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Sample records for incident cancer events

  1. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  2. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  3. Incidence of venous thromboembolic events in enhanced recovery after surgery for colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendler, M M I; Haidari, T A; Waage, J E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Both the Danish and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend prolonged thromboprophylaxis (PT) with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for 28 days postoperatively after elective surgery for colon cancer. The evidence relies on data from two randomized clinical...... trials (RCTs) that included not only colon cancers but also other abdominal cancers or benign colorectal diseases. Neither of those studies investigated the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) under enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). We aim to describe the risk of VTE and estimate the cost...... of preventing one case of VTE by PT under ERAS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of 2230 patients undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer Stage I-III in the Capital Region of Denmark, 1 June 2008 to 31 December 2013. Patients who were discharged on postoperative day 28 or later, died during admission...

  4. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  5. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  6. A high diet quality is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

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    Joanna Hlebowicz

    Full Text Available To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV events.A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease was monitored from baseline (1991-1996 until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men.A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.73 in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91 in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen.High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.

  7. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

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    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  8. Incidence, risk factors and prognostic characteristics of bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) in breast cancer patients: A systematic review of the real world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Zhu, Wei; Biskup, Ewelina; Yang, Weige; Yang, Ziang; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Chengjiao; Hu, Guangxia; Hu, Guangfu

    2018-06-01

    The aim was to systematically extrapolate the occurrence, risk factors, prognostic characteristics, management and outcome of bone metastases (BM) and skeletal related events (SREs) of breast cancer survivors in the real world clinical setting. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE OvidSP and EBSCO Academic Search Complete was conducted. Published prospective and retrospective papers investigating BM and SREs in breast cancer patients in non-trial settings were identified and systematically reviewed. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Incidences of BM based on new diagnosis, length of BM-free interval (BMFI) and number and sites of BM were detected by 17 of 24 studies. Seven studies included in the review were subjected to analyses of risk factors for BM. Developments of SREs regarding the occurrence ratio of total and specific SREs, SERs-free interval (SREFI) and the first-line therapy for SREs were observed in 16 of 24 studies. Out of 5 studies, we extracted uni- and multivariate analysis of risk factor for SREs and out of 16 studies - predictors for survival in breast cancer patients with BM. BM and SREs are common problems in non-trial breast cancer populations. Patient demographics, clinical stage, tumor pathological type, molecular receptors status are significantly risk factors for incidence of BM, SREs and the survival. The unique characteristics of BM and SREs in breast cancer patients should be taken into account in future randomized controlled trials, as to optimize individual treatment options and assure a maximally long good quality of life.

  9. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

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    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  10. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

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    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  11. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  12. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

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    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  13. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  14. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...

  15. Incident sequence analysis; event trees, methods and graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    When analyzing incident sequences, unwanted events resulting from a certain cause are looked for. Graphical symbols and explanations of graphical representations are presented. The method applies to the analysis of incident sequences in all types of facilities. By means of the incident sequence diagram, incident sequences, i.e. the logical and chronological course of repercussions initiated by the failure of a component or by an operating error, can be presented and analyzed simply and clearly

  16. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

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    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  17. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cancer Incidence in Appalachia, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reda J; Ryerson, A Blythe; Singh, Simple D; King, Jessica B

    2016-02-01

    Limited literature is available about cancer in the Appalachian Region. This is the only known analysis of all cancers for Appalachia and non-Appalachia covering 100% of the US population. Appalachian cancer incidence and trends were evaluated by state, sex, and race and compared with those found in non-Appalachian regions. US counties were identified as Appalachian or non-Appalachian. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, standard errors, and confidence intervals were calculated using the most recent data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2004 to 2011. Generally, Appalachia carries a higher cancer burden compared with non-Appalachia, particularly for tobacco-related cancers. For all cancer sites combined, Appalachia has higher rates regardless of sex, race, or region. The Appalachia and non-Appalachia cancer incidence gap has narrowed, with the exception of oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung and bronchus, and thyroid cancers. Higher cancer incidence continues in Appalachia and appears at least in part to reflect high tobacco use and potential differences in socioeconomic status, other risk factors, patient health care utilization, or provider practices. It is important to continue to evaluate this population to monitor results from screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors related to cancer incidence, increase efforts to reduce tobacco use and increase cancer screening, and identify other areas where effective interventions may mediate disparities. Surveillance and evaluation of special populations provide means to monitor screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors, and increase efforts to reduce tobacco use to mediate disparities. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Pilz, S.; Koopman, A.D.; Rauh, S.P.; Pouwer, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Elders, P.J.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the

  1. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  2. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  3. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  5. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  6. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  7. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Cockburn, Myles G; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette M; Midthune, Douglas N; Zou, Zhaohui; Krapcho, Martin F; Miller, Daniel G; Feuer, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Cancer incidence rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2014 using data reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in February 2016 and a validation of rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 and submitted in February 2015 using the November 2015 submission are reported. New cancer sites include the pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, corpus and uterus, and childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years inclusive. A new reporting delay model is presented for these estimates for more consistent results with the model used for the usual November SEER submissions, adjusting for the large case undercount in the February submission. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked for validity between the February 2016 and November 2016 submissions. Validation revealed that the delay model provides similar estimates of eventual counts using either February or November submission data. Trends declined through 2014 for prostate and colon and rectum cancer for males and females, male and female lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Thyroid cancer and liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased. Pancreas (male and female) and corpus and uterus cancer demonstrated a modest increase. Slight increases occurred for male kidney and renal pelvis, and for all childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years. Evaluating early cancer data submissions, adjusted for reporting delay, produces timely and valid incidence rates and trends. The results of the current study support using delay-adjusted February submission data for valid incidence rate and trend estimates over several data cycles. Cancer 2017;123:2524-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  9. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence.

  10. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  11. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may influence the recipients' cancer risks both through transmission of biologic agents and by modulation of the immune system. However, cancer occurrence in transfusion recipients remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We used computerized files from Scandinavian...... blood banks to identify a cohort of 888,843 cancer-free recipients transfused after 1968. The recipients were followed from first registered transfusion until the date of death, emigration, cancer diagnosis, or December 31, 2002, whichever came first. Relative risks were expressed as ratios......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  13. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  15. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  17. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  18. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  19. Incidence estimation of stomach cancer among Koreans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Y. O.; Park, B. J.; Yoo, K. Y.; Kim, N. K.; Heo, D. S.; Lee, J. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of incidence estimation studies of cancers among Koreans through a nationwide survey has been undertaken by authors since 1988. The medical records were studied of inpatients with diagnoses of either ICD-9 151 (malignant neoplasm of the stomach), or 197 (secondary malignant neoplasm of the respiratory and digestive systems), or 211 (benign neoplasm of other parts of the digestive system) in claims sent in by medical care institutions throughout the country to the Korea Medical Insura...

  20. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  1. Fabry disease and incidence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sarah; Hadjimichael, Efthymios; Mehta, Atul; Ramaswami, Uma; Hughes, Derralynn

    2017-09-06

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A and the resulting accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its derivatives, including globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). Increased cellular and plasma levels of Gb3 and Lyso-Gb3 affect multiple organs, with specific clinical consequences for the kidneys, heart and brain. There is growing evidence that alterations in glycosphingolipids may have an oncogenic role and this prompted a review of cases of cancer and benign lesions in a large single centre cohort of Fabry patients. We also explored whether there is a difference in the risk of cancer in Fabry patients compared to the general population. Our results suggest that Fabry patients may have a marginally reduced rate of all cancer (incidence rate ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.99) but possibly increased rates of melanoma, urological malignancies and meningiomas. Greater knowledge and awareness of cancer in patients with Fabry disease may help identify at-risk individuals and elucidate cancer mechanisms in this rare inherited disease, which may potentially be relevant to the wider cancer population.

  2. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Johansen, Christoffer; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    high daily consumption of beer is associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly cancer of colon and rectum. The cohort has previously been followed until 1972, but with our study we add further 27 years of follow-up. The cohort comprises all male members of BWU employed for 6 months or longer...... cavity, the digestive organs, the respiratory system and the urinary system. Members of the cohort were at a slightly but highly significant increased risk of both colon cancer (O/E, 1.26; 1.11-1.42) and rectum cancer (O/E, 1.31; 1.14-1.49). Our study shows that a high beer consumption is related...... in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...

  3. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  4. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  5. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  6. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  7. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  8. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Lingyou; He, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality

  9. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  11. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...

  12. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  13. Females\\' esophagus cancer incidence in Golestan Province, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer ...

  14. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-qing; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; Li, Ni; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guang-lin; Wu, Liang-you

    2012-01-01

    Objective Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011. Methods There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate. Results The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung

  15. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Lung Cancer Survivors May Feel Blame Women’s Perceived and Actual Risk of Getting Cancer Colorectal Cancer ... cases) and death rates by sex, racial and ethnic group, age group, U.S. Census region, state, county-level ...

  17. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    Objective: The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively. Results: Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And

  18. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, we present historical and projected cancer incidence frequencies and rates for Canada, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (i.e. basal and squamous carcinomas, in 1983 to 2032. The information is intended to help in planning strategy and allocating resources and infrastructure for future cancer control and health care. Projected changes in cancer incidence rates: From 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, the agestandardized incidence rates (ASIRs for all cancers combined are predicted to decrease in Canadian males by 5%, from 464.8 to 443.2 per 100 000 population, and increase in Canadian females by 4%, from 358.3 to 371.0 per 100 000. The overall decrease in cancer rates in males will be driven by the decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65Endnote * or older and in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older. The overall increase in cancer rates in females reflects the predicted rise in lung cancer rates in women aged 65 or older. The increase also represents the expected increase in cancers of the uterus, thyroid, breast (in females under 45, leukemia, pancreas, kidney and melanoma. The largest changes in ASIRs projected over the 25-year forecasting horizon are increases in thyroid cancer (55% in males and 65% in females and liver cancer in males (43% and decreases in larynx cancer (47% in males and 59% in females, lung cancer in males (34% and stomach cancer (30% in males and 24% in females. The incidence rate of lung cancer in females is projected to continue to rise by 2% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 and then start to decrease in the last 20 projection years, by 18%. Breast cancer incidence is expected to change the least (an increase of less than 1% of all cancers in females. The predicted changes in the rates for colorectal cancer are below the medians in all cancers, with a decrease of 6% for both males and females during the entire projection period. The rates for prostate cancer are projected to be stable, based on an

  20. The development of an incident event reporting system for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shwu-Fen; Huang, Ean-Wen; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    Incident events may occur when nursing students are present in the clinical setting. Their inexperience and unfamiliarity with clinical practice put them at risk for making mistakes that could potentially harm patients and themselves. However, there are deficiencies with incident event reporting systems, including incomplete data and delayed reports. The purpose of this study was to develop an incident event reporting system for nursing students in clinical settings and evaluate its effectiveness. This study was undertaken in three phases. In the first phase, a literature review and focus groups were used to develop the architecture of the reporting system. In the second phase, the reporting system was implemented. Data from incident events that involved nursing students were collected for a 12-month period. In the third phase, a pre-post trial was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the reporting system. The ASP.NET software and Microsoft Access 2003 were used to create an interactive web-based interface and design a database for the reporting system. Email notifications alerted the nursing student's teacher when an incident event was reported. One year after installing the reporting system, the number of reported incident events increased tenfold. However, the time to report the incident event and the time required to complete the reporting procedures were shorter than before implementation of the reporting system. The incident event reporting system appeared to be effective in more comprehensively reporting the number of incident events and shorten the time required for reporting them compared to traditional written reports.

  1. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. Results: Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1.......9 per 100,000 in 1980 to 3.5 per 100,000 in 2014, and we observed a significant increase in 5-year OS of 12% points (a relative increase of 38%) from the period 1980–1984 to 2005–2009. Women were found to have a better prognosis than men. Conclusions: We found an unexpected increase in the age...

  2. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  3. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  4. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  5. Cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining workers. We evaluated cancer incidence between 1988 and 2010 in a cohort of 40,720 Minnesota taconite mining workers used between 1937 and 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by comparing numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. SIRs for lung cancer by histologic subtypes were also estimated. We adjusted for out-of-state migration and conducted a probabilistic bias analysis for smoking-related cancers. A total of 5700 cancers were identified, including 51 mesotheliomas and 973 lung cancers. The SIRs for lung cancer and mesothelioma were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) and 2.4 (95% CI = 1.8-3.2), respectively. Stomach, laryngeal, and bladder cancers were also elevated. However, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking attenuated the estimates for lung (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), laryngeal (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.6), oral (SIR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.2), and bladder cancers (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). Taconite workers may have an increased risk for certain cancers. Lifestyle and work-related factors may play a role in elevated morbidity. The extent to which mining-related exposures contribute to disease burden is being investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer incidence in south-east Nigeria: a report from Nnewi Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first population based cancer incidence report from a cancer registry in south-east Nigeria. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of some invasive cancers in southeast Nigeria. Methodology: We collected all new cases of invasive cancers between 1st January and 31st December, 2013.

  7. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  8. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  9. The changing incidence of AIDS events in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Sabin, Caroline A.; Phillips, Andrew; Sterne, Jonathan; May, Margaret; Justice, Amy; Dabis, Francois; Grabar, Sophie; Ledergerber, Bruno; Gill, John; Reiss, Peter; Egger, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of most AIDS events declines after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), this decline is more rapid for some conditions than others. We herein describe the decline in incidence of AIDS-defining events among 12,574 antiretroviral-naive

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; Jin, Jing; Zhai, Jingbo; Wen, Denggui; Shan, Baoen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To estimate the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province in 2013 and to investigate the real cancer burden in Hebei province to develop strategies for cancer prevention and control. Data on new cancer cases and deaths in 2013 were collected from 31 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province. All data were checked and evaluated based on data quality criteria from the “Chinese Guideline for Cancer Registration” and “Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume IX” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer/International Association of Cancer Registration (IARC/IACR). Qualified data from 21 registries were used for analysis after evaluation. Data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group, and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and the corresponding provincial population. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. The Chinese population census in 2000 and the population of Segi were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The covered populations included 11, 185,626 people (5,709,393 in males and 5,476,233 in females) from 21 qualified cancer registries, accounting for 15.25% of Hebei provincial population. The major indicators of quality control, that is, the percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%), percentage of cancer cases identified with a death certificate only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I), were 75.56%, 3.23%, and 0.65, respectively. In 2013, it was estimated that there were approximately 164,100 newly diagnosed cancer cases and 105,200 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 225.36/100,000 (248.03/100,000 in males, 201.73/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and the world standard population (ASIRW) were 182.81/100,000 and 181

  11. Evaluation of thromboembolic events in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab according to the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Chikako; Chisaki, Yugo; Sakimoto, Satoko; Sakae, Honoka; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to examine the risk factors, time of onset, incidence rates, and outcomes of thromboembolic events induced by bevacizumab in patients with cancer using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Methods Adverse event data recorded in the JADER database between January 2004 and January 2015 were used. After screening the data using the generic drug name bevacizumab, patient data were classified into two groups by age and five groups by cancer type. The histories of disorders were also categorized. Arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event were classified as "favorable" or "unfavorable" outcomes. Results In total, 6076 patients were reported to have developed adverse events during the sample period, of which 233 and 453 developed arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event, respectively. Logistic analysis suggested that the presence of cancer was a significant risk factor for both arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event. Age (≥70 years), histories of either hypertension or diabetes mellitus were also risk factors for arterial thromboembolic event. Median cumulative times of onset for arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event were 60 and 80 days, respectively, and were not significantly different by the log-rank test. By the chi-square test, the rate of unfavorable outcomes was found to be higher after developing arterial thromboembolic event than after venous thromboembolic event. Conclusion Thromboembolism is a leading cause of mortality in patients with cancer. Patients should be monitored for the symptoms of thromboembolic events right from the initial stages of bevacizumab treatment.

  12. Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ursin, G.; Bjelke, E.; Heuch, I.; Vollset, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Relationships between milk intake and cancer incidence were investigated after 11 1/2 years of follow-up of 15,914 individuals. A diagnosis of cancer was made in a total of 1,422 individuals. No association was established with total cancer incidence, in analyses adjusted for sex, age and residential characteristics. However, a strong positive association with milk consumption was observed for cancers of the lymphatic organs (odds ratio 3.4 for greater than or equal to 2 glasses per day vs le...

  13. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collecte...... found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value....

  14. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  15. Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, David I; Ford, Chandler; Samociuk, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Geographic variation in breast cancer incidence across Connecticut was examined according to age and birth cohort -specific groups. We assigned each of 60,937 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in Connecticut, 1986-2009, to one of 828 census tracts around the state. Global and local spatial statistics estimated rate variation across the state according to age and birth cohorts. We found the global distribution of incidence rates across places to be more heterogeneous for younger women and later birth cohorts. Concurrently, the spatial scan identified more locations with significantly high rates that pertained to larger proportions of at-risk women within these groups. Geographic variation by age groups was more pronounced than by birth cohorts. Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of cancer incidence and mortality risks associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of cancer incidence and mortality risks associated with effective dose of computed tomography examinations. K.O. Akyea-Larbi, C Schandorf, F Hasford, S Inkoom, T.A. Sackey, G.F. Acquah ...

  17. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and incident cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thyssen, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) could have opposing effects on cancer risk, as mutations are associated with both 10% higher serum vitamin D levels, which may protect against cancer, and with impaired skin barrier function, which may lead to higher cancer...... susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of the FLG genotype and cancer types in four population-based cohorts. METHODS: A total of 13,376 individuals were genotyped for FLG mutations. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Persons with a history of cancer...... at baseline were excluded from prospective analyses. RESULTS: There were 1339 incident cancers (median follow-up 11·4 years). The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FLG mutation carriers vs. wild types were: for any cancer (HR 0·95, 95% CI 0·78-1·16), any cancer excluding nonmelanoma...

  18. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study......, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68...... single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across...

  19. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Morais, Samantha; Oliveira, Maria J; Marques, Ana P; José Bento, Maria; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to quantify thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends in Portugal. The number of thyroid cancer cases and incidence rates were retrieved from the Regional Cancer Registries for the period 1989-2011. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2012) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1988-2012 by region). Joinpoint regression of the standardized incidence and mortality rates was performed. A significant, rapid and continued increase in incidence was observed for both sexes in each of the Regional Cancer Registries, with annual per cent changes (APCs) ranging between 2 and 9. Incidence in Portuguese women is higher than estimates for the world and Europe. Mortality decreased for women (APC: -1.5), with the greatest decrease in the North, and increased marginally for men (APC: +0.2), with a greater increase in the South. The significant increases in incidence in Portugal are predominantly because of the increase in incidence among women from the North. These trends, combined with an overall low mortality and high 5-year relative survival, raise concerns on the extent to which overdiagnosis may be taking place. Further research is needed, quantifying the importance of the most likely determinants of these trends as well as the extent and potentially deleterious effects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment in the Portuguese setting.

  20. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both. The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  1. Events and incidents in 2011; Hendingar og uhell i 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    11. March 2011 Japan was hit by an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale.The earthquake was followed by a massive tsunami. In all four Japanese nuclear power plants were affected of these events. The nuclear plant Fukushima Daiichi was hit hardest. In addition to Fukushima accident, 2011 was a year with several events, bow fires at nuclear waste facilities, icebreakers and submarines, which NRPA had to deal with. (eb)

  2. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada. Methods: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73 653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6 million person......: Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic...... countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort. Conclusion: We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking...

  3. Rising incidence of breast cancer among female cancer survivors: implications for surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); W.J. Louwman; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe number of female cancer survivors has been rising rapidly. We assessed the occurrence of breast cancer in these survivors over time. We computed incidence of primary breast cancer in two cohorts of female cancer survivors with a first diagnosis of cancer at ages 30+ in the periods

  4. [Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Sun, K X; Xia, C F; Yang, Z X; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for breast cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitting female breast cancer incidence and deaths data occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of female breast cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas) in 2014. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 87.42% and 0.59% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.24. The estimates of new breast cancer cases were about 278 900 in China in 2014, accounting for 16.51% of all new cases in female. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of breast cancer were 41.82/100 000, 30.69/100 000, and 28.77/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 3.12%. The crude incidence rates and ASRIC in urban areas were 49.94 per 100 000 and 34.85 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 31.72 per 100 000 and 24.89 per 100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of breast cancer deaths were about 66 000 in China in 2014, accounting for 7.82% of all the cancer-related deaths in female. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and age

  5. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pstomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  6. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Observationally, high plasma urate is associated with high risk of cancer. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of plasma urate are associated with high cancer incidence and all-cause mortality observationally and genetically. Method...

  7. Incidence and frequency rates of childhood cancer in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the extent of paediatric malignancy in an African country and to compare these findings wjth paediatric cancer rates in other countries. Design. A retrospective descriptive study which calculated incidence and frequency rates from the data obtained from a 6-year survey of childhood cancer in. Namibia.

  8. History of uterine leiomyomata and incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Radin, Rose G; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL), benign tumors of the myometrium, are influenced by sex steroid hormones. A history of UL diagnosis has been associated with a higher risk of uterine malignancies. The relation between UL and breast cancer, another hormonally responsive cancer, has not been studied. We investigated the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed UL and incidence of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. We followed 57,747 participants without a history of breast cancer from 1995 to 2013. UL diagnoses were reported at baseline and biennially. Breast cancer was reported on biennial questionnaires and confirmed by pathology data from medical records or cancer registries. Cox regression was used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and adjust for potential confounders. There were 2,276 incident cases of breast cancer (1,699 invasive, 394 in situ, and 183 unknown) during 879,672 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable IRR for the overall association between history of UL and breast cancer incidence was 0.99 (95 % CI 0.90-1.08), with similar results for ER + (IRR = 1.03) and ER - breast cancer (IRR = 1.05). IRRs for early diagnosis of UL (before age 30) were slightly above 1.0, with IRRs of 1.14 (95 % CI 0.99-1.31) for overall breast cancer, 1.14 (95 % CI 0.93-1.40) for ER + breast cancer, and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.89-1.61) for ER - breast cancer. IRRs for early diagnosis of UL were elevated for breast cancer diagnosed before 40 years of age (IRR = 1.39, 95 % CI 0.97-1.99) and premenopausal breast cancer (IRR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.01-1.58). No consistent patterns in risk were observed across estrogen receptor subtypes, and IRRs did not differ appreciably within strata of BMI, female hormone use, mammography recency, or family history of breast cancer. The present study of US black women suggests that a history of UL diagnosis is unrelated to the incidence of breast cancer overall. The

  9. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when...... their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  10. Heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence: the role of social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Levy, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The impact of heavy rainfall events on waterborne diarrheal diseases is uncertain. We conducted weekly, active surveillance for diarrhea in 19 villages in Ecuador from February 2004 to April 2007 in order to evaluate whether biophysical and social factors modify vulnerability to heavy rainfall events. A heavy rainfall event was defined as 24-hour rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile value (56 mm) in a given 7-day period within the study period. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to test the hypothesis that rainfall in the prior 8 weeks, water and sanitation conditions, and social cohesion modified the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence. Heavy rainfall events were associated with increased diarrhea incidence following dry periods (incidence rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.87) and decreased diarrhea incidence following wet periods (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.92). Drinking water treatment reduced the deleterious impacts of heavy rainfall events following dry periods. Sanitation, hygiene, and social cohesion did not modify the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea. Heavy rainfall events appear to affect diarrhea incidence through contamination of drinking water, and they present the greatest health risks following periods of low rainfall. Interventions designed to increase drinking water treatment may reduce climate vulnerability.

  11. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney L. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp. and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.. Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.

  12. Declining Bowel Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Schrotz-King, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-02-19

    In October 2002, screening colonoscopy from age 55 onward was introduced as part of the German national statutory cancer screening program. Screening colonoscopy is intended to lower both the mortality and the incidence of bowel cancer by enabling the detection and removal of precursor lesions. The authors studied trends in bowel cancer incidence and mortality in Germany from 2003 to 2012 on the basis of data from the epidemiological cancer registries and from cause-of-death statistics. Over the period of investigation, the age-standardized incidence of bowel cancer (with the European population as a standard) fell from 66.1 to 57.0 cases per 100 000 persons per year (-13.8%) in men and from 42.6 to 36.5 per 100 000 persons per year (-14.3%) in women. In parallel with these changes, the age-standardized mortality from bowel cancer fell by 20.8% in men and by 26.5% in women. In the age groups 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84 years, the cumulative risk of receiving a diagnosis of bowel cancer fell by 17-26%; in persons under age 55, this risk fell by only 3% in men, but increased by 14% in women. Long-term data from the cancer registry in the German federal state of Saarland revealed that the incidence of bowel cancer, but not its mortality, had risen over the decades preceding the study; it was only during the period of investigation that the trend reversed itself. Within 10 years of the introduction of screening colonoscopy in Germany, the incidence of bowel cancer in persons over age 55 fell by 17-26%, after having risen steadily over the preceding decades.

  13. Cancer incidence in the industrial corridor: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V W; Andrews, P A; Wu, X C; Correa, C N; Fontham, E T

    1998-04-01

    Because of the high density of industries along the Lower Mississippi River, there is a concern about adverse impact on health, including cancer, among residents in these parishes. This study provides an update of cancer incidence in the Industrial Corridor for the period 1989-93. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were calculated for the seven-parish study area from Baton Rouge down to, but not including, New Orleans. Rates were also computed for the entire state of Louisiana and for the combined Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Cancer incidence rates for the Industrial Corridor are either similar to, or lower than, the combined SEER rates for most of the common cancers as well as for rare tumors. The only two exceptions are lung cancer in white males and kidney cancer in white females that are significantly elevated when compared to the SEER averages. Significantly lower rates are found among white males for cancers of kidney, brain, and nervous system, and melanoma; among black males, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, stomach, rectum, and prostate, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; among white females, cancers of all sites combined, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, bladder, and melanoma; and among black females, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, lung, breast, ovary, and melanoma. The persistent excess of lung cancer has led to the development of a multi-agency project to evaluate the impact of potential environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and their interactions on lung cancer risk. The findings also confirm the urgent need to include and strengthen tobacco prevention and cessation programs in our cancer control activities.

  14. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  15. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  16. Solar ultraviolet irradiance and cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet-B (UVB)/vitamin D/cancer hypothesis was proposed by the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland in 1980. In 2002, the list was increased to 15 types of cancer using data in the 1999 version of the atlas of cancer mortality rates in the United States. Ecological studies of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates with respect to indices of solar UVB doses have also been reported for Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain with largely similar findings. In addition, several studies using nonmelanoma skin cancer as the index of solar UVB dose have found reduced internal cancer incidence and/or mortality rates, especially in sunny countries. A study of cancer incidence with respect to 54 categories of occupation in five Nordic countries, using lip cancer less lung cancer as the UVB index, found this index inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancers for males and four for females. Observational studies with respect to UVB doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations also support the hypothesis. Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system to assess whether solar UVB and vitamin D can be considered causal in reducing risk of cancer. The primary criteria for this analysis include strength of association, consistent findings in different populations, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and experimental verification (e.g., randomized controlled trials). The totality of evidence is judged to satisfy the criteria very well for breast and colorectal cancer, and moderately well for several other types of cancer.

  17. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do s...... subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer....

  18. In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jonas; Paltved, Charlotte; Krogh, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises...... well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform...... in situ simulation to improve patient safety. Design and purpose The study uses a case study design of in situ simulation training tailored to two emergency departments in the Central Denmark Region. We aim to: - Develop a model that integrates critical incidents and adverse events, a contextual needs...

  19. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  20. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  1. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  2. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  3. Only incident depressive episodes after myocardial infarction are associated with new cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter; van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Spijkerman, Titia A.; Ormel, Johan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this research was to study whether incident and non-incident depression after myocardial infarction (MI) are differentially associated with prospective fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. BACKGROUND Post-MI depression is defined as the presence of depression after

  4. Elevated incidence of fractures in women with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B J; Gradishar, W J; Smith, M E; Pacheco, J A; Holbrook, J; McKoy, J M; Nardone, B; Tica, S; Godinez-Puig, V; Rademaker, A W; Helenowski, I B; Bunta, A D; Stern, P H; Rosen, S T; West, D P; Guise, T A

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the incidence of bone fractures in women with BC.We found that women with invasive breast cancer are at an increased risk for bone fractures, with fractures most commonly occurring at lower extremity and vertebral sites. The risk is further increased in women undergoing cancer therapy. Bone loss and fractures in breast cancer have generally been attributed to aromatase inhibitor use. This study assessed the incidence of fractures after invasive breast cancer diagnosis and evaluated bone density and FRAX risk calculation at time of fracture occurrence. Retrospective cohort study of women with invasive breast cancer [June 2003-December 2011] who participated in an academic hospital based genetic biobank. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from the electronic medical record (EMR). A total of 422 women with invasive breast cancer were assessed; 79 (28 %) sustained fractures during the observation period; fractures occurred at multiple skeletal sites in 27 cases (116 fractures). The incidence of fractures was 40 per 1000 person-years. Women who sustained fractures were mostly white and had a family history of osteoporosis (36.9 %, p = 0.03) or history of a prior fracture (6/79, p = 0.004). Fractures occurred 4.0 years (range 0-12 years) after cancer diagnosis. Fracture cases had femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) of 0.72 + 0.12 g/cm(2), T-score of -1.2, that is, within the low bone mass range. Fractures most commonly occurred in lower extremities, vertebral, and wrist sites. Hip fractures accounted for 11 % of fractures, occurring at a median age of 61 years. Fractures occur shortly after commencing cancer therapy. Rapid bone loss associated with cancer therapy may precipitate fractures. Fractures occur at relatively higher BMD in BC. Occurrence of fractures in invasive breast cancer raises the possibility of cancer-induced impairment in bone quality.

  5. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  6. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this s......American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco...

  7. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact, will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  8. Lidocaine-Associated Cardiac Events in Newborns with Seizures : Incidence, Symptoms and Contributing Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986446; Schalkwijk, Stein; Toet, Mona C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/28827024X; Van Rooij, Linda G M; De Vries, Linda S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408; van den Broek, Marcel P H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lidocaine is an effective therapy for neonatal seizures; however, it is not widely used, presumably due to the risk of cardiac events. Objective: To investigate the incidence of cardiac events in full-term and preterm infants receiving lidocaine for seizures. Methods: Full-term (n = 368)

  9. Lidocaine-Associated Cardiac Events in Newborns with Seizures: Incidence, Symptoms and Contributing Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, L.C.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Toet, M.C.; Rooij, LG van; Vries, L.S. de; Broek, M.P. van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an effective therapy for neonatal seizures; however, it is not widely used, presumably due to the risk of cardiac events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of cardiac events in full-term and preterm infants receiving lidocaine for seizures. METHODS: Full-term (n = 368)

  10. Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-08-01

    We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  12. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  13. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  14. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiao-feng; Li, Lian-fang; Ou, Zhou-luo; Shen, Rong; Shao, Zhi-min

    2012-01-01

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  15. Incidence of cancer among bookbinders, printers, photoengravers, and typesetters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V

    2001-08-01

    To to study the risk of cancer, particularly of lung cancer and bladder cancer, among workers in the printing industry according to different occupations. This is a population based retrospective cohort study. The cohort comprised 1332 men and 426 women employed in the printing industry in Iceland according to a published union registry. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cases of cancer were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and specific incidences of cancer sites for men and women provided by the Cancer Registry. Among the men (36 217.5 person-years at risk) there were 125 observed cancers versus 123.66 expected, standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.84 to 1.20. The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 1.97 (0.55 to 5.20) and the SIR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 2.26 (0.96 to 4.41). No excess risk for cancer was found among women (8631.0 person-years at risk). The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 4.21 (0.47 to 15.20) and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma it was 4.99 (1.61 to 11.63) among the typesetters. A survey on smoking habits among active and retired union members showed that they smoked less than a random sample of the general population. The cancer site most often reported to show excess risk among printing industry workers has been the lung and the urinary bladder; however, this was not found in the present study. This may be explained by difference in smoking habits among union members compared with the general population. There is a high occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, particularly among typesetters, which warrants further studies.

  16. Incidence and determinants of medication errors and adverse drug events among hospitalized children in West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedefo, Mohammed Gebre; Mitike, Abraham Haileamlak; Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication errors cause a large number of adverse drug events with negative patient health outcomes and are a major public-health burden contributing to 18.7?56?% of all adverse drug events among hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and determinants of medication errors and adverse drug events among hospitalized children. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted among hospitalized children in the pediatrics ward of Nekemte Referral...

  17. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age......Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  18. [Incidence and mortality of stomach cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S W; Yang, Z X; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-07-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 347 cancer registries that submitted stomach cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2013 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 255 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural), sex, and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2013, the nationwide incidence and mortality of stomach cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 255 cancer registries covered a total of 226 494 490 populations (111 595 772 in urban and 114 898 718 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified and death certificate-only cases were 76.27% and 1.98%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio was 0.72. It is estimated that there were 427 000 new cases for stomach cancer nationwide, with a crude incidence rate of 31.38 per 100 000 (42.85 per 100 000 in males, 19.33 per 100 000 in females). The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 21.40 per 100 000 and 21.32 per 100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 2.66%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates of stomach cancer in urban areas were 27.80 per 100 000 and 18.48 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 35.54 per 100 000 and 24.93 per 100 000 in rural areas. It is estimated that there were 301 000 deaths for stomach cancer nationwide, with a crude mortality rate of 22.13 per 100 000 (29.85 per 100 000 in males, 14.03 per 100 000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 14.68 per 100 000 and 14.54 per 100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 1.70%. The crude

  19. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  20. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla 1Department of. Histopathology, University of ... ovarian cancer giving an incidence rate of 1/405 gynecological admissions per year or 0.3% (95% .... not found in the records. Follow up of patients was by clinical examination and.

  1. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  2. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea.Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope.During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4% and 5,579 (0.7% newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women.In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  3. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Incidence and predictors of urotoxic adverse events in cyclophosphamide-treated patients with systemic necrotizing vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenno, Guillaume; Mahr, Alfred; Pagnoux, Christian; Dhote, Robin; Guillevin, Loïc

    2011-05-01

    To assess hemorrhagic cystitis and urinary tract cancer incidence and predictors in cyclophosphamide (CYC)-treated patients with systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV). The French Vasculitis Study Group database, which contains longitudinal data on SNV patients, was searched for urinary tract cancer and/or hemorrhagic cystitis occurrences in patients diagnosed as having Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, or polyarteritis nodosa. The observed incidence of urinary tract cancer was compared to the expected incidence in the general population by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Relationships between urinary tract cancer and/or hemorrhagic cystitis and 10 variables, including CYC dosage and administration route, were investigated by survival analyses for a nested subgroup of patients for whom detailed information on CYC exposure was available. Among the 805 patients observed over 4,230 patient-years (mean followup 5.3 years), 22 cases of hemorrhagic cystitis and 7 of urinary tract cancer were identified in 27 patients. The SIRs for urinary tract cancer were 5.00 for all patients with SNV (P = 0.001) and 5.96 for patients with WG (P = 0.03). Based on 467 patients with detailed CYC information, cumulative CYC dose (hazard ratio [HR] for 10-gm increments 1.09; P = 0.03), ever-oral CYC administration (HR 5.50; P = 0.001), and WG (HR 2.96; P = 0.01) independently predicted urinary tract cancer and/or hemorrhagic cystitis. According to univariate analyses, smoking (ever) (HR 8.20; P = 0.02) and a prior hemorrhagic cystitis episode (HR 5.20; P = 0.046) significantly predicted urinary tract cancer. Our findings indicate that CYC treatment of SNV is associated with a 5-fold higher risk of developing urinary tract cancer. Urotoxicity risk in SNV is associated with the cumulative CYC dose and its oral administration, and might be higher in WG. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  6. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  7. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  8. Summarizing the incidence of adverse events using volcano plots and time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Richard C; Wolfinger, Russell D; Mann, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Adverse event incidence analyses are a critical component for describing the safety profile of any new intervention. The results typically are presented in lengthy summary tables. For therapeutic areas where patients have frequent adverse events, analysis and interpretation are made more difficult by the sheer number and variety of events that occur. Understanding the risk in these instances becomes even more crucial. We describe a space-saving graphical summary that overcomes the limitations of traditional presentations of adverse events and improves interpretability of the safety profile. We present incidence analyses of adverse events graphically using volcano plots to highlight treatment differences. Data from a clinical trial of patients experiencing an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are used for illustration. Adjustments for multiplicity are illustrated. Color is used to indicate the treatment with higher incidence; bubble size represents the total number of events that occur in the treatment arms combined. Adjustments for multiple comparisons are displayed in a manner to indicate clearly those events for which the difference between treatment arms is statistically significant. Furthermore, adverse events can be displayed by time intervals, with multiple volcano plots or animation to appreciate changes in adverse event risk over time. Such presentations can emphasize early differences across treatments that may resolve later or highlight events for which treatment differences may become more substantial with longer follow-up. Treatment arms are compared in a pairwise fashion. Volcano plots are space-saving tools that emphasize important differences between the adverse event profiles of two treatment arms. They can incorporate multiplicity adjustments in a manner that is straightforward to interpret and, by using time intervals, can illustrate how adverse event risk changes over the course of a clinical trial.

  9. Cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour and health promotion activities: a critical incident analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, M; Fridlund, B

    1999-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer report several disease- and health-related problems before, during and a long time after completed treatment. Nurses have an important role in educating/supporting these patients about/through the disease and treatment so that they can attain well-being. This study describes the cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour in terms of critical incidents after nurses had given them care to promote health. The study had a qualitative, descriptive design and the method used was the critical incident technique. Twenty-one informants from the Nordic countries diagnosed with head and neck cancer were strategically selected. It was explained to the informants what a critical incident implies before the interviews took place; this was defined as a major event of great importance, an incident, which the informants still remember, due to its great importance for the outcome of their health and well-being. The nurses' behaviour was examined, and critical incidents were involved in 208 cases-150 positive and 58 negative ones-the number of incidents varying between three and 20 per informant. The nurses' health promotion activities or lack of such activities based on the patients' disease, treatment and symptoms, consisted of informing and instructing the patients as well as enabling their participation. Personal consideration and the nurses' cognisance, knowledge, competence, solicitude, demeanour and statements of understanding were found to be important. Continuous health promotion nursing interventions were of considerable value for the majority of this group of cancer patients. Oncology nurses could reconfirm and update the care of head and neck cancer patients by including health promotion activities in individual care plans. By more frequent use of health promotion models, such as the empowerment model, the nurses could identify and focus on those individuals who needed to alter their life-style as well as tailor their approach

  10. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  11. Assessment for the impact of dust events on measles incidence in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhou, Jianding; Yang, Sixu; Zhao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    Dust events affect human health in both drylands and downwind environments. In this study, we used county-level data during the period of 1965-2005 to assess the impact of dust events on measles incidence in Gansu province in Western China. We used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to set up the cyclical regression model; in particular, we set the model to downwind direction for the typical cities in the Hexi Corridor as well as the capital city Lanzhou. The results showed that Spring measles incidence was the highest in the Hexi Corridor, where dust events occur the most frequently over Gansu province. Measles incidence declined on the pathway of dust storms from west to east due to the weakening of both intensity and duration in dust storms. Measles incidence was positively correlated with monthly wind speed and negatively correlated with rainfall amount, relative humidity, and air pressure. Measles incidence was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) positively correlated with daily coarse particles, e.g., TSP and PM10. According to the cyclical regression model, average monthly excess measles that is related to dust events was 39.1 (ranging from 17.3 to 87.6), 149.9 (ranging from 7.1 to 413.4), and 31.3 (ranging from 20.6 to 63.5) in Zhangye, Lanzhou, and Jiuquan, respectively.

  12. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Incidence and management of life-threatening adverse events during cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Huie; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marshall, Audrey C; Porras, Diego; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Balzer, David T; Beekman, Robert H; Torres, Alejandro; Vincent, Julie A; Moore, John W; Holzer, Ralf; Armsby, Laurie; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases performed at the 8 participating institutions of the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes were captured between 2007 and 2010 [median 1,095/site (range 133-3,802)]. The incidence of all life-threatening events was 2.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.4 %], whereas mortality was 0.28 % (95 % CI 0.18-0.41 %). Fifty-seven life-threatening events required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas 9 % required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of a risk adjustment model showed that age events. Using this model, standardized life-threatening event ratios were calculated, thus showing that one institution had a life-threatening event rate greater than expected. Congenital cardiac catheterization and intervention can be performed safely with a low rate of life-threatening events and mortality; preprocedural evaluation of risk may optimize preparation of emergency rescue and bailout procedures. Risk predictors (age < 1, hemodynamic vulnerability, and procedure risk category) can enhance preprocedural patient risk stratification and planning.

  14. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of plasma...... alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer....... differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. RESULTS: High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total...

  15. Atherosclerosis profile and incidence of cardiovascular events: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullano Michael F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease often presenting as clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD events. This study evaluated the characteristics of individuals with a diagnosis of atherosclerosis and estimated the incidence of CVD events to assist in the early identification of high-risk individuals. Methods Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey were followed for 2 years to observe incident self-reported CVD. Respondents had subclinical atherosclerosis if they reported a diagnosis of narrow or blocked arteries/carotid artery disease without a past clinical CVD event (heart attack, stroke or revascularization. Characteristics of those with atherosclerosis and incident CVD were compared with those who did not report atherosclerosis at baseline but had CVD in the following 2 years using chi-square tests. Logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with atherosclerosis and incident events. Results Of 17,640 respondents, 488 (2.8% reported having subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age, male gender, dyslipidemia, circulation problems, hypertension, past smoker, and a cholesterol test in past year (OR = 2.2 [all p Conclusion Self-report of subclinical atherosclerosis identified an extremely high-risk group with a >25% risk of a CVD event in the next 2 years. These characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.

  16. Atrophic Gastritis and the Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812

  17. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  18. Acquired Secondary Events in the Pathogenesis of Hereditary Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomlinson, Gail

    1999-01-01

    The inheritance of a germ-line mutation of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, although associated with a markedly increased incidence of breast cancer, is not solely responsible for the development of breast...

  19. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  20. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  1. Safety in the operating room during orthopedic trauma surgery-incidence of adverse events related to technical equipment and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, E. A. K.; Schepers, T.; Bonjer, H. J.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N. W. L.

    2017-01-01

    Safety in the operating room is widely debated. Adverse events during surgery are potentially dangerous for the patient and staff. The incidence of adverse events during orthopedic trauma surgery is unknown. Therefore, we performed a study to quantify the incidence of these adverse events. Primary

  2. Spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among males, and the incidence in Pennsylvania, USA is considerably higher than nationally. Knowledge of regional differences and time trends in prostate cancer incidence may contribute to a better understanding of aetiologic factors and racial disparities in outcomes, and to improvements in preventive intervention and screening efforts. We used Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data on reported prostate cancer diagnoses between 2000 and 2011 to study the regional distribution and temporal trends of prostate cancer incidence in both Pennsylvania White males and Philadelphia metropolitan area Black males. For White males, we generated and mapped county-specific age-adjusted incidence and standardised incidence ratios by period cohort, and identified spatial autocorrelation and local clusters. In addition, we fitted Bayesian hierarchical generalised linear Poisson models to describe the temporal and aging effects separately in Whites state-wide and metropolitan Philadelphia blacks. Incidences of prostate cancer among white males declined from 2000-2002 to 2009-2011 with an increasing trend to some extent in the period 2006-2008 and significant variation across geographic regions, but less variation exists for metropolitan Philadelphia including majority of Black patients. No significant aging effect was detected for White and Black men, and the peak age group for prostate cancer risk varied by race. Future research should seek to identify potential social and environmental risk factors associated with geographical/racial disparities in prostate cancer. As such, there is a need for more effective surveillance so as to detect, reduce and control the cancer burden associated with prostate cancer.

  3. Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkatsjov Anatolij V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway, has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO. AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR, and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993–2001. Methods The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993 – 2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78. The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. Results A total of 34 697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100 000 for women and 281/100 000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases, whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100 000; stomach (45.9; rectum (13.4; oesophagus (13.0; colon (12.2; bladder (11.6; and prostate cancer (11.1. Among women they were: breast (28.5; stomach (19.7; colon (12.2; and ovary cancer (9.0. Conclusion Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most

  4. Patient record review of the incidence, consequences, and causes of diagnostic adverse events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; de Bruijne, M.; Wagner, C.; Thijs, A.; Smits, M.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic errors often result in patient harm. Previous studies have shown that there is large variability in results in different medical specialties. The present study explored diagnostic adverse events (DAEs) across all medical specialties to determine their incidence and to gain

  5. Patient record review of the incidence, consequences, and causes of diagnostic adverse events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; Bruijne, M. de; Wagner, C.; Thijs, A.; Smits, M.; Wal, G. van der; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic errors often result in patient harm. Previous studies have shown that there is large variability in results in different medical specialties. The present study explored diagnostic adverse events (DAEs) across all medical specialties to determine their incidence and to gain

  6. Incidence and pattern of 12 years of reported transfusion adverse events in Zimbabwe: A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Background. Haemovigilance hinges on a systematically structured reporting system, which unfortunately does not always exist in resource-limited settings. We determined the incidence and pattern of transfusion-related adverse events reported to the National Blood Service Zimbabwe. Materials and

  7. Mental health in retired professional football players: 12-month incidence, adverse life events and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of

  8. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP. Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes, 175.9 (males, and 157.0 (females. Commonest sites were liver (23.8%, breast (15.4%, and bladder (6.9% (both sexes: liver (33.6% and bladder (10.7% among men, and breast (32.0% and liver (13.5% among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs.

  9. Saline Infusion Test highly associated with the incidence of cardio- and cerebrovascular events in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Reiko; Tamada, Daisuke; Murata, Masahiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-05-30

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is caused by excess secretion of aldosterone and is an independent risk factor for cardio-cerebro-vascular (CCV) events. The goal of treatment of PA should include prevention of CCV events. A definitive diagnosis of PA is established by confirmatory tests [saline infusion test (SIT), furosemide upright test (FUT) and captopril challenge test (CCT)]. However, there is no information on whether the hormone levels measured by these confirmatory tests are associated with CCV events. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the relationship between the results of the above confirmatory tests and prevalence of CCV disease in patients with PA. The study subjects were 292 PA patients who were assessed for past history of CCV events at the time of diagnosis of PA. CCV events were significantly higher in patients with positive than negative SIT (12.8% vs. 3.3%, p=0.04). There were no differences in the incidences of CCV events between patients with positive and negative CCT and FUT (CCT: 11.0% vs. 3.9%, p=0.13, FUT: 6.1% vs. 5.7%, p=0.93). Our results demonstrated a higher incidence of CCV disease in PA SIT-positive patients compared to those with negative test. SIT is a potentially useful test not only for the diagnosis of PA but also assessment of the risk of CCV events.

  10. Minimal and maximal incidence rates of skin cancer in Caucasians estimated by use of sigmoidal UV dose-incidence curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Moan, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose-cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. We studied the incidence rate-annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer as a stressful life event: Perceptions of children with cancer and their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Katianne M Howard; Lindwall, Jennifer J; Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna M; Martin-Elbahesh, Karen M; Phipps, Sean

    2017-09-01

    The medical traumatic stress model is commonly applied to childhood cancer, assuming that the diagnosis of cancer is a traumatic event. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding what specifically children perceive as stressful about cancer or how it compares with other stressful events more often experienced by children. Children with cancer (254 children) and demographically similar peers without a history of serious illness (202 children) identified their most stressful life event as part of a diagnostic interview assessing for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The events identified as most stressful were categorized thematically, with categories established separately for cancer-related and non-cancer-related events. Events also were examined to assess whether they met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A criteria for PTSD. In the group of children with cancer, 54% described a cancer-related event as the most stressful event they had experienced. Six distinct categories of cancer-related events and 10 categories of non-cancer-related events were identified. The same noncancer events were identified by children in both groups, and occurred at similar frequencies. The percentage of cancer-related events that met DSM A criteria for PTSD differed dramatically depending on which version of the DSM was applied. Children do not necessarily view their cancer experience as their most stressful life event. The findings of the current study suggest that the diagnosis of cancer might be better viewed as a manageable stressor rather than a major trauma, and are consistent with the change in the fifth edition of the DSM to eliminate the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness as a qualifying trauma for PTSD. Cancer 2017;123:3385-93. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  13. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  14. Incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after synchronous multiple cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Nishimura, Rieko; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In the preoperative evaluation for gastric cancer, high-resolution endoscopic technologies allow us to detect small accessory lesions. However, it is not known if the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy for synchronous multiple gastric cancers has a greater risk for metachronous cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of metachronous cancer in this patient subset compared with that after solitary cancer surgery. Data on a consecutive series of 1,281 patients gastrectomized for early gastric cancer from 1991 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The 715 gastric remnants after distal gastrectomy were periodically surveyed by endoscopic examination in Shikoku Cancer Center. Among those surveyed cases, 642 patients were pathologically diagnosed with solitary lesion (SO group) and 73 patients with synchronous multiple lesions (MU group) at the time of the initial surgery. In the follow-up period, 15 patients in the SO group and 3 patients in the MU group were diagnosed as having metachronous cancer in the gastric remnant. The cumulative 4-year incidence rate was 1.9 % in the SO group and 5.5 % in the MU group. The difference did not reach the significant level by the log-rank test. The incidence of metachronous cancer is higher after multiple cancer surgery; however, the difference is not statistically significant.

  15. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  16. [Incidence of cancer in Chilean HIV-infected children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlllarroel, Julia; Álvarez, Ana M; Chávez, Ana; Cofré, José; Galaz, M Isabel; Ledesma, Patricio; Peña, Anamaría; Vizueta, Eloisa; Wu, Elba

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric HIV (+) patients have a 100 times greater risk of cancer than HIV (-) children. To describe in Chilean HIV (+) children, cancer types, its appearance in relation to the stages of HIV disease and mortality. A protocol was created to know some characteristics of these patients from the point of view of their HIV infection and cancer pathology. Of 360 HIV (+) children confirmed by the Institute of Public Health to May 2014, 9 patients with neoplastic disease (2.5%) were diagnosed. All the children were on ART, had more than three years of evolution of HIV infection and were in moderate to severe clinical/immunological stages. Lymphoma was the most common cancer. Five children, has received therapy according to Programa Infantil Nacional de Drogas Antineoplásicas (PINDA). There was no interaction between cancer treatment and antiretroviral therapy. Mortality was 13.8 x 1000 (5 cases). The incidence and type of neoplasia is consistent with the international literature, with less survival than HIV (+) children without tumors. The occurrence of cancer was observed in children with moderate to severe clinical and immunological compromise.

  17. Nuclear denotation and increased incidence of cancer: a present concern in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    The recent destruction of the nuclear electricity plant in Japan has led to nuclear leakage. The nuclear denotation has become the present issue of concern. In oncology, there is no doubt that exposure to nuclear leakage can cause cancer. In this particular brief article, the author discusses the existing evidence of nuclear denotation and the incidence of cancer.

  18. Real-world incidence of cancer following a first unprovoked venous thrombosis: Results from the EPIGETBO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delluc, Aurélien; Ianotto, Jean-Christiophe; Tromeur, Cécile; De Moreuil, Claire; Couturaud, Francis; Lacut, Karine; Le Moigne, Emmanuelle; Louis, Patrick; Thereaux, Jérémie; Metges, Jean-Philippe; Mottier, Dominique

    2018-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first manifestation of cancer; however, the current incidence of malignancy in unselected patients with first unprovoked VTE needs to be confirmed. Between March 1st, 2013 and February 28th, 2015 we included and followed-up all patients living in the Brest district, France, who were seen in hospitals or the community for a first symptomatic unprovoked VTE event. The primary study outcome was the one-year incidence of cancer. 526 patients, mean age 66.6 ± 18.1 years, 246 (46.8%) men, were included in the study. In the year following VTE, 26 patients were diagnosed with cancer, corresponding to a one-year cumulative incidence of cancer of 5.06% (95% CI 3.47-7.35). Age ≥60, smoking and pulmonary embolism were significantly associated with cancer diagnosis in multivariate analysis. Fifty percent of cancers were patent at the time of VTE diagnosis, mostly detected on CTPA (Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography) performed for pulmonary embolism assessment. After excluding patients with patent cancer at VTE diagnosis, the one-year incidence of cancer was 2.65% (95% CI: 1.55-4.52); in multivariate analysis, only current smoking was independently associated with a significant 5.4-fold increased risk for cancer diagnosis (HR 5.40; 95% CI 1.31-22.27). No cancer was diagnosed in patients aged 50 years or younger. The one-year incidence of cancer after a first unprovoked VTE was 5.06%. Half of the cancers were diagnosed during the diagnosis procedure for pulmonary embolism using CTPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual minority population density and incidence of lung, colorectal and female breast cancer in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Maxwell, Nancy I; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-03-26

    Risk factors for breast, colorectal, and lung cancer are known to be more common among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, suggesting they may be more likely to develop these cancers. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer incidence by sexual orientation, using sexual orientation data aggregated at the county level. Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and data on sexual orientation were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey, from which a measure of age-specific LGB population density by county was calculated. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, the association between the age-race-stratified incident rate of breast, lung and colorectal cancer in each county and LGB population density was examined, with race, age group and poverty as covariates. Among men, bisexual population density was associated with lower incidence of lung cancer and with higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Among women, lesbian population density was associated with lower incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with higher incidence of breast cancer; bisexual population density was associated with higher incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with lower incidence of breast cancer. These study findings clearly document links between county-level LGB population density and cancer incidence, illuminating an important public health disparity.

  20. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  1. Predictors of Venous Thromboembolic Events Associated with Central Venous Port Insertion in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hohl Moinat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous port (CVP catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE. However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE, or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4–7.3% at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4–13.2% at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0–9.3% at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1–17.6% at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis.

  2. Incidence of capecitabine-related cardiotoxicity in different treatment schedules of metastatic colorectal cancer: A retrospective analysis of the CAIRO studies of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Johannes J. M.; Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Mol, Linda; Kok, Wouter E. M.; Koopman, Miriam; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of capecitabine-related cardiotoxicity has been reported to be low but includes serious adverse events. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the incidence and severity of capecitabine-related cardiotoxicity in different regimens in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in

  3. Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard po...

  4. Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol; Bodner, Kenneth; Swaen, Gerard; Collins, James; Beard, Kathy; Lee, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Despite showing no evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some human epidemiology studies, albeit inconsistently. We matched an existing cohort of 2,4-D manufacturing employees with cancer registries in three US states resulting in 244 cancers compared to 276 expected cases. The Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) for the 14 NHL cases was 1.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.74–2.29). Risk estimates were higher in the upper cumulative exposure and duration subgroups, yet not statistically significant. There were no clear patterns of NHL risk with period of hire and histology subtypes. Statistically significant results were observed for prostate cancer (SIR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57–0.94), and “other respiratory” cancers (SIR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.22–8.84; 4 of 5 cases were mesotheliomas). Overall, we observed fewer cancer cases than expected, and a non statistically significant increase in the number of NHL cases. PMID:22016704

  5. Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Storm, H.H.; Mouridsen, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of new primary cancers was evaluated in 3538 postmenopausal patients who had received surgical treatment for primary breast cancer. Of these patients, 1828 with a low risk of recurrence received no further treatment. High-risk patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (n = 846) received postoperative radiotherapy, while the second group (n = 864) received radiotherapy plus tamoxifen at a dose of 30 mg given daily for 48 weeks. The median observation time was 7.9 years. In comparison with the number of new cancers in the general population, the number of new cancers in the three groups was elevated mostly due to a high number of cancers of the contralateral breast and of colorectal cancers in the high-risk groups. The cumulative risk of nonlymphatic leukemia was increased among patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (P = .04). Cancer incidence in the high-risk tamoxifen-treated group relative to that in the high-risk group not treated with tamoxifen was not significant (1.3). No protective effect of tamoxifen on the opposite breast was seen (rate ratio for breast cancer = 1.1), but a tendency to an elevated risk of endometrial cancer was observed (rate ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 0.6-32.4). Continued and careful follow-up of women treated with tamoxifen is necessary to clarify the potential cancer-suppressive or cancer-promoting effects of this drug

  6. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  7. Further statement on the incidence of childhood cancer in Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999 the Welsh Office asked COMARE to examine two unpublished studies. The first by Busby et al of ''Green Audit'' concluded that there was a significant excess of childhood leukaemia in North Wales associated with residential proximity to the coast. The second study, carried out by Steward et al of the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), did not support this conclusion. We were asked to advise as to whether we considered that there was a real raised incidence of childhood leukaemia near the coast of North Wales and whether further study was required. To do this we initially organised a comparison of the figures quoted by both the Green Audit and WCISU with the database held by the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) in Oxford. This group maintains the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT), data for which are supplied from a variety of sources including cancer registries but also directly from medical cancer specialists as well as from death certificates. As a consequence this provides an independent check on much of the data on childhood cancer held by cancer registries in Great Britain and is clinically validated. After carrying out the independent check on the number of cases of childhood leukaemia in these Welsh counties it was immediately apparent that the data held by Green Audit, on which the analysis by Busby et al was based, were incorrect. These data were received from the Welsh Cancer Registry (WCR) in 1995. A further data set was received from WCR in 1996 but was not used in the analysis by Busby et al. In June 1999 we issued a statement to the Welsh Office. In that statement we noted that Dr Busby and his colleagues appeared to have used erroneous data in their study. On the basis of the Steward et al data, COMARE also stated that we found no evidence to support the contention that there is an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia or other childhood cancers amongst the Welsh population living close to the

  8. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-04-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  9. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  10. Adverse events in hospitalised cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukland, Ellinor; von Plessen, Christian; Nieder, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    ) compared to a general hospital population. Material and methods: A total of 6720 patient records were retrospectively reviewed comparing AEs in hospitalised cancer patients to a general hospital population in Norway, using the IHI Global Trigger Tool method. Results: 24.2 percent of admissions for cancer...... patients had an AE compared to 17.4% of admissions of other patients (pvs. 36.0 (p¼.65, rr 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–1.18). No particular cancer category is at higher...

  11. The Incidence of Major Cardiovascular Events in Immigrants to Ontario, Canada: The CANHEART Immigrant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jack V; Chu, Anna; Rezai, Mohammad R; Guo, Helen; Maclagan, Laura C; Austin, Peter C; Booth, Gillian L; Manuel, Douglas G; Chiu, Maria; Ko, Dennis T; Lee, Douglas S; Shah, Baiju R; Donovan, Linda R; Sohail, Qazi Zain; Alter, David A

    2015-08-31

    -Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. -We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada's Permanent Resident database to nine population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from eight major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared to a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants compared with long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years) but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. -Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain part but not all of these differences.

  12. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  13. Incidence of severe critical events in paediatric anaesthesia (APRICOT) : a prospective multicentre observational study in 261 hospitals in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habre, Walid; Disma, Nicola; Virag, Katalin; Becke, Karin; Hansen, Tom G; Jöhr, Martin; Leva, Brigitte; Morton, Neil S.; Vermeulen, Petronella M; Zielinska, Marzena; Boda, Krisztina; Veyckemans, Francis

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence of severe critical events in children undergoing general anaesthesia in Europe. We aimed to identify the incidence, nature, and outcome of severe critical events in children undergoing anaesthesia, and the associated potential risk factors. METHODS:

  14. Residential relocation by older adults in response to incident cardiovascular health events : A case-crossover analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovasi, G.; Richardson, J.M.; Rodriguez, C.J.; Kop, W.J.; Ahmed, A.; Brown, A.F.; Greenlee, H.; Siscovick, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We use a case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and residential relocation to a new home address. Methods. We conducted an ambidirectional case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and

  15. Geographical Variations and Trends in Major Cancer Incidences throughout Korea during 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Eun-Hye; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to describe the temporal trends and district-level geographical variations in cancer incidences throughout Korea during 1999-2013. Data were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. We calculated the age-standardized cumulative cancer incidences according to sex and geographical region (metropolitan cities, provinces, and districts) for three 5-year periods (1999-2003, 2004-2008, and 2009-2013). Each quintile interval contained the same number of regions. Disease maps were created to visualize regional differences in the cancer incidences. Substantial differences in cancer incidences were observed according to district and cancer type. The largest variations between geographical regions were found for thyroid cancer among both men and women. There was little variation in the incidences of stomach, colorectal, and lung cancer according to geographical region. Substantially elevated incidences of specific cancers were observed in Jeollanam-do (thyroid); Daejeon (colorectum); Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Chungcheongbuk-do (lung); Seocho-gu, Gangnam-gu, and Seongnam, Bundang-gu (breast and prostate); Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces (stomach); Ulleung-gun and the southern districts of Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeollanam-do (liver); and along the Nakdonggang River (gallbladder and biliary tract). Mapping regional cancer incidences in Korea allowed us to compare the results according to geographical region. Our results may facilitate the development of infrastructure for systematic cancer incidence monitoring, which could promote the planning and implementation of region-specific cancer management programs.

  16. Evaluation of Effective Factors in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Pourfarzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Colorectal cancer is considered as the third prevalent malignancy worldwide. Investigation of information on cancers in Iran during 1985-1996 showed an increase in the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer. Its rank in Iran has increased from 9 to 5th during 10 years. It was reported as high prevalent cancer in Iranian people aged less than 40 years among Asian countries.   Methods: In this cases-control study patients with a pathologic report of colorectal cancer were recruited among those cases registered in Ardabil Cancer Registry. Control group were selected from neighbors, frequency matched for age and gender. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire consisting information on age, gender, smoking, drugs and alcohol consuming, diet, family history of cancer and serum IgM and IgG level for H. pylori. Data were analyzed using SPSS v16.   Results: In the current study, 43 persons (53.8% were male and 37 (46.2% were female. In the case group, 10 persons (12.5% were under 40, 34 cases (42.5% in age group of 41- 60 and 36 persons (45% were more than 61 years. In the control group 12 persons (15% were under 40, 36 persons (45.5% in age group of 41-60 and 40 persons (68% were more than 61 years. In the control group 3 cases had BMI less than 19, 36 cases (45% between 19-24.9, 31 cases (38.8% between 25-29.9 and 10 cases (12.5% were more than 30, whereas this variable was 2.5, 32.5, 46.2 and 18.8% respectively in the case group.   Positive history of smoking found to increase the risk of cancer around 1.8 times (OR= 1.78 CI: 0.91- 5.85. However, significant difference was not observed between two groups regarding alcoholic beverage consumption (p=0.385 . There were significant differences between two groups in terms of vegetables and carbohydrates intake. Difference was also significant between two groups regarding positive level of IgG. Among studied persons, 19 and 13 patients in case and control group had

  17. Operating Experience from Events Reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism in providing lessons learned from events and the associated corrective actions to prevent them, helping to improve safety at nuclear installations. The Incident Reporting System for Research Reactors (IRSRR), which is operated by the IAEA, is an important tool for international exchange of operating experience feedback for research reactors. The IRSRR reports contain information on events of safety significance with their root causes and lessons learned which help in reducing the occurrence of similar events at research reactors. To improve the effectiveness of the system, it is essential that national organizations demonstrate an appropriate interest for the timely reporting of events important to safety and share the information in the IRSRR database. At their biennial technical meetings, the IRSRR national coordinators recommended collecting the operating experience from the events reported to the IRSRR and disseminating it in an IAEA publication. This publication highlights the root causes, safety significance, lessons learned, corrective actions and the causal factors for the events reported to the IRSRR up to September 2014. The publication also contains relevant summary information on research reactor events from sources other than the IRSRR, operating experience feedback from the International Reporting System for Operating Experience considered relevant to research reactors, and a description of the elements of an operating experience programme as established by the IAEA safety standards. This publication will be of use to research reactor operating organizations, regulators and designers, and any other organizations or individuals involved in the safety of research reactors

  18. Radiation-associated adverse events after childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, I.W.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates, childhood cancer survivors are confronted with treatment-related adverse events, especially when radiation therapy was involved. After the introduction (Chapter 1), the Chapters 2 and 3 present the EKZ/AMC childhood cancer survivor cohort and the methodology of using

  19. Incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients treated with vandetanib: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Zang

    Full Text Available Vandetanib is a multikinase inhibitor that is under assessment for the treatment of various cancers. QTc interval prolongation is one of the major adverse effects of this drug, but the reported incidence varies substantially among clinical trials. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to obtain a better understanding in the risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients administered vandetanib.Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials that involved cancer patients who were prescribed vandetanib 300 mg/d and that included data on QTc interval prolongation. The overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine trials with 2,188 patients were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of all-grade and high-grade QTc interval prolongation was 16.4% (95% CI, 8.1-30.4% and 3.7% (8.1-30.4%, respectively, among non-thyroid cancer patients, and 18.0% (10.7-28.6% and 12.0% (4.5-28.0%, respectively, among thyroid cancer patients. Patients with thyroid cancer who had longer treatment duration also had a higher incidence of high-grade events, with a relative risk of 3.24 (1.57-6.71, than patients who had non-thyroid cancer. Vandetanib was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-grade QTc interval prolongation with overall Peto odds ratios of 7.26 (4.36-12.09 and 5.70 (3.09-10.53 among patients with non-thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer, respectively, compared to the controls.Treatment with vandetanib is associated with a significant increase in the overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation. Different cancer types and treatment durations may affect the risk of developing high-grade QTc interval prolongation.

  20. Incidence of associated events during the performance of invasive procedures in healthy human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highstead, R. Grant; Tipton, Kevin D.; Creson, Daniel L.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic investigations often utilize arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. These investigations represent some risk to the subject. We examined 369 studies performed in the General Clinical Research Center between January 1994 and May 2003 for events related to femoral catheterization and muscle biopsies. Incidents were further examined by age (younger: 18-59 yr, n=133; and older: 60-76 yr, n=28). There were no clinically defined major complications associated with either procedure. The incidence of femoral catheter repositioning or reinsertion was higher in the older group (25.5 vs. 9.7%). There was no difference in the incidence of premature removal of catheters, ecchymosis or hematoma, or the persistence of pain after discharge. The occurrence of all incidents did not increase with multiple catheterizations. Muscle biopsy was associated with infrequent ecchymosis or hematoma in both groups (1.1 and 3.6% in younger and older groups, respectively). Both procedures entail a small likelihood of a vagallike response (3.3% overall), resulting in nausea, dizziness, and rarely a loss of consciousness. These results indicate that, in skilled hands and a defined clinical setting, the incidents associated with femoral catheterization and muscle biopsy in healthy volunteers are reasonable and largely controllable.

  1. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Competing risks of cancer mortality and cardiovascular events in individuals with multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bayliss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patients with cardiovascular and other comorbidities are at concurrent risk of multiple adverse outcomes. However, most treatment decisions are guided by evidence from single-outcome models, which may be misleading for multimorbid patients. Objective: We assessed the interacting effects of cancer, cardiovascular, and other morbidity burdens on the competing outcomes of cancer mortality, serious cardiovascular events, and other-cause mortality. Design: We analyzed a cohort of 6,500 adults with initial cancer diagnosis between 2001 and 2008, SEER 5-year survival ≥26%, and a range of cardiovascular risk factors. We estimated the cumulative incidence of cancer mortality, a serious cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular mortality, and other-cause mortality over 5 years, and identified factors associated with the competing risks of each outcome using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Following cancer diagnosis, there were 996 (15.3% cancer deaths, 328 (5.1% serious cardiovascular events, and 542 (8.3% deaths from other causes. In all, 4,634 (71.3% cohort members had none of these outcomes. Although cancer prognosis had the greatest effect, cardiovascular and other morbidity also independently increased the hazard of each outcome. The effect of cancer prognosis on outcome was greatest in year 1, and the effect of other morbidity was greater in individuals with better cancer prognoses. Conclusion: In multimorbid oncology populations, comorbidities interact to affect the competing risk of different outcomes. Quantifying these risks may provide persons with cancer plus cardiovascular and other comorbidities more accurate information for shared decision-making than risks calculated from single-outcome models.

  3. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  4. Baseline C-reactive protein is associated with incident cancer and survival in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had C...... with increased risk of cancer of any type, of lung cancer, and possibly of colorectal cancer. Moreover, elevated levels of baseline CRP associate with early death after a diagnosis of any cancer, particularly in patients without metastases.......PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had CRP...... CRP levels were 1.3 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8), 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.2), and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.7), respectively. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for early death in patients with cancer were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7) for CRP more than 3 versus less than 1 mg/L and 1...

  5. Breast cancer in the world: Incidence and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Curado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the burden of breast cancer in the world, as the now most common cancer in women in the globe. Here a descriptive pattern based on information available in IARC and WHO databases describing estimated age-specific incidence is presented, both for incidence and mortality. The newer treatment modalities and screening programs have been developed to alleviate the burden of this disease, but much more needs to be done in the developing countries for the impact to reach outside of the developed nations.El objetivo de este documento es describir la carga del cáncer de mama en el mundo, puesto que es el cáncer más común entre las mujeres del planeta. Aquí se presenta un patrón descriptivo basado en la información disponible en las bases de datos de la IARC y la OMS, describiendo estimaciones de la incidencia por grupos específicos de edad, tanto para incidencia como mortalidad. Las nuevas modalidades de tratamiento y programas de tamizaje se han desarrollado para aligerar la carga de esta enfermedad, pero necesita hacerse mucho más en los países en vías de desarrollo para que el impacto alcance más allá de las naciones desarrolladas.

  6. The incidence and management of cutaneous adverse events of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Owczarek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is found in many cancers, including those of the head and neck area, non-small-cell lung cancer, and colorectal, cervical, prostate, breast, ovary, stomach, and pancreatic cancer. The EGFR inhibitors are used at present in the treatment of such cancers. Skin lesions that develop during and after cancer treatment may be due to specific cytostatics, molecular-targeted drugs, radiation therapy, complementary therapy, or the cancer itself, and hence knowledge is essential to distinguish between them. The mechanism through which skin toxicity arises during treatment with EGFR inhibitors is not well known, but seems to be due to the modification of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signal path associated with its activation, which results in the similarity between the adverse effects of EGFR inhibitors and the treatment of melanoma with BRAF and MEK inhibitors. The most common side effects are pruritus, xerosis, papulopustular rash, hand-foot skin reaction, alopecia and dystrophy of the hair, and paronychia. This work presents options for prevention and suggestions for managing these adverse events, which are of importance in the care of patients undergoing oncological treatment.

  7. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  8. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  9. Lactose intolerance in prostate cancer patients: incidence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Rana, Satyavati V; Mandal, Arup Kumar; Malhotra, Sunita; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Santosh; Acharya, Naveen Chandra; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2008-03-01

    Osteoporosis is common in prostate cancer (CaP) patients both before and after institution of androgen deprivation therapy and is associated with significant morbidity. Lactose intolerance (LI) can affect bone mass but has not been studied in this group of patients. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LI in CaP patients with that in the general population and to identify factors affecting lactose intolerance in CaP patients. Fifty-five men with CaP planned for bilateral orchidectomy were enrolled in the study and their baseline characteristics including age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen, serum calcium profile, lactose tolerance status, physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking, bone mineral density and calcium intake were registered. The data on lactose tolerance in these patients were compared with those of 81 age-matched controls (data taken from the available database). The incidence of LI in CaP patients was significantly less than that in the control group (36.2% and 58.3%, respectively, p = 0.027). A significantly greater number of CaP patients in the lactose-tolerant group had a calcium intake of >1500 mg/day (p = 0.03) and that of milk >500 ml/day (p = 0.05) than those in the intolerant group. Age >70 years, BMI 163 cm, lower physical activity and co-abuse of alcohol and smoking significantly correlated with the presence of LI (p 25 kg/m2 and weight >65 kg. The incidence of LI in CaP patients is less than that in the general population despite a higher incidence of osteoporosis, indicating a complex etiology of CaP-related osteoporosis. Certain physical characteristics and personal habits are important in determining lactose-tolerant status.

  10. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  11. Incidence and determinants of medication errors and adverse drug events among hospitalized children in West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedefo, Mohammed Gebre; Mitike, Abraham Haileamlak; Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn

    2016-07-07

    Medication errors cause a large number of adverse drug events with negative patient health outcomes and are a major public-health burden contributing to 18.7-56 % of all adverse drug events among hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and determinants of medication errors and adverse drug events among hospitalized children. A prospective observational study was conducted among hospitalized children in the pediatrics ward of Nekemte Referral Hospital from February 24 to March 28, 2014. Data were collected by using checklist guided observation and review of medication order sheets, medication administration records, and other medical charts of the patients. To identify the independent predictors of medication errors and adverse drug events, backward logistic regression analysis was used. Statistical significance was considered at p-value Nekemte Referral Hospital. In particular, children with multiple medications and longer hospital stays, and those with co-morbidities and longer hospital stays, were at greater risk for medication errors and adverse drug events, respectively.

  12. Systematic review of the incidence and characteristics of preventable adverse drug events in ambulatory care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Linda Aagaard; Winterstein, Almut G; Søndergaard, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and describe characteristics of preventable adverse drug events (pADEs) in ambulatory care. DATA SOURCES: Studies were searched in PubMed (1966-March 2007), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-December 2006), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...... (1993-March 2007), EMBASE (1980-February 2007), and Web of Science (1945-March 2007). Key words included medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease, outpatient, ambulatory care, primary health care, general practice, patient admission, hospitalization, observational study, retrospective....../pADE incidence, (2) clinical outcomes, (3) associated drug groups, and/or (4) underlying medication errors were included. Study country, year and design, sample size, follow-up time, ADE/pADE identification method, proportion of ADEs/pADEs and ADEs/pADEs requiring hospital admission, and frequency distribution...

  13. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  14. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  15. Is personality associated with cancer incidence and mortality? An individual-participant meta-analysis of 2156 incident cancer cases among 42,843 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Batty, G D; Hintsa, T; Elovainio, M; Hakulinen, C; Kivimäki, M

    2014-04-02

    The putative role of personality in cancer risk has been controversial, and the evidence remains inconclusive. We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies (British Household Panel Survey; Health and Retirement Study; Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia; Midlife in the United Survey; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate; and Sibling samples) for an individual-participant meta-analysis to examine whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were associated with the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality in 42,843 cancer-free men and women at baseline (mean age 52.2 years, 55.6% women). During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, there were 2156 incident cancer cases. In random-effects meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, none of the personality traits were associated with the incidence of all cancers or any of the six site-specific cancers included in the analysis (lung, colon, breast, prostate, skin, and leukaemia/lymphoma). In the three cohorts with cause-specific mortality data (421 cancer deaths among 21,835 participants), none of the personality traits were associated with cancer mortality. These data suggest that personality is not associated with increased risk of incident cancer or cancer-related mortality.

  16. Endotoxemia, immune response to periodontal pathogens, and systemic inflammation associate with incident cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussinen, Pirkko J; Tuomisto, Karolina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Havulinna, Aki S; Sundvall, Jouko; Salomaa, Veikko

    2007-06-01

    In periodontitis, overgrowth of gram-negative bacteria may cause endotoxemia and systemic inflammation leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We investigated in a prospective study the associations of serum endotoxin, antibodies to periodontal pathogens, and inflammation markers with the risk of incident CVD. The FINRISK 1992 cohort of 6051 individuals was followed up for 10 years. We examined 185 incident CVD events and a control cohort of 320 individuals using a prospective case-cohort design. High antibody response to periodontal pathogens independently predicted incident CVD events with hazard ratios (HR, quartile 4 versus quartiles 1 to 3, 95% CI) of 1.87 (1.13 to 3.08). The subjects with a high antibody response and high CRP or interleukin (IL)-6 had multivariate-adjusted HRs of 3.01 (1.27 to 7.09) and 3.11 (1.42 to 6.83) compared with low-responders, respectively. The corresponding HRs for high endotoxin concentration were 1.82 (1.22 to 2.73, alone), 3.92 (1.99 to 7.74, with CRP), 3.54 (1.78 to 7.03, with IL-6), and 2.26 (1.13 to 4.52, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) after adjusting for age and gender. These associations were abolished after adjusting for serum lipids. High endotoxin/HDL ratio, however, had a multivariate-adjusted HR of 1.92 (1.19 to 3.08) for CVD events. Our results suggest that the exposure to periodontal pathogens or endotoxin induces systemic inflammation leading to increased risk for CVD.

  17. Disparities in Cancer Incidence, Stage, and Mortality at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Chang, Yuchiao; Porneala, Bianca C.; Bharel, Monica; Singer, Daniel E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homeless people have a high burden of cancer risk factors and suboptimal rates of cancer screening, but the epidemiology of cancer has not been well described in this population. We assessed cancer incidence, stage, and mortality in homeless adults relative to general population standards. Methods We cross-linked a cohort of 28,033 adults seen at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003–2008 to Massachusetts cancer registry and vital registry records. We calculated age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs). We examined tobacco use among incident cases and estimated smoking-attributable fractions. Trend tests were used to compare cancer stage distributions with those in Massachusetts adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2015. Results During 90,450 person-years of observation, there were 361 incident cancers (SIR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02, 1.25) and 168 cancer deaths (SMR=1.88, 95% CI=1.61, 2.19) among men, and 98 incident cancers (SIR=0.93, 95% CI=0.76, 1.14) and 38 cancer deaths (SMR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14, 2.20) among women. For both sexes, bronchus and lung cancer was the leading type of incident cancer and cancer death, exceeding Massachusetts estimates more than twofold. Oropharyngeal and liver cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among men, whereas cervical cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among women. About one third of incident cancers were smoking-attributable. Colorectal, female breast, and oropharyngeal cancers were diagnosed at more-advanced stages than in Massachusetts adults. Conclusions Efforts to reduce cancer disparities in homeless people should include addressing tobacco use and enhancing participation in evidence-based screening. PMID:26143955

  18. Survey of the incidence and effect of major life events on graduate medical education trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars J. Grimm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the incidence of major life events during graduate medical education (GME training and to establish any associations with modifiable activities and career planning. Methods: The authors surveyed graduating GME trainees from their parent institution in June 2013. Demographic information (clinical department, gender, training duration and major life events (marriage, children, death/illness, home purchase, legal troubles, property loss were surveyed. Respondents were queried about the relationship between life events and career planning. A multivariable logistic regression model tested for associations. Results: A total of 53.2% (166/312 of graduates responded to the survey. 50% (83/166 of respondents were female. Major life events occurred in 96.4% (160/166 of respondents. Male trainees were more likely (56.1% [46/82] vs. 30.1% [25/83] to have a child during training (p=0.01. A total of 41.6% (69/166 of responders consciously engaged or avoided activities during GME training, while 31.9% (53/166 of responders reported that life events influenced their career plans. Trainees in lifestyle residencies (p=0.02, those who experienced the death or illness of a close associate (p=0.01, and those with legal troubles (p=0.04 were significantly more likely to consciously control life events. Conclusion: Major life events are very common and changed career plans in nearly a third of GME trainees. Furthermore, many trainees consciously avoided activities due to their responsibilities during training. GME training programs should closely assess the institutional support systems available to trainees during this difficult time.

  19. Prostate Cancer in Transgender Women: Incidence, Etiopathogenesis, and Management Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebel, Nicholas A; Morin, Jacqueline P; Autorino, Riccardo; Vince, Randy; Grob, Baruch; Hampton, Lance J

    2017-12-01

    To critically analyze the available evidence regarding the incidence, etiopathogenesis, and management of prostate cancer (CaP) in transgender women. In addition, this article aims to present a recent case report of a transgender woman with a unique presentation at the author's institution. An electronic nonsystematic literature search was performed to identify pertinent studies. PubMed search engine was queried by using the following search terms: "prostate cancer," "male to female transsexual," "transgender patient," "androgen + prostate cancer," "estrogen therapy + prostate cancer," and "health care barrier." In addition, a clinical case managed at our institution was reviewed and critically discussed. Including our case, there have been only 10 documented cases of CaP in transgender women. Additionally, an emerging body of literature has questioned the role of androgens in the development of CaP and suggested that estrogen therapy may not be as protective as initially thought. Therefore, the current evidence suggests that the transgender woman should be screened for CaP the same as a nontransgender men. Barriers to care in the transgender female population include accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs pathologizing transgender patients, financial restrictions of the patient, and health system determinants. Although rare, CaP in transgender women has been documented. Both the mechanism and the impact of receiving a bilateral orchiectomy on disease development are unclear. Future study is needed to examine these factors, and to further shape the treatment and screening regimen for these patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  1. Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Low Rectal Cancers: Incidence and Risk Factors for Permanent Stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Joanna Chung Kiu; Foo, Dominic Chi Chung; Wei, Rockson; Law, Wai Lun

    2017-11-01

    Advances in surgical techniques and paradigm changes in rectal cancer treatment have led to a drastic decline in the abdominoperineal resection rate, and sphincter-preserving operation is possible in distal rectal cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term incidence of permanent stoma after sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer and its corresponding risk factors. From 2000 to 2014, patients who underwent sphincter-preserving low anterior resection for low rectal cancer (within 5 cm from the anal verge) were included. The occurrence of permanent stoma over time and its risk factors were investigated by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. This study included 194 patients who underwent ultra-low anterior resection for distal rectal cancer, and the median follow-up period was 77 months for the surviving patients. Forty-six (23.7%) patients required a permanent stoma eventfully. Anastomotic-related complications and disease progression were the main reasons for permanent stoma. Clinical anastomotic leakage (HR 5.72; 95% CI 2.31-14.12; p consideration when contemplating sphincter-preserving surgery.

  2. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei

    2018-02-27

    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p gas emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p gas emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  4. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated u...

  5. Interval cancers after skin cancer screening: incidence, tumour characteristics and risk factors for cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, J; Waldmann, A; Geller, A C; Weinstock, M A; Eisemann, N; Noftz, M; Bertram, S; Nolte, S; Volkmer, B; Greinert, R; Breitbart, E; Katalinic, A

    2017-01-17

    The rate of interval cancers is an established indicator for the performance of a cancer-screening programme. We examined the incidence, tumour characteristics and risk factors of melanoma interval cancers that occurred in participants of the SCREEN project, which was carried out 2003/2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Data from 350 306 SCREEN participants, who had been screened negative for melanoma, were linked to data of the state cancer registry. Melanoma interval cancers were defined as melanomas diagnosed within 4-24 months after SCREEN examination. Results were compared with melanomas of the pre-SCREEN era (1999-2002), extracted from the cancer registry. The overall relative incidence of melanoma interval cancers in terms of observed/expected ratio was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82-1.05; in situ: 1.61 (1.32-1.95), invasive: 0.71 (0.60-0.84)). Compared with melanomas of the pre-SCREEN era, the interval melanomas were thinner and had a slightly greater proportion of lentigo maligna melanomas whereas nodular melanomas were less frequent. The results indicate a moderate performance of the SCREEN intervention with an excess of in situ melanomas. In part, the findings might be due to specifics of the SCREEN project, in particular a short-term follow-up of patients at high risk for melanoma.

  6. Incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Schmidt; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Grønhøj, Christian

    2018-01-01

    ,000 in 2014 with an AAPC of 5.3. The 5-year RS increased significantly from 33.1% over the period 1980-1984 to 58.5% (25.4% points) over the period 2010-2014. With no significant difference stratified for gender. Tumors located at the palatine tonsils (n = 3333) and salivary gland OPC (n = 90) had...... 1980 to 2014. METHODS: This study included all patients registered in the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry over the period 1980-2014. The age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) per 100,000, annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were evaluated. Five-year relative survival...

  7. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the 2015 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including the incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2015 was obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2016. Mortality data from 1983 to 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2016, among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality and prevalence and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. Herein, 214,701 and 76,855 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer in 2015, respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2015 were 258.9 and 82.0 per 100,000, respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate has increased significantly by 3.4% annually from 1999 to 2012, and started to decrease after 2012 (2012-2015, annual percent change, -6.1%). However, the overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2011 and 2015 was 70.7%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased since 2012 and mortality rates have declined since 2002; however, the 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2011-2015 in Korea.

  8. Breast cancer incidence by estrogen receptor status in Denmark from 1996 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Stahlberg, C; Jensen, M-B

    2012-01-01

    During the past 50 years, breast cancer incidence has increased by 2-3 % annually. Despite many years of testing for estrogen receptors (ER), evidence is scarce on breast cancer incidence by ER status. The aim of this paper was to investigate the increase in breast cancer incidence by ER status....... Data were obtained from the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group which holds nationwide data on diagnosis, including pathology, treatment, and follow-up on primary breast cancers since 1977. All Danish women...

  9. Incidence of Bladder Cancer in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the Cancer Registry Data and Review of the Incidence of Bladder Cancer in the South Asian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Daswin; De Silva, M.V.C.; Ranasinghe, Tamra I J; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien; Persad, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of bladder cancer (BC) in Sri Lanka and to compare risk factors and outcomes with those of other South Asian nations and South Asian migrants to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Materials and Methods The incidence of BC in Sri Lanka was examined by using two separate cancer registry databases over a 5-year period. Smoking rates were compiled by using a population-based survey from 2001 to 2009 and the relative risk was calculated by using published data. Results A total of 637 new cases of BC were diagnosed over the 5-year period. Sri Lankan BC incidence increased from 1985 but remained low (1.36 and 0.3 per 100,000 in males and females) and was similar to the incidence in other South Asian countries. The incidence was lower, however, than in migrant populations in the US and the UK. In densely populated districts of Sri Lanka, these rates almost doubled. Urothelial carcinoma accounted for 72%. The prevalence of male smokers in Sri Lanka was 39%, whereas Pakistan had higher smoking rates with a 6-fold increase in BC. Conclusions Sri Lankan BC incidence was low, similar to other South Asian countries (apart from Pakistan), but the actual incidence is likely higher than the cancer registry rates. Smoking is likely to be the main risk factor for BC. Possible under-reporting in rural areas could account for the low rates of BC in Sri Lanka. Any genetic or environmental protective effects of BC in South Asians seem to be lost on migration to the UK or the US and with higher levels of smoking, as seen in Pakistan. PMID:22670188

  10. Recent events in NPPs and incident reporting system (IRS) activity. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA convened the 1996 Joint Meeting to Exchange Information on Recent Events in Nuclear Power Plants and the Technical Committee-Annual Meeting of the Incident Reporting System (IRS) national co-ordinators, organized jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD in Paris, France from 22-26 April 1996. These consecutive meetings took place at the OECD Headquarters, 2 rue Andre Pascal. The main objective of the first meeting (22-24 April 1996) was to exchange and discuss information on recent events which occurred in NPPs. The second meeting (25-26 April 1996) was devoted to the IAEA and NEA activity in the framework of the IRS. The main issues of the programme at the meetings were as follows: in-depth discussion on NPP recent events, presented by the participants; panel discussion on operational safety experience issues identified by the participants; IAEA and NEA activities on IRS subjects in 1995-1996 and plans for the future; issues from the inter-agency's IRS Advisory Committee. Annexes I and II provide more information on the programme at the meetings. A list of participants is given in Annex III (50 participants from 22 countries and 3 international organization). Annexes IV and V provide information on national presentations on recent events. Figs, tabs

  11. Venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer: incidence, risk factors and impact on survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu Saadeh, Feras

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other cancers. Clear cell cancers carry the highest risk at 11-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the predisposing factors for VTE in a population of ovarian cancer patients and to determine the influence of VTE on overall survival.

  12. A simple Bayesian approach to quantifying confidence level of adverse event incidence proportion in small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    In both clinical development and post-marketing of a new therapy or a new treatment, incidence of an adverse event (AE) is always a concern. When sample sizes are small, large sample-based inferential approaches on an AE incidence proportion in a certain time period no longer apply. In this brief discussion, we introduce a simple Bayesian framework to quantify, in small sample studies and the rare AE case, (1) the confidence level that the incidence proportion of a particular AE p is over or below a threshold, (2) the lower or upper bounds on p with a certain level of confidence, and (3) the minimum required number of patients with an AE before we can be certain that p surpasses a specific threshold, or the maximum allowable number of patients with an AE after which we can no longer be certain that p is below a certain threshold, given a certain confidence level. The method is easy to understand and implement; the interpretation of the results is intuitive. This article also demonstrates the usefulness of simple Bayesian concepts when it comes to answering practical questions.

  13. [Incidence of melanoma and changes in stage-specific incidence after implementation of skin cancer screening in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, N; Waldmann, A; Katalinic, A

    2014-01-01

    A pilot project in skin cancer screening (SCREEN) was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein from July 2003 to June 2004. Although the impact of this screening on the stage-specific incidence of melanoma is of great importance for screening evaluation, it remains unknown. In theory, an effective skin cancer screening program should result in a medium-term incidence decrease of melanomas with a prognostically unfavorable stage. This is studied on a population-based level by using cancer registry data. Based on data from the Cancer Registry of Schleswig-Holstein for 1999-2009, stage-specific (T-category of the TNM-classification system) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. After implementation of the SCREEN project, the incidence of prognostically favorable melanomas (in situ and T1) was higher than before, while the incidence of advanced melanomas (T2, T3, and for women also T4) decreased considerably. The classification of tumor stages changed during the project period, which may have contributed to an artificial decrease of the stages with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement with the observed decrease of melanoma mortality in the screening region.

  14. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. [Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in elderly population in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; He, J

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in elderly Chinese population in 2013 based on the data from local cancer registries submitted to National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: Data from 255 cancer registries submitted to NCCR with qualified data after checked and evaluated, were selected for this estimation. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by areas, sex, age groups and cancer site, combined with population data of the year 2013 to estimate cancer epidemiology in older people in China. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for the estimation of age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: All the 255 cancer registries (88 in urban and 167 in rural areas) were selected for this estimation, covered 37 407 728 elderly subjects, accounting for 17.73% of the entire national elderly population. It was estimated about 2 171.0 thousand new cancer cases in older people in China, accounting for 58.96% of all cancer incidence, with the crude incidence rate of 1 029.16/100 000 (1 297.96 per 100 000 in male, 777.18 per 100 000 in female), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 1 019.25 per 100 000. It was estimated about 1 600.5 thousand deaths in older people in China, accounting for 67.70% of all cancer deaths, with the crude mortality of 758.72/100 000 (988.37 per 100 000 in males, 543.44 per 100 000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 730.78 per 100 000. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for about 67.70% of all cancer cases in China. Those cancers are also the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 73.45% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The cancer burden of elderly population in China is very serious. The major cancer incidence and mortality in urban and rural areas are similar

  16. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  17. Parameter estimation for multistage clonal expansion models from cancer incidence data: A practical identifiability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Meza, Rafael; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2017-03-01

    Many cancers are understood to be the product of multiple somatic mutations or other rate-limiting events. Multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models are a class of continuous-time Markov chain models that capture the multi-hit initiation-promotion-malignant-conversion hypothesis of carcinogenesis. These models have been used broadly to investigate the epidemiology of many cancers, assess the impact of carcinogen exposures on cancer risk, and evaluate the potential impact of cancer prevention and control strategies on cancer rates. Structural identifiability (the analysis of the maximum parametric information available for a model given perfectly measured data) of certain MSCE models has been previously investigated. However, structural identifiability is a theoretical property and does not address the limitations of real data. In this study, we use pancreatic cancer as a case study to examine the practical identifiability of the two-, three-, and four-stage clonal expansion models given age-specific cancer incidence data using a numerical profile-likelihood approach. We demonstrate that, in the case of the three- and four-stage models, several parameters that are theoretically structurally identifiable, are, in practice, unidentifiable. This result means that key parameters such as the intermediate cell mutation rates are not individually identifiable from the data and that estimation of those parameters, even if structurally identifiable, will not be stable. We also show that products of these practically unidentifiable parameters are practically identifiable, and, based on this, we propose new reparameterizations of the model hazards that resolve the parameter estimation problems. Our results highlight the importance of identifiability to the interpretation of model parameter estimates.

  18. Associations of Perceived Mental Stress, Sense of Purpose in Life, and Negative Life Events With the Risk of Incident Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: The SHEZ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yukiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-02-01

    In the present population-based prospective study, we examined the associations of psychosocial factors with the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Data were collected from 12,359 participants (≥50 years of age) who answered a self-completed health questionnaire in the Shozu County of Kagawa Prefecture in Japan. During a 3-year follow-up between December 2008 and November 2012, HZ and PHN were diagnosed in 400 and 79 subjects, respectively. We used Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios of incident HZ and PHN according to psychosocial factors, adjusting for age, sex, histories of HZ, cancer, and diabetes, smoking and drinking habits, and time from disease onset to treatment. Men with high levels of mental stress were twice as likely to be at risk for incident HZ. The risk of incident HZ was approximately 60% lower among men and women who reported a high sense of purpose in life. Women who experienced negative life events-particularly changes in their work, living environment, and relationships-had a 2- to 3-fold higher risk of incident PHN. Psychosocial factors such as perceived mental stress, sense of purpose in life, and negative life events may contribute to the development of HZ and PHN in the general population. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sirolimus effects on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Siddiqui, Kulsoom; Engels, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant option for kidney transplant recipients, may reduce cancer risk by interrupting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, studies of sirolimus and cancer incidence in kidney recipients have not been definitive, and have had limited ability to examine specific cancer types. The literature was systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of kidney recipients that compared sirolimus users to sirolimus nonusers. Meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of the association between sirolimus use and incidence of total cancer and specific cancer types. Estimates were stratified by study type (RCT vs. observational) and use of cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant that affects DNA repair). Twenty RCTs and two observational studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 39,039 kidney recipients overall. Sirolimus use was associated with lower overall cancer incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), driven by a reduction in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, IRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.76). The protective effect of sirolimus on NMSC risk was most notable in studies comparing sirolimus against cyclosporine (IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04-0.84). After excluding NMSCs, there was no overall association between sirolimus and incidence of other cancers (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.69-1.63). However, sirolimus use had associations with lower kidney cancer incidence (IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.81), and higher prostate cancer incidence (IRR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17-2.91). Among kidney recipients, sirolimus users have lower NMSC risk, which may be partly due to removal of cyclosporine. Sirolimus may also reduce kidney cancer risk but did not appear protective for other cancers, and it may actually increase prostate cancer risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Variation in Cancer Incidence among Patients with ESRD during Kidney Function and Nonfunction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Christina A; Snyder, Jon J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    Among patients with ESRD, cancer risk is affected by kidney dysfunction and by immunosuppression after transplant. Assessing patterns across periods of dialysis and kidney transplantation may inform cancer etiology. We evaluated 202,195 kidney transplant candidates and recipients from a linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cancer registries, and compared incidence in kidney function intervals (time with a transplant) with incidence in nonfunction intervals (waitlist or time after transplant failure), adjusting for demographic factors. Incidence of infection-related and immune-related cancer was higher during kidney function intervals than during nonfunction intervals. Incidence was most elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.7 to 18), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.7), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.3), lip cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.0), and nonepithelial skin cancers (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 5.8). Conversely, ESRD-related cancer incidence was lower during kidney function intervals (kidney cancer: HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.8 and thyroid cancer: HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.8). With each successive interval, incidence changed in alternating directions for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and lung, pancreatic, and nonepithelial skin cancers (higher during function intervals), and kidney and thyroid cancers (higher during nonfunction intervals). For many cancers, incidence remained higher than in the general population across all intervals. These data indicate strong short-term effects of kidney dysfunction and immunosuppression on cancer incidence in patients with ESRD, suggesting a need for persistent cancer screening and prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries.

  2. Breast cancer incidence and use of hormone therapy in Denmark 1978-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there have recently been reports of declining incidence rates for breast cancer. Decreased use of hormone therapy and decreased use of mammography has been put forward as possible reasons for this decline. The aim of this study was to analyse breast cancer incidence trends in Den...

  3. Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan | Ageek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan. ... The cancers were classified according to the organs affected and then ranked in their order of relative frequency. The mean age, age range, male to female ratio, the incidence ... Keywords: Prevalence, malignancies, Africa, Middle East Sudan Journal of Medical ...

  4. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence in path_MLH1 carriers subjected to different follow-up protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Toni; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Evans, Dafydd Gareth

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy.......We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy....

  6. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  7. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort

  8. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Medication errors and adverse drug events in kidney transplant recipients: incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; Pilch, Nicole A; Bratton, Charles F; McGillicuddy, John W; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2012-12-01

    To determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes associated with clinically significant medication errors or adverse drug events in kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective observational study. Transplant center at an academic medical center. A total of 476 adults who received kidney transplants between June 2006 and July 2009. Severe or significant medication errors and adverse drug events (medication-related problems [MRPs]) were identified by medical record review. Only patient-induced medication errors (e.g., took wrong dose or frequency of drug, took drug not prescribed) were captured. Clinical outcomes included patient and graft survival, infections (including cytomegalovirus), readmissions, and acute rejection episodes. Thirty-seven (8%) of the 476 patients developed a clinically significant MRP. Univariate and confirmatory multivariate analyses revealed that female sex, African-American race, pretransplantation diabetes mellitus, delayed graft function, and retransplant recipients were independent risk factors for developing an MRP. Patients with MRPs had significantly higher rates of acute rejection (11% vs 30%, p=0.004), cytomegalovirus infection (15% vs 30%, p=0.033), and 30-day readmissions (5% vs 16%, p=0.018). Graft survival was also significantly lower in patients who had MRPs (pmedication errors and associated adverse drug events were common in kidney transplant recipients. General and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with the development of these MRPs, and MRPs were associated with increased risk of rejection and graft loss. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  10. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast.

  11. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.

    2012-01-01

    anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results: The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases......Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish...

  12. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...... or the incidence of adenocarcinoma, which is increasing. Decreases in the incidences of CIN3 and AIS in age groups with high HPV vaccine coverage may herald a future decrease in cervical cancer incidence in young Danish women....

  13. Characteristics and comparison of colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing with other regions in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Yang, Lei; Du, Changzheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Ning; Gu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiologic studies about colorectal cancer are lacking in China. This study aims to provide a basis for colorectal cancer screening and prevention, through analysis and comparisons the characteristics of the trends in colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing and selected representative regions. RESULTS The annual incidence rate in Beijing region increased significantly, from 9.40/100,000 in 1998 to 18.61/100,000 in 2012. The stratified rate showed that the incidence of distal colon adenocarcinoma increased substantially in men, especially in those aged > 75 years and residing in urban areas. Although the incidence rate in Beijing is still lower than in Shanghai, Jiashan, and Hong Kong in China, it is increasing rapidly. Further, the incidence rate in Beijing is lower than in New York, Oxford and Osaka, but higher than in Mumbai and Kyadondo. The incidence trend in Beijing is increasing especially in older groups, while in other regions such as New York, it is decreasing in these age groups. Materials and Methods Colorectal cancer incidence data were obtained from Beijing Cancer Registry and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus database. All incidence rates were age-standardized according to Segi's world population. Incidence trends were characterized by calculating the annual percent changes using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Conclusions Compared with other regions, Beijing has a medium level of colorectal cancer incidence, however, it is increasing significantly. There are obvious differences in the cancer subsite, sex and age distributions between Beijing and other regions. Prevention and screening of colorectal cancer in Beijing should be strengthened. PMID:28445947

  14. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the

  15. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  16. Trend analysis of cancer incidence in Japan using data from selected population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Ajiki, Wakiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ioka, Akiko; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-02-01

    Population-based cancer registries are operated by over 80% of prefectures in Japan. However, only a limited proportion of the registries can provide long-term incidence data. Here, we aimed to establish a method for monitoring cancer incidence trends in Japan using data from selected prefectures. Based on the availability of long-term (≥ 20 years) high-quality data, we collected incidence data from five prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, Osaka, and Nagasaki), which included an annual average of 54,539 primary cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 2004. Cancer mortality data for 1995-2004 were obtained from the vital statistics. Representativeness and homogeneity of the trends were examined by funnel plot analysis of log-linear regression coefficients calculated for the most recent 10 years of data (1995-2004) of age-standardized rates (ASR). The ASR of incidence for five prefectures in total (5-pref total) showed a significant decrease, with an annual percent change (APC) of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.4: -0.6) for males and -0.4 (95% CI -0.8: -0.1) for females. Excluding data from Osaka (4-pref total) reversed the decreasing trend; the corresponding APC was +0.4 (95% CI -0.2: +1.0) for males and +0.7 (95% CI +0.5: +0.9) for females. The APCs for the ASR of mortality for the 4-pref total (males, -1.5; females, -1.3) were more representative of nationwide data (males, -1.4 [95% CI -1.7: -1.2]; females, -1.1 [95% CI -1.4: -0.9]) than those for the 5-pref total (males, -1.7; females, -1.4). We conclude that using data from Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, and Nagasaki prefectures, with continuous monitoring of the representativeness of the data, is a provisionally relevant way to evaluate cancer incidence trends in Japan. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2013: an analysis based on urbanization level

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Zuo, Tingting; Xia, Changfa; Yang, Zhixun; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the cancer patterns in areas with different urbanization rates (URR) in China with data from 255 population-based cancer registries in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods There were 347 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2013 to NCCR. All those data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality, and qualified data from 255 registries were used for this analysis. According to the p...

  18. Increased incidence of apparently life-threatening events due to supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Schäppi, Michela G; Benkebil, Faiza; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Belli, Dominique C

    2006-11-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has a high prevalence in infancy. The supine position is among numerous aggravating factors. The exact relationship between GOR and apparently life-threatening events (ALTE) is not clear, although it has been repeatedly investigated. In 1992 the worldwide Back to Sleep campaign was implemented, which had a dramatic effect on the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) with a drop of 50%. Although the vast majority of children now sleep on their back, the effect of this position on ALTE has not been studied. In this retrospective study, we aim to define the potential association between GOR and ALTE. We hypothesise that the incidence of ALTE has increased since the 1992 recommendation. No bias in the population's selection was introduced, as our centre is the only one for paediatric emergencies in the county. A total of 107 children presenting with ALTE were identified during the study period (1987-99). A pH study was performed in the 75 patients presenting with ALTE in the last 6 years of the study (1994-99). Neither morbidity nor mortality was noted in a long-term 4-year follow-up. Our present results show that the frequency of ALTE increased sevenfold (P masks the negative effect of an increase in ALTE.

  19. Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J; De Simone, Nicole F; Slotkin, Jaime F; Henson, Baker L

    2013-08-01

    Original data reported a potential increased incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear facility. A causal link to the accident, however, was indeterminate. Our objective was to determine if data 30 years later will change original conclusions, explore thyroid cancer incidence rates near nuclear power plants, and better understand effects of chronic low level radiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Retrospective data for specific Pennsylvania counties were provided by the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for thyroid cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System search engine. Our study examines thyroid cancer incidence from 1985 through 2009 analyzed by year, county, and age. Thirty years after the TMI accident, an increased incidence of thyroid cancer is seen in counties south of TMI and in high-risk age groups. The average incidence rates from 1990 through 2009 were greater than expected in York, Lancaster, Adams, and Chester Counties. Thyroid cancer incidence since the TMI accident was greater than expected in the counties analyzed when compared to local and national population growth. This supports a link to chronic low level radiation exposure and thyroid cancer development. Despite these findings, a direct correlation to the accident remains uncertain as incidence rates may coincide with other factors, and original data were limited. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Comparison of second cancers incidence after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for a cancer in childhood; Comparaison de l'incidence des seconds cancers apres radiotherapie et chimiotherapie pour un cancer dans l'enfance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vathaire, F. de; Samand, A. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U521, 94 - Villejuif (France). Inst. Gustave Roussy; Samand, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Physique, 94 - Villejuif (France); Oberlin, O.; Raquin, M.; Chavaudra, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Dept. de Pediatrie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Panis, X. [Institut Jean Godinot, 51 - Reims (France)

    2000-12-01

    The second cancers incidence is increased by 6 to 8 (respectively for radiotherapy and chemotherapy) after one therapy but the increase of incidence after the association of two treatments is up to 19 times higher. Some variations are to noticed according to the treatment: the radiotherapy is responsible of the totality of thyroid and brain cancers. The chemotherapy is responsible of secondary leukaemia but the effect of radiotherapy is to be studied thoroughly. The incidence of secondary osteosarcomas, soft tissues and breast cancers and melanomas is the same after radiotherapy or chemotherapy, the association of the two treatment is responsible of the most of secondary sarcomas. (N.C.)

  2. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  3. The incidence and relevance of prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alsinnawi, M

    2012-12-01

    To review the incidence, histopathological features and clinical outcomes of patients with incidental prostate cancer (CaP) found in cystoprostatectomy specimens (CP) excised for bladder cancer and to determine whether these prostate cancers could affect the follow-up strategy.

  4. Population-based cancer incidence analysis in Beijing, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Yuan, Yannan; Sun, Tingting; Li, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of cancer during 2008-2012 in Beijing, China, and compare the cancer spectrum with that during 1998-1999. Methods Data from the Beijing Cancer Registry (BCR), which covered 12 million residents and 16 administrative regions in Beijing, were checked and evaluated on basis of the criteria of data quality from the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China. Incidences were calculated stratified by cancer type, sex, areas (urban/rural), and age. The Chinese census population in 1982 and the world Segi’s population were used for calculating the age-standardized incidences. Results A total of 177,101 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Beijing between 2008 and 2012. The crude incidence rate (CR) of all cancers was 282.64/100,000 (290.71/100,000 in males and 274.45/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 124.46/100,000 and 161.18/100,000, respectively. Female breast cancer was the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer, with the CR of 59.87/100,000, 59.21/100,000, 32.49/100,000, 19.81/100,000 and 17.96/100,000, respectively. In urban areas, female breast cancer (68.50/100,000) was still the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer (61.23/100,000), colorectal cancer (37.23/100,000), prostate cancer (20.49/100,000) and stomach cancer (20.07/100,000). In rural areas, lung cancer (55.94/100,000) was the most common cancer, followed by female breast cancer (45.87/100,000), colorectal cancer (24.77/100,000), liver cancer (20.68/100,000) and stomach cancer (14.52/100,000). Great changes of the cancer spectrum were found from the period of 1998-1999 to the period of 2011-2012 in Beijing. Conclusions The cancer burden in Beijing was heavier than the national average level. Cancer prevention and control strategies, especially for lung, colorectal, prostate and female thyroid

  5. Cervical cancer incidence in Denmark over six decades (1943-2002)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    was largest in the period 1988-2002 as compared to 1968-1987, coinciding with an increase in the number of Danish women covered by the organized screening program. Women 20-29 years old showed a relatively stable squamous cell carcinoma incidence but an increasing adenocarcinoma incidence throughout the study......INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe developments in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Denmark, focusing on histological types, over a period of 60 years. We also describe developments in the incidence of carcinoma in situ and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study...... is based on the Danish Cancer Registry database of 39,623 reported cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed among Danish women in the period 1943-2002. The most important variables and measures are age-specific and age-standardized incidence and estimated annual percent changes in incidence. RESULTS...

  6. Aggressive Event Incidence using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R): A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto; Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify aggressive event incidence rates in the inpatient psychiatric setting, describe characteristics of events and differences based on aggression target and type (verbal vs. physical). A longitudinal study was carried out of aggressive events identified by workers in four inpatient psychiatric units using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) over 6 weeks. A total of 113 aggressive events were recorded resulting in a rate of 13.27 events per bed per year. Verbal aggression was demonstrated in 86 % and physical aggression in 57 % of events. Most events (70.8 %, n = 81) targeted a worker. Compared to other targets, workers were 3.4 times more likely to feel threatened (95 % CI 1.2-9.6, χ 2  = 5.08, p = 0.0242), and less likely to have a visible injury (OR 0.15, 95 % CI 0.04-0.6; χ 2  = 7.1, p = 0.0078). Event severity ranged from 0 to 21 with a mean of 9.5(SD = 5.1), with 20 % considered severe. Verbal events had lower mean severity of 6.5(SD = 3.8) versus physical events with a severity of 11.8(SD = 4.8; t = 6.5, df = 111, p Aggression incidence was similar to incidence found in other studies. Workers were the target of most aggressive events and many were identified as having no understandable provocation. Further understanding of event characteristics will promote more effective prevention and management of aggressive events.

  7. An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin C; Mitchell, Janeil M; Jeon, Heedo D; Vasilottos, Nektarios; Grogan, Raymon H; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis

    2018-04-05

    Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007. We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide. The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report. Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.

  8. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  9. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, pSingapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  10. Analysis of incidence and risk factors for ERCP-related adverse events in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BI Rongxin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the incidence and risk factors for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP-related adverse events in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. MethodsThis study included 72 patients who were diagnosed with PSC by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and underwent ERCP in the Third Hospital of Xingtai City from December 2009 to December 2013. The incidence of postoperative adverse events within 30 d after ERCP was monitored and recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the risk factors for ERCP-related adverse events in PSC patients. ResultsThe success rate of ERCP was 94.4% (68/72. Among all adverse events, the incidence of pancreatitis and biliary tract infection were highest (6.94% and 4.17%, while the incidence of perforation was lowest (1.38%. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of adverse events was significantly higher in patients who underwent cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy than in those not undergoing these procedures (OR=13.642, P=0.017; OR=7.381, P=0.000; guide wire insertion and cholangiopancreatography also increased the incidence of adverse reactions (OR=8.042, P=0.000; OR=2.651, P=0.032. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that guide wire insertion (OR = 4.547, 95%CI: 1.076-12.543 and biliary sphincterotomy (OR=5.023, 95%CI: 2.643-18.321 are associated with the incidence of ERCP-related adverse events. ConclusionSphincterotomy and guide wire insertion can increase the risk of adverse events in PSC patients after ERCP.

  11. Pancreatic cancer: Incidence, clinical profile, and frequency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. Al-Majed

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. Diabetes has been postulated to be both a risk factor and a consequence of pancreatic cancer, but the degree of risk ...

  12. Young breast cancer patients in the developing world: incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although breast cancer occurs predominantly in older premenopausal and postmenopausal women, it also occurs in young women. Literature defines breast cancer in a young woman (or early onset breast cancer) as occurring in a woman less than 35 years of age. A diagnosis of breast cancer in a young woman impacts ...

  13. Young breast cancer patients in the developing world: incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the breast is the most common cause of cancer in women in Western society. Although breast cancer occurs predominantly in older premenopausal and postmenopausal women, it also occurs in young women. Literature defines breast cancer in a young woman (or early onset breast cancer) as occurring in a ...

  14. Cancer incidence among patients with alcohol use disorders--long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period from......, but not of breast cancer and colorectal cancer, in patients with alcohol use disorders....... incidence of colon, rectal or urinary bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study confirms the well-established association between high alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract and liver. In addition, the results indicate a significantly elevated occurrence of renal cancer...

  15. Incidence and histological patterns of thyroid cancer in Sri Lanka 2001-2010: an analysis of national cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajah, Umesh; Fernando, Ashan; Prabashani, Saumyakala; Fernando, Eshani A; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa A

    2018-02-07

    An increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is observed in many developed countries. Increasing incidence may also reflect better reporting or increased diagnostic scrutiny. We conducted this study to examine trends in thyroid cancer incidence and histological patterns in Sri Lanka. A retrospective cohort evaluation of patients with thyroid cancer during 2001-2010 was performed using population based data published from the Sri Lanka National Cancer Registry. Trends in incidence and histological patterns were analysed by age and gender. The age-standardized incidence of thyroid cancer increased from 2.44 per 100,000 in 2001 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.21-2.67) to 5.16 per 100,000 in 2010 (95% CI: 4.85-5.47); a 2.1-fold increase (p < 0.05 for trend). A greater part of this increase is attributable to increase in incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, which increased from 1.64 to 3.61 per 100,000; a 2.2-fold increase (p < 0.05 for trend). Follicular cancer showed lesser, yet a significant increase from 0.56 to 0.95 per 100,000 (p < 0.05). Other varieties of thyroid cancer showed no significant increases in incidence. Trends in the increases in incidence of papillary cancer in females showed a much greater increase compared with males (from 2.45 to 5.60 per 100,000, a 2.28-fold increase in females compared with from 0.82 to 1.55; a 1.89-fold increase in males, p < 0.001). Highest incidence of papillary cancer was observed in 30-39-year age group, which has increased from 5.56 to 12.9 per 100,000; a 2.32-fold increase (p < 0.001). The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Sri Lanka is predominantly due to the increasing incidence of papillary cancers. These trends may reflect increased detection and better reporting, although an inherent increase in the incidence is the likely main contributor. Further studies including tumour stage and mortality may help answer these questions.

  16. The association between lung cancer incidence and ambient air pollution in China: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Zeng, Hongmei; Zheng, Rongshou; Li, Shanshan; Barnett, Adrian G; Zhang, Siwei; Zou, Xiaonong; Huxley, Rachel; Chen, Wanqing; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing more and more days of serious air pollution recently, and has the highest lung cancer burden in the world. To examine the associations between lung cancer incidence and fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone in China. We used 75 communities' data of lung cancer incidence from the National Cancer Registration of China from 1990 to 2009. The annual concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone at 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution were generated by combing remote sensing, global chemical transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements. A spatial age-period-cohort model was used to examine the relative risks of lung cancer incidence associated with the air pollutants, after adjusting for impacts of age, period, and birth cohort, sex, and community type (rural and urban) as well as the spatial variation on lung cancer incidence. The relative risks of lung cancer incidence related to a 10 µg/m(3) increase in 2-year average PM2.5 were 1.055 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.038, 1.072) for men, 1.149 (1.120, 1.178) for women, 1.060 (1.044, 1.075) for an urban communities, 1.037 (0.998, 1.078) for a rural population, 1.074 (1.052, 1.096) for people aged 30-65 years, and 1.111 (1.077, 1.146) for those aged over 75 years. Ozone also had a significant association with lung cancer incidence. The increased risks of lung cancer incidence were associated with PM2.5 and ozone air pollution. Control measures to reduce air pollution would likely lower the future incidence of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  18. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  19. Mindfulness-based stress reduction teachers, practice characteristics, cancer incidence, and health: a nationwide ecological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-14

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study

  20. Secular trend analysis of lung cancer incidence in Sihui city, China between 1987 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Lin; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Shang-Hang; Yang, Meng-Jie; Guo, Jie; Lin, Er-Hong; Liu, Qing; Hong, Ming-Huang; Huang, Qi-Hong; Liao, Zheng-Er; Cao, Su-Mei

    2015-07-31

    With industrial and econom ic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends. Joinpoint regression analysis and the age-period-cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends. A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3-fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25-year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the incidence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously significant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80-84 years). The RR of lung cancer showed a fluctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identified an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955-1969. Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.

  1. Soluble endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule and incident cardiovascular events in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao-Yu; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; Ayers, Colby R; Rohatgi, Anand

    2017-09-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are key regulators of atherosclerotic plaque development, but circulating levels of soluble fragments, such as intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), have yielded conflicting associations with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) is expressed exclusively in platelets and endothelial cells, and soluble ESAM (sESAM) levels have been associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. We therefore hypothesized that sESAM would be associated with incident ASCVD. sESAM, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured in 2,442 participants without CVD in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample aged 30-65 years enrolled between 2000 and 2002. ASCVD was defined as first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or CV death. A total of 162 ASCVD events were analyzed over 10.4 years. Increasing sESAM was associated with ASCVD, independent of risk factors (HR Q4 vs Q1: 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6). Serial adjustment for renal function, sICAM-1, VCAM-1, and prevalent coronary calcium did not attenuate these associations. Continuous ESAM demonstrated similar findings (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Addition of sESAM to traditional risk factors improved discrimination and reclassification (delta c-index: P = .009; integrated-discrimination-improvement index P = .001; net reclassification index = 0.42, 95% CI 0.15-0.68). Neither sICAM-1 nor sVCAM-1 was independently associated with ASCVD. sESAM but not sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 levels are associated with incident ASCVD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of sESAM in ASCVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A computational evaluation of sedentary lifestyle effects on carotid hemodynamics and atherosclerotic events incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Maria Vittoria; Serra, Raffaele; Perri, Paolo; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco Giuseppe; DE Franciscis, Stefano; Fragomeni, Fragomeni

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamics has a key role in atheropathogenesis. Indeed, atherosclerotic phenomena occur in vessels characterized by complex geometry and flow pattern, like the carotid bifurcation. Moreover, lifestyle is a significant risk factor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects due to two sedentary lifestyles - sitting and standing positions - in the carotid bifurcation in order to identify the worst condition and to investigate the atherosclerosis incidence. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was chosen to carry out the analysis, in which in vivo non-invasive measurements were used as boundary conditions. Furthermore, to compare the two conditions, one patient-specific 3D model of a carotid bifurcation was reconstructed starting from computer tomography. Different mechanical indicators, correlated with atherosclerosis incidence, were calculated in addition to flow pattern and pressure distribution: the time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the relative residence time (RRT). The results showed that the bulb and the external carotid artery emergence are the most probable regions in which atherosclerotic events could happen. Indeed, low velocity and WSS values, high OSI and, as a consequence, areas with chaotic-swirling flow, with stasis (high RRT), occur. Moreover, the sitting position is the worst condition: considering a cardiac cycle, TAWSS is less than 17.2% and OSI and RRT are greater than 17.5% and 21.2%, respectively. This study suggests that if a person spends much time in the sitting position, a high risk of plaque formation and, consequently, of stenosis could happen.

  3. Applications of Machine learning in Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.; Sarwat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths for the female population in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have used the baseline descriptive data about the incidence (new cancer cases) of in situ breast cancer among Wisconsin females. The documented data were from the most recent 12-years period for which data are available. Wiscons in cancer incidence and mortality (deaths due to cancer) that occurred were also considered in this work. Artificial Neural network (ANN) have been successfully applied to problems in the prediction of the number of new cancer cases and mortality. Using artificial intelligence (AI) in this study, the numbers of new cancer cases and mortality that may occur are predicted.

  4. High incidence of thyroid cancer among patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.

  5. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  6. [Relationship of polymedication in controlling blood pressure: compliance, persistence, costs and incidence of new cardiovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras Mainar, Antoni; Muñoz Ortí, Genís; Font Ramos, Beatriu; Majós Oró, Núria; Navarro Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez Nolla, Jordi

    2013-07-21

    To determine the relationship of polypharmacy on blood pressure (BP) control, compliance, persistence, the cost and incidence of cardiovascular events (CVD) in patients with moderate/severe hypertension. An observational multicenter retrospective study. We evaluated patients > 30 years who started a third antihypertensive treatment during 2004-2006. Depending on the number of chronic medications, we established 3 groups: regular consumption of 3-6 drugs, including between 7-10 and ≥ 11. Top-measures: sociodemographic, comorbidity, BP, compliance and persistence. For each group we determined the incidence of new CVD totals and total costs. We evaluated 1,906 patients, 765 between 3-6 drugs, 624 between 7-10 and 517 in ≥ 11 (P<.001). Overage age: 69.4 years and 55.5% women. The group of 3-6 drugs showed better BP control (51.8 vs. 47.0 and 41.1%, P<.001), compliance (71.4 vs. 69.9 and 67.1%, P=.017), persistence (50.1 vs. 45.5 and 46.2%, P=.044) and lower incidence of CVD (12.2 vs. 19.7 and 30.2%, P<.001), respectively. The average/unit total costs was 3,369.1 vs. 4,362.1 and € 4,902.3 (P<.001). The presence of CVD was associated with therapy noncompliance (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.1 to 3.6) and controlled by the lower BP control (OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-2.0) (P < .05). The use of antihypertensive fixed dose has greater compliance (72.8 vs. 68.2%), persistence (64.4 vs. 39.3%) and degree of BP control (52.6 vs. 43, 8%) (p<.001). Polypharmacy is associated with lower compliance and persistence to antihypertensive treatment, cardiovascular disease and increased health care costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a system for detecting and reporting security incidents and adverse events in thyroid and parathyroid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis PARDAL-REFOYO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient safety is defined as the reduction of risk of unnecessary harm associated with healthcare. Up to 9.3% of patients admitted into a hospital present some adverse event related to the assistance. This can cause damage to the patient, more instrumentation, increased morbidity, increased hospital stay and increased cost. To identify, record and analyze adverse events is necessary to have an incident reporting system. Objective: Developing a local system for reporting security incidents and adverse events in surgery of the thyroid gland. Method: A working group was formed with representatives from all units related to the process of thyroidectomy, checkpoints were established, checklists for each control point were designed, a strategic analysis of the group's activity was performed, a literature review was done in order to identify the major incident reporting systems, the items that the incident report form must have were identified and the form was designed. Results: The incident report form collects data on the patient, the communicator and the incident (type, cause, consequence, severity, frequency, risk matrix. It has a first paragraph with narrative sections and a second with drop-down lists. The form is accessible only to the working group for voluntary use. Conclusions: The purpose of the reporting system is learning and prevention.

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality: A cohort study in China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Zhibin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) was the only available source of cancer monitoring in China, even though only about 70% of cancer registration sites were qualified by now. In this study, based on a national large prospective cohort-the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we aimed to provide additional cancer statistics and compare the difference of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. A total of 497,693 cancer-free participants aged 35-74 years were recruited and successfully followed up from 2004 to 2013 in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China. Except for traditional registration systems, the national health insurance system and active follow-up were used to determine new cancer incidents and related deaths. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was used to compare the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. We found that cancer mortality coincided well between our cohort and NCCR, while the incidence was much higher in our cohort. Based on CKB, we found the MIR of all cancers was 0.54 in rural areas, which was approximately one-third higher than that in urban areas with 0.39. Cancer profiles in urban areas were transiting to Western distributions, which were characterized with high incidences of breast cancer and colorectal cancer; while cancers of the esophagus, liver and cervix uteri were still common in rural areas of China. Our results provide additional cancer statistics of China and demonstrate the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Cancer incidence following long-term consumption of drinking water with high inorganic selenium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Vicentini, Massimo; Wise, Lauren A; Sacchettini, Claudio; Malagoli, Carlotta; Ballotari, Paola; Filippini, Tommaso; Malavolti, Marcella; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2018-04-16

    Selenium, a trace element to which humans are exposed mainly through diet, has been involved in the etiology of human cancer. We investigated the long-term effects of selenium exposure on cancer incidence using data from a natural experiment in Northern Italy. During the 1970s-1980s, in a part of the Italian municipality of Reggio Emilia, residents were inadvertently exposed to unusually high levels of inorganic hexavalent selenium (selenate) through drinking water. We followed the exposed residents for 28years, generating data on incidence (when available) and mortality rates for selected cancer sites; the remaining municipal residents comprised the unexposed (reference) group. We observed no substantial difference in overall cancer incidence comparing exposed and unexposed cohorts. We detected, however, a higher incidence of cancer at some sites, and for a few of them, namely cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, melanoma, urinary tract and lymphoid tissue, the excess incidence was particularly evident in the first period of follow-up but decreased over time. Overall, these results suggest that consumption of water with levels of selenium in its inorganic hexavalent form close to the European standard, 10μg/L, may have unfavourable effects on cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New treatment of low probability events with particular application to nuclear power plant incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 'New Treatment' attempts to resolve the 'Zero-Infinity Dilemmas' posed by the threat of low probability events (LPE) philosophical approach which rejects mathematical idealism in favour of the engineering pragmatism that is characteristic of the scientific method. The LPE is seen as a rare singularity in the stream of 'Event-noise' of mundane, untoward incidents that afflict industrial systems. Engineering inspection which has evolved as a regulatory mechanism can be effective in reducing this 'noise' and the competent inspector is able to recognise the 'loss of resistance to failure' which so often comes before an LPE. Despite that an intractable residual risk remains, but this can be made societally tolerable if there is a justifiable conviction that safety is defended by trustworthy engineering. In an age marked by an increasing complexity and sophistication in its science and technology, the engineer is emerging as the proper central decision maker in such matters standing, athwart pure administration and theory on the one hand and expertise and practice on the other. Moreover, evidence that his intellect may be peculiarly adapted for such a role is coming from recent findings in neuropsychology. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate is cited as an exemplar of the engineering inspection needed to apprehend those human fallibilities in design and application to which most catastrophic failures of technology are due. However, such regulatory systems and the assessment functions associated with them lack accountability and, as an interpretation of Goedel's theorem suggests, cannot assess their own efficiency. Independent, disinterested appraisal assisted by Signal Detection Theory is offered as a remedy.

  11. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  12. Epigenetic events and protection from colon cancer in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Philpott, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of colon cancer is high in many developed nations, especially New Zealand. Molecular understanding of the nature of colon cancer shows a disease whose well-characterized morphological progression is paralleled at the cellular level by increased numbers of gene or chromosome mutations, loss of heterozygosity, changed methylation patterns, and genomic instability. In the present study, we consider whether an imbalance of factors that affect DNA methylation patterns might explain at least part of the high colon cancer incidence in New Zealand. Folate is the major micronutrient whose intake impacts methylation, particularly through interaction with choline and methionine. Folate is generally somewhat deficient in the New Zealand diet, with the voluntary addition of folate to white flour not producing desired levels. Selenium affects methylation status in several ways and is recognized as being low in New Zealand soils and, therefore, diet. Zinc is also low in the diets of some New Zealand population groups, which can lead to hypomethylation. Several of the components of fruits and vegetables affect methylation patterns, and the average New Zealand intake, at two to three servings per day, is considerably below recommended amounts. Low dietary fiber, high tobacco use, and increasing rates of obesity are also likely New Zealand risk factors that may impact on methylation status. Dietary supplementation is not as common in New Zealand as in countries such as the United States, but may provide a way to raise the levels of nutrients and phytochemicals affecting methylation status, thereby enhancing colon cancer protection. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Prediction of cancer incidence in Tyrol/Austria for year of diagnosis 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberaigner, Willi; Geiger-Gritsch, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Prediction of the number of incident cancer cases is very relevant for health planning purposes and allocation of resources. The shift towards elder age groups in central European populations in the next decades is likely to contribute to an increase in cancer incidence for many cancer sites. In Tyrol, cancer incidence data have been registered on a high level of completeness for more than 20 years. We therefore aimed to compute well-founded predictions of cancer incidence for Tyrol for the year 2020 for all frequent cancer sites and for all cancer sites combined. After defining a prediction base range for every cancer site, we extrapolated the age-specific time trends in the prediction base range following a linear model for increasing and a log-linear model for decreasing time trends. The extrapolated time trends were evaluated for the year 2020 applying population figures supplied by Statistics Austria. Compared with the number of annual incident cases for the year 2009 for all cancer sites combined except non-melanoma skin cancer, we predicted an increase of 235 (15 %) and 362 (21 %) for females and males, respectively. For both sexes, more than 90 % of the increase is attributable to the shift toward older age groups in the next decade. The biggest increase in absolute numbers is seen for females in breast cancer (92, 21 %), lung cancer (64, 52 %), colorectal cancer (40, 24 %), melanoma (38, 30 %) and the haematopoietic system (37, 35 %) and for males in prostate cancer (105, 25 %), colorectal cancer (91, 45 %), the haematopoietic system (71, 55 %), bladder cancer (69, 100 %) and melanoma (64, 52 %). The increase in the number of incident cancer cases of 15 % in females and 21 % in males in the next decade is very relevant for planning purposes. However, external factors cause uncertainty in the prediction of some cancer sites (mainly prostate cancer and colorectal cancer) and the prediction intervals are still broad. Therefore

  14. Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Sven; Schüz, Joachim; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer.......The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer....

  15. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  16. Treatment with B vitamins and incidence of cancer in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Eikelboom, John W; Yi, Qilong; Lees, Kennedy R; Chen, Christopher; Xavier, Denis; Navarro, Jose C; Ranawaka, Udaya K; Uddin, Wasim; Ricci, Stefano; Gommans, John; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of B vitamin treatment on the incidence of cancer among patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. A total of 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with 1 tablet daily of placebo or B vitamins (2 mg folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B(6), 500 μg vitamin B(12)) and followed for a median of 3.4 years for any cancer as an adverse event. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any cancer among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (4.04% versus 4.59%; risk ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.07) and no difference in cancer mortality (2.35% versus 2.09%; risk ratio, 1.09; 0.81-1.46). Among 1899 patients with diabetes, the incidence of cancer was higher among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (5.35% versus 3.28%; adjusted risk ratio, 2.21; 1.31-3.73), whereas among 6168 patients without diabetes, the incidence of cancer was lower among participants assigned B vitamins compared with placebo (3.66% versus 5.03%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.67; 0.51-0.87; P for interaction=0.0001). Daily administration of folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) to 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack for a median of 3.4 years had no significant effect, compared with placebo, on cancer incidence or mortality. However, a post hoc subgroup analysis raises the hypothesis that folic acid treatment may increase the incidence of cancer among diabetics and reduce the incidence of cancer among nondiabetics with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack.

  17. Increased incidence of bowel cancer after non-surgical treatment of appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Ekbom, Anders; Sandin, Fredrik; Graf, Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the use of antibiotics instead of appendectomy for treating appendicitis but diagnostic difficulties and longstanding inflammation might lead to increased incidence of bowel cancer in these patients. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the incidence of bowel cancer after non-surgical treatment of appendicitis. Patients diagnosed with appendicitis but lacking the surgical procedure code for appendix removal were retrieved from the Swedish National Inpatient Register 1987-2013. The cohort was matched with the Swedish Cancer Registry and the standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for appendiceal, colorectal and small bowel cancers were calculated. Of 13 595 patients with non-surgical treatment of appendicitis, 352 (2.6%) were diagnosed with appendiceal, colorectal or small bowel cancer (SIR 4.1, 95% CI 3.7-4.6). The largest incidence increase was found for appendiceal (SIR 35, 95% CI 26-46) and right-sided colon cancer (SIR 7.5, 95% CI 6.6-8.6). SIR was still elevated when excluding patients with less than 12 months since appendicitis and the incidence of right-sided colon cancer was elevated five years after appendicitis (SIR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1-5.4). An increased incidence of bowel cancer was found after appendicitis with abscess (SIR 4.6, 95% CI 4.0-5.2), and without abscess (SIR 3.5, 95% CI 2.9-4.1). Patients with non-surgical treatment of appendicitis have an increased short and long-term incidence of bowel cancer. This should be considered in the discussion about optimal management of patients with appendicitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A

    2001-08-01

    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  19. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  20. Cancer incidence in Morocco: report from Casablanca registry 2005 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Few population-based cancer registries are in place in developing countries. In order to know the burden of cancer in Moroccan population, cancer registry initiative was put in place in the Casablanca district, the biggest city of Morocco. Methods: The data collected covers 3.6 millions inhabitant and included ...

  1. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects....

  2. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H

    2001-01-01

    in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening...

  3. [Analysis of Incidence and Mortality of Thyroid Cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Zheng, R S; Wang, N; Zeng, H M; Yuan, Y N; Zhang, S W; Li, H C; Liu, S; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and mortality status of thyroid cancer in China, 2013. Methods: Incidence and mortality data of thyroid cancer were derived from 255 population-based cancer registries in China. Age-specific and age standardized incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer in different areas (urban and rural) with different gender were calculated based on the stratification of area (urban and rural), gender, age and tumor position. Chinese census in 2000 and the world Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population data in 2013. Results: The estimates of new cancer incident cases and deaths were 143.9 thousand and 6 500, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 10.58/100 000 (Male 5.12/100 000, Female 16.32/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 8.82/100 000 and 7.67/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.2. The crude incidence rate in urban and rural areas were 15.03/100 000 and 5.41/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 2.57 times higher than that of rural areas. The crude mortality rate of thyroid cancer was 0.48/100 000 (Male 0.33/100 000, Female 0.63/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 0.33/100 000 and 0.32/100 000, respectively. The crude mortality rate in urban and rural areas were 0.57/100 000 and 0.38/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 1.41 times higher than that of rural areas. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates (0-74 years old) were 0.74% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the data from 255 cancer registries, papillary carcinoma is the main pathology type, which accounted

  4. Childhood Cancer Incidence in India Betweem 2012 and 2014: Report of a Population-based Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Anshu, Kumar; Bhakta, Subhajit

    2017-12-15

    To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11.4 per million in East Khasi Hill district and 152.3 per million in Delhi for girls. Leukemia was the most predominant cancer for both boys and girls. Lymphoma was the second most common cancer in boys, and brain tumors in girls. Childhood cancer incidence is increasing in India compared to population-based cancer registry survey of 2009-2011. Cancers are mostly affecting 0-4 years age group, and there is a rising trend of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  5. Validated Competing Event Model for the Stage I-II Endometrial Cancer Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Ruben; Gulaya, Sachin; Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Rose, Brent S. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wu, John; Noticewala, Sonal [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McHale, Michael T. [Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yashar, Catheryn M. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Vaida, Florin [Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives(s): Early-stage endometrial cancer patients are at higher risk of noncancer mortality than of cancer mortality. Competing event models incorporating comorbidity could help identify women most likely to benefit from treatment intensification. Methods and Materials: 67,397 women with stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma after total hysterectomy diagnosed from 1988 to 2009 were identified in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked SEER-Medicare databases. Using demographic and clinical information, including comorbidity, we sought to develop and validate a risk score to predict the incidence of competing mortality. Results: In the validation cohort, increasing competing mortality risk score was associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SDHR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.30) and decreased risk of endometrial cancer mortality (SDHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). Controlling for other variables, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) = 1 (SDHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.45-1.82) and CCI >1 (SDHR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.74-4.01) were associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidences of competing mortality within low-, medium-, and high-risk strata were 27.3% (95% CI, 25.2%-29.4%), 34.6% (95% CI, 32.5%-36.7%), and 50.3% (95% CI, 48.2%-52.6%), respectively. With increasing competing mortality risk score, we observed a significant decline in omega (ω), indicating a diminishing likelihood of benefit from treatment intensification. Conclusion: Comorbidity and other factors influence the risk of competing mortality among patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. Competing event models could improve our ability to identify patients likely to benefit from treatment intensification.

  6. Cumulative incidence trends of selected cancer sites in a Philippine population from 1983 to 2002: a joinpoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, V M; Laudico, A; Mirasol-Lumague, M R; Brenner, H; Redaniel, M T

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated incidence trends in the Philippines. Methods: From the databases of the Manila Cancer Registry, cumulative cancer incidence rates were determined for the five most common cancers for both sexes combined. Using joinpoint analysis, incidence trends for 1983–2002 were estimated. Results: Among females, increasing trends were found for breast, 5% annual change, lung (0.5%) and colorectal (1.5%) cancers. Decreasing trends were found for cancers of the liver (−1.2%) and cervix (−1.9%). Among males, increasing trends were found for lung cancer (0.5%), whereas liver cancer rates have been decreasing (−1.0%). Colorectal cancer rates fluctuated. Conclusion: Certain sites showed declining incidence trends, but incidence trends for lifestyle-related cancers continue to rise. The prevention of infection-related cancers should also receive priority, particularly by vaccination programmes. PMID:20372152

  7. Confirmation of the reported association of clonal chromosomal mosaicism with an increased risk of incident hematologic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula M Schick

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities provide clinical utility in the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic malignancies, and may be predictive of malignant transformation in individuals without apparent clinical presentation of a hematologic cancer. In an effort to confirm previous reports of an association between clonal mosaicism and incident hematologic cancer, we applied the anomDetectBAF algorithm to call chromosomal anomalies in genotype data from previously conducted Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS. The genotypes were initially collected from DNA derived from peripheral blood of 12,176 participants in the Group Health electronic Medical Records and Genomics study (eMERGE and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We detected clonal mosaicism in 169 individuals (1.4% and large clonal mosaic events (>2 mb in 117 (1.0% individuals. Though only 9.5% of clonal mosaic carriers had an incident diagnosis of hematologic cancer (multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, or leukemia, the carriers had a 5.5-fold increased risk (95% CI: 3.3-9.3; p-value = 7.5×10(-11 of developing these cancers subsequently. Carriers of large mosaic anomalies showed particularly pronounced risk of subsequent leukemia (HR = 19.2, 95% CI: 8.9-41.6; p-value = 7.3×10(-14. Thus we independently confirm the association between detectable clonal mosaicism and hematologic cancer found previously in two recent publications.

  8. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  9. Low tobacco-related cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Skytthe, Axel; McGue, Matt

    2015-01-01

    , observed numbers of cancers were compared with expected numbers based on gender-, calendar period-, and age-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: During the 41-year-follow-up period, a total of 423 cancers occurred in 397 individuals. The standardized incidence ratios (95% confidence......PURPOSE: Familial clustering of longevity is well documented and includes both genetic and other familial factors, but the specific underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined whether low incidence of specific cancers is a mechanism for familial clustering of longevity. METHODS...... interval) for offspring of long-lived individuals were 0.78 (0.70-0.86) for overall cancer; 0.66 (0.56-0.77) for tobacco-related cancer; 0.34 (0.22-0.51) for lung cancer; 0.88 (0.71-1.10) for breast cancer; 0.91 (0.62-1.34) for colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of tobacco-related cancers in long...

  10. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Lyon, Joseph L

    2005-05-01

    Population-based Utah Cancer Registry data were linked with Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) Church membership records to obtain site-specific cancer incidence for LDS and non-LDS populations in Utah during 1995-1999. Analyses were based on 27,631 incident cases of cancer identified among whites. Restriction to whites was made because of the small number of nonwhites, approximately 5%, in the state during the study period. The direct method was used to age-adjust the rates to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Significantly lower cancer incidence rates per 100,000 were observed among LDS compared with non-LDS males (287.2 vs. 321.1) and females (247.7 vs. 341.0). The lower rates are primarily explained by smoking-related cancers and female breast cancer. If the overall cancer incidence rate in LDS had occurred in the non-LDS population, 2.9% or 421 fewer cases would have occurred among males and 7.9% or 1,025 fewer cases would have occurred among females during the study period. Given our current knowledge of risk factors for cancer, differences between LDS and non-LDS in smoking for males and smoking and sexual and reproductive behaviors in females primarily explain the lower risk of cancer in LDS populations.

  11. Cancer incidence in an area contaminated with radionuclides near a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposures of a large population in the Denver area to plutonium and other radionuclides in the exhaust plumes from the Rocky Flats (nuclear weapons) plant date back to 1953. Anglo cancer incidence in 1969-1971 was evaluated in census tracts with and without contamination in the Denver area (1970 pop. 1 019 130). Cancer incidence in males was 24% higher, and in females, 10% higher in the suburban area(pop. 154 170) with most contamination nearest the plant, compared to the unexposed area (pop. 423 870), also predominantly suburban, which had virtually the same age-adjusted incidence rate for all cancer as the state. Excess cases of cancer were due to more cases than expected of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma and cancer of the lung, thyroid, breast, esophagus, stomach and colon, a pattern similar to that obs- erved in the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The ratio of these cancers to all other cancer was 17.6% higher in males and 11.9% higher in females in the area near the plant. Cancer of the gonads (especially the testes), liver, and, in females, pancreas and brain contributed to the higher incidence of all cancer in areas near the plant. (Auth.)

  12. Relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density in Connecticut, 1935-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, S.D.; Meigs, J.W.; Heston, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density was investigated. Cancer incidence was obtained using 40 years of age-standardized data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and environmental radiation was estimated using data from an airborne gamma radiation survey of the entire state. These variables were examined ecologically, using the 169 towns of the state as the analytic units in a weighted regression analysis. The study design involves a large population base in a state having relatively high terrestrial radiation exposure levels overall and reasonable variation in exposure between towns. For all cancer combined, only one of the eight sex-specific analyses by decade yielded a significant radiation regression coefficient, and this was negative. In the sex- and site-specific analyses, almost all the coefficients for radiation were not significantly different from zero. In contrast, significant positive relationships of cancer incidence with population density were found for all cancer, for cancer of the lung for both sexes, for stomach, colonic, and prostatic cancer for males, and for lymphomas, thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancer for females. Both the radiation and population density relationships were adjusted for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively associated with stomach and lung cancer in males and with cervical cancer in females; it was also positively associated with lymphomas and breast cancer in females. A power calculation revealed that, despite the relatively large size of this study, there was only a small probability of detecting a radiation effect of the strength anticipated from previous estimates

  13. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet...... included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer......., Cancer and Health cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrollment in 1993-1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was derived from self-administered questionnaires. The incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 24,418 women...

  14. Cancer incidence among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Soliman, Amr S; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-06-01

    We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population.

  15. Cancer Incidence Among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. Methods. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Results. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Conclusions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population. PMID:24825237

  16. Thyroid Cancer Incidence around the Belgian Nuclear Sites, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoury, Claire; De Smedt, Tom; De Schutter, Harlinde; Sonck, Michel; Van Damme, Nancy; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An

    2017-08-31

    The present study investigates whether there is an excess incidence of thyroid cancer among people living in the vicinity of the nuclear sites in Belgium. Adjusted Rate Ratios were obtained from Poisson regressions for proximity areas of varying sizes. In addition, focused hypothesis tests and generalized additive models were performed to test the hypothesis of a gradient in thyroid cancer incidence with increasing levels of surrogate exposures. Residential proximity to the nuclear site, prevailing dominant winds frequency from the site, and simulated radioactive discharges were used as surrogate exposures. No excess incidence of thyroid cancer was observed around the nuclear power plants of Doel or Tihange. In contrast, increases in thyroid cancer incidence were found around the nuclear sites of Mol-Dessel and Fleurus; risk ratios were borderline not significant. For Mol-Dessel, there was evidence for a gradient in thyroid cancer incidence with increased proximity, prevailing winds, and simulated radioactive discharges. For Fleurus, a gradient was observed with increasing prevailing winds and, to a lesser extent, with increasing simulated radioactive discharges. This study strengthens earlier findings and suggests increased incidences in thyroid cancer around two of the four Belgian nuclear sites. Further analyses will be performed at a more detailed geographical level.

  17. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Incidence of thyroid cancer in residents surrounding the Three Mile Island nuclear facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J

    2008-04-01

    On March 28, 1979, the worst nuclear exposure incident in U.S. history occurred near Harrisburg, PA. Small quantities of xenon and iodine radioisotopes were released into the environment from the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant. The Pennsylvania Department of Health (PDoH) implemented a TMI Population Registry, including 32,135 individuals within a 5-mile radius of TMI, to track possible health effects to the local population. Although no increase in cancer mortality has been noted in this cohort, cancer incidence has not been tracked. Given the long latency period for the development of thyroid cancer after exposure to low-level radiation exposure, it is plausible that an increase in thyroid cancer incidence might just now be occurring. Retrospective analysis of the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for Thyroid Cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System (EpiQMS) search engine. EpiQMS is an interactive health statistics Website that can produce numbers, rates, graphs, charts, maps, and county profiles using various demographic variables (age, sex, race, etc.) from birth, death, cancer, and population datasets for the state and counties or regions of Pennsylvania. Eighteen years of data (1985-2002) on thyroid cancer incidence were obtained from the PDoH. The three at-risk counties of Dauphin, York, and Lancaster were analyzed with regard to observed numbers of thyroid cancer cases versus expected incidence. Although the nuclear accident at TMI occurred in 1979, 1985 was chosen as the starting point for data analysis because that is when the PDoH began maintaining cancer incidence records. In the first year available for evaluation (1985), there were 11 new thyroid cancer cases in each of the at-risk counties (Dauphin, York, Lancaster). By 2002, the incidence had increased to 29 in Dauphin County, 81 in Lancaster County, and 69 in York County. The increase in thyroid cancer in Dauphin County is not above what would be expected for both

  19. Radiation doses from global fallout and cancer incidence among reindeer herders and Sami in Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Pukkala, Eero; Ilus, Taina; Rahola, Tua; Auvinen, Anssi

    2010-11-01

    People in the Arctic regions are one of the most heavily exposed population from the global fallout from atmospheric atomic bomb testing of the 1950s and 1960s due to their diet rich in reindeer meat in which radionuclides accumulate. We estimated the effect of the radioactive fallout and ethnicity on the cancer incidence in Northern Finland. A cohort of the Arctic population in Finland (n=34,653) was identified through the Population Register Centre with grouping by reindeer herding status, ethnicity and radiation exposure. Annual average radiation doses, based on (137)Cs whole-body measurements, were assigned by birth year, gender and reindeer herder status. Incident cancer cases of a priori selected cancer types in the study cohort during 1971-2005 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. A total of 2630 cancer cases were observed versus 3073 expected on the basis of incidence rates in Northern Finland (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.86 with 95% CI of 0.82 to 0.89). For the indigenous Sami people SIR was even lower, 0.60 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.71). None of the cancer sites was significantly associated with the lifetime cumulative radiation dose. The SIR for the combined group of radiation-related cancer sites increased with the cumulative radiation dose received before 15 years of age (p=0.004). Despite the low overall cancer incidence in the Arctic population and ethnic Sami people in Finland and lack of association between the lifetime cumulative radiation exposure from global radioactive fallout and cancer incidence, we found some indication of an increased cancer risk associated with radiation exposure received during childhood. Potential underestimation and misclassification of the radiation dose may affect the results and the findings should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Incidence and mortality from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Gomes de; Curado, Maria Paula; Koechlin, Alice; Oliveira, José Carlos de; Silva, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça E

    2016-01-01

    To describe the incidence and mortality rates from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil. Data for the incidence rates were obtained from the Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) according to the available period. Mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) for the period between 1996 and 2008. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender and age groups. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint software. The age-period-cohort effects were calculated by the R software. The incidence rates for colon cancer vary from 4.49 to 23.19/100,000, while mortality rates vary from 2.85 to 14.54/100,000. For rectal cancer, the incidence rates range from 1.25 to 11.18/100,000 and mortality rates range between 0.30 and 7.90/100,000. Colon cancer mortality trends showed an increase among males in Cuiabá, Campo Grande, and Goiania. For those aged under 50 years, the increased rate was 13.2% in Campo Grande. For those aged over 50 years, there was a significant increase in the mortality in all capitals. In Goiânia, rectal cancer mortality in males increased 7.3%. For females below 50 years of age in the city of Brasilia, there was an increase of 8.7%, while females over 50 years of age in Cuiaba showed an increase of 10%. There is limited data available on the incidence of colon and rectal cancer for the Midwest region of Brazil. Colon cancer mortality has generally increased for both genders, but similar data were not verified for rectal cancer. The findings presented herein demonstrate the necessity for organized screening programs for colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil.

  1. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  2. Incidence of childhood cancer among Mexican children registered under a public medical insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Correa-González, Cecilia; Altamirano-Alvarez, Eduardo; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocio; Escamilla-Asian, Gabriela; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Aguilar-Romo, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Prior to 2005, 51% of children in Mexico diagnosed with cancer received no standardized optimal multidisciplinary medical care. A government-subsidized national cancer treatment program was therefore created for these patients and a National Cooperative Childhood Cancer Treatment Group was consequently formed for these patients. Pediatric patients with a proven diagnosis of leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumor and who were registered in the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program from January 2007 to December 2010, are described in this report. These patients had been enrolled and registered in one of the 49 nationwide certified medical institutions in Mexico. The national incidence and frequency data for childhood cancers were analyzed for the whole program. At the end of a 4-year study, the analysis revealed that 8,936 children from across Mexico had been diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rate for the PMI patients was 150.3/million/year (2010) for children of 0-18 years. The highest age incidence rate was 51.9 between 0 and 4 years and boys were the predominant group for all types of cancer. The leukemia incidence was 75.3/million/year (2010), and an average frequency of 50.75% throughout the 4 years. The overall mortality rate was measured at 5.4/100,000/year (2010). This study demonstrates a high frequency and incidence of childhood cancer and a beneficial impact of the PMI program over the quality of life in these children. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. Does the use of a volatile anesthetic regimen attenuate the incidence of cardiac events after vascular surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, S. G.; Longrois, D.; Yang, H.; Fleisher, L. A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a volatile anesthetic to a non-volatile anesthetic regimen on the incidence of postoperative cardiac events, including the postoperative elevation of troponin I values after arterial vascular surgery in high risk patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data

  4. Cancer incidence among Finnish male cobalt production workers in 1969-2013: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauni, Riitta; Oksa, Panu; Uitti, Jukka; Linna, Asko; Kerttula, Raimo; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-05-18

    There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of cobalt and cobalt compounds in humans. Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated cobalt metal without tungsten carbide as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in a Finnish cobalt plant since the beginning of production in 1968. The study cohort consisted of all males employed by the Finnish cobalt plant for at least a year during 1968-2004. The follow-up for cancer was performed by studying the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry, using personal identity codes as a key. The cohort was divided into subcohorts by exposure levels. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated as ratios of the observed numbers of cancer cases and the numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. The follow-up cohort consisted of 995 men with 26,083 person-years. During the follow-up period, 92 cases of cancer were diagnosed (SIR 1.00, 95% CI 0.81-1.22), six of which were lung cancer cases (SIR 0.50; 95% CI 0.18-1.08). The only cancer type with increased incidence was tongue cancer (three cases, SIR 7.39; 95% CI 1.52-21.6). We observed no dose-response effect across the different exposure levels and the incidence of any cancer type. The results suggest that occupational exposure to cobalt is not associated with an increased overall cancer risk or lung cancer risk among cobalt workers. Because of the small number of cancer cases the results must be interpreted with caution.

  5. Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2013-08-01

    To provide a current perspective on nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer. A comprehensive literature review was conducted and selective presentation of findings follows. While some observational studies have associated higher dietary fat intake with higher breast cancer incidence, two full-scale randomized, clinical trials of dietary fat intake reduction programs were negative. However, a lifestyle intervention targeting fat intake reduction in the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS), resulted in weight loss and also reduced breast cancer recurrences in women with early stage disease. Observational studies evaluating specific nutrient intakes and dietary supplements have provided mixed results. Several observational studies find women with early stage breast cancer with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at higher recurrence risk, a finding requiring cautious interpretation. The lifestyle factor most strongly and consistently associated with both breast cancer incidence and breast cancer recurrence risk is physical activity. A meta-analyses of observational studies supports the concept that moderate recreational physical activity (about 3-4 h walking per week) may reduce breast cancer incidence and that women with early stage breast cancer who increased or maintain their physical activity may have lower recurrence risk as well. Feasibility of achieving increased physical activity and weight loss in women with early-stage breast cancer has been established. Two full-scale randomized clinical trials are evaluating weight loss/maintenance and increased physical activity in relation to recurrence risk in women with early-stage, resected breast cancer. Dietary intake may influence breast cancer but influence is difficult to separate from influence of body weight. A consistent body of observational study evidence suggests higher physical activity has favorable influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome. While awaiting definitive evidence

  6. Cancer incidence in Holocaust male survivors-An Israeli cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Goldbourt, Uri

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939). Vital status and cancer incidence in the cohort were determined based on national registries. Socioeconomic level, health behaviors and cancer incidence were compared between the groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed hazard risk ratios for cancer by exposure status. All-cause mortality was studied as a competing risk. In total, 241, 682, and 522 cancer cases were diagnosed in the E, PE, and NE, respectively. Compared with the NE, all-site cancer incidence was higher in the E (HR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.97-1.32) but not in the PE. All-cause mortality competed with all-site invasive cancer incidence in the E group (HR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.38). Colorectal and lung cancer seemed to be positively though non-significantly associated with the exposure while prostate cancer was not. Male Holocaust survivors may be at a weakly increased risk for all-site, colorectal and lung cancer. The role of age at exposure and residual confounding should be further investigated. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  8. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O Lam

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV. Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968-2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC, 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian. Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993-2012, APC = 1.9%, p<0.001; women 1968-2012, APC = 2.0%, p = 0.01 and was 5 times higher in men than women. In contrast, non-OP HNC incidence declined between 1968-2012 among men (APC = -1.6%, p<0.001 and women (APC = -0.4%, p = 0.06. ASCC and ANSCC were rare (ASR = 0.2 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively and did not change significantly over time except for increasing ANSCCs in men (APC = 2.8%, p<0.001. ICC was the most common HPV-associated cancer (ASR = 19.9 per 100,000 person-years but declined significantly between 1968-2012 (APC = -2.4%. Incidence of each cancer varied across ethnicities. Similar to trends in Western countries, OPSCC incidence increased in recent years, while non-OP HNC decreased. ICC remains the most common HPV-related cancer in Singapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence.

  9. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality: an analysis of mortality change by screening intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldman, Andrew J; Phillips, Norman; Pickles, Thomas A

    2003-01-07

    The rate of death from prostate cancer has recently declined in many areas of the world. Over the past 15 years prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has increased in popularity, which has resulted in increases in the incidence of prostate cancer. Over the same period there have been changes in the management of the disease and, in particular, the use of androgen ablation. We set out to examine the relation between changes in prostate cancer incidence (a surrogate for PSA screening) and subsequent changes in mortality in regions using common treatment recommendations. We used data from prostate cancer cases and deaths reported to the British Columbia Cancer Registry during 1985-1999 to examine trends in incidence and mortality in 88 small health areas (SHAs) among men aged 50-74 years. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first we classified the SHAs by intensity of PSA screening (low, medium or high) according to their ranked age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer in 1990-1994 and examined subsequent trends in prostate cancer mortality. In the second analysis we examined the SHA-specific relative change in prostate cancer incidence between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 and correlated it with the relative change in mortality for cases diagnosed after 1990. Between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994 the incidence of prostate cancer increased by 53.2% and 14.6% among men aged 50-74 and those 75 and over respectively. Between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 prostate cancer mortality declined by 17.6% and 7.9% in the 2 age groups respectively. Among men aged 50-74 years SHAs with low, middle and high levels of screening had respective increases in prostate cancer incidence of 5.4%, 53.6% and 70.5% between 1985-1989 and 1990-1994. Corresponding decreases in mortality between 1985-1989 and 1995-1999 were 28.9%, 18.0% and 13.5%. Mortality declines were greatest in SHAs with low screening levels (p = 0.032). Before 1990 prostate cancer mortality was similar in the 3 screening groups (p

  10. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fazal; Iqbal, Samra; Mehmood, Asif; Bazarbashi, Shouki; ElHassan, Tusneem; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common malignancy among females at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) and in Saudi Arabia, accounting for about 11% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in the country in 2008. Over the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There are no comprehensive clinical epidemiological data for the trends of thyroid cancer incidence compared to the global incidence. This report reviews the thyroid cancer incidence in KFSH&RC and compares that with Saudi Arabia, the Gulf region, North America and globally from 2000 to 2010. Retrospective review of patients with thyroid cancer was carried out from 2000 to 2010, using the hospital Tumor Registry program as per the American College of Surgeons standards. Trends and patterns of all well-known prognostic factors were sub-stratified by age, stage and grade. A total of 2292 patients with thyroid cancer were treated at KFSH&RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2000 to 2010. Thyroid cancer constitutes about 9% of all malignancies and 12% of all female malignancies at KFSH&RC, which are significantly higher compared to the USA, where thyroid cancer represents only 2.9% of all malignancies and 4.6% of all female malignancies. Papillary adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype followed by papillary carcinoma, follicular variant. Median age at diagnosis was 40 for females and 44years for males. Overall Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASR) was 4.4/100,000 (6.8 for female and 2/100,000 for males) in the Kingdom in 2008. Median age at diagnosis was 38years and the highest incidence was in the 30-39year age group in KFSH&RC. About 48% of patients presented in the localized stage and 60% underwent combined modality treatment consisting of surgery, radiation and hormonal therapy. There was significantly increased incidence among females as compared to males. The age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence

  11. Lung cancer incidence and the strength of municipal smoke-free ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Gan, Wenqi; Brown, Holly M; Mullett, Timothy W

    2018-01-15

    Smoke-free laws reduce disease prevalence. The impact of municipal smoke-free laws on lung cancer incidence in Kentucky was examined. The authors hypothesized that lung cancer incidence rates would be associated with the strength of smoke-free laws. This was a secondary analysis of 83,727 Kentucky residents aged ≥ 50 years who were newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 to 2014. In 2014, 33 municipalities had 1 or more smoke-free laws. County-level characteristics included adult smoking rate, sex, race/ethnicity, income, physician supply, observed radon values, and rurality. Individuals living in communities with comprehensive smoke-free laws were 7.9% less likely than those living in communities without smoke-free protections to be diagnosed with lung cancer. The difference in lung cancer incidence between counties with moderate/weak laws and those without laws was not significant. Comprehensive smoke-free laws were associated with fewer new cases of lung cancer, whereas weak or moderate smoke-free laws did not confer the same benefit. One hundred percent smoke-free laws, covering all workers and the public with few or no exceptions, may be key in reducing new cases of lung cancer. Cancer 2018;124:374-80. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Epidemiology characteristics and trends of incidence and morphology of stomach cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer- related death through the world. It is predicted that the number of new cancer cases will be more than 15 million cases by 2020. Regarding the lack of studies on this topic in the country, we have thoroughly examined the patho-epidemiology of stomach cancer in Iran. In this cross- sectional study data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new stomach cancer patients in Cancer Registry Center report of health deputy for Iran during a 6-year period (2003-2008). The study also examined the morphology of common stomach cancers. Trends in incidence and morphology underwent joinpoint regression analysis. During the six-year period, a total of 35,171 cases of stomach cancer were registered. Average age standardized rate for females and males were equal to 7.1 and 15.1 per 100,000 persons, respectively. Most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, NOS with 21,980 cases (62.50%). The annual percentage change (APC) in age-standardized incidence rate (per 100,000) was increase in both females and males at 11.1 (CI: 4.3 to 18.3) and 9.2 (CI: 5.2 to 13.4), respectively. According to our results, the incidence of gastric cancer is increasing in Iran, so further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection are essential.

  13. Breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening: what should be expected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Olsen, Anne Helene; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prevalence peak is expected in breast cancer incidence when mammography screening begins, but afterward the incidence still may be elevated compared with prescreening levels. It is important to determine whether this is due to overdiagnosis (ie, the detection of asymptomatic disease...... that would otherwise not have arisen clinically). In the current study, the authors examined breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening in Denmark. METHODS: Denmark has 2 regional screening programs targeting women ages 50 years to 69 years. The programs were initiated in 1991...

  14. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  15. The identification of incident cancers in UK primary care databases : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rañopa, Michael; Douglas, Ian; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam; Klungel, Olaf; Reynolds, Robert; Bhaskaran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: UK primary care databases are frequently used in observational studies with cancer outcomes. We aimed to systematically review methods used by such studies to identify and validate incident cancers of the breast, colorectum, and prostate. METHODS: Medline and Embase (1980-2013) were

  16. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Brands, Marieke T.; Geurts, Sandra M. E.; Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage

  17. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  18. Incidence and treatment of tracheal cancer: a nationwide study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Marres, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and survival of patients with tracheal malignancies in the Netherlands. METHODS: All cases of tracheal cancer entered into the database of the Netherlands Cancer Registry in the period 1989-2002 were selected.

  19. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-01-01

    The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study ...

  20. Comparison of the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year periods in and around Gauteng Province. Further distinction was made based on gender, race and histological types. Methods: A retrospective audit was conducted including histologically documented oesophageal cancer cases collected over a ...

  1. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  2. The Role of Smoking and Diet in Explaining Educational Inequalities in Lung Cancer Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Dalton, Susanne O.; Vineis, Paolo; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Ferrari, Pietro; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Kosti, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Buchner, Frederike L.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Braaten, Tonje; Gram, Inger T.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Goran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2009-01-01

    Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  3. Incidence of intraglandular lymph nodes within submandibular gland, and involvement by floor of mouth cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Cassie; Feeley, Linda; Sadadcharam, Mira; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Resection of the submandibular gland is generally undertaken as an integral component of level I neck dissection for oral cancer. However, it is unclear whether lymph nodes are present within the submandibular gland which may form the basis of lymphatic spread. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of lymph nodes within the submandibular gland, and the incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement in floor of mouth cancer. Retrospective review of 177 patients with oral cancer undergoing neck dissection. Original pathology slides of floor of mouth cases were re-reviewed by two pathologists to determine frequency of intraglandular lymph nodes, and incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement by cancer. The overall incidence of cervical metastases was 36.4 %, of whom 44 % had level I metastases. Level I metastases were significantly more common in floor of mouth than tongue cancers (p = 0.004). Among 50 patients with floor of mouth cancer undergoing re-review of pathology slides, intraglandular lymph nodes were not found in any of 69 submandibular glands. Submandibular gland involvement by cancer was present in two patients, representing 1 % of all oral cancers, and 4 % FOM cases. Mechanisms of involvement were direct extension, and by an apparent novel mechanism of carcinoma growing along bilateral Wharton's ducts. Despite the high incidence of level I metastasis in floor of mouth, lymphatic metastases to submandibular gland are unlikely based on absence of intraglandular lymph nodes. We describe a previously unreported mechanism of submandibular gland involvement.

  4. Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events in Men Compared to Women by Menopause Type and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Khodneva, Yulia; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Judd, Suzanne; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether type of menopause affects sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) events and whether the impact is similar in blacks and whites. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007 without CHD at baseline (n=23 086). Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard of incident nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction) and acute CHD death, adjusting for age, age at last menstrual period menopause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31, 0.66) and surgical menopause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.99) had a reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to white men. Black women in natural menopause (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47, 1.03), but not surgical menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.51, 1.29), had a marginally reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to black men. Women had lower risk of acute CHD death than men regardless of their menopause type and race. Conclusions Sex differences in the risk of incident CHD events were larger among whites than blacks and varied by type of menopause. Women consistently had a lower risk of incident CHD death than men, but the magnitude of sex differences was greater in whites than blacks for nonfatal events, regardless of menopause type. PMID:26133958

  5. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer has for a long time occurred at lower rates in the native African than in Caucasians. The reasons adduced have included the lack of premalignant conditions like polyps and ulcerative colitis and majorly to the high fibre, low animal protein diet that Africans consume. Nigeria has a low colorectal cancer ...

  7. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... scan and endometrial pipelle sampling. Where bladder pathology was detected, urine cytology was done before referral to the urologist. Results: In all, 753 women were referred. There were 17 cases of endometrial cancer detected. Three cases of bladder tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were ...

  8. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development.

  9. Adverse Event Incidences following Facial Plastic Surgery Procedures: Incorporating FACE-Q Data to Improve Patient Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Christopher M; Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Hung, Rex W; Baker, Stephen B

    2018-01-01

    Before creation and validation of the FACE-Q by Pusic et al., adverse event types and incidences following facial cosmetic procedures were objectively measured and reported by physicians, potentially leading to misrepresentation of the true patient experience. This article analyzes and compares adverse event data from both FACE-Q and recent review articles, incorporating patient-reported adverse event data to improve patient preparation for facial cosmetic procedures. FACE-Q adverse event data were extracted from peer-reviewed validation articles for face lift, rhinoplasty, and blepharoplasty, and these data were compared against adverse effect risk data published in recent Continuing Medical Education/Maintenance of Certification and other articles regarding the same procedures. The patient-reported adverse event data sets and the physician-reported adverse event data sets do contain overlapping elements, but each data set also contains unique elements. The data sets represent differing viewpoints. Furthermore, patient-reported outcomes from the FACE-Q provided incidence data that were otherwise previously not reported. In the growing facial cosmetic surgery industry, patient perspective is critical as a determinant of success; therefore, incorporation of evidence-based patient-reported outcome data will not only improve patient expectations and overall experience, but will also reveal adverse event incidences that were previously unknown. Given that there is incomplete overlap between patient-reported and physician-reported adverse events, presentation of both data sets in the consultation setting will improve patient preparation. Furthermore, use of validated tools such as the FACE-Q will allow surgeons to audit themselves critically.

  10. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  11. Pneumonia diagnosis in childhood and incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is an ongoing debate on the possible association between infections in early childhood and subsequent cancer risk, but it remains unclear if a hospital admission for infection is associated with risk of childhood cancer diagnosis. We examined if a hospital-based diagnosis...... of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013. METHODS: Using national health registries, we compared the observed incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer among 83 935 children...... with a hospital-based pneumonia diagnosis with that expected among children in the general population. We calculated absolute cancer risks and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The cancer SIRs were substantially increased during the first 6 months of follow-up; lymphoid...

  12. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Giovanna Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leukemia, further enhanced by the use of radiotherapy. In the last few years also the use of growth factors seems to increase the risk of secondary leukemia. The purpose of this review is to update epidemiology of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms occurring in breast cancer patients

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in children in the Mexican Social Security Institute (1996-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Fajardo-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B chil- dren during 1996-2013. Materials and methods. Both cancer cases (n=4 728 and deaths (n=2 378 were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. Results. For both indicators (incidence and mortality, there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the over- all mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Conclusions. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.

  14. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Sociodemographic trends in the incidence of pancreatic and biliary tract cancer in UK primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret G Keane

    Full Text Available The UK incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is approximately 9/100,000 population compared with 1-2/100,000 for biliary tract cancer (BTC. This study explores the incidence of these cancers over time and the influence of socio-demographic and geographic factors in a UK primary care cohort.This study uses data from a large UK primary care database, The Health Improvement Network (THIN. All adult patients contributing data to THIN between January 2000 and December 2010 were included. Annual incidence rates were calculated, adjusted for age, gender, time period, deprivation score (Townsend quintile and strategic health authority.From 2000-2010, the annual incidence of PDAC increased by an average of 3% per year (95% CI 1.00-4.00% and BTC by 4% (95% CI 2.00-6.00%. Incidence of both cancers increased steeply with age and was higher in men. BTC was associated with increasing deprivation (most deprived versus least deprived quintile (OR: 1.45 [95% CI: 1.17, 1.79.].The overall incidence of both cancers is low but increasing. Variations in incidence may reflect changes in coding practice or increased exposure to associated risk factors.

  16. Incidence of, phenotypes of and survival from small bowel cancer in Denmark, 1994-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Rasmus Dahlin; Andersson, Mikael; Riis, Lene Buhl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small bowel cancer (SBC) is a rare and highly heterogeneous disease in respect to both anatomical distribution and histological morphology. We aimed to conduct a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study of the incidence of, phenotypes of, stage of, synchronous/metachronous cancer...... to the anatomical origin and morphological subtype. Patients were followed up from the date of cancer diagnosis to the date of emigration, death or the end of the study (31 December 2010). RESULTS: SBC was diagnosed in 1088 patients during 1994-2010. The total annual incidence of SBC was 1.10 per 100,000 [95...

  17. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.M.; Niu, X.; Pawlish, K.S.; Henry, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques

  18. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Roche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES in New Jersey (NJ, a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  19. Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality by area-level socioeconomic status: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed by measures of area-level socioeconomic status (SES); however, the extent to which these disparities are explained by individual SES is unclear. Participants included 60 756 men and women in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort, aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) and followed through 2010. We constructed a block group SES index using the 2000 US Census and fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between area-level SES (by quintile) and total and site-specific cancer incidence and total cancer mortality, with and without household income and individual education in the models. Lower area-level SES was weakly associated with higher total cancer incidence and lower prostate cancer risk, but was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Compared with the highest-SES areas, living in the lowest-SES areas was associated with higher lung (HR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.90) and colorectal cancer incidence (HR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.09) and total cancer mortality (HR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.93). Controlling for individual education and household income weakened the observed associations, but did not eliminate them (lung cancer HR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.91; colorectal cancer HR: 1.35, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.88; cancer mortality HR: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.48). Area-level socioeconomic disparities exist for several cancer outcomes. These differences are not fully explained by individual SES, suggesting area-level factors may play a role. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.

  1. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  2. Incidence of Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    factors have been linked to testicular cancer . Cryptorchidism is the condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum at the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2012-0001 INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR CANCER IN U.S. AIR FORCE OFFICER AVIATORS: 1998-2008 Christopher Walker...Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  3. Incidence, risk factors, and obstetrical outcomes of women with breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenhaim, Haim Arie; Azoulay, Laurent; Holcroft, Christina A; Bure, Lionel A; Assayag, Jonathan; Benjamin, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is a rare condition. The objective of our study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and obstetrical outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy. We conducted a population-based cohort study on 8.8 million births using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999-2008. The incidence of breast cancer was calculated and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effects of demographic determinants on the diagnosis of breast cancer and to estimate the adjusted effect of breast cancer on obstetrical outcomes. There were 8,826,137 births in our cohort of which 573 cases of breast cancer were identified for an overall 10-year incidence of 6.5 cases per 100,000 births with the incidence slightly increasing over the 10-year period. Breast cancer appeared to be more common among women >35 years of age, odds ratio (OR)=3.36 (2.84-3.97); women with private insurance plans, OR=1.39 (1.10-1.76); and women who delivered in an urban teaching hospital, OR=2.10 (1.44-3.06). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were more likely to have an induction of labor, OR=2.25 (1.88, 2.70), but similar rates of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, instrumental deliveries, and placental abruption. The incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy appears higher than previously reported with women over 35 being at greatest risk. Aside from an increased risk for induction of labor, women with breast cancer in pregnancy have similar obstetrical outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...... included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance...

  5. Burden and incidence of human papillomavirus-associated cancers and precancerous lesions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    the study period, and almost identical incidence rates were seen for women and men in the youngest birth cohorts. The current burden of HPV-associated lesions amounted to more than 5000 cases, the vast majority (85%) being severe precancerous lesions. The highest risk for HPV-associated cancers......AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in Denmark between 1978 and 2011, estimate the current absolute annual number (burden) of HPV-associated cancers (HPVaCa) and their precancerous lesions, and assess whether...... there is socioeconomic inequality in the risk of HPV-associated cancers. METHODS: From four nationwide population-based registries, information was collected on HPVaCa diagnosed during 1978-2011 and age-standardised incidence rate for each site by calendar year and birth cohort was calculated. Furthermore, the current...

  6. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  7. Trends in the Incidence of Cervical Cancer in Jordan, 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan and assess its trend in over a 14-year period (2000–2013. Methods. This descriptive study was based on secondary analysis of cervical cancer data that are registered in the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR. Results. A total of 591 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer in Jordan during the period 2000–2013. The age at diagnosis ranged between 15 and 97 years, with a median of 50 years. The average age standardized rate (ASR was 2.0/100,000 women. The incidence of cervical cancer started to decrease after 2006 but it remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Over the 14-year period, ASR for cervical cancer decreased by 28.6% from 2.1 per 100,000 women in 2000 to 1.5 per 100,000 women in 2013. About 46.5% of the cases were of squamous cell carcinoma morphology. Early cancer constituted about 60% of the cases, regional cases constituted 9.6%, and distant metastatic cases constituted 10.7%. Conclusions. The incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan is low compared to regional estimates and remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Implementation of screening measures could lead to better case finding, early diagnosis, and prevention of cervical cancer.

  8. Evaluation of cancer incidence among employees at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.F.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Tietjen, G.L.; Key, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the National Plutonium Workers Study, cancer incidence for 1969 to 1978 among employees of the Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigated. Incident cancers were identified by a computer match of the Los Alamos employed roster against New Mexico Tumor Registry files. The resulting numbers of total and site-specific cancers were compared to the numbers expected based on incidence rates for the State of New Mexico, specific for age, sex, ethnicity, and calendar period. For Anglo males, significantly fewer cancers than expected (SIR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79) were found. This resulted from marked deficits of smoking-related cancers, particularly lung (2 observed, 19.4 expected) and oral (1 observed, 6.5 expected) cancer. Similarly, no smoking-related cancers were detected among Anglo females, though they had a slight nonsignificant excess of breast cancer (14 observed, 9.1 expected) and a suggestive excess of cancer of the uterine corpus (2 observed, 0.25 expected). The pattern of cancerincidence among Anglo employees is typical of high social class populations and not likely related to the Los Alamos working environment

  9. Incidences of breast cancer throughout long-term hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Prieto, J; Juez-Martel, P

    2007-05-01

    : no deaths occurred during the treatment. Four cardiovascular events (2.24%) were reported. No spontaneous bone fractures were documented. Nonetheless, there were 11 bone fractures of traumatic origin (6.17%), none of them hip fractures. Four breast cancer. Likewise, one diagnosis of breast cancer in each of 45 treated women from our series was evidenced. One hundred and twenty-one women (67.97%) without incidences. In our cohort study advices on diet, exercises and self-determination were reinforced for 1405.5 woman-years of follow-up. Combined CEE plus MPA for more than 5 years are no more risk related to breast cancer and cardiovascular events versus shorter treatments. Long-term CEE plus MPA were well tolerated and we did not find statistical evidence which would allow deducing higher rates of morbidity in those entities. Likewise, no deaths were document during the treatments.

  10. Prostate cancer incidence and agriculture practices in Georgia, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael; Robb, Sara W.; Shen, Ye; Guillebeau, Paul; Vena, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Georgia has prostate cancer incidence rates consistently above the national average. A notable portion of Georgia's economy is rooted in agricultural production, and agricultural practices have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Methods: Statistical analyses considered county age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates as the outcome of interest and three agricultural variables (farmland as percent of county land, dollars spent per county acre on agriculture chemicals, and dollars spent per county acre on commercial fertilizers) as exposures of interest. Multivariate linear regression models analyzed for each separately. Data were obtained from National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 2000–2010, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1987 Agriculture Survey, and 2010 US Census. Results: In counties with equal to or greater than Georgia counties' median percent African-American population (27%), dollars per acre spent on agriculture chemicals was significantly associated (P = 0.04) and dollars spent of commercial fertilizers was moderately associated (P = 0.07) with elevated prostate cancer incidence rates. There was no association between percent of county farmland and prostate cancer rates. Conclusion: This study identified associations between prostate cancer incidence rates, agriculture chemical expenditure, and commercial fertilizer expenditure in Georgia counties with a population comprised of more than 27% of African Americans. PMID:25785490

  11. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostate cancer incidence and agriculture practices in Georgia, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael; Robb, Sara W; Shen, Ye; Guillebeau, Paul; Vena, John

    2015-01-01

    Georgia has prostate cancer incidence rates consistently above the national average. A notable portion of Georgia's economy is rooted in agricultural production, and agricultural practices have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Statistical analyses considered county age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates as the outcome of interest and three agricultural variables (farmland as percent of county land, dollars spent per county acre on agriculture chemicals, and dollars spent per county acre on commercial fertilizers) as exposures of interest. Multivariate linear regression models analyzed for each separately. Data were obtained from National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 2000-2010, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1987 Agriculture Survey, and 2010 US Census. In counties with equal to or greater than Georgia counties' median percent African-American population (27%), dollars per acre spent on agriculture chemicals was significantly associated (P = 0.04) and dollars spent of commercial fertilizers was moderately associated (P = 0.07) with elevated prostate cancer incidence rates. There was no association between percent of county farmland and prostate cancer rates. This study identified associations between prostate cancer incidence rates, agriculture chemical expenditure, and commercial fertilizer expenditure in Georgia counties with a population comprised of more than 27% of African Americans.

  13. Proximal aortic distensibility is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and incident CV events: the MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redheuil, Alban; Wu, Colin O; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Yan, Raymond T; Bertoni, Alain G; Hundley, Gregory W; Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Daniels, Lori B; Darwin, Christine; Sibley, Christopher; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2014-12-23

    The predictive value of ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) for mortality and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events has not been fully established. This study sought to assess the utility of AAD to predict mortality and incident CVD events beyond conventional risk factors in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AAD was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 3,675 MESA participants free of overt CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate risk of death, heart failure (HF), and incident CVD in relation to AAD, CVD risk factors, indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis, and Framingham risk score. There were 246 deaths, 171 hard CVD events (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke and CV death), and 88 HF events over a median 8.5-year follow-up. Decreased AAD was associated with increased all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) for the first versus fifth quintile of AAD of 2.7 (p = 0.008) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, other CVD risk factors, and indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis. Overall, patients with the lowest AAD had an independent 2-fold higher risk of hard CVD events. Decreased AAD was associated with CV events in low to intermediate- CVD risk individuals with an HR for the first quintile of AAD of 5.3 (p = 0.03) as well as with incident HF but not after full adjustment. Decreased proximal aorta distensibility significantly predicted all-cause mortality and hard CV events among individuals without overt CVD. AAD may help refine risk stratification, especially among asymptomatic, low- to intermediate-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe Caloric Restriction in Adolescence and Incidence of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michels, Karin B; Ekbom, Anders

    2004-01-01

    ...; use of the Swedish Inpatient Registry and the Swedish Cancer Registry Subjects 7303 women who were treated for anorexia nervosa requiring hospitalization between 1965 and 1998 Main Outcome Measure...

  15. Incidence trends and age distribution of colorectal cancer by subsite in Guangzhou, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Dong, Hang; Gu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Hua-Zhang

    2015-08-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China. The incidence of CRC has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence trends and the age distribution of CRC by subsite in Guangzhou between 2000 and 2011. A total of 22,432 incident cases of CRC between 2000 and 2011 from Guangzhou Cancer Registry were identified. Crude incidence and age-standardized rates (ASRs), using the Segi's world standard population, were calculated for CRC and CRC subsites. The incidence trend was analyzed and the annual percentage change (APC) in incidence was calculated by using JoinPoint software. The crude incidence increased significantly from 23.4/10(5) in 2000 to 37.4/10(5) in 2011 for males and from 20.9/10(5) to 30.5/10(5) for females. The ASRs of CRC incidence stabilized during the period of 2000-2011 for both males and females. The ages at the onset of CRC for both males and females during 2010-2011 were significantly higher compared with those during 2000-2002 (males: t = 1.95, P = 0.05; females: t = 6.03, P 2000-2004 and by 1.68% annually (P = 0.03) during 2005-2011. For females aged 65 years and older, the CRC incidence increased by 5.77% annually (P = 0.03) during 2000-2004. There were no significant changes for the CRC incidences in males aged 49 and younger and 65 years and older and females aged 64 years and younger during 2000-2004, or for those in all females as well as males aged 49 years and younger and 65 years and older during 2005-2011. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly for both males and females between the periods of 2000-2002 and 2010-2011. The ASRs of descending colon and sigmoid colon cancer incidences increased significantly for females during 2005-2011 (APC, 5.51% and 1.08%, respectively, both P 2000 and 2011 because of the aging, whereas the ASRs kept stable. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly. Further surveillance

  16. Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; White, Emily

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published eight recommendations regarding body weight, physical activity, and dietary behaviors aimed at reducing cancer incidence worldwide. In this paper, we assess whether meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations is associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence; evaluate whether particular recommendations are most strongly associated with lower CRC incidence; and assess whether associations differ by sex. We operationalized six of the recommendations (related to body weight, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, red and processed meat, and alcohol) and examined their association with CRC incidence over 7.6 years of follow-up in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle Study cohort. Participants included 66,920 adults aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) with no history of CRC and with complete data for the recommendations evaluated. Incident colorectal cancers (n = 546) were tracked through 2009. Compared with meeting no recommendations, meeting 1-3 recommendations was associated with 34-45 % lower CRC incidence, and meeting 4-6 was associated with 58 % lower incidence (95 % CI 34 %, 74 %) in fully adjusted analyses. The recommendations most strongly associated with lower CRC risk for women were related to body fatness and red and processed meat, while for men these were alcohol intake and red and processed meat. Differences by sex were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the recommendations related to body weight and to alcohol. Meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly those related to alcohol, body weight, and red and processed meat, could substantially reduce CRC incidence; however, associations differ by sex.

  17. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soto-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1 a tumor develops from a single cell, (2 many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3 cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon. Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  18. Long-term follow-up for cancer incidence in a cohort of Danish firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstine Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Pedersen, Julie Elbaek; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine cancer incidence among Danish firefighters using several employment-related exposure subgroups. METHODS: A historical cohort of 9061 male Danish firefighters was established from collected personnel and membership records from employers and trade unions. Using the unique...... Danish personal identification number, information on additional previous employment, cancer and vital status was linked to members of the cohort from the Supplementary Pension Fund Register, the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System. SIRs were calculated for specific cancer...... types using rates for the general population, a sample of the working population and military employees, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the selected reference groups, the overall observed incidence of cancer among the firefighters was at level with the expected (SIR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.09 vs...

  19. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work...... breast cancer risk or the prognostic characteristics of incident breast cancers at the time of diagnosis. These results may be a comfort to working women and can hopefully prevent self-blaming among women who develop breast cancer.......-related stressors in 1993 and again in 1999 and were followed until the end of 2003 in national registries. Prognostic characteristics were obtained from a clinical database and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 455 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Neither women with high...

  20. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy.

  1. Trends in lung cancer incidence by histological type in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2008-08-01

    In Japan, an increase in age-adjusted incidence rates of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and a decrease in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) have been reported. The number of lung cancer incidence, age-adjusted rates, and age-specific rates by birth-cohort according to histological type were examined using the data from Osaka Cancer Registry. The numbers of lung cancer incidence among men and women have increased, particularly in ADC. The age-adjusted incidence rates of ADC among men and women have continuously increased, while those of SQCC and small cell carcinoma (SMCC) turned to decrease since 1990s. A trough of lung cancer incidence rates was observed among men in 1935-39 birth-cohorts. The declining trend appeared in 1955-59 birth-cohorts. Lung cancer incidence rates among women have increased since 1895-99 birth-cohorts, but those rates leveled off or decreased in 1950s birth-cohorts. Trends of ADC by birth-cohort were almost the same as those of all histological types. The SQCC among men peaked in 1915-19 birth-cohorts, and decreased in the subsequent birth-cohorts. The SMCC among men peaked in 1920s birth-cohorts, and decreased or leveled off in the subsequent birth-cohorts. Lung cancer incidence rates by birth-cohorts were almost parallel to the smoking prevalence. However, those for ADC among young women in 1950s birth-cohorts were not parallel to the smoking prevalence, which requires careful monitoring to confirm such findings.

  2. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, M.; Tekkel, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy. PMID:25249833

  4. Variation in incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of skin by socioeconomic group in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Catherine S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer incidence varies by socioeconomic group and these variations have been linked with environmental and lifestyle factors, differences in access to health care and health seeking behaviour. Socioeconomic variations in cancer incidence by region and age are less clearly understood but they are crucial for targeting prevention measures and health care commissioning. Methods Data were obtained from all eight English cancer registries for patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2003, for all invasive cases of female breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50, lung cancer (ICD-10 codes C33-C34, cervical cancer (ICD-10 code C53, and malignant melanoma of the skin (ICD-10 code C43. Socioeconomic status was assigned to each patient based on their postcode of residence at diagnosis, using the income domain of the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004. We analysed the socioeconomic variations in the incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of the skin for England, and regionally and by age. Results Incidence was highest for the most deprived patients for lung cancer and cervical cancer, whilst the opposite was observed for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The difference in incidence between the most and the least deprived groups was higher for lung cancer patients aged under 65 at diagnosis than those over 65 at diagnosis, which may indicate a cohort effect. There were regional differences in the socioeconomic gradients with the gap being widest for lung and cervical cancer in the North (North East, North West and Yorkshire and Humberside and for malignant melanoma in the East and South West. There were only modest variations in breast cancer incidence by region. If the incidence of lung and cervical cancer were decreased to that of the least deprived group it would prevent 36% of lung cancer cases in men, 38% of lung cancer cases in women and 28% of cervical cancer cases. Incidence of breast cancer and melanoma was

  5. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  6. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-10-03

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence

  7. Incidence trends of human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer in Taiwan, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tzer-Zen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC), particularly for oropharyngeal cancer. Studies from the West showed a rising trend of HPV-related HNC despite a decrease of the overall HNC incidence. In contrast, the overall HNC incidence in Taiwan has continued to rise. It is not clear whether the incidence trends of HPV-related HNC in Taiwan have a similar pattern to those from countries with an overall decreasing incidence of HNC. This study examined the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan using data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Our results showed that the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan both rose during 1995-2009. The incidence of HPV-related HNC (1.3 per 100,000 in 1995 to 3.3 in 2009, annual percentage change (APC) = 6.9, p Taiwan has continued to increase, the most rapid rise is in the HPV-related HNC. This suggests that similar to the Western world, HPV-related HNC is becoming an important public health issue in Taiwan. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Making the Case for Investment in Rural Cancer Control: An Analysis of Rural Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Funding Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Moss, Jennifer L; Gaysynsky, Anna; Srinivasan, Shobha; Croyle, Robert T

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of those living in rural counties vary from 46.2 to 59 million, or 14% to 19% of the U.S. Rural communities face disadvantages compared with urban areas, including higher poverty, lower educational attainment, and lack of access to health services. We aimed to demonstrate rural-urban disparities in cancer and to examine NCI-funded cancer control grants focused on rural populations. Estimates of 5-year cancer incidence and mortality from 2009 to 2013 were generated for counties at each level of the rural-urban continuum and for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan counties, for all cancers combined and several individual cancer types. We also examined the number and foci of rural cancer control grants funded by NCI from 2011 to 2016. Cancer incidence was 447 cases per 100,000 in metropolitan counties and 460 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan counties ( P investment is needed to disentangle the effects of individual-level SES and area-level factors to understand observed effects of rurality on cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 992-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients: A 12-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout.

  10. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice Jr, John D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  11. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  12. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  13. Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Znaor, Ariana; Holcatova, Ivana; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Ferlay, Jacques; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    Marked unexplained national variations in incidence rates of kidney cancer have been observed for decades in Europe. To investigate geographic variations at the regional level and identify European regions with high incidence rates of kidney cancer. Regional- and national-level incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents databases, local cancer registry databases, and local published reports. World population age-standardised rates (ASRs) were calculated for the periods 2003-2007 and 1988-1992. Rates by period and sex were compared using map visualisation. During 2003-2007, the highest ASR was found in the Plzen region, Czech Republic (31.4/100,000 person-years in men). Other regions of the Czech Republic had ASRs of 18.6-27.5/100,000 in men, with a tendency for higher rates in regions south of Prague. Surrounding regions, including eastern Germany and regions of Slovakia and Austria, had medium-to-high incidence rates (13.0-16.8/100,000 in men). Three other areas in Europe showed higher incidence rates in men compared with the rest of the continent: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus (15.0-17.6/100,000); Iceland (13.5/100,000), and northern Italy (up to 16.0/100,000). Similar regional differences were observed among women, with rates approximately half of those observed in men in the same region. In general, these regional geographic variations remained stable over the periods 1988-1992 and 2003-2007, although higher incidence rates were detected in the Baltic countries in 2003-2007. Several European regions show particularly high rates of kidney cancer incidence. Large variations were observed within countries covered by national health-care systems, implying that overdetection is not the major factor. We present regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in Europe. We highlight several regions with high incidence rates where further studies should be conducted for cancer control and prevention. Copyright

  14. Risk-adjusted melanoma skin cancer incidence rates in Whites (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray Martell

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a better population-based measure of risk for melanoma skin cancer. A method has been previously proposed for estimating cancer incidence rates for data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Unlike conventionally reported incidence rates in the USA, this method uses the first primary cancer and adjusts for population-based cancer prevalence to obtain a better measure of cancer risk. The study involves SEER data for white men and women. Conventional melanoma incidence rates overestimate risk for men, increasingly so from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 11.3% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation in risk for women ranged from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 8.9% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation of risk was more pronounced when both in-situ and malignant melanomas were considered. Increasing trends in conventional rates were slightly greater than trends in risk-adjusted incidence rates (RAIRs). In 2007, the estimated number of cases with malignant melanoma among the white population based on conventional cancer incidence rates is 37 636 (64 125 including in-situ cases) for men and 28 935 (49 361 including in-situ cases) for women. The estimated number of cases in the USA based on RAIRS is 34 652 [(7.9%); 55 413 (13.6%) including in-situ cases] for male and 27 178 [(6.1%); 44 467 (9.9%) including in-situ cases] for women. We concluded that RAIRs are a better measure of melanoma skin cancer risk and should be used for estimating the number of cancer patients in the USA.

  15. Does the use of a volatile anesthetic regimen attenuate the incidence of cardiac events after vascular surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, S G; Longrois, D; Yang, H; Fleisher, L A

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effects of a volatile anesthetic to a non-volatile anesthetic regimen on the incidence of postoperative cardiac events, including the postoperative elevation of troponin I values after arterial vascular surgery in high risk patients. Retrospective analysis of data of a phase II study that compared the Na+/H+ exchanger type II inhibitor, zoniporide to placebo on the occurrence of cardiac events. Multicenter study conducted in 105 sites throughout the United States, South America, Europe and Asia. 784 subjects scheduled for urgent or elective major arterial vascular surgery and a history of at least 3 of the following: age > or = 65 years, hypertension, documented stroke or transient ischemic attack, previous myocardial infarction, active angina pectoris diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or symptomatic cardiac arrhythmia. Type of anesthesia was retrospectively retrieved from the database and patients were subdivided in two groups: inhalational (group A) vs non-inhalational anesthetic regimen (group B). Incidence of postoperative cardiac events was compared between the two groups. The incidence of postoperative cardiac events was not different between the two groups. Maximum postoperative troponin I levels was not different between the two groups in the total population and in the patients undergoing peripheral arterial surgery. In patients undergoing aortic surgery the incidence of elevated troponin levels higher than 1.5 and 4 ng x mL(-1) tended to be lower in group A than in group B in the aortic surgery (28% vs 18% and 30% vs 20% respectively) but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The results of this hypothesis-generating study suggest that potential beneficial effects on extent of postoperative myocardial damage in high risk patients undergoing arterial surgery will probably be more apparent in abdominal aortic surgery than in peripheral vascular surgery. Further sufficiently powered studies using a standardized

  16. Thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania over the period of 1978-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakiene, I.; Kuprionis, G.; Makstiene, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In areas not associated with nuclear fallout, the annual incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 2.0-3.8 cases per 100 000 in women and 1.2-2.6 per 100 000 in men. The incidence of thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine rose just 4 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Though, the radioactive clouds passed over Lithuania but it is still unclear whether the rise in incidence of thyroid cancer in our patients is due to this irradiation or iodine deficiency or due to increased diagnostic activity. Population-based data on thyroid carcinomas was obtained from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry to analyse the incidence of thyroid cancers in Lithuania for the period of 1978-2003. The incidence rate (IR) was calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed cases in the calendar year per 100 000 inhabitants depending on sex. Additionally we analysed the association between histopathological types of thyroid carcinoma, disease severity as expressed by TNM classification (according to ICD-10), age and gender. For this purpose our database included a total of 354 cases of thyroid carcinoma (47 males-13.3% and 307 females-86.7%) admitted to the Kaunas Medical University Hospital during the period of 2001-July 2003. Since 1990 a significant rise of the thyroid cancer incidence affecting mainly women of > 40 years of age have been observed. 78 newly diagnosed cases of thyroid cancer (18 male and 60 female) were registered in 1990. The IR value is 1.0 in men and 3.1 in women. During the period from 1991 to 1995 the IR varied from 1.1 to 1.7 in men and from 3.6 to 5.8 in women. The increase in the number of cancer cases in women was observed year by year between 1996-2000, reaching 138 (IR 7.1), while the increase in men was not so obvious during the same period. Thyroid cancer incidence is still increasing and was 9.8 for women and 2.7 for men in the year 2001. In spite of increased incidence of thyroid cancer, morbidity between 1992-2000 did not increase

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  18. Original Article The incidence of cancer in women presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of breast cancer in patients presenting with bloody nipple discharge at the ... Setting: Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital Breast Care Centre (KATH –BCC) Kumasi. Materials and Methods: All patients reporting to the centre for the assessment and treatment of a bloody nipple discharge ...

  19. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Urethral metastasis from a presumed primary malignant melanoma presenting as postmenopausal bleeding. Proc R Soc Med 1975;68:227-8. 10. Saad A, Hanbury DC, McNicholas TA, Boustead GB,. Morgan S, Woodman AC. A study comparing various non-invasive methods of detecting bladder cancer in.

  20. Childhood cancer: Overview of incidence trends and environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahm, S.H.; Devesa, S.S. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An estimated 8000 children 0 to 14 years of age are diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Leukemia and brain tumors are the most common childhood malignancies, accounting for 30 and 20% of newly diagnosed cases, respectively. From 1975 to 1978 to 1987 to 1990, cancer among white children increased slightly from 12.8 to 14.1/100,000. Increases are suggested for leukemia, gliomas, and, to a much lesser extent, Wilms` tumor. There are a few well-established environmental causes of childhood cancer such as radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and diethylstilbestrol. Many other agents such as electromagnetic fields, pesticides, and some parental occupational exposures are suspected of playing roles, but the evidence is not conclusive at this time. Some childhood exposures such as secondhand cigarette smoke may contribute to cancers that develop many years after childhood. For some exposures such as radiation and pesticides data suggest that children may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects than similarly exposed adults. 143 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Leukocyte count is associated with incidence of coronary events, but not with stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cairu; Engström, Gunnar; Hedblad, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Elevated leukocyte count is a classic marker of systemic inflammation. This study examined whether the leukocyte count is associated with incidence of coronary events (CE) and stroke during a long follow-up period. A total of 17,131 men and 2932 women, aged 27-61 years, without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), were enrolled. Incidence of CE and stroke was studied in relation to leukocyte concentrations over a mean follow-up of 24 years. During the follow-up period, 2600 CE and 1333 stroke events occurred. After risk factor adjustments, leukocyte concentrations in the highest quartile (vs. lowest, >7.0 vs. leukocytes and CE was most pronounced in younger men (aged 27-46) and men without hypertension. In younger men, high leukocytes were associated with early CE (within 10 years of follow-up) and late CE (>10 years of follow-up). In older men (46-61 years), leukocytes were not associated with CE after more than 10 years of follow-up. The leukocyte count was not associated with incidence of stroke. Elevated leukocyte count in men is associated with increased incidence of CE, but not with stroke. The increased risk persisted after more than 10 years of follow-up in younger, but not in older men. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  3. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét; Martling, Anna; Carlsson, Stefan; Blomqvist, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer

  4. Cancer incidence in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study of cancer in children in the environment of nuclear power plants has been written on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The study is a case controlled study based on the German Register of Cancer in Children. The most important outcome of the study is the finding that a connection can be observed in Germany between the proximity to a nuclear power plant of the place of living and the risk of a child to develop cancer in the 5 th year of life. The magnitude of this risk was calculated to be approximately 0.2%, i.e., out of a total of 13,373 cases of cancer, 29 would be attributable to living within the 5 km zone around a nuclear power plant. This finding demands an explanation. The study proper cannot serve as a material witness because it had not been designed to establish cause and effect relations between the risk and potential origins. The expert consultants frankly state that current knowledge about radiation biology and epidemiology in principle does not allow the ionizing radiation emitted by German nuclear power plants in normal operation to be interpreted as the cause. Whether confounders, selection or chance play a role in the observed and documented finding cannot be explained for good by the study. However, although representing an honorable acquittal, the study produces a different effect in the public mind. What is remembered is the link between nuclear power plants and cancer in children. (orig.)

  5. The colorectal cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio as an indicator of global cancer screening and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Vasu; Hébert, James R

    2015-05-15

    Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) has been used previously to evaluate such disparities. The MIR for colorectal cancer is calculated for all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using the 2012 GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality statistics. Health system rankings were obtained from the World Health Organization. Two linear regression models were fit with the MIR as the dependent variable and health system ranking as the independent variable; one included all countries and one model had the "divergents" removed. The regression model for all countries explained 24% of the total variance in the MIR. Nine countries were found to have regression-calculated MIRs that differed from the actual MIR by >20%. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs were found to have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs lack screening programs. When these divergent points were removed from the data set, the recalculated regression model explained 60% of the total variance in the MIR. The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in cancer screening and treatment internationally. It has potential as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs and may be extended to other cancer types for these purposes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Histologic Lung Cancer Incidence Rates and Trends vary by Race/Ethnicity and Residential County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Keisha A; Mitchell, Khadijah A; King, Jessica; White, Arica; Ryan, Bríd M

    2018-01-19

    Lung cancer incidence is higher among NH blacks compared with NH white and Hispanic populations in the U.S. However, national cancer estimates may not always reflect the cancer burden in terms of disparities and incidence in small geographic areas, especially urban-rural disparities. Moreover, there is a gap in the literature regarding rural-urban disparities in terms of cancer histology. Using population-based cancer registry data-Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)-we present age-adjusted histologic rates and trends by race/ethnicity, and residential county location at the time of first cancer diagnosis. Rate ratios were calculated to examine racial/ethnic differences in rates. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to measure changes in rates over time. We find that declines in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are occurring fastest in metropolitan counties, while rates of adenocarcinoma increased fastest in counties non-adjacent to metropolitan areas. Further, while NH black men have increased lung cancer incidence compared with NH white and Hispanic men in all geographic locations, we find that the degree of the disparity increases with increasing rurality of residence. Finally, we report that among women diagnosed at less than 55 years of age, the incidence of SCC and adenocarcinoma was higher for NH blacks compared with NH whites. Our results highlight disparities among NH blacks in non-adjacent rural areas. These findings may have significant impact for the implementation of smoking cessation and lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Reproductive factors and incidence of endometrial cancer in U.S. black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that reproductive history is a strong determinant of endometrial cancer risk among white women. Less is known about how reproductive history affects endometrial cancer risk among black women, whose incidence and mortality differ from white women. We investigated the associations of age at menarche, parity, timing of births, and menopausal age with endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Every 2 years from 1995 to 2013, 47,555 participants with intact uteri at baseline in 1995 completed questionnaires on reproductive and medical history, and lifestyle factors. Self-reported cases of endometrial cancer were confirmed by medical record, cancer registry, or death certificate when available. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 689,501 person-years of follow-up, we identified 300 incident cases of endometrial cancer. The strongest associations with endometrial cancer were found for early age at menarche (black women were generally consistent with those in studies of white women.

  8. Breast cancer incidence, stage, treatment and survival in ethnic groups in South East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Møller, H

    2009-01-01

    Studies from the US have shown variations in breast cancer incidence, stage distribution, treatment and survival between ethnic groups. Data on 35 631 women diagnosed with breast cancer in South East England between 1998 and 2003 with self-assigned ethnicity information available were analysed. Results are reported for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese women. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence rate ratios, patterns of stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, overall and breast cancer-specific survival were examined. All ethnic groups studied had lower age-standardised breast cancer incidence rates than White women, with Bangladeshi women having the lowest rate ratio (0.23, 95% CI: 0.20–0.26). White women were the most likely to have a stage recorded at diagnosis (adjusted proportion 75%), and least likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease (7%). Black African women were the least likely to have a record of cancer surgery (63%) or hormone therapy (32%), and most likely to receive chemotherapy (38%). After fully adjusting for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment received, there was no significant variation in breast cancer-specific survival. However, Black African women had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.24, P=0.025). These findings suggest that a strategy of earlier detection should be pursued in Black and South Asian women. PMID:19127253

  9. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  10. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  11. Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Ratnali V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although South Asians (SA form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs between 1988–2000 and compared these rates to rates in native Asian Indians as well as to those experienced by the Asian/Pacific Islander (API and White, non-Hispanic population (NHW population of California. Methods Age adjusted incidence rates observed among the SA population of California during the time period 1988–2000 were calculated. To correctly identify the ethnicity of cancer cases, 'Nam Pehchan' (British developed software was used to identify numerator cases of SA origin from the population-based cancer registry in California (CCR. Denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incidence rates in SAs were calculated and a time trend analysis was also performed. Comparison data on the API and the NHW population of California were also obtained from CCR and rates from Globocan 2002 were used to determine rates in India. Results Between 1988–2000, 5192 cancers were diagnosed in SAs of California. Compared to rates in native Asian Indians, rates of cancer in SAs in California were higher for all sites except oropharyngeal, oesophageal and cervical cancers. Compared to APIs of California, SA population experienced more cancers of oesophagus, gall bladder, prostate, breast, ovary and uterus, as well as lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myelomas. Compared to NHW population of California, SAs experienced more cancers of the stomach, liver and bile duct, gall bladder, cervix and multiple myelomas. Significantly increasing time trends were observed in colon and breast cancer incidence. Conclusion SA population of California experiences

  12. Rectal Cancer: Treatment, Research and Quality of Life, Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute hosted a Facebook Live to discuss rectal cancer treatment, research, and quality of life. The event featured subject matter experts Carmen Allegra, MD, of the National Cancer Institute and University of Florida Health, Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and moderator

  13. Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John J; Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.......It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance....

  14. Effect of nateglinide on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; McMurray, John J

    2010-01-01

    The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown.......The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown....

  15. Human Papillomavirus and Rising Oropharyngeal Cancer Incidence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Xiao, Weihong; Kim, Esther; Jiang, Bo; Goodman, Marc T.; Sibug-Saber, Maria; Cozen, Wendy; Liu, Lihua; Lynch, Charles F.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Jordan, Richard C.; Altekruse, Sean; Anderson, William F.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Gillison, Maura L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recent increases in incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but empirical evidence is lacking. Patients and Methods HPV status was determined for all 271 oropharyngeal cancers (1984-2004) collected by the three population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Residual Tissue Repositories Program by using polymerase chain reaction and genotyping (Inno-LiPA), HPV16 viral load, and HPV16 mRNA expression. Trends in HPV prevalence across four calendar periods were estimated by using logistic regression. Observed HPV prevalence was reweighted to all oropharyngeal cancers within the cancer registries to account for nonrandom selection and to calculate incidence trends. Survival of HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients was compared by using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Results HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal cancers significantly increased over calendar time regardless of HPV detection assay (P trend < .05). For example, HPV prevalence by Inno-LiPA increased from 16.3% during 1984 to 1989 to 71.7% during 2000 to 2004. Median survival was significantly longer for HPV-positive than for HPV-negative patients (131 v 20 months; log-rank P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46). Survival significantly increased across calendar periods for HPV-positive (P = .003) but not for HPV-negative patients (P = .18). Population-level incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers increased by 225% (95% CI, 208% to 242%) from 1988 to 2004 (from 0.8 per 100,000 to 2.6 per 100,000), and incidence for HPV-negative cancers declined by 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%; from 2.0 per 100,000 to 1.0 per 100,000). If recent incidence trends continue, the annual number of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers is expected to surpass the annual number of cervical cancers by the year 2020. Conclusion Increases in the

  16. Incidence of cancer in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated 25 years previously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Christensen, Steen Bach

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence of cancer in a cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated 25 years previously. METHODS: 215 consecutive AIS patients treated between 1983 and 1990 were identified and requested to return for clinical and radiographic examination. The incidence...... of cancer was determined through chart review and follow-up interviews. Using the original radiographic log file that included patient position, mAs, kV and the total number of X-rays taken, a radiation physicist calculated the total radiation dose during treatment and follow-up adjusted for BMI and sex...

  17. Incidence rate of lung cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 with prevention implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Denggui; Li, Shumei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Fen, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Shan, Baoen

    2016-03-01

    Pollution has been established as an environmental factor in the development of lung cancer; however, the incidence rate in Shijiazhuang, one of China's most heavily polluted cities, is unknown. As Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, we estimated the lung cancer incidence rate among registered citizens of urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. In Shijiazhuang, lung cancer was the most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women. The age standardized world incidence rate (ASRW) was 46.42 and 19.14/100 000, respectively, compared with 51.05 and 22.24/100 000, respectively, reported for 63 Chinese tumor registration cities in 2010 (the national level). However, age-specific rates for the 55-70 range in men and the 25-55 range in women were higher in Shijiazhuang than nationally. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the lung cancer ASRW in Shijiazhuang was comparable to that of all industrialized countries (44.7 and 19.6/100 000), but higher than all developing countries (30.0 and 11.1/100 000), Japan (38.8 and 12.9/100 000), and Korea (45.5 and 16.2/100 000). The lung cancer incidence rate in Shijiazhuang matched the world's highest level in 2012. According to the experience of western countries, the incidence rate in China is expected to continue to rise over the next 40 years. Intervention is urgently required in order to reduce smoking prevalence by a third by 2025 and to take concrete legal action to reduce air pollution.

  18. Comparison of six electronic healthcare databases in Europe using standardized protocols: a descriptive study on the incidence of cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.S.; Groot, M.C.H. de; Ham, R. van den; Bruin, M.L. de; Huerta Alvarez, C.; Gil, M.; Hesse, U.; Ronn, P.F.; Souverein, P.C.; Alvarez, Y.; Slattery, J.; Rottenkolber, M.; Dijk, L. van; Schlienger, R.; Reynolds, R.; Klungel, O.H.; Grimaldi-Bensouda, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are several national cancer registries available across Europe, but information on cancer incidence from routine electronic healthcare record (EHR) databases (DBs), such as General Practitioners (GPs) and comparisons across different databases are rather scarce. It is important to

  19. Comparison of six electronic healthcare databases in Europe using standardized protocols: A descriptive study on the incidence of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, Ana S.; De Groot, Mark C.H.; Van Den Ham, Rianne; Bruin, Marie L.; Alvarez, Consuelo Huerta; Gil, Miguel; Hesse, Ulrik; Rønn, Pernille F.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Slattery, Jim; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Van Dijk, Liset; Schlienger, Raymond G.; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf H.; Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are several national cancer registries available across Europe, but information on cancer incidence from routine electronic healthcare record (EHR) databases (DBs), such as General Practitioners (GPs) and comparisons across different databases are rather scarce. It is important to

  20. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  1. Adverse event management of oral mucositis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Sabine; Kosse, Jens; Loibl, Sibylle; Jackisch, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a clinically important and frequent adverse event (AE) associated with cancer treatment with conventional chemotherapy as well as new targeted agents. Incidence and severity of OM vary from treatment to treatment and from patient to patient. The pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced OM can be divided into 5 phases. OM induced by targeted therapies differs among other things in appearance, course, concomitant AEs and toxicity, and thus could be perceived as an entity distinct from chemotherapy-induced OM with an innate pathogenic mechanism. OM has a severe impact on a patient's quality of life (QoL) by causing complications such as pain and discomfort. Even more important are associated restrictions in nutrition and hydration. Thus, the efficacy of cancer therapy might be impaired due to the necessity of dose delays and dose reductions. Numerous preventive and therapeutic approaches have been evaluated, but currently no single agent has changed the standard of care in preventing and treating OM. Thus, the current management has evolved from clinical experience rather than clinical evidence. This article will review the AE 'OM' induced by breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy and targeted agents in order to provide practical guidance for management and prevention.

  2. Management of adverse events during treatment of gastrointestinal cancers with epidermal growth factor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Segaert, Siegfried; Safont, María José; Demonty, Gaston; Prenen, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in development and progression of some gastrointestinal cancers, and is targeted by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat these conditions. Targeted agents are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, but have characteristic toxicities that can affect adherence, dosing, and outcomes. Skin conditions are the most common toxicities associated with EGFR inhibitors, particularly papulopustular rash. Other common toxicities include mucosal toxicity, electrolyte imbalances (notably hypomagnesaemia), and diarrhoea, while the chimaeric mAb cetuximab is also associated with increased risk of infusion reactions. With appropriate prophylaxis, the incidence and severity of these events can be reduced, while management strategies tailored to the patient and the degree of toxicity can help to ensure continuation of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the main toxicities associated with EGFR-inhibiting mAbs and TKIs in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, and provide recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected; cancer of the brain was found to be significantly higher than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  4. Smoking Status and Incidence of Cancer After Myocardial Infarction: A Follow-Up Study of over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Katrin; Goldbourt, Uri; Gerber, Yariv

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated long-term incidence of cancer after myocardial infarction among current, former, and never smokers, and assessed whether reducing cigarette consumption is associated with decreased cancer risk. Consecutive patients aged ≤65 years discharged from 8 hospitals in central Israel after first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed for cancer and death. Extensive data including smoking habits were obtained at the index hospitalization and 4 time points during follow-up. Survival methods were applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer associated with smoking categories. Included in the study were 1486 cancer-free participants (mean age, 54 years; 81% men), among whom 787 were current smokers at baseline (average daily cigarette consumption = 29). Smokers were younger than nonsmokers and more likely to be male and of lower socioeconomic status. Over a median follow-up of 21.4 years, 273 (18.4%) patients developed cancer. Baseline smoking was associated with a ∼40% excess adjusted risk of cancer; ∼25% after accounting for death as a competing event. Considering changes in smoking during follow-up, the excess risk was confined to persistent smokers (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.50), whereas post- (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.80-1.62) and pre-myocardial infarction quitters (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.47) were comparable with never smokers. Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 10 cigarettes relative to pre-myocardial infarction consumption was associated with a ∼10% reduced adjusted risk. Among young survivors of first myocardial infarction followed-up longitudinally, smoking cessation is associated with lower risk of cancer. Reducing consumption among smokers may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  6. Incidence of nodal metastasis and isolated aortic metastases in patients with surgically staged endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautua, Rubén Ruiz; Goiri, Kostantze; Calle, Marisa Avila; Marin, Ibon Jaunarena; Artola, Arantza Lekuona

    2015-06-01

    To describe the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients with surgically staged endometrioid-type endometrial cancer in Donostia University Hospital and evaluate the presence of isolated aortic metastasis. Using a prospectively maintained database, we recorded all cases of endometrioid endometrial cancer that underwent lymph node dissection and determined the rate and location (pelvic or para-aortic) of lymph node metastasis. A total of 212 patients with endometrioid type endometrial cancer were surgically treated at our institution from May 2008 to June 2013. Ninety underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Thirteen had positive nodes upon pathological examination. Six (6.6%) of 90 patients had positive para-aortic nodes with negative pelvic nodes. In our series, the incidence of isolated aortic nodal metastasis is high compared with other published reports. Performing aortic lymphadenectomy only in case of positive pelvic nodes would have underdiagnosed 6 (46%) of 13 stage IIIC cancers.

  7. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined 10 649 adult recipients of a primary transplant performed at 26 centers across the United States in the Transplant Skin Cancer Network during 1 of 2 calendar years (either 2003 or 2008) identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Recipients of all organs except intestine were included, and the follow-up periods were 5 and 10 years. Incident skin cancer was determined through detailed medical record review. Data on predictors were obtained from the OPTN database. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer overall and for SCC, MM, and MCC were calculated per 100 000 person-years. Potential risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer were tested using multivariate Cox regression analysis to yield adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 10 649 organ transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51 [12] years; 3873 women [36%] and 6776 men [64%]) contributed 59 923 years of follow-up. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer was 1437 per 100 000 person-years. Specific subtype rates for SCC, MM, and MCC were 812, 75, and 2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer included pretransplant skin cancer (HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.26-6.73), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.81), white race (HR, 9.04; 95% CI, 6.20-13.18), age at transplant 50 years or older (HR, 2

  8. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  9. Kidney Function, Proteinuria, and Cancer Incidence: The Korean Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Sang, Yingying; Jung, Keum Ji; Lee, Sunmi; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Reported associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with cancer risk are inconsistent, and data for the proteinuria-cancer relationship are sparse. We sought to quantify the associations of cancer incidence with eGFR and with proteinuria in a large population-based cohort. A prospective cohort study. 242,583 adults (30-74 years old) without a diagnosis of cancer at baseline in the Korean Heart Study, based on health checkups in 1996 to 2004 with follow-up until 2012. Creatinine-based eGFR (≥90, 60-89, 45-59, and cancer incidence based on ICD-10 codes. 15,165 cases of cancer were detected. The relationship between eGFR and incidence of any cancer was J shaped, with the lowest risk at 45 to 59mL/min/1.73m 2 . There was 44% higher risk for any cancer among those with eGFRscancer risk, showing a dose-response relationship (HRs of 1.24 [95% CI, 1.13-1.35], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.17-1.63], and 1.66 [95% CI, 1.30-2.12] for 1+, 2+, and ≥3+ vs undetectable/trace). Examining site-specific cancer, eGFRkidney and ureteral cancer, multiple myeloma, and leukemia, whereas proteinuria ≥ 1+ (vs undetectable/trace) was related to a broader set of cancers (ie, stomach, rectal, liver, lung, ovarian, kidney, bladder, and multiple myeloma). After excluding study participants with follow-up less than 3 years, the associations remained consistent for kidney cancer and myeloma with eGFR and for rectal, liver, lung, and ovarian cancer with proteinuria. Relatively small number of participants with severely reduced eGFR or 70 years or older. Kidney measures, particularly proteinuria, were associated with increased incidence of cancer. Future studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these associations. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies.

  11. The Effect of Combined Aspirin and Clopidogrel Treatment on Cancer Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Avi; Zelikson-Saporta, Ravit; Pereg, David; Spectre, Galia; Rozovski, Uri; Raanani, Pia; Hermoni, Doron; Lishner, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Multiple studies have shown an association between aspirin treatment and a reduction in newly diagnosed cancer. Conversely, there are conflicting clinical and laboratory data on the effect of combined clopidogrel and aspirin therapy on cancer incidence, including analyses suggesting an increased cancer risk. No large-scale cohort study has been performed to address this issue in a heterogeneous real-world scenario. We investigated the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on cancer incidence compared with aspirin alone and no antiplatelet therapy. A population-based historical cohort study of subjects aged ≥50 years covered by Clalit Health Services, an Israeli health maintenance organization, was performed. Patients treated with the newer antiplatelet drugs, prasugrel or ticagrelor, which, like clopidogrel, inhibit adenosine diphosphate receptors, and those with prior cancer were excluded. Prescription records of antiplatelet medication were retrieved. The cohort included 183,912 subjects diagnosed with 21,974 cancer cases based upon the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Dual aspirin and clopidogrel was prescribed in 9.6%, while 49% received aspirin alone and 41% used neither. Compared with nonusers, there was a lower risk of cancer in subjects exposed to aspirin with (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.49) or without clopidogrel (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.52-0.56), on long-term follow-up. Combined treatment was associated with a lower cancer risk than the aspirin-only group (HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97). Dual clopidogrel and aspirin treatment is safe regarding the cancer risk. This study generates the hypothesis that clopidogrel may reduce cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  13. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Incidence of adverse events among healthcare workers following H1N1 Mass immunization in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankrah, Daniel N A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; De Bruin, Marie L

    2013-01-01

    in the Pandemrix(®) SPC, but while injection-site pain was the most frequent in the SPC and other foreign studies, we recorded headache as the most frequent. Even fatigue, muscle/joint aches and fever had higher incidence rates compared with injection-site pain. Tachycardia (n = 6), tinnitus (n = 1) and decreased...

  15. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Folsom, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3) for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9) for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8%) fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27) and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98). Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women. PMID:15904509

  16. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Folsom, Jeffrey A

    2005-05-18

    Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995-99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 - 111.3) for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 - 137.9) for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8%) fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995-99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 - 1.27) and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 - 0.98). In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  17. Three-year cancer incidence in Blantyre, Malawi (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasimpha, Steady J D; Parkin, D Maxwell; Masamba, Leo; Dzamalala, Charles P

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, we present incidence rates of different cancers calculated for the population of Blantyre, Malawi for the period 2008-2010, using data from the Malawi Cancer Registry. Active methods were used for case finding, with standard checks for accuracy and validity performed in CanReg 4. During this 3-year period, a total of 3,711 cases were registered comprising 1,643 men (an estimated age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 169.8 per 100,000) and 2,068 women (ASR 238.7 per 10 5 ). Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was the most common cancer in men (40.5% of all cancers in men; ASR 54.0 per 10 5 ) while cervical cancer was the commonest in women (33.3%; ASR 88.6 per 10 5 ). The incidence rates for esophageal cancer remain one of the highest in the world (ASR 30.9 per 100,000 in men, 22.1 per 100,000 in women). Incidence of cancer of the prostate is relatively low in Blantyre (5.1%; ASR 16.4 per 10 5 ), compared with elsewhere in Africa. In childhood, the cancer spectrum is dominated by Burkitt lymphoma (32.5% ASR 90.9 per 10 6 ) followed by Wilms tumor (11.3%; ASR 35.9 per 10 6 ) and pediatric KS (11.0%; ASR 31.1 per 10 6 ). The overall percentage of cases with histological verification was 47.5%, a slight improvement from 42.4% in late 1990s also indicating successful case finding outside laboratories. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Induced and spontaneous abortion and incidence of breast cancer among young women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Xue, Fei; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C

    2007-04-23

    Induced abortion has been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk in case-control studies. Retrospective cohort studies using registry information in Scandinavia have not suggested an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, although data on individual reproductive factors were not accounted for. We examined the association between induced and spontaneous abortion and the incidence of breast cancer in a prospective cohort of young women, the Nurses' Health Study II. The study included 105 716 women 29 to 46 years old at the start of follow-up in 1993. Information on induced or spontaneous abortions was collected in 1993 and updated biennially. During 973 437 person-years of follow-up between 1993 and 2003, 1458 newly diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained. A total of 16 118 participants (15%) reported a history of induced abortion, and 21 753 (21%) reported a history of spontaneous abortions. The hazard ratio for breast cancer among women who had 1 or more induced abortions was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.17) after adjustment for established breast cancer risk factors; among women with 1 or more spontaneous abortions, the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.01). The relation between induced abortion and the incidence of breast cancer did not differ materially by number of abortions (P for trend = .98), age at abortion (P for trend = .68), parity (P for interaction = .54), or timing of abortion with respect to a full-term pregnancy (P for interaction = .10). Among this predominantly premenopausal population, neither induced nor spontaneous abortion was associated with the incidence of breast cancer.

  19. Temporal and geospatial trends of pediatric cancer incidence in Nebraska over a 24-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazi, P A; Watanabe-Galloway, S; Westman, L; Rettig, B; Hunt, P; Cammack, R; Sparks, J W; Coulter, D W

    2018-02-01

    Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) revealed that the incidence of pediatric cancer in Nebraska exceeded the national average during 2009-2013. Further investigation could help understand these patterns. This retrospective cohort study investigated pediatric cancer (0-19 years old) age adjusted incidence rates (AAR) in Nebraska using the Nebraska Cancer Registry. SEER AARs were also calculated as a proxy for pediatric cancer incidence in the United States (1990-2013) and compared to the Nebraska data. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping was also used to display the spatial distribution of cancer in Nebraska at the county level. Finally, location-allocation analysis (LAA) was performed to identify a site for the placement of a medical center to best accommodate rural pediatric cancer cases. The AAR of pediatric cancers was 173.3 per 1,000,000 in Nebraska compared to 167.1 per 1,000,000 in SEER. The AAR for lymphoma was significantly higher in Nebraska (28.1 vs. 24.6 per 1,000,000; p = 0.009). For the 15-19 age group, the AAR for the 3 most common pediatric cancers were higher in Nebraska (p 2 h driving distance to care facilities showed at least a 10% higher incidence than the overall state AAR. GIS mapping identified a second potential treatment site that would alleviate this geographic burden. Regional differences within Nebraska present a challenge for rural populations. Novel use of GIS mapping to highlight regional differences and identify solutions for access to care issues could be used by similar states. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in head and neck cancer incidence in Denmark, 1978-2007: Focus on human papillomavirus associated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the overall trends in the incidence of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) among Danish men and women in 1978-2007, to describe the distribution and incidences of HNCs at different anatomical sites, and to determine whether the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV......)-associated cancers is increasing. Data were extracted from the nationwide Cancer Registry database. To assess the possible impact of HPV infection, the sites of squamous cell carcinomas were categorized as HPV-associated, potentially HPV-associated or HPV-unrelated. In total, 26,474 incident cases were identified...... and the overall incidence increased throughout the period. Significantly increasing incidence rates were notably seen for tumors in the oral cavity (2.2% per year), tonsils (4.8% per year), oropharynx (3.5% per year) and hypopharynx (4.4% per year). A significantly decreasing incidence of lip cancer was observed...

  1. Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of inpatient adverse events using medical records review and incident reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, W M; Muteshi, C M; Wanyonyi, S Z; Mukaindo, A M; Ismail, A; Ekea, H; Abdallah, A; Tole, J M; Ngugi, A K

    2016-09-08

    Information on adverse events (AEs) in hospitalised patients in developing countries is scanty. To compare the magnitude and characteristics of inpatient AEs in a tertiary, not-for-profit healthcare facility in Kenya, using medical records review and incident reporting. Estimation of prevalence was done using incidents reported in 2010 from a random sample of medical records for hospital admissions. Nurse reviewers used 18 screening criteria, followed by physician reviewers to confirm occurrence. An AE was defined as an unexpected clinical event (UE) associated with death, disability or prolonged hospitalisation not explained by the disease condition. The kappa statistic was used to estimate inter-rater agreement, and analysis was done using logistic regression. The study identified 53 UEs from 2 000 randomly selected medical records and 33 reported UEs from 23 026 admissions in the index year. The prevalences of AEs from medical records review and incident reports were 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 - 2.0) and 0.03% (95% CI 0.012 - 0.063), respectively. Compared with incident reporting, review of medical records identified more disability (13.2% v. 0%; p=0.03) and prolonged hospital stays (43.4% v. 18.2%; p=0.02). Review of medical records is preferable to incident reporting in determining the prevalence of AEs in health facilities with limited inpatient quality improvement experience. Further research is needed to determine whether staff education and a positive culture change through promotion of non-punitive UE reporting or a combination of approaches would improve the comprehensiveness of AE reporting.

  2. Baseline plasma fatty acids profile and incident cardiovascular events in the SU.FOL.OM3 trial: the evidence revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold K Fezeu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma fatty acids profile and the risk of future major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischemic stroke. METHODS: Baseline plasma fatty acids as well as established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2,263 patients enrolled in the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids randomized controlled trial. Incident major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events were ascertained during the 4.7 years of follow up. Hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 154, 379 and 84 patients had major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events respectively. Upon adjustment for gender, initial event, baseline age and BMI, the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event decreased significantly in successive quartiles of arachidonic acid (P trend<0.002, total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend<0.03, docosapentaenoic acid (P trend<0.019, docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.004, eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.03 and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.02. This inverse association was borderline significant with increased quartiles of stearidonic acid (P trend<0.06. In the full model, only stearidonic acid remained inversely associated with the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event (P trend<0.035, a cardiac event (P trend<0.016 or a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.014, while arachidonic acid was inversely associated with the risk a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.033. CONCLUSION: The inverse association of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with recurrence of Cardiovascular diseases was mainly driven by well-known cardiovascular risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN

  3. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  4. Using Web Crawler Technology for Geo-Events Analysis: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Social networking and network socialization provide abundant text information and social relationships into our daily lives. Making full use of these data in the big data era is of great significance for us to better understand the changing world and the information-based society. Though politics have been integrally involved in the hyperlinked world issues since the 1990s, the text analysis and data visualization of geo-events faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis. Though automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have been explored and built recently, the data mining and information collection are not comprehensive enough because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness, and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency, and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident were studied by using web crawler technology and the text analysis. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios, and dissemination flow graph, based on the crawled information and data processing not only highlight the characteristics of geo-event itself, but also implicate many interesting phenomenon and deep-seated problems behind it, such as related topics, theme vocabularies, subject contents, hot countries, event bodies, opinion leaders, high-frequency vocabularies, information sources, semantic structure, propagation paths, distribution of different attitudes, and regional difference of net citizens’ response in the Huangyan Island incident. Furthermore, the text analysis of network information with the help of focused web crawler is able to express the time-space relationship of crawled information and the information characteristic of semantic network to the geo-events. Therefore, it is a useful tool to

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality around the Pan Britannica Industries pesticide factory, Waltham Abbey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P; Thakrar, B; Shaddick, G; Stevenson, S; Pattenden, S; Landon, M; Grundy, C; Elliott, P

    1997-02-01

    To examine the incidence and mortality of cancer near the Pan Britannica Industries factory, Waltham Abbey, after reports of a possible cluster of all cancers and brain cancer in the vicinity. Small area study of cancer incidence 1977-89, and mortality 1981-92, within a 7.5 km radius of the factory site. Postcoded cancer registrations and deaths in the study area were extracted from national data sets held by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit and compared with expected numbers computed by applying national rates stratified for age, sex, and deprivation to the local population (1981 and 1991 censuses). Observed/ expected (O/E) ratios were examined from 0-1 km and 0-7.5 km of the plant, and tests applied for a decline in relative risk with distance up to 7.5 km. There were 12,859 incidence cancers (1977-89) from 0-7.5 km (O/E ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02 to 1.06) and 385 from 0-1 km (O/E 1.10; 1.00 to 1.22). There was an excess of skin melanoma from 0-1 km based on 11 cases (O/E 2.13; 1.06 to 3.80), and an excess from 0-7.5 km of cancer of the lung, stomach and pancreas combined, and prostate (O/Es ranged from 1.09 to 1.13). Only the findings from lung cancer were suggestive of a decline in risk with distance, especially in the later period (1982-9). There were 9196 cancer deaths (1981-92) from 0-7.5 km (O/E 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06) and 308 from 0-1 km (O/E 1.24; 1.11 to 1.39); and 25507 non-cancer deaths (O/E 1.02; 1.01 to 1.04) from 0-7.5 km and 745 (O/E 1.14; 1.06 to 1.22) from 0-1 km. There was evidence of a decline in mortality with distance for all cancers combined, lung cancer (P = 0.001 for each), and colorectal cancer (P < 0.05), and also for non-cancers (P = 0.001). Proportional mortality analyses suggested a decline in risk with distance for lung cancer (P = 0.003) but not for all cancers or the site specific cancers examined. There was no evidence of an excess in the incidence or mortality from brain cancer. For cancer mortality

  6. Isolated Right Varicocele and Incidence of Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Molly Elmer; Greene, Daniel J; Gill, Bradley; Nyame, Yaw; Haywood, Sam; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2018-04-09

    To test the classic teaching that isolated right varicoceles are associated with significantly high rates of occult malignanices. Retrospective chart review included all men diagnosed with varicocele at the Cleveland Clinic from 2000 to 2015. Charts were queried for demographics, varicocele laterality, cross-sectional imaging, and subsequent diagnosis of abdominal malignancy or vascular anomaly. Descriptive statistics are presented as means + standard deviation. Comparative statistics include analyses of variance with Tukey-Kramer pair wise comparisons or chi-squared tests as indicated. All p<0.05 are considered significant. Varicocele was diagnosed in 4,060 men (3258 left, 337 right, 465 bilateral). Men with right varicoceles were significantly older (43.6+17.1) than left (33.4+14.9, p<0.0001) or bilateral (34.9+15.3, p<0.0001), and had higher body mass indices (right: 28.9+5.7, left: 26.4+5.5, p<0.0001, bilateral: 26.5+5.5, p<0.0001). Laterality of varicocele was not significantly associated with cancer diagnosis (p=0.313), with cancer diagnosed in 2.67% of right, 1.63% of left, and 2.15% of bilateral varicoceles. Rates of abdominal CT imaging differed significantly (p<0.0001) by laterality: 30.3% of right, 8.7% of left, and 11.2% of bilateral varicoceles were scanned. Vascular anomalies did not significantly differ by varicocele laterality. Men with right varicoceles were older, heavier, and underwent more CT scans than those with left or bilateral varicoceles, but did not have higher rates of cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Cancer incidence in Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah during 1967--75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, J W; West, D W

    1980-11-01

    Data from the Utah Cancer Registry were used to compare cancer incidence in Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah for the period 1967--75. Church membership was identified for 97.8% of the 20,379 cases in Utah by a search of the central membership files of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (or Mormon Church). Sites associated with smoking (lung, larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, esophagus, and urinary bladder) showed an incidence in Mormons at about one-half that of non-Mormons. Rates of cancers of the breast, cervix, and ovary were low in Mormon women; the rate for cervical cancer was about one-half of that observed in non-Mormons. Cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, and pancreas were about one-third lower in Mormons than in others who are not members of this religious group. Most of the differences seen in cancer incidence can be explained by Mormon teachings regarding sexual activity and alcohol and tobacco use, but some differences (e.g., colon and stomach) remain unexplained.

  8. Incidence and survival differences of differentiated thyroid cancer among younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltz MM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melissa M Boltz,1 Laura M Enomoto,1,2 Rollyn M Ornstein,3 Brian D Saunders,1,4 Christopher S Hollenbeak1,2,51Department of Surgery, 2Division of Outcomes Research and Quality, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and Eating Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey Children’s Hospital, 4Division of General Surgery Specialties and Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an estimated 60,220 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013. For reasons that are unclear, differentiated thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than in males. However, among adolescent and young adult females between ages 15–39 years, differentiated thyroid cancer remains under-recognized. The disparity in cancer incidence and outcomes in this population may be secondary to the tumor's biology, and risk factors unique to women. This review summarizes the incidence and survival rates of thyroid cancer in women younger than 45 years of age, as well as the pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, prognosis, and current and emerging treatment options for this patient population.Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, young adult women, adolescents, incidence, risk factors, treatment

  9. Cancer incidence among mild steel and stainless steel welders and other metal workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K S; Lauritsen, J M; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    The cancer incidence in a historical cohort of 10,059 metal workers employed during the period 1964-1984 was investigated. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated based on registry extracts from the Danish Cancer registry. Lifetime exposure data (occupational and other) were obtained...... by a postal questionnaire in living cohort members and interviews by proxy for deceased and emigrated subjects. The incidence of lung cancer was increased among workers ever "employed as welders" (SIR = 1.38, 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81). There was a significant excess risk of lung cancer among "mild steel (MS) only...... welders" (SIR = 1.61, 95% C.I. 1.07-2.33) and "nonwelders" (SIR = 1.69, 95% C.I. 1.23-2.26) (indicating carcinogenic exposures other than welding), a borderline significant lung cancer excess among "MS ever welders" (SIR = 1.32, 95% C.I. 0.97-1.76), and a nonsignificant excess risk of lung cancer among...

  10. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates ( 66.96; 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian ( 41.04, MORTALITY: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry ( 36.72, MORTALITY: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. INCIDENCE OF RECTAL CANCER IN THE POPULATION OF THE MOSCOW REGION IN 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Balkanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer ranks the third among all cancer incidence rates. Rectal neoplasms are frequently considered as a separate nosological entity. The incidence of rectal cancer (RC can be influenced by patient age, gender, lifestyle, diet, genetic factors, as well as by the organization and quality of preventive activities in medical institutions focused on the early cancer diagnosis. Aim: To study changes in RC incidence among residents of the Moscow Region from 2010 to 2014. Materials and methods: The incidence rate of RC was estimated based on the state statistical report data on newly diagnosed cancers in the population of the Moscow Region in 2010–2014. The intensive incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 of respective population in six age and gender groups. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 6079 new RC cases were identified in the Moscow Region, among them 47% men and 53% women. More than half of all RC cases were in the age group of 60 to 79 years old (61.7% of men and 59.2% of women. During the 5-year period, the incidence rate of RC decreased from 18.3 to 17 per 100,000 of the male population and increased from 15.7 to 17.5 per 100,000 among the female population. There was a clear correlation between the RC incidence and the patient age. The peak incidence in men and women was seen in the age group of 70 to 79 years. From the age group of 50 to 59 years and on, the incidence of RC in men was higher than that in women. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to optimize activities in the public healthcare system aimed at reduction of morbidity and mortality related to RC. Among the priority actions should be allocated to the development and implementation of primary prevention measures, in particular, undergo screening tests (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy in age groups at high risk.

  12. Incidence of esophageal cancer in Sri Lanka: Analysis of cancer registry data and comparison with other South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Dakshitha P; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu N

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the incidence of Carcinoma of Esophagus (CaE) in Sri Lanka and to compare these values with other cancer registry data of the region and with migrant populations. We compared the data published by the National Cancer Control Program over the last two decades with data from the National Cancer Registry Programme of the Indian Council of Medical Research and Karachi Cancer Registry. SEERstat was used to analyze the surveillance, epidemiology and end results database to analyze data on Indian migrant population. CaE was the fourth most common cancer overall and among females and third most common cancer among males. The incidence of CaE rises with age in both sexes, with a peak in the 70-74 year age group. There was a disproportionately higher number of CaE in the Tamil population (chi-square test, P Sri Lanka was squamous cell carcinoma, Not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 750, 70.5%), followed by adenocarcinoma, NOS (n = 83, 7.8%). India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have comparable age-adjusted incidence and age distribution of CaE. All migrant populations had lower incidence of CaE than original population or population in their present country. Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are more prevalent in Sri Lankan males than females. The incidence of CaE and its distribution among age groups in Sri Lanka was comparable to other countries of the region. Persons of Tamil ethnicity have a higher risk of developing CaE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  16. Exploring human error in military aviation flight safety events using post-incident classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brionny J; O'Hare, David P A

    2013-08-01

    Human error classification systems theoretically allow researchers to analyze postaccident data in an objective and consistent manner. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is one such practical analysis tool that has been widely used to classify human error in aviation. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy (CET) is another. It has been postulated that the focus on interrelationships within HFACS can facilitate the identification of the underlying causes of pilot error. The CET provides increased granularity at the level of unsafe acts. The aim was to analyze the influence of factors at higher organizational levels on the unsafe acts of front-line operators and to compare the errors of fixed-wing and rotary-wing operations. This study analyzed 288 aircraft incidents involving human error from an Australasian military organization occurring between 2001 and 2008. Action errors accounted for almost twice (44%) the proportion of rotary wing compared to fixed wing (23%) incidents. Both classificatory systems showed significant relationships between precursor factors such as the physical environment, mental and physiological states, crew resource management, training and personal readiness, and skill-based, but not decision-based, acts. The CET analysis showed different predisposing factors for different aspects of skill-based behaviors. Skill-based errors in military operations are more prevalent in rotary wing incidents and are related to higher level supervisory processes in the organization. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy provides increased granularity to HFACS analyses of unsafe acts.

  17. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-04-29

    This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26%-36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985-88, 20% in 1989-92, 15% in 1993-1996, and 13% in 1997-99); age (13% in ages 50-59, 48% in ages 60-69, 28% in ages 70-79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  18. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  19. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodders, J.N.; Parmar, S.; Stienen, N.L.M.; Martin, T.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Nandra, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Desired data was retrieved

  1. Incidence of cancer in first-degree relatives of basal cell carcinoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Rossum (Michelle); D. Wopereis; T. Hoyer; I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); J. Schalkwijk; P.C.M. van de Kerkhof; L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThere is evidence to suggest that genetic factors play an important role in the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and that skin neoplasms might be a sign for a genetic predisposition to cancer. We investigated whether the incidence of visceral and skin malignancies among

  2. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10 6 J.m -3 (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author)

  3. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Technique; Pineau, J.F. [ALGADE, Bessines (France); Chameaud, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 87 - Razes (France)

    1994-12-31

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10{sup 6} J.m{sup -3} (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author).

  4. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2015-01-01

    : In 2010, the all-age prevalence of hysterectomy was estimated at 6%, and ≥ 16% at age ≥ 65. This translated into an overall 6% increase in the incidence rate of cervical cancer, from 12.8 (unadjusted) to 13.5 (adjusted) per 100 000 woman-years. The screening coverage increased from 76% (unadjusted) to 79...

  5. Incidence of and risk factors for skin cancer after heart transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewer, Jerry D.; Colegio, Oscar R.; Phillips, P. Kim; Roenigk, Randall K.; Jacobs, M. Amanda; van de Beek, Diederik; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Kremers, Walter K.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Otley, Clark C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, tumor burden, and risk factors for nonmelanoma and other skin cancer types in this heart transplant cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient medical records. SETTING: Tertiary care center. Patients All heart transplant recipients at Mayo Clinic from 1988

  6. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodders, J.N.; Parmar, S.; Stienen, N.-L.M.; Martin, T.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Nandra, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. Material and Methods: Desired data was retrieved

  7. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types o