unit-based intervention can reduce the incidence of violent events, and that the approach offers some lasting effect over time. The intervention consisted of a 45-minute discussion with unit supervisors in which unit-specific data regarding violent incidents in their workplace were shared along with an array of improvement strategies. Unit supervisors then were directed to work with their teams to develop action plans to address violence, although they were free to adopt whatever solutions they deemed best. At six moths post-intervention, there was a clear reduction in the incident rate ratios of violent events on the intervention units as compared with control units that did not conduct an intervention. Experts note that the study demonstrates that an effective workplace violence intervention or program must be data-driven and based on principles of continuous quality improvement.

  6. Predicting inpatient violence using the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almvik, R; Woods, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports early analysis of the Broset Violence Checklist. An instrument aiming to assist in the process of the prediction of violence from mentally ill in-patients. Early results appear promising and directions for future research using the instrument are suggested.

  7. From violence to more violence in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Central American migrants flee their home country as a result of violence and threats from the criminal gangs. A large number of them also encounter the same type of violence that they are fleeing when on the migratory routes through Mexico.

  8. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  9. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  10. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  11. Legal Briefing: Unwanted Cesareans and Obstetric Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2017-01-01

    A capacitated pregnant woman has a nearly unqualified right to refuse a cesarean section. Her right to say "no" takes precedence over clinicians' preferences and even over clinicians' concerns about fetal health. Leading medical societies, human rights organizations, and appellate courts have all endorsed this principle. Nevertheless, clinicians continue to limit reproductive liberty by forcing and coercing women to have unwanted cesareans. This "Legal Briefing" reviews recent court cases involving this type of obstetric violence. I have organized these court cases into the following six categories: 1. Epidemic of Unwanted Cesareans 2. Court-Ordered Cesareans 3. Physician-Coerced Cesareans 4. Physician-Ordered Cesareans 5. Cesareans for Incapacitated Patients 6. Cesareans for Patients in a Vegetative State or Who Are Brain Dead. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  12. VIOLENCE AGAINST ELDERLY: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenir de Araújo Lago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging population and increasing life expectancy are remarkable in the world and in Brazil, bringing implications in all areas of everyday life. However, the current context of violence that is evident is a security risk and loss of quality of life given the frailty of the physiological state and stigmas imposed by society to the elderly. This study aims to identify national and international scientific production on violence against older people, published in journals in the health’s area. It is a bibliometric review related to scientific production on the subject in 2002-2011 period, through the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. After reading the summaries and subsequently the complete articles, were highlighted the study variables to be analyzed. The results were described and presented characterizing the professionals categories involved in authoring, the journals in which the articles were published, the place of publication, the focus of the thematic and trends that point. Concludes that it is important to stimulate scientific research on mistreatment of the elderly, in different regions of Brazil, as most publications awarded the southeast, restricting the prospects of regional differences related to the topic.

  13. Violence against elderly: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenir de Araújo Lago

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aging population and increasing life expectancy are remarkable in the world and in Brazil, bringing implications in all areas of everyday life. However, the current context of violence that is evident is a security risk and loss of quality of life given the frailty of the physiological state and stigmas imposed by society to the elderly. This study aims to identify national and international scientific production on violence against older people, published in journals in the health’s area. It is a bibliometric review related to scientific production on the subject in 2002-2011 period, through the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. After reading the summaries and subsequently the complete articles, were highlighted the study variables to be analyzed. The results were described and presented characterizing the professionals categories involved in authoring, the journals in which the articles were published, the place of publication, the focus of the thematic and trends that point. Concludes that it is important to stimulate scientific research on mistreatment of the elderly, in different regions of Brazil, as most publications awarded the southeast, restricting the prospects of regional differences related to the topic

  14. How much does "how much" matter? Assessing the relationship between children's lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine

    2013-04-01

    The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.

  15. Treatment for cases of violence by Brazilian emergency services focusing on family relationships and life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes data regarding cases of domestic violence treated by the emergency services through the following: the sociodemographic characteristics of the people who were treated; the events themselves; the evolution of care (from childhood to old age by gender); and the factors that differentiate cases of domestic violence compared to those committed by non-family members. Data from 24 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District were analyzed, comprising 86 emergency services: a total of 4,893 individuals were surveyed. Of those people who were treated by emergency services, 26.6% suffered domestic violence: 40.0% were children/adolescents, 57.2% were adults and 2.8% were elderly. The adjusted model, which compared victims of violence committed by other family members with those who were not family members, showed that males were less likely to suffer from domestic violence; those that had fewer years of education were at increased risk; and that women were more likely to commit domestic violence compared to the category of "both genders". This study reinforces the fact that health sector professionals need to be able to deal with domestic violence by providing support, performing good practices, abiding by care protocols, taking care of injuries, and facilitating access to other services.

  16. Nurses’ experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a trauma and emergency department in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Kennedy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to explore the experiences and coping mechanisms of nurses regarding workplace violence. The purposive sample comprised eight nurses working in the Trauma and Emergency Department in the Western Cape, South Africa. Thematic analysis was done of the semi-structured interviews. Four main themes and 10 categories were identified. Nurses are experiencing physical threats, verbal abuse and psychological and imminent violence on a regular basis. They tend to ‘normalise’ abusive patient behaviour because of the perception that workplace abuse ‘comes with the territory’, which resulted in under-reporting. However, perpetrators received compromised care by being avoided, ignored or given only minimal nursing care. Coping mechanisms ranged from using colleagues as sounding boards, helping out with duties, taking a smoke break and using friends and family to get it ‘off their chest’. The tolerance of non-physical violence and the absence of policies to deal with the violence, contribute to under-reporting.

  17. Domestic Violence Against Women In Turkey: A Systematic Review And Meta Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Günaydın, Sevil; Çitil, Elif Tuğçe

    2016-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for domestic violence against women in Turkey. The data about domestic violence against women point out a serious problem all around the world along with including cultural differences. The prevalence of domestic violence against women was determined through a meta-analysis, and the risk factors were determined through a systematic review. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. In this study, 34 primary studies that were published between January 2000 and January 2015 were examined. The highest prevalence belonged to verbal violence followed by physical, emotional, economic, and sexual violence. Despite different questioning methods, it was determined that 22 risk factors were most commonly examined in the studies, and these risk factors were summed up under three separate categories: socio demographical characteristics, well-being related characteristics and marriage related characteristics. It is of further interest that the most commonly examined characteristics were socio demographic characteristics. Just as throughout the world, domestic violence is a common problem in Turkey. Nurses and midwives should focus not only on women's disorders but also on the difficulties the patient faces in regard to being a family. It presents valid evidence to produce policies on violence prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Pilot Study on Developing a Standardized and Sensitive School Violence Risk Assessment with Manual Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael

    2017-09-01

    School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.

  19. PRESENTATION OF VIOLENCE IN L OVE THEMED TV SERIES IN TURKE Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem TAŞ ALİCENAP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is an inseparable part of our lives. Mass media is the public domain in which the violence is widely presented. Among all the mass media mediums which have numerous functions in our daily lives such as informing, entertaining, educating, etc.; television, without a doubt, takes the highest amount of time. In recent years, the number of television series on channels has increased and the fact of violence has been presented in these programs. Here in this research it has been questioned whether physical, psychological and verbal violence are used in love-themed TV series or not; and if yes, it has been questioned who is inflicting violence towards whom. In this context four love-themed TV series which were broadcasted in four Turkish channels with the highest rating record between the years of 2006 and 2010 were studied by using content analysis method in accordance with the violence categories. The data gathered by the analysis has shown that not only the series based on action; but also the series based on human affairs such as family, friendship, love, etc. include violence.

  20. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected