WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidence wide angle

  1. Measurement of the spatial resolution of wide-pitch silicon strip detectors with large incident angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, T.; Hazumi, M.; Nagashima, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As a part of R ampersand D for the BELLE experiment at KEK-B, we measured the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors for particles with incident angles ranging from 0 degrees to 75 degrees. These detectors have strips with pitches of 50, 125 and 250 μm on the ohmic side. We have obtained the incident angle dependence which agreed well with a Monte Carlo simulation. The resolution was found to be 11 μm for normal incidence with a pitch of 50 μm, and 29 μm for incident angle of 75 degrees with a pitch of 250μm

  2. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle.

  3. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  4. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  5. Wide Angle of Incidence-Insensitive Polarization-Independent THz Metamaterial Absorber for Both TE and TM Mode Based on Plasmon Hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Tao Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wide-angle THz metamaterial absorber (MA utilizing sixteen-circular-sector (SCR resonator for both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode is designed and investigated numerically. At normal incidence, the absorptivity of the proposed MA is higher than 93.7% at 9.05 THz for different polarization angles, due to the rotational symmetry structure of the unit cell. Under oblique incidence, the absorptivity can still exceed 90%, even when the incident angle is up to 70° for both TE and TM mode. Especially, the frequency variation in TE mode is less than 0.25% for different incident angles from 0° to 70°. The electric field (Ez distributions are used to explain the absorption mechanism. Numerical simulation results show that the high absorption with wide-angle independence stems from fundamental dipole resonance and gap surface plasmons. The broadband deep-infrared MA is also obtained by stacking three metal-dielectric layers. The designed MA has great potential in bolometric pixel elements, biomedical sensors, THz imaging, and solar cells.

  6. Crystallization behavior of polyethylene on silicon wafers in solution casting processes traced by time-resolved measurements of synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S; Masunaga, H; Takata, M; Itou, K; Tashiro, K; Okuda, H; Takahara, A

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of polyethylene (PE) on silicon wafers in solution casting processes has been successfully traced by time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISWAXS) measurements utilizing synchrotron radiation. A p-xylene solution of PE kept at ca. 343 K was dropped on a silicon wafer at ca. 298 K. While the p-xylene evaporated naturally from the dropped solution sample, PE chains crystallized to be a thin film. Raman spectral measurements were performed simultaneously with the GISWAXS measurements to evaluate quantitatively the p-xylene the dropped solution contained. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns indicated nucleation and crystal growth in the dropped solution and the following as-cast film. GIWAXS and Raman spectral data revealed that crystallization of PE was enhanced after complete evaporation of the p-xylene from the dropped solution. The [110] and [200] directions of the orthorhombic PE crystal became relatively parallel to the wafer surface with time, which implied that the flat-on lamellae with respect to the wafer surface were mainly formed in the as-cast film. On the other hand, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) patterns implied formation of isolated lamellae in the dropped solution. The lamellae and amorphous might alternatively be stacked in the preferred direction perpendicular to the wafer surface. The synchrotron GISWAXS experimental method could be applied for kinetic study on hierarchical structure of polymer thin films.

  7. A large-area, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent plasmonic color filter for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    We develop an effective method for glucose sensing by using a plasmonic color filter (PCF) integrated with a microfluidic chip. The morphology of PCF is composed of hybrid nanopillars fabricated with SiO2 and Au thin-films on silicon substrate. It exhibits angle-independence, polarization-independence and wafer-level fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. The shift of resonant wavelength is 56 nm with a stable bandwidth (∼30 nm) by varying concentration of glucose solution. The sensitivity is 157.61 nm/RIU and the corresponding figure-of-merit is 5.25. Such strategy can be exploited to further increase the detection and potentially enter the ultra-strong coupling regime in chemical solution sensors.

  8. Relationship between electrical properties and crystallization of indium oxide thin films using ex-situ grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G. B.; Okasinski, J. S.; Buchholz, D. B.; Boesso, J.; Almer, J. D.; Zeng, L.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Chang, R. P. H.

    2017-05-01

    Grazing-incidence, wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements were conducted on indium oxide thin films grown on silica substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Growth temperatures (TG) in this study ranged from -50 °C to 600 °C, in order to investigate the thermal effects on the film structure and its spatial homogeneity, as well as their relationship to electrical properties. Films grown below room temperature were amorphous, while films prepared at TG = 25 °C and above crystallized in the cubic bixbyite structure, and their crystalline fraction increased with deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity (σ) and electrical mobility (μ) were strongly enhanced at low deposition temperatures. For TG = 25 °C and 50 °C, a strong ⟨100⟩ preferred orientation (texture) occurred, but it decreased as the deposition temperature, and consequential crystallinity, increased. Higher variations in texture coefficients and in lattice parameters were measured at the film surface compared to the interior of the film, indicating strong microstructural gradients. At low crystallinity, the in-plane lattice spacing expanded, while the out-of-plane spacing contracted, and those values merged at TG = 400 °C, where high μ was measured. This directional difference in lattice spacing, or deviatoric strain, was linear as a function of both deposition temperature and the degree of crystallinity. The crystalline sample with TG = 100 °C had the lowest mobility, as well as film diffraction peaks which split into doublets. The deviatoric strains from these doublet peaks differ by a factor of four, supporting the presence of both a microstructure and strain gradient in this film. More isotropic films exhibit larger μ values, indicating that the microstructure directly correlates with electrical properties. These results provide valuable insights that can help to improve the desirable properties of indium oxide, as well as other transparent conducting oxides.

  9. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  11. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  12. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  13. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  14. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, R K; Graber, T J; Fernandez, P B; Mills, D M

    2012-03-01

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18° asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage (Φ) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation (Ψ) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation (Θ) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  15. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  16. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  17. A simple three dimensional wide-angle beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward

    2006-05-01

    The development of three dimensional (3-D) waveguide structures for chip scale planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) is hampered by the lack of effective 3-D wide-angle (WA) beam propagation methods (BPMs). We present a simple 3-D wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme along with a new 3-D wave equation splitting method. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation and comparing them with analytical solutions.

  18. Extended incident-angle dependence formula of sputter yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Shibata, K.; Muramoto, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Li Z.; Kawamura, T.

    2006-06-01

    We extend a new semi-empirical formula for incident-angle dependence of normalized sputter yield that includes the contribution to sputter yield from the direct knock-out process that was not considered in the previously proposed one. Three parameters included in the new one are estimated for data calculated with ACAT code for D + ions incident obliquely on C, Fe and W materials in incident-energy regions from several tens of eV to 10 keV. Then, the parameters are expressed with functions of incident energy. The formula with the functions derived well reproduces that using the ACAT data in the whole energy range. (author)

  19. Anterior Segment Imaging Predicts Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Iyer, Jayant V; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; He, Yingke; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Liu, Dianna; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the incidence of gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years in subjects with gonioscopically open angles but varying degrees of angle closure detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT; Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) at baseline. Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-two subjects, mostly Chinese, 50 years of age or older, were recruited, of whom 65 were controls with open angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline, and 277 were cases with baseline open angles on gonioscopy but closed angles (1-4 quadrants) on AS OCT scans. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline (horizontal and vertical single scans) and after 4 years. The examiner performing gonioscopy was masked to the baseline and AS OCT data. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as nonvisibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork by gonioscopy and visible iridotrabecular contact beyond the scleral spur in AS OCT scans. Gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or 3 quadrants after 4 years. There were no statistically significant differences in age, ethnicity, or gender between cases and controls. None of the control subjects demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. Forty-eight of the 277 subjects (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8-23; P < 0.0001) with at least 1 quadrant of angle closure on AS OCT at baseline demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or more quadrants, whereas 28 subjects (10.1%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.6; P < 0.004) demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 3 or more quadrants after 4 years. Individuals with more quadrants of angle closure on baseline AS OCT scans had a greater likelihood of gonioscopic angle closure developing after 4 years (P < 0.0001, chi-square test for trend for both definitions of angle closure). Anterior segment OCT imaging at baseline predicts incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among subjects who have gonioscopically open angles and iridotrabecular contact on AS OCT at

  20. Determination of incident angle in radioisotope-excited EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, A.; Pazsit, A. (Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Isotope Lab.)

    Three different methods were used for the determination of the effective incident angle related to EDXRF when radioisotope annular sources are involved: weighted averaging, Compton peak method and minimization of the difference between the certificated and measured concentrations of six international standard samples. By measuring the Compton peak energies of various analytical reagent grade elements and compounds, it was found that the incoherent peak energy depends on the mean atomic number of the matrix, so the effective incident angle is also matrix dependent. (Author).

  1. Determination of incident angle in radioisotope-excited EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.; Pazsit, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three different methods were used for the determination of the effective incident angle related to EDXRF when radioisotope annular sources are involved: weighted averaging, Compton peak method and minimization of the difference between the certificated and measured concentrations of six international standard samples. By measuring the Compton peak energies of various analytical reagent grade elements and compounds, it was found that the incoherent peak energy depends on the mean atomic number of the matrix, so the effective incident angle is also matrix dependent. (Author)

  2. Electromagnetic Power Harvester Using Wide-Angle and Polarization-Insensitive Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanming Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at 2.5 GHz (LTE/WiFi. In the case of different polarization and incidence angles, we demonstrate the metasurface can achieve high harvesting efficiency of 90%. The fabricated prototype of 9 × 9 MS energy harvesting array is measured, and the experimental results validate that the proposed MS has a good performance more than 80% of energy harvesting efficiency for arbitrary polarization and wide-angle incident waves. The good agreement of the simulation with the experiment results verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed MS structure, which will provide a new source of supply in wireless sensor networks (WSN.

  3. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  4. Wide angle spectrometers for intermadiate energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1982-10-01

    It is shown that improvements of the detector acceptances (in solid angle and momentum bite) is as important as increased duty cycle for coincidence experiments. To have a maximum efficiency and thus to reduce the cost of experiments, it is imperative to develop maximum solid angle systems. This implies an axial symmetry with respect to the incoming beam. At Saclay, we have investigated some of the properties of specific detectors covering up to 90% of 4π steradians for a high energy, 100% duty cycle electron accelerator. The techniques of wide angle spectrometers have already been explored on a large scale in high energy physics. However, in the case of charged particles, such detectors, compared to classical iron dipole spectrometers, present a smaller resolving power and a rather low background rejection. The choice of which of these two solutions is to be used depends on the conditions of the specific experiment

  5. Wide-angle display developments by computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Computer graphics can now expand its new subset, wide-angle projection, to be as significant a generic capability as computer graphics itself. Some prior work in computer graphics is presented which leads to an attractive further subset of wide-angle projection, called hemispheric projection, to be a major communication media. Hemispheric film systems have long been present and such computer graphics systems are in use in simulators. This is the leading edge of capabilities which should ultimately be as ubiquitous as CRTs (cathode-ray tubes). These assertions are not from degrees in science or only from a degree in graphic design, but in a history of computer graphics innovations, laying groundwork by demonstration. The author believes that it is timely to look at several development strategies, since hemispheric projection is now at a point comparable to the early stages of computer graphics, requiring similar patterns of development again.

  6. Data handling for the wide-angle hall jet experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.; Engelmann, R.; Gordon, H.; Grannis, P.; Mallik, U.; Meadows, B.; Morris, T.; Plano, R.; Saulys, A.; Stein, S.

    1978-01-01

    The data handling needs for a jet production experiment in the wide-angle hall are discussed. The several layers of triggering and a data acquisition system were designed, the configuration of the local intersection computer system was discussed, and the time required to analyze a typical event was estimated. It was concluded that the experiment does not appear to place unrealistic demands on detector technology. The slow trigger was believed to be the crucial aspect of the experiment. 15 figures, 1 tables

  7. Wide-angle light-trapping electrode for photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail M; Simovski, Constantin R

    2017-10-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally show that a submicron layer of a transparent conducting oxide that may serve a top electrode of a photovoltaic cell based on amorphous silicon when properly patterned by notches becomes an efficient light-trapping structure. This is so for amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with properly chosen thicknesses of the active layers (p-i-n structure with optimal thicknesses of intrinsic and doped layers). The nanopatterned layer of transparent conducting oxide reduces both the light reflectance from the photovoltaic cell and transmittance through the photovoltaic layers for normal incidence and for all incidence angles. We explain the physical mechanism of our light-trapping effect, prove that this mechanism is realized in our structure, and show that the nanopatterning is achievable in a rather easy and affordable way that makes our method of solar cell enhancement attractive for industrial adaptations.

  8. Dielectric-based subwavelength metallic meanders for wide-angle band absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Su; Qiao, Wen; Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Linsen

    2015-01-26

    We propose nano-meanders that can achieve wide-angle band absorption in visible regime. The nano-meander consists of a subwavelength dielectric grating covered by continuous ultra-thin Aluminum film (less than one tenth of the incident wavelength). The excited photonic resonant modes, such as cavity mode, surface plasmonic mode and Rayleigh-Wood anomaly, are discussed in detail. Nearly total resonant absorption due to funneling mechanism in the air nano-groove is almost invariant with large incident angle in transverse magnetic polarization. From both the structural geometry and the nanofabrication point of view, the light absorber has a very simple geometrical structure and it is easy to be integrated into complex photonic devices. The highly efficient angle-robust light absorber can be potential candidate for a range of passive and active photonic applications, including solar-energy harvesting as well as producing artificial colors on a large scale substrate.

  9. Region of Interest Selection Interface for Wide-Angle Arthroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyunghwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a new interface for an wide-angle endoscope for solo surgery. The wide-angle arthroscopic view and magnified region of interest (ROI within the wide view were shown simultaneously. With a camera affixed to surgical instruments, the position of the ROI could be determined by manipulating the surgical instrument. Image features acquired by the A-KAZE approach were used to estimate the change of position of the surgical instrument by tracking the features every time the camera moved. We examined the accuracy of ROI selection using three different images, which were different-sized square arrays and tested phantom experiments. When the number of ROIs was twelve, the success rate was best, and the rate diminished as the size of ROIs decreased. The experimental results showed that the method of using a camera without additional sensors satisfied the appropriate accuracy required for ROI selection, and this interface was helpful in performing surgery with fewer assistants.

  10. Portable mini-chamber for temperature dependent studies using small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Arun Singh; Kumar, Dileep; Potdar, Satish; Pandit, Pallavi; Roth, Stephan V.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-04-01

    The present work describes the design and performance of a vacuum compatible portable mini chamber for temperature dependent GISAXS and GIWAXS studies of thin films and multilayer structures. The water cooled body of the chamber allows sample annealing up to 900 K using ultra high vacuum compatible (UHV) pyrolytic boron nitride heater, thus making it possible to study the temperature dependent evolution of structure and morphology of two-dimensional nanostructured materials. Due to its light weight and small size, the chamber is portable and can be accommodated at synchrotron facilities worldwide. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the chamber has been demonstrated at beamline P03, PETRA-III, DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Temperature dependent grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements were performed on oblique angle deposited Co/Ag multilayer structure, which jointly revealed that the surface diffusion in Co columns in Co/Ag multilayer enhances by increasing temperature from RT to ˜573 K. This results in a morphology change from columnar tilted structure to densely packed morphological isotropic multilayer.

  11. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  12. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , ∼ 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ''Sun-Earth Connections'' science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science

  13. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers (TWINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Blake, B.; Burch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is a revolutionary new mission designed to stereoscopically image the magnetosphere in charge exchange neutral atoms for the first time. The authors propose to fly two identical TWINS instruments as a mission of opportunity on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination US Government spacecraft. Because the spacecraft are funded independently, TWINS can provide a vast quantity of high priority science observations (as identified in an ongoing new missions concept study and the Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap) at a small fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. Because stereo observations of the near-Earth space environs will provide a particularly graphic means for visualizing the magnetosphere in action, and because of the dedication and commitment of the investigator team to the principles of carrying space science to the broader audience, TWINS will also be an outstanding tool for public education and outreach

  14. Ultra-broadband and wide-angle perfect absorber based on composite metal-semiconductor grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Wang, Zongpeng; Hou, Yumin

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we present an ultra-broadband and wide-angle perfect absorber based on composite Ge-Ni grating. Near perfect absorption above 90% is achieved in a wide frequency range from 150 nm to 4200 nm, which covers almost the full spectrum of solar radiation. The absorption keeps robust in a wide range of incident angle from 0º to 60º. The upper triangle Ge grating works as an antireflection coating. The lower Ni grating works as a reflector and an effective energy trapper. The guided modes inside Ge grating are excited due to reflection of the lower Ni grating surface. In longer wavelength band, gap surface plasmons (GSPs) in the Ni grating are excited and couple with the guided modes inside the Ge grating. The coupled modes extend the perfect absorption band to the near-infrared region (150 nm-4200 nm). This design has potential application in photovoltaic devices and thermal emitters.

  15. A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Stanley P; de Waele, Rene; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A

    2010-05-01

    Metamaterials are materials with artificial electromagnetic properties defined by their sub-wavelength structure rather than their chemical composition. Negative-index materials (NIMs) are a special class of metamaterials characterized by an effective negative index that gives rise to such unusual wave behaviour as backwards phase propagation and negative refraction. These extraordinary properties lead to many interesting functions such as sub-diffraction imaging and invisibility cloaking. So far, NIMs have been realized through layering of resonant structures, such as split-ring resonators, and have been demonstrated at microwave to infrared frequencies over a narrow range of angles-of-incidence and polarization. However, resonant-element NIM designs suffer from the limitations of not being scalable to operate at visible frequencies because of intrinsic fabrication limitations, require multiple functional layers to achieve strong scattering and have refractive indices that are highly dependent on angle of incidence and polarization. Here we report a metamaterial composed of a single layer of coupled plasmonic coaxial waveguides that exhibits an effective refractive index of -2 in the blue spectral region with a figure-of-merit larger than 8. The resulting NIM refractive index is insensitive to both polarization and angle-of-incidence over a +/-50 degree angular range, yielding a wide-angle NIM at visible frequencies.

  16. Honeywell's Compact, Wide-angle Uv-visible Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, D.; Billing-Ross, J.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell is currently developing the Earth Reference Attitude Determination System (ERADS). ERADS determines attitude by imaging the entire Earth's limb and a ring of the adjacent star field in the 2800-3000 A band of the ultraviolet. This is achieved through the use of a highly nonconventional optical system, an intensifier tube, and a mega-element CCD array. The optics image a 30 degree region in the center of the field, and an outer region typically from 128 to 148 degrees, which can be adjusted up to 180 degrees. Because of the design employed, the illumination at the outer edge of the field is only some 15 percent below that at the center, in contrast to the drastic rolloffs encountered in conventional wide-angle sensors. The outer diameter of the sensor is only 3 in; the volume and weight of the entire system, including processor, are 1000 cc and 6 kg, respectively.

  17. Jet disruption in wide-angle tailed radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Norman, M.L.; Clarke, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the bending of the jets and tails of wide-angle tailed (WAT) radio galaxies in clusters are investigated theoretically, with a focus on sharp bends and rapid jet disruption. Large (1 Mpc) and small (200 kpc) WATs are differentiated, and it is suggested that the jet-tail transition in large WATs is due to collisions between the jet and cool clouds of the intracluster medium (ICM). The transition in small WATs is attributed to the passage of the jet through a planar Mach disk perpendicular to the jet flow direction. Such a disk is shown in numerical simulations to form when there is a shocklike jump in ambient pressure at the ISM/ICM interface; the origins of such a jump are explored. 14 references

  18. Wide angle view of MOCR activity during STS-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Wide angle view of Mission Operation Control Room (MOCR) activity during Day 2 of STS-3 mission. This view shows many of th consoles, tracking map, and Eidophor-controlled data screens. Flight controllers in the foreground are (l.r.) R. John Rector and Chares L. Dumie. They are seated at the EECOM console. The 'thermodillo' contraption, used by flight controllers to indicate the Shuttle's position in relation to the sun for various tests, can be seen at right (28732); closeup view of the 'thermodillo'. The position of the armadillo's tail indicates position of the orbiter in relation to sun (28733); Mission Specialist/Astronaut Sally K. Ride, STS-3 orbit team spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM), talks to flight director during mission control center activity. Mission Specialist/Astronaut George D. Nelson, backup orbit team CAPCOM, watches the monitor at his console (28734).

  19. WAMDII: The Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of an effort to learn more about the upper atmosphere and how it is linked to the weather experienced each day, NASA and NRCC are jointly sponsoring the Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII) Mission. WAMDII will measure atmospheric temperature and wind speed in the upper atmosphere. In addition to providing data on the upper atmosphere, the wind speed and temperature readings WAMDII takes will also be highly useful in developing and updating computer simulated models of the upper atmosphere. These models are used in the design and testing of equipment and software for Shuttles, satellites, and reentry vehicles. In making its wind speed and temperature measurements, WAMDII examines the Earth's airglow, a faint photochemical luminescence caused by the influx of solar ultraviolet energy into the upper atmosphere. During periods of high solar flare activity, the amount of this UV energy entering the upper atmosphere increases, and this increase may effect airglow emissions.

  20. Based on graphene tunable dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber with wide-angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mulin; Cheng, Yongzhi; Cheng, Zhengze; Chen, Haoran; Mao, Xuesong; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-05-01

    We present a wide-angle tunable dual-band terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on square graphene patch (SGP). This MMA is a simple periodic array, consisting of a dielectric substrate sandwiched with the SGP and a continuous metallic film. The designed MMA can achieve dual-band absorption by exciting fundamental and second higher-order resonance modes on SGP. The numerical simulations indicate that the absorption spectrum of the designed MMA is tuned from 0.85 THz to 1.01 THz, and from 2.84 THz to 3.37 THz when the chemical potential of the SGP is increasing from 0.4eV to 0.8eV. Moreover, it operates well in a wide-angle of the incident waves. The presented THz MMA based on the SGP could find some potential applications in optoelectronic related devices, such as sensor, emitter and wavelength selective radiators.

  1. The effect of vegetation type, microrelief, and incidence angle on radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Oneill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was flown over a 20 x 110 km test site in the Texas High Plains regions north of Lubbock during February/March 1984. The effect of incidence angle was investigated by comparing the pixel values of the calibrated and uncalibrated images. Ten-pixel-wide transects along the entire azimuth were averaged in each of the two scenes, and plotted against the calculated incidence angle of the center of each range increment. It is evident from the graphs that both the magnitudes and patterns exhibited by the corresponding transect means of the two images are highly dissimilar. For each of the cross-poles, the uncalibrated image displayed very distinct and systematic positive trends through the entire range of incidence angles. The two like-poles, however, exhibited relatively constant returns. In the calibrated image, the cross-poles exhibited a constant return, while the like-poles demonstrated a strong negative trend across the range of look-angles, as might be expected.

  2. Effect of incidence angle on the wake turbulence of a turbine rotor blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Il; Lee, Sang Woo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of incidence angle on the wake turbulent flow of a high-turning turbine rotor blade. For three incidence angles of -5, 0 and 5 degrees, energy spectra as well as profiles of mean velocity magnitude and turbulence intensity at mid-span are reported in the wake. Vortex shedding frequencies are obtained from the energy spectra. The result shows that as the incidence angle changes from -5 to 5 degrees, the suction-side wake tends to be widened and the deviation angle is increased. Strouhal numbers based on the shedding frequencies have a nearly constant value, regardless of the tested incidence angles

  3. Wide angle Compton scattering within the SCET factorization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ∼ -t ∼ -u are about a few GeV 2 . On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism. (author)

  4. Theory, design, and experimental verification of a reflectionless bianisotropic Huygens' metasurface for wide-angle refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael; Abdo-Sánchez, Elena; Epstein, Ariel; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2018-03-01

    Huygens' metasurfaces are electrically thin devices which allow arbitrary field transformations. Beam refraction is among the first demonstrations of realized metasurfaces. As previously shown for extreme-angle refraction, control over only the electric impedance and magnetic admittance of the Huygens' metasurface proved insufficient to produce the desired reflectionless field transformation. To maintain zero reflections for wide refraction angles, magnetoelectric coupling between the electric and magnetic response of the metasurface, leading to bianisotropy, can be introduced. In this paper, we report the theory, design, and experimental characterization of a reflectionless bianisotropic metasurface for extreme-angle refraction of a normally incident plane wave towards 71.8° at 20 GHz. The theory and design of three-layer asymmetric bianisotropic unit cells are discussed. The realized printed circuit board structure was tested via full-wave simulations as well as experimental characterization. To experimentally verify the prototype, two setups were used. A quasi-optical experiment was conducted to assess the specular reflections of the metasurface, while a far-field antenna measurement characterized its refraction nature. The measurements verify that the fabricated metasurface has negligible reflections and the majority of the scattered power is refracted to the desired Floquet mode. This provides an experimental demonstration of a reflectionless wide-angle refracting metasurface using a bianisotropic Huygens' metasurface at microwave frequencies.

  5. The equivalent incidence angle for porous absorbers backed by a hard surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    experiment using a free-field absorption measurement technique with a source at the equivalent angle. This study investigates the equivalent angle for locally and extendedly reacting porous media mainly by a numerical approach: Numerical minimizations of a cost function that is the difference between...... coefficients by free-field techniques, a broad incidence angle range can be suggested: 20 hi65 for extended reaction and hi65 for locally reacting porous absorbers, if an average difference of 0.05 is allowed.......An equivalent incidence angle is defined as the incidence angle at which the oblique incidence absorption coefficient best approximates the random incidence absorption coefficient. Once the equivalent angle is known, the random incidence absorption coefficient can be estimated by a single...

  6. An Autonomous Data Reduction Pipeline for Wide Angle EO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privett, G.; George, S.; Feline, W.; Ash, A.; Routledge, G.

    The UK’s National Space and Security Policy states that the identification of potential on-orbit collisions and re-entry warning over the UK is of high importance, and is driving requirements for indigenous Space Situational Awareness (SSA) systems. To meet these requirements options are being examined, including the creation of a distributed network of simple, low cost commercial–off-the-shelf electro-optical sensors to support survey work and catalogue maintenance. This paper outlines work at Dstl examining whether data obtained using readily-deployable equipment could significantly enhance UK SSA capability and support cross-cueing between multiple deployed systems. To effectively exploit data from this distributed sensor architecture, a data handling system is required to autonomously detect satellite trails in a manner that pragmatically handles highly variable target intensities, periodicity and rates of apparent motion. The processing and collection strategies must be tailored to specific mission sets to ensure effective detections of platforms as diverse as stable geostationary satellites and low altitude CubeSats. Data captured during the Automated Transfer Vehicle-5 (ATV-5) de-orbit trial and images captured of a rocket body break up and a deployed deorbit sail have been employed to inform the development of a prototype processing pipeline for autonomous on-site processing. The approach taken employs tools such as Astrometry.Net and DAOPHOT from the astronomical community, together with image processing and orbit determination software developed inhouse by Dstl. Interim results from the automated analysis of data collected from wide angle sensors are described, together with the current perceived limitations of the proposed system and our plans for future development.

  7. Ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle compact metamaterial absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Shuai; Yang, Shizhong; Tao, Lu; Yang, Lisheng; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the design, realization, and characterization of an ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle metamaterial absorber are reported. The metamaterial absorber comprises a periodic array of modified six-fold symmetric snowflake-shaped resonators with strip spiral line load, which is printed on a dielectric substrate backed by a metal ground plane. It is shown that the absorber exhibits three distinct near-unity absorption peaks, which are distributed across C, X, Ku bands, respectively. Owing to the six-fold symmetry, the absorber is insensitive to the polarization of the incident radiation. In addition, the absorber shows excellent absorption performance over wide oblique incident angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. Simulated surface current and field distributions at the three absorption peaks are demonstrated to understand the absorption mechanism. Particularly, the absorption modes come from the fundamental and high-order dipole resonances. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed absorber is conducted, and the measured results are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The proposed ultrathin (∼0.018λ 0 , λ 0 corresponding to the lowest peak absorption frequency) compact (0.168λ 0 ×0.168λ 0 corresponding to the area of a unit cell) absorber enables potential applications such as stealth technology, electromagnetic interference and spectrum identification.

  8. Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haiyang; Tang, Yuanhe; Hua, Dengxin; Liu, Hanchen

    2011-10-10

    A wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proposed to effectively reduce the size of the glass arms and constraint on material. It provides a novel and practical instrument for ground based wind measurement of the upper atmosphere. The field widening conditions for the large air gap are calculated in theory. For the five spectral lines of 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm, 732.0 nm, 834.6 nm, and 865.7 nm, the optimal results under ideal condition are obtained with air gaps of 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.0 cm, respectively. With the fixed optical path difference (OPD) of 7.495 cm, three pairs of glass arms are optimized. The pair with length of 1.5 cm for air gap, 5.765 cm for H-ZF12, and 2.956 cm for H-ZLaF54, has better effect of field widening than the other two pairs and its OPD variation is only within 0.30 wavelengths at incident angle of 3°. For developing a more practical wide-angle Michelson interferometer, the H-K9L glass with size of 4.445 cm is employed as the arm material of solid interferometer. The experiment for field of view of 3° is designed and the data processing and analysis for 60 images show the agreement between experimental results and theoretical simulation. The OPD variations are only within 0.27 wavelengths for image edge. The feasibility and practicality of the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proved by means of theory and experiment. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Linear wide angle sun sensor for spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Jain, Y. K.

    1983-08-01

    A concept is developed which overcomes the defects of the nonlinearity of response and limitation in range exhibited by the V-slit, N-slit, and crossed slit sun sensors normally used for sun elevation angle measurements on spinning spacecraft. Two versions of sensors based on this concept which give a linear output and have a range of nearly + or - 90 deg of elevation angle are examined. Results are presented for the application of the twin slit version of the sun sensor in the three Indian satellites, Rohini, Apple, and Bhaskara II, which was successfully used for spin rate control and spin axis orientation control corrections as well as for sun elevation angle and spin period measurements.

  10. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja; Han, Beon Hee

    2012-01-01

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length of

  11. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  12. Polarization dependence in ELNES: Influence of probe convergence, collector aperture and electron beam incidence angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bosse, J.C.; Epicier, T.; Jouffrey, B.

    2006-01-01

    The differential scattering cross section in electron energy loss near edge spectroscopy (ELNES) generally depends on the orientation of the Q wave vector transferred from the incident electron to an atomic core electron. In the case where the excited atom belongs to a threefold, fourfold or sixfold main rotation axis, the dipole cross section depends on the angle of Q with respect to this axis. In this paper, we restrict to this situation called dichroism. Furthermore, if we take into account the relativistic effects due to the high incident electron velocity, this dipole cross section also depends on the angle of Q with respect to the electron beam axis. It is due to these dependences that the shape of measured electron energy loss spectra varies with the electron beam incidence, the collector aperture, the incident beam convergence and the incident electron energy. The existence of a particular beam incidence angle for which the scattering cross section becomes independent of collection and beam convergence semi-angles is clearly underscored. Conversely, it is shown that EELS spectra do not depend on the beam incidence angle for a set of particular values of collection and convergence semi-angles. Particularly, in the case of a parallel incident beam, there is a collection semi-angle (often called magic angle) for which the cross section becomes independent of the beam orientation. This magic angle depends on the incident beam kinetic energy. If the incident electron velocity V is small compared with the light velocity c, this magic angle is about 3.975θ E (θ E is the scattering angle). It decreases to 0 when V approaches c. These results are illustrated in the case of the K boron edge in the boron nitride

  13. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  14. Dependence on incident angle of solid state detector response to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Ueki, Kohtaro

    2002-01-01

    The shape and size of a NaI(Tl) scintillator that should maximize response variation with γ-ray incident angle was estimated by analytical model calculation. It proved that, even for gamma rays of energy exceeding 1 MeV, a slab detector measuring 50 cm x 50 cm x 5 cm thick should present a ratio of at least 4 between maximum and minimum responses against incidence at different angles. For a sample case of 60 keV gamma rays, estimation of the incident angle dependence by means of Monte Carlo simulation agreed well with experiment using a CZT detector. The counts from photo-electric peak varied with incident angle roughly along a sine curve. The foregoing finding served as basis for proposing a practical direction finder for γ-ray source operating on the principle of determining the source direction from variations in count with incident angle. (author)

  15. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  16. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations of ligth-ion sputtering as a function of the incident angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggmark, L.G.; Biersack, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sputtering of metal surfaces by light ions has been studied as a function of the incident angle using an extension of the TRIM Monte Carlo computer program. Sputtering yields were calculated at both normal and oblique angles of incidence for H, D, T, and 4 He impinging on Ni, Mo, and Au targets with energies <= 10 keV. Direct comparisons are made with the most recent experimental and theoretical results. There is generally good agreement with the experimental data although our calculated maximum in the yield usually occurs at a smaller incident angle, measured from the surface normal. The enhancement of the yield at large incident angles over that at normal incidence is observed to be a complex function of the incident ion's energy and mass and the target's atomic weight and surface binding energy. (orig.)

  18. Application and development of non contact angle-wide viewing system in vitreous retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wide-angle viewing system as an important auxiliary device can clearly observe the whole fundus field of vision in vitreous surgery, which enable vitreoretinal surgery more efficient, safer and more effective. So it has very high application value in ophthalmologic operation. In this paper, we studied the development and application of wide-angle viewing system in vitreoretinal surgery in recent years, from which we summed up the advantage of non-contact wide-angle viewing system in clinical field, and pointed out the shortcomings. The ultimate goal is to make the non-contact wide-angle viewing system better applied in vitreous surgery.

  19. Optimum angle of incidence for monochromatic interference in transparent films on absorbing substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.H.; Sand, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Angles of incidence for s- and p-polarized light have been computed and confirmed experimentally for which monochromatic interference in transparent thin films on absorbing substrates results in optimum interference fringe contrast (visibility=1). Under these angles of incidence and with polarized light, film thickness determinations which are not possible at normal incidence or with unpolarized light can be carried out by use of thin-film interference

  20. Low cost and thin metasurface for ultra wide band and wide angle polarization insensitive radar cross section reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Edris; Esmaeli, Seyed Hassan; Sedighy, Seyed Hassan

    2018-05-01

    A planar low cost and thin metasurface is proposed to achieve ultra-wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction with stable performance with respect to polarization and incident angles. This metasurface is composed of two different artificial magnetic conductor unit cells arranged in a chessboard like configuration. These unit cells have a Jerusalem cross pattern with different thicknesses, which results in wideband out-phase reflection and RCS reduction, consequently. The designed metasurface reduces RCS more than 10-dB from 13.6 GHz to 45.5 GHz (108% bandwidth) and more than 20-dB RCS from 15.2 GHz to 43.6 GHz (96.6%). Moreover, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth is very stable (more than 107%) for both TE and TM polarizations. The good agreement between simulations and measurement results proves the design, properly. The ultra-wide bandwidth, low cost, low profile, and stable performance of this metasurface prove its high capability compared with the state-of-the-art references.

  1. Influence on ultrasonic incident angle and defect detection sensitivity by cast stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurozumi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that ultrasonic waves are affected strongly by macro-structures in cast stainless steel, as in the primary pipe or other components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this work, ultrasonic refractive angles and defect detection sensitivities are investigated at different incident angles to cast stainless steel. The aims of the investigation are to clarify the transmission of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel and to contribute to the transducer design. The results are that ultrasonic refractive angles in cast stainless steel shift towards the 45-degree direction with respect to the direction of dendritic structures by 11.8 degrees at the maximum and that the sensitivity of transducer for inner surface breaking cracks increases with decreasing incident angle. However, in an ultrasonic inspection of actual welds at smaller incident angles, a trade-off occurs between increased defect detection sensitivity and decreased defect discrimination capability due to intense false signals produced by non-defective features. (orig.)

  2. Flexible and conformable broadband metamaterial absorber with wide-angle and polarization stability for radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijie; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Shiyue; Zhang, Di; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Kama; Zhu, Zhanxia; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a type of flexible, broadband electromagnetic microwave absorber is designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. The absorber is composed of lumped resistors loaded frequency selective surface which is mounted on flexible substrate using silicone rubber and in turn backed by copper film. The simulated results show that an effective absorption (over 90%) bandwidth spans from 7.6 to 18.3 GHz, which covers both X (8-12 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) bands, namely a 82.6% fraction bandwidth. And the bandwidth performs a good absorption response by varying the incident angle up to 60° for both TE and TM polarization. Moreover, the flexibility of the substrate enables the absorber conformably to bend and attach to cylinders of various radius without breakdown of the absorber. The designed structure has been fabricated and measured for both planar and conformable cases, and absorption responses show a good agreement of the broadband absorption feature with the simulated ones. This work has demonstrated specifically that proposed structure provides polarization-insensitive, wide-angle, flexible and conformable wideband absorption, which extends the absorber’s application to practical radar cross section reductions for radars and warships.

  3. New results of nuclear transparency to wide angle quasielastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasi-elastic (p, 2p) scattering in hydro- gen, deuterium and carbon at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center- of-mass scattering angles in the range 83.7 degrees to 90 degrees. We extracted the cross section ratios of quasi-elastic 12 C(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (C/H) and quasi-elastic D(p, 2p) to elastic 1 H(p, 2p) (D/H). The experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS accelerator using the EVA detector (experiment E850). For a detailed description of the experiment and the analysis. We determined that at incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c, the C/H ratio increases by a factor of 2 from θ cm = 89 degrees to θ cm 85 degrees, while at 7.5 GeV/c it is consistent with being flat. Further, at θ cm = 89 degrees the C/H ratio increases from 5.9 GeV/c to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%, while for lower θ cm the incoming momentum dependence is consistent with being flat. The rise of the C/H ratio with incoming momentum is similar to that observed in the previous measurement of the C/H ratio at θ cm near 90 degrees. The dependence of the C/H ratio on θ cm , was observed in our experiment for the first time. The D/H ratio does not depend on incoming momentum and θ cm Its absolute value is consistent with unity. The D/H ratio was measured in our experiment for the first time. The ratios discussed above are directly related to the nuclear transparency of 12 C and D. Nuclear transparency is a measure of the initial and final state interactions that the incoming and outgoing protons undergo before and after the main (p, 2p) reaction. The standard approach to nuclear transparency does not depend on the incoming momentum nor on θ cm in contradiction to the variation of the C/H ratio that we have observed. The incoming momentum dependence of the C/H ratio that we measured is similar to those of the inverse scaled pp differential cross section (s 10 (dσ/dt)) -1 where s and t are the Mandelstam variables

  4. Prediction of unsteady airfoil flows at large angles of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Jang, H. M.; Chen, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the unsteady motion of an airfoil on its stall behavior is of considerable interest to many practical applications including the blades of helicopter rotors and of axial compressors and turbines. Experiments with oscillating airfoils, for example, have shown that the flow can remain attached for angles of attack greater than those which would cause stall to occur in a stationary system. This result appears to stem from the formation of a vortex close to the surface of the airfoil which continues to provide lift. It is also evident that the onset of dynamic stall depends strongly on the airfoil section, and as a result, great care is required in the development of a calculation method which will accurately predict this behavior.

  5. Wide-angle, polarization-insensitive and broadband absorber based on eight-fold symmetric SRRs metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Lei; Ma, Rui; Li, Yutong; Li, Ruifang; Ye, Han

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel three dimensional metamaterial design with eight-fold rotational symmetry that shows a polarization-insensitive, wide-angle and broadband perfect absorption in the microwave band. By simulation, the polarization-insensitive absorption is over 90% between 26.9 GHz to 32.9 GHz, and the broadband absorption remains a good absorption performance to a wide incident angles for both TE and TM polarizations. The magnetic field distribution are investigated to interpret the physical mechanism of broadband absorption. The broadband absorption is based on overlapping the multiple magnetic resonances at the neighboring frequencies by coupling effects of multiple metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs). Moreover, it is demonstrate that the designed structure can be extended to other frequencies by scale down the size of the unit cell, such as the visible frequencies. The simulated results show that the absorption of the smaller absorber is above 90% in the frequency range from 467 THz to 765 THz(392-642 nm), which include orange to purple light in visible region(400-760nm). The wide-angle and polarization-insensitive stabilities of the smaller absorber is also demonstrated at visible region. The proposed work provides a new design of realization of a polarization-insensitive, wide-angle and broadband absorber ranging different frequency bands, and such a structure has potential application in the fields of solar cell, imaging and detection.

  6. UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy under variable angle incidence at the air-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Carmona, Cristina; Rubia-Payá, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Martín-Romero, María T; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis

    2014-03-07

    The UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis-RS) in situ at the air-liquid interface provides information about tilt and aggregation of chromophores in Langmuir monolayers. This information is particularly important given in most cases the chromophore is located at the polar region of the Langmuir monolayer. This region of the Langmuir monolayers has been hardly accessible by other experimental techniques. In spite of its enormous potential, the application of UV-Vis-RS has been limited mainly to reflection measurements under light normal incidence or at lower incidence angles than the Brewster angle. Remarkably, this technique is quite sensitive to the tilt of the chromophores at values of incidence angles close to or larger than the Brewster angle. Therefore, a novel method to obtain the order parameter of the chromophores at the air-liquid interface by using s- and p-polarized radiation at different incidence angles is proposed. This method allowed for the first time the experimental observation of the two components with different polarization properties of a single UV-Vis band at the air-liquid interface. The method of UV-Vis spectroscopy under variable angle incidence is presented as a new tool for obtaining rich detailed information on Langmuir monolayers.

  7. Broadband and wide-angle distributed Bragg reflectors based on amorphous germanium films by glancing angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-08-27

    We fabricated the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with amorphous germanium (a-Ge) films consisted of the same materials at a center wavelength (λc) of 1.33 μm by the glancing angle deposition. Their optical reflectance properties were investigated in the infrared wavelength region of 1-1.9 μm at incident light angles (θ inc) of 8-70°, together with the theoretical analysis using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation. The two alternating a-Ge films at the incident vapor flux angles of 0 and 75° were formed as the high and low refractive index materials, respectively. The a-Ge DBR with only 5 periods exhibited a normalized stop bandwidth (∆λ/λ c) of ~24.1%, maintaining high reflectance (R) values of > 99%. Even at a high θ inc of 70°, the ∆λ/λ c was ~21.9%, maintaining R values of > 85%. The a-Ge DBR with good uniformity was obtained over the area of a 2 inch Si wafer. The calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency to the measured data.

  8. Diamagneto-Dielectric Anisotropic Wide Angle Impedance Matching Layers for Active Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  9. Diamagneto-dielectric anisotropic wide angle impedance matching layers for active phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  10. Wide-Angle Multistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar: Focused Image Formation and Aliasing Artifact Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luminati, Jonathan E

    2005-01-01

    ...) imagery from a Radar Cross Section (RCS) chamber validates this approach. The second implementation problem stems from the large Doppler spread in the wide-angle scene, leading to severe aliasing problems...

  11. Extending the Utility of the Parabolic Approximation in Medical Ultrasound Using Wide-Angle Diffraction Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E

    2017-04-01

    Wide-angle parabolic models are commonly used in geophysics and underwater acoustics but have seen little application in medical ultrasound. Here, a wide-angle model for continuous-wave high-intensity ultrasound beams is derived, which approximates the diffraction process more accurately than the commonly used Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation without increasing implementation complexity or computing time. A method for preventing the high spatial frequencies often present in source boundary conditions from corrupting the solution is presented. Simulations of shallowly focused axisymmetric beams using both the wide-angle and standard parabolic models are compared to assess the accuracy with which they model diffraction effects. The wide-angle model proposed here offers improved focusing accuracy and less error throughout the computational domain than the standard parabolic model, offering a facile method for extending the utility of existing KZK codes.

  12. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Zhang Jiasheng; Huang Jianjun; Sun Jianfeng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  13. Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifat, Yuval; Eitan, Michal; Iluz, Zeev; Hanein, Yael; Boag, Amir; Scheuer, Jacob

    2014-05-14

    We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband, and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nanoantenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on the reflected light. High-fidelity images were projected at angles of 45 and 20° with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40-50% over an optical bandwidth exceeding 180 nm. Excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions was found at a wide spectral range. The demonstration of such reflectarrays opens new avenues toward expanding the limits of large-angle holography.

  14. Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atom by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ito, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Incident angle dependence of reactions between graphene and hydrogen atoms are obtained qualitatively by classical molecular dynamics simulation under the NVE condition with modified Brenner reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential. Chemical reaction depends on two parameters, i.e., polar angle θ and azimuthal angle φ of the incident hydrogen. From the simulation results, it is found that the reaction rates strongly depend on polar angle θ. Reflection rate becomes larger with increasing θ, and the θ dependence of adsorption rate is also found. The θ dependence is caused by three dimensional structure of the small potential barrier which covers adsorption sites. φ dependence of penetration rate is also found for large θ. (author)

  15. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6–11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm −2 . Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference. (paper)

  16. Recent advancements of wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He neutron spin filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.C.; Gentile, T.R.; Ye, Q.; Kirchhoff, A.; Watson, S.M.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J.A.; Qiu, Y.; Broholm, C.

    2016-01-01

    Wide-angle polarization analysis with polarized 3 He based neutron spin filters (NSFs) has recently been employed on the Multi-Axis Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Over the past several years, the apparatus has undergone many upgrades to address the fundamental requirements for wide angle polarization analysis using spin exchange optical pumping based 3 He NSFs. In this paper, we report substantial improvements in the on-beam-line performance of the apparatus and progress toward routine user capability. We discuss new standard samples used for 3 He NSF characterization and the flipping ratio measurement on MACS. We further discuss the management of stray magnetic fields produced by operation of superconducting magnets on the MACS instrument, which can significantly reduce the 3 He polarization relaxation time. Finally, we present the results of recent development of horseshoe-shaped wide angle cells. (paper)

  17. Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation method based on an alternating direction implicit preconditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Siu Lit; Lu, Ya Yan

    2004-03-01

    Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation methods (BPMs) for three-dimensional wave-guiding structures can be derived on the basis of rational approximants of a square root operator or its exponential (i.e., the one-way propagator). While the less accurate BPM based on the slowly varying envelope approximation can be efficiently solved by the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method, the wide-angle variants involve linear systems that are more difficult to handle. We present an efficient solver for these linear systems that is based on a Krylov subspace method with an ADI preconditioner. The resulting wide-angle full-vector BPM is used to simulate the propagation of wave fields in a Y branch and a taper.

  18. The Zeldovich approximation and wide-angle redshift-space distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Emanuele; White, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The contribution of line-of-sight peculiar velocities to the observed redshift of objects breaks the translational symmetry of the underlying theory, modifying the predicted 2-point functions. These `wide angle effects' have mostly been studied using linear perturbation theory in the context of the multipoles of the correlation function and power spectrum . In this work we present the first calculation of wide angle terms in the Zeldovich approximation, which is known to be more accurate than linear theory on scales probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys. We present the exact result for dark matter and perturbatively biased tracers as well as the small angle expansion of the configuration- and Fourier-space two-point functions and the connection to the multi-frequency angular power spectrum. We compare different definitions of the line-of-sight direction and discuss how to translate between them. We show that wide angle terms can reach tens of percent of the total signal in a measurement at low redshift in some approximations, and that a generic feature of wide angle effects is to slightly shift the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation scale.

  19. Reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using common-thickness silicon subwavelength gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Toshikazu; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-20

    We fabricated reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using silicon two-dimensional subwavelength gratings on the same quartz substrate. The grating periods were 400, 340, and 300 nm for red, green, and blue filters, respectively. All of the color filters had the same grating thickness of 100 nm, which enabled simple fabrication of a color filter array. Reflected colors from the red, green, and blue filters under s-polarized white-light irradiation appeared in the respective colors at incident angles from 0 to 50°. By rigorous coupled-wave analysis, the dimensions of each color filter were designed, and the calculated reflectivity was compared with the measured reflectivity.

  20. Absorptivity modulation on wavy molten steel surfaces: The influence of laser wavelength and angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of the angle-dependent Fresnel absorptivity across wavy molten steel surfaces during laser materials processing, like drilling, cutting, or welding, has been calculated. The absorptivity is strongly altered by the grazing angle of incidence of the laser beam on the processing front. Owing to its specific Brewster-peak characteristics, the 10.64 μm wavelength CO 2 -laser shows an opposite trend with respect to roughness and angle-of-incidence compared to lasers in the wavelength range of 532-1070 nm. Plateaus or rings of Brewster-peak absorptivity can lead to hot spots on a wavy surface, often in close proximity to cold spots caused by shadow domains.

  1. The change in color matches with retinal angle of incidence of the colorimeter beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, M; Kitahara, H; Fielder, G H

    1987-01-01

    Differences between W.D.W. chromaticities of monochromatic lights obtained with all colorimeter beams incident on the retina "off-axis" and those found for lights striking the retina normally have been studied throughout the visible spectrum on 4 normal trichromats. The results are inconsistent with: (i) the assumption in Weale's theories of the Stiles-Crawford hue shift that the sets of absorption spectra of the visual pigments catching normally and obliquely incident photons are identical, and (ii) "self-screening" explanations for the change in color with angle of incidence on the retina. The color matching functions of a protanomalous trichromat are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the absorption spectra of the visual pigments catching normally incident photons in his retina are those catching obliquely incident photons in the normal retina.

  2. Stratigraphic imaging of sub-basalt sediments using waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.; Gao, F.; Pratt, G.; Zelt, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    The oil industry is interested in imaging the fine structures of sedimentary formations masked below basalt flows for commercial exploration of hydrocarbons. Seismic exploration of sediments hidden below high-velocity basalt cover is a difficult problem because near-vertical reflection data are contaminated with multiples, converted waves and scattering noise generated by interbeds, breccia and vesicles within the basalt. The noise becomes less prominent as the source-receiver offset increases, and the signals carrying sub-surface information stand out at the wide-angle range. The tomography of first arrival traveltime data can provide little information about the underlying low-velocity sediments. Traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data including both first arrivals and identifiable wide-angle reflected phases has been an important tool in the delineation of the large-scale velocity structure of sub-basalt sediments, although it lacks the small-scale velocity details. Here we apply 2-D full-waveform inversion ("waveform tomography") to wide-angle seismic data with a view to extracting the small-scale stratigraphic features of sedimentary formations. Results from both synthetic data, generated for a realistic earth model, and field dataset from the basalt covered Saurashtra peninsula, India, will be presented. This approach has potential to delineate thin sedimentary layers hidden below thick basalt cover also, and may serve as a powerful tool to image sedimentary basins, where they are covered by high-velocity materials like basalts, salts, carbonates, etc. in various parts of the world.

  3. Difference structures from time-resolved small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Prakash; Saldin, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering/wide-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) is capable of recovering difference structures directly from difference SAXS/WAXS curves. It does so by means of the theory described here because the structural changes in pump-probe detection in a typical time-resolved experiment are generally small enough to be confined to a single residue or group in close proximity which is identified by a method akin to the difference Fourier method of time-resolved crystallography. If it is assumed, as is usual with time-resolved structures, that the moved atoms lie within the residue, the 100-fold reduction in the search space (assuming a typical protein has about 100 residues) allows the exaction of the structure by a simulated annealing algorithm with a huge reduction in computing time and leads to a greater resolution by varying the positions of atoms only within that residue. This reduction in the number of potential moved atoms allows us to identify the actual motions of the individual atoms. In the case of a crystal, time-resolved calculations are normally performed using the difference Fourier method, which is, of course, not directly applicable to SAXS/WAXS. The method developed in this paper may be thought of as a substitute for that method which allows SAXS/WAXS (and hence disordered molecules) to also be used for time-resolved structural work.

  4. Wide-azimuth angle-domain imaging for anisotropic reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul C.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Extended common-image-point gathers (CIP) constructed by wide-azimuth TI wave-equation migration contain all the necessary information for angle decomposition as a function of the reflection and azimuth angles at selected locations in the subsurface. The reflection and azimuth angles are derived from the extended images using analytic relations between the space-lag and time-lag extensions. This post-imaging decomposition requires only information which is already available at the time of migration, i.e. the model parameters and the tilt angles of the TI medium. The transformation amounts to a linear Radon transform applied to the CIPs obtained after the application of the extended imaging condition. If information about the reflector dip is available at the CIP locations, then only two components of the space-lag vectors are required, thus reducing computational cost and increasing the affordability of the method. This efficient angle decomposition method is suitable for wide-azimuth imaging in anisotropic media with arbitrary orientation of the symmetry plane. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Nondestructive hydrogen analysis of steam-oxidized Zircaloy-4 by wide-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Garrison, Ben; Smith, Tyler; Kim, Peter

    2018-04-01

    A nondestructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the hydrogen content in high-temperature steam-oxidized Zircaloy-4 cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding was used to produce hydrided specimens with hydrogen content up to ≈500 wppm. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentrations were selected for the neutron study. The hydrided samples were then oxidized in steam up to ≈6.0 wt. % at 1100 °C. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall thickness, and uniform oxide layers were formed on the sample surfaces by the steam oxidation. Small- and wide-angle neutron scattering were simultaneously performed to provide a quick (less than an hour per sample) measurement of the hydrogen content in various types of hydrided and oxidized Zircaloy-4. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in pre-oxidized Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately by both small- and wide-angle neutron scattering. For steam-oxidized samples, the small-angle neutron scattering is contaminated with coherent scattering from additional structural features induced by the steam oxidation. However, the scattering intensity of the wide-angle neutron scattering increases proportionally with the hydrogen charged in the samples. The hydrogen content and wide-angle neutron scattering intensity are highly linearly correlated for the oxidized cladding samples examined in this work, and can be used to precisely determine the hydrogen content in steam-oxidized Zircaloy-4 samples. Hydrogen contents determined by neutron scattering of oxidation samples were also found to be consistent with the results of chemical analysis within acceptable margins for error.

  6. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  7. Arrival time and incidence angle distributions of extensive air showers (EAS) muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Duma, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Foeller, M.; Rebel, H.; Voelker, G.; Chilingarian, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of the muons can be related to the longitudinal EAS development and may provide additional information about the nature of the primary. Based on EAS simulations using the Monte-Carlo code CORSIKA, the correlations between arrival time and incidence angle distributions have been investigated in a case of a set of ideal detectors (10 m x 10 m) placed at various distances from the shower core. Applying advanced statistical techniques based on Bayes decision rule and non-parametric multivariate analysing methods it turns out that the correlations of muon arrival time and incidence angle at various separating distances of about 50 m exhibit promising features for mass discrimination (author)

  8. Linear systems formulation of scattering theory for rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak

    2011-06-01

    Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.

  9. Polarimetric Scattering Properties of Landslides in Forested Areas and the Dependence on the Local Incidence Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shibayama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the local incidence angle dependence of several polarimetric indices corresponding to landslides in forested areas. Landslide is deeply related to the loss of human lives and their property. Various kinds of remote sensing techniques, including aerial photography, high-resolution optical satellite imagery, LiDAR and SAR interferometry (InSAR, have been available for landslide investigations. SAR polarimetry is potentially an effective measure to investigate landslides because fully-polarimetric SAR (PolSAR data contain more information compared to conventional single- or dual-polarization SAR data. However, research on landslide recognition utilizing polarimetric SAR (PolSAR is quite limited. Polarimetric properties of landslides have not been examined quantitatively so far. Accordingly, we examined the polarimetric scattering properties of landslides by an assessment of how the decomposed scattering power components and the polarimetric correlation coefficient change with the local incidence angle. In the assessment, PolSAR data acquired from different directions with both spaceborne and airborne SARs were utilized. It was found that the surface scattering power and the polarimetric correlation coefficient of landslides significantly decrease with the local incidence angle, while these indices of surrounding forest do not. This fact leads to establishing a method of effective detection of landslide area by polarimetric information.

  10. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  11. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  12. Specular reflectance of soiled glass mirrors - Study on the impact of incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, Anna; Lindner, Philip; Klimm, Elisabeth; Schmid, Tobias; Moreno, Karolina Ordonez; Elon, Yehonatan; Am-Shallem, Morag; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of dust and soil on the surface of solar reflectors is an important factor reducing the power output of solar power plants. Therefore the effect of accumulated dust on the specular reflectance of solar mirrors should be understood well in order to improve the site-dependent performance prediction. Furthermore, an optimization of the CSP System maintenance, in particular the cleaning cycles, can be achieved. Our measurements show a noticeable decrease of specular reflectance when the angle of incidence is increased. This effect may be explained by shading and blocking mechanisms caused by dirt particles. The main physical causes of radiation loss being absorption and scattering, the near-angle scattering leads to a further decrease of specular reflectance for smaller angles of acceptance. Within this study mirror samples were both outdoor exposed and indoor artificially soiled. For indoor soiling, the mirror samples were artificially soiled in an in-house developed dusting device using both artificial-standardized dust and real dust collected from an arid outdoor test field at the Negev desert. A model function is proposed that approximates the observed reduction of specular reflectance with the incidence angle with a sufficient accuracy and by simple means for this soil type. Hence a first step towards a new approach to improve site dependent performance prediction of solar power plants is taken.

  13. Wide-azimuth angle gathers for anisotropic wave-equation migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul C.

    2012-10-15

    Extended common-image-point gathers (CIP) constructed by wide-azimuth TI wave-equation migration contain all the necessary information for angle decomposition as a function of the reflection and azimuth angles at selected locations in the subsurface. The aperture and azimuth angles are derived from the extended images using analytic relations between the space- and time-lag extensions using information which is already available at the time of migration, i.e. the anisotropic model parameters. CIPs are cheap to compute because they can be distributed in the image at the most relevant positions, as indicated by the geologic structure. If the reflector dip is known at the CIP locations, then the computational cost can be reduced by evaluating only two components of the space-lag vector. The transformation from extended images to angle gathers is a planar Radon transform which depends on the local medium parameters. This transformation allows us to separate all illumination directions for a given experiment, or between different experiments. We do not need to decompose the reconstructed wavefields or to choose the most energetic directions for decomposition. Applications of the method include illumination studies in complex areas where ray-based methods fail, and assuming that the subsurface illumination is sufficiently dense, the study of amplitude variation with aperture and azimuth angles. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. Wide-azimuth angle gathers for anisotropic wave-equation migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul C.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Extended common-image-point gathers (CIP) constructed by wide-azimuth TI wave-equation migration contain all the necessary information for angle decomposition as a function of the reflection and azimuth angles at selected locations in the subsurface. The aperture and azimuth angles are derived from the extended images using analytic relations between the space- and time-lag extensions using information which is already available at the time of migration, i.e. the anisotropic model parameters. CIPs are cheap to compute because they can be distributed in the image at the most relevant positions, as indicated by the geologic structure. If the reflector dip is known at the CIP locations, then the computational cost can be reduced by evaluating only two components of the space-lag vector. The transformation from extended images to angle gathers is a planar Radon transform which depends on the local medium parameters. This transformation allows us to separate all illumination directions for a given experiment, or between different experiments. We do not need to decompose the reconstructed wavefields or to choose the most energetic directions for decomposition. Applications of the method include illumination studies in complex areas where ray-based methods fail, and assuming that the subsurface illumination is sufficiently dense, the study of amplitude variation with aperture and azimuth angles. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. Dependence of the solar absorptance of selective absorber coatings on the angle of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, K A

    1977-01-01

    The directional solar absorptances ..cap alpha../sub s/(theta) of samples of a number of selective absorber coatings have been determined. The spectral directional hemispherical reflectances plambda(theta;2..pi..) of each sample was measured over the wavelength range 0.3..mu.. to 2.5..mu.. at angles of incidence theta between 10/sup 0/ and 80/sup 0/. The quantity (1-plambda(theta;2..pi..)) was convoluted over an AM2 solar spectrum to obtain ..cap alpha../sub s/(theta) at each angle of incidence. The solar absorptance at near normal incidence varied from sample to sample and from coating to coating, as expected, given the present state of the art. All the absorptances show similar angular dependences, however. When normalized to unity at normal incidence, the data nearly describe a single curve, for which a power series in theta was found. For comparison, the solar absorptance was also determined for freshly prepared lamp black.

  16. Random Combinatorial Gradient Metasurface for Broadband, Wide-Angle and Polarization-Independent Diffusion Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yaqiang; Wang, Guangming; Liang, Jiangang; Cai, Tong; Tang, Xiao-Lan; Guo, Tongfeng; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2017-11-29

    This paper proposes an easy, efficient strategy for designing broadband, wide-angle and polarization-independent diffusion metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction. A dual-resonance unit cell, composed of a cross wire and cross loop (CWCL), is employed to enhance the phase bandwidth covering the 2π range. Both oblique-gradient and horizontal-gradient phase supercells are designed for illustration. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical ones. To significantly reduce backward scattering, the random combinatorial gradient metasurface (RCGM) is subsequently constructed by collecting eight supercells with randomly distributed gradient directions. The proposed metasurface features an enhanced specular RCS reduction performance and less design complexity compared to other candidates. Both simulated and measured results show that the proposed RCGM can significantly suppress RCS and exhibits broadband, wide-angle and polarization independence features.

  17. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Mannino, Antonio; Marx, Catherine Trout; Bowers, Gregory A.; Bolognese, Jeffrey A.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; McBirney, Thomas R.; Earle, Cleland P.; Choi, Michael K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The GeoCAPE Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS) Study was a revisit of the COEDI Study from 2012. The customer primary goals were to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Riding on a commercial GEO satellite minimizes total mission costs. For this study, it is desired to increase the coverage rate,km2min, while maintaining ground sample size, 375m, and spectral resolution, 0.4-0.5nm native resolution. To be able to do this, the IFOV was significantly increased, hence the wide angle moniker. The field of view for COEDI was +0.6 degrees or (2048) 375m ground pixels. The WAS Threshold (the IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees.

  18. A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Algorithms for effective modeling of optical propagation in three- dimensional waveguide structures are critical for the design of photonic devices. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme. A sparse matrix algebraic equation is formed and solved using iterative methods. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation, along with a technique for shifting the simulation window to reduce the dimension of the numerical equation and a threshold technique to further ensure its convergence. These techniques can ensure the implementation of iterative methods for waveguide structures by relaxing the convergence problem, which will further enable us to develop higher-order 3-D WA-BPMs based on Padé approximant operators.

  19. Rotation Estimation for Wide-Angle Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To present focused ISAR imaging results in the homogenous range and cross-range domain, an integrated scheme is proposed to estimate both the targets equivalent rotational velocity (RV and rotational center (RC. The RV estimation is improved by radial projection combined with keystone processing, and then the RC is estimated through image entropy minimization. Finally, delicate imaging results may be obtained for wide-angle scenarios. Experiment results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  1. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Su; Deng, Yanqing; Ge, Xulei; Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  2. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Su [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng, Yanqing [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ge, Xulei [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhao, Li [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ma, Yanyun [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); and others

    2017-07-11

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  3. Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kita M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mihori Kita, Yuki Mori, Sachiyo Hama Department of Ophthalmology, National Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To introduce a hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy, which we have reported, using a 3D visualization system developed recently. Subjects and methods: We report a single center, retrospective, consecutive surgical case series of 113 eyes that underwent 25 G vitrectomy (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 49 eyes; epiretinal membrane, 18 eyes; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 17 eyes; vitreous opacity or vitreous hemorrhage, 11 eyes; macular hole, 11 eyes; vitreomacular traction syndrome, 4 eyes; and luxation of intraocular lens, 3 eyes. Results: This system was successfully used to perform hybrid vitrectomy in the difficult cases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system appears to be a valuable and promising method for managing various types of vitreoretinal disease. Keywords: 25 G vitrectomy, endoscope, wide-angle viewing system, 3D visualization system, hybrid

  4. Detection of Clinically Significant Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Wide-angle Digital Retinal Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F.; Melia, Michele; Buffenn, Angela N.; Lambert, Scott R.; Recchia, Franco M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.; Yang, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of detecting clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using wide-angle digital retinal photography. Methods Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted last on December 7, 2010, and yielded 414 unique citations. The authors assessed these 414 citations and marked 82 that potentially met the inclusion criteria. These 82 studies were reviewed in full text; 28 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors extracted from these studies information about study design, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. After data abstraction, 18 were excluded for study deficiencies or because they were superseded by a more recent publication. The methodologist reviewed the remaining 10 studies and assigned ratings of evidence quality; 7 studies were rated level I evidence and 3 studies were rated level III evidence. Results There is level I evidence from ≥5 studies demonstrating that digital retinal photography has high accuracy for detection of clinically significant ROP. Level III studies have reported high accuracy, without any detectable complications, from real-world operational programs intended to detect clinically significant ROP through remote site interpretation of wide-angle retinal photographs. Conclusions Wide-angle digital retinal photography has the potential to complement standard ROP care. It may provide advantages through objective documentation of clinical examination findings, improved recognition of disease progression by comparing previous photographs, and the creation of image libraries for education and research. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:22541632

  5. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif; Sharawi, Mohammad Said

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  6. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  7. The influence of incident beam's angle offset of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on the spectrum measurement explored with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenhao; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the incident angle offset on FT-IR spectra are investigated in this paper. The simulated FT-IR spectra are obtained by Fourier inverse transform. The results show that this frequency shift varies with the angle offset of the incident beam in FT-IR. As an example,the factors that affect the angle of incident IR light at SSRF are analyzed. According to performance specifications of the IR beamline, requirements of the optical component installation precision and position drift of the light source are given. (authors)

  8. Dependence of ion-electron emission from clean metals on the incidence angle of the projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the dependence of electron yields γ from clean Cu and Au surfaces on the incidence angle theta of 5--50-keV He + , Ar + , and Xe + projectiles, in the angular range 0--80 0 , and under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. We have found that, at small angles, γproportionalsec/sup f/theta, with f generally different from unity. For Xe + on Cu, γ(theta) presents an energy-dependence maximum, similar to that obtained for sputtering. The results are explained in terms of the anisotropy of the electron cascade in the solid, the depth distribution of the inelastic energy deposited by the projectile and by rapidly recoiling target atoms in the near-surface region of the solid

  9. Dependence of ion-electron emission from clean metals on the incidence angle of the projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron, J.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1981-10-15

    We have studied the dependence of electron yields ..gamma.. from clean Cu and Au surfaces on the incidence angle theta of 5--50-keV He/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ projectiles, in the angular range 0--80 /sup 0/, and under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. We have found that, at small angles, ..gamma..proportionalsec/sup f/theta, with f generally different from unity. For Xe/sup +/ on Cu, ..gamma..(theta) presents an energy-dependence maximum, similar to that obtained for sputtering. The results are explained in terms of the anisotropy of the electron cascade in the solid, the depth distribution of the inelastic energy deposited by the projectile and by rapidly recoiling target atoms in the near-surface region of the solid.

  10. Reflection and self-sputtering of nickel at oblique angles of ion incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechtl, E.; Eckstein, W.; Roth, J.

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the erosion yield of a target under ion bombardment using the weight change determines the sum of the sputtering yield and the particle reflection coefficient. The different erosion behavior of a volatile (Kr) and a nonvolatile projectile (Ni) are investigated on a nickel target in the energy range from 60 eV to 10 keV at an incidence angle of 75 . The angular dependence of the erosion yield is studied for 100, 500, and 2500 eV. In comparison with Monte Carlo calculations using the TRIM.SP program it is shown that at low energies ( 1 keV). (orig.)

  11. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  12. Incident-angle dependency found in track formation sensitivity of a plastic nuclear track detector (TD-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The present study was done since data are hardly available on the incident-angle dependency of track formation sensitivity (S) of the plastic nuclear track detector. Chips of a TD-1 plate, an antioxidant-doped CR-39 (diethyleglycol-bis-allylcarbonate, HARZLAS, Fukuvi Chem. Ind.), were used as a high-LET radiation detector and were exposed to heavy ion beams of C, Ne, and Si under different incident angles in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba of National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After exposed and etched, the chips were observed with an optical microscope and a program for image analysis to calculate S. The S values calculated were found smaller for the beams having lower incident angles. Thus the estimated LET values from the S-LET relationship for vertical incident beams showed large reduction for low-angle particles. Those potential errors should be quantified and corrected in determination of LET spectra in space. (K.H.)

  13. Concept development for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Beaumont, B.; Boilson, D.; Bouhamou, R.; Direz, M.-F.; Encheva, A.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, Ph.; Lisgo, S.; Mitteau, R.; Patel, K. M.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R. A.; Prakash, A.; Raffray, R.; Schunke, B.; Snipes, J.; Diaz, A. Suarez; Udintsev, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    The ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system concept is developed from the measurement requirements. The proposed solution situates 4 viewing systems in the equatorial ports 3, 9, 12, and 17 with 4 views each (looking at the upper target, the inner divertor, and tangentially left and right). This gives sufficient coverage. The spatial resolution of the divertor system is 2 times higher than the other views. For compensation of vacuum-vessel movements, an optical hinge concept is proposed. Compactness and low neutron streaming is achieved by orienting port plug doglegs horizontally. Calibration methods, risks, and R and D topics are outlined.

  14. Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

  15. Wide-angle X-ray scattering study of heat-treated PEEK and PEEK composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Samples of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) neat resin and APC-2 carbon fiber composite were subjected to various heat treatments, and the effect of quenching and annealing treatments was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that high-temperature treatments may introduce disorder into neat resin and composite PEEK when followed by rapid cooling. The disorder is metastable and can revert to ordered state when the material is heated above its glass transition temperature and then cooled slowly. The disorder may result from residual thermal stresses.

  16. Flow structure in the downstream of a square cylinder with different angles of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jamshidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons between flow fields for turbulent flow over square cylinder with two different angles of incidence in free stream at Reynolds number of Re = 3400. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves governing equations. The pressure field was obtained with well known SIMPLE algorithm. The central difference scheme was employed for the discretization of convection and diffusion terms. The ν2 f and standard k - ε model were used for simulation of turbulent flow. Time averaged velocity, root mean square velocities and streamlines in the downstream of square cylinders are presented. A number of quantities such as Strouhal number, drag coefficient and the length of the wake are calculated for the case of angle of incidence α = 0°, 45° with two turbulent models. Strouhal number and the length of the wake are larger for the case of α = 45° because of the sharp corners in it which results in more diffusion of turbulence in the downstream of the cylinder. On the other hand, with comparison of results obtained by ν2 f and standard k - ε models with experiment, it is obvious that ν2 f leads to much more accurate results.

  17. Oil Slick Observation at Low Incidence Angles in Ku-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, M. A.; Karaev, V. Y.; Guo, Jie

    2018-03-01

    On the 20 April 2010 the oil platform Deep Water Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico suffered an explosion during the final phases of drilling an exploratory well. As a result, an oil film covered the sea surface area of several thousand square kilometers. In the present paper the data of the Ku-band Precipitation Radar, which operates at low incidence angles, were used to explore the oil spill event. The two-scale model of the scattering surface was used to describe radar backscatter from the sea surface. The algorithm for retrieval of normalized radar cross section at nadir and the total slope variance of large-scale waves compared to the wavelength of electromagnetic wave (22 mm) was developed for the Precipitation Radar swath. It is shown that measurements at low incidence angles can be used for oil spill detection. This is the first time that the dependence of mean square slope of large-scale waves on wind speed has been obtained for oil slicks from Ku-band data, and compared to mean square slope obtained by Cox and Munk from optical data.

  18. Wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles: Impact of aspect ratio, incident angle, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2018-03-01

    The so-called wake-moment coefficient C˜h and lateral wake deflection of three-dimensional windbreaks are explored in the near and far wake. Wind-tunnel experiments were performed to study the functional dependence of C˜h with windbreak aspect ratio, incidence angle, and the ratio of the windbreak height and surface roughness (h /z0 ). Supported with the data, we also propose basic models for the wake deflection of the windbreak in the near and far fields. The near-wake model is based on momentum conservation considering the drag on the windbreak, whereas the far-wake counterpart is based on existing models for wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles. Results show that C˜h does not change with windbreak aspect ratios of 10 or greater; however, it may be lower for an aspect ratio of 5. C˜h is found to change roughly with the cosine of the incidence angle, and to depend strongly on h /z0 . The data broadly support the proposed wake-deflection models, though better predictions could be made with improved knowledge of the windbreak drag coefficient.

  19. Influence of crack opening and incident wave angle on second harmonic generation of Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    Techniques utilising second harmonic generation (SHG) have proven their great potential in detecting contact-type damage. However, the gap between the practical applications and laboratory studies is still quite large. The current work is aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of the applied load and incident wave angle on the detectability of fatigue cracks at various lengths. Both effects are critical for practical implementations of these techniques. The present experimental study supported by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modelling has demonstrated that the applied load, which changes the crack opening and, subsequently, the contact nonlinearity, significantly affects the amplitude of the second harmonic generated by the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave. This amplitude is also dependent on the length of the fatigue crack as well as the incident wave angle. The experimental and FE results correlate well, so the modelling approach can be implemented for practical design of damage monitoring systems as well as for the evaluation of the severity of the fatigue cracks.

  20. A method of incident angle estimation for high resolution spectral recovery in filter-array-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolsun; Lee, Woong-Bi; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seongmin; Oh, Jinkyung; Lim, Dongsung; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in miniature spectrometers for research and development. Especially, filter-array-based spectrometers have advantages of low cost and portability, and can be applied in various fields such as biology, chemistry and food industry. Miniaturization in optical filters causes degradation of spectral resolution due to limitations on spectral responses and the number of filters. Nowadays, many studies have been reported that the filter-array-based spectrometers have achieved resolution improvements by using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. The performance of the DSP-based spectral recovery highly depends on the prior information of transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. The TFs vary with respect to an incident angle of light onto the filter-array. Conventionally, it is assumed that the incident angle of light on the filters is fixed and the TFs are known to the DSP. However, the incident angle is inconstant according to various environments and applications, and thus TFs also vary, which leads to performance degradation of spectral recovery. In this paper, we propose a method of incident angle estimation (IAE) for high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers. By exploiting sparse signal reconstruction of the L1- norm minimization, IAE estimates an incident angle among all possible incident angles which minimizes the error of the reconstructed signal. Based on IAE, DSP effectively provides a high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers.

  1. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  2. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  3. Investigation of photon detection probability dependence of SPADnet-I digital photon counter as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Játékos, Balázs, E-mail: jatekosb@eik.bme.hu; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Lőrincz, Emőke; Erdei, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    SPADnet-I is a prototype, fully digital, high spatial and temporal resolution silicon photon counter, based on standard CMOS imaging technology, developed by the SPADnet consortium. Being a novel device, the exact dependence of photon detection probability (PDP) of SPADnet-I was not known as a function of angle of incidence, wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Our targeted application area of this sensor is next generation PET detector modules, where they will be used along with LYSO:Ce scintillators. Hence, we performed an extended investigation of PDP in a wide range of angle of incidence (0° to 80°), concentrating onto a 60 nm broad wavelength interval around the characteristic emission peak (λ=420 nm) of the scintillator. In the case where the sensor was optically coupled to a scintillator, our experiments showed a notable dependence of PDP on angle, polarization and wavelength. The sensor has an average PDP of approximately 30% from 0° to 60° angle of incidence, where it starts to drop rapidly. The PDP turned out not to be polarization dependent below 30°. If the sensor is used without a scintillator (i.e. the light source is in air), the polarization dependence is much less expressed, it begins only from 50°.

  4. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular surface disease (OSD is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride - BAK, which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Objective. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Methods. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Results. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. Conclusion. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  5. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Marija; Stanković-Babić, Gordana; Jovanović, Predrag; Djordjević-Jocić, Jasmina; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Ocular surface disease (OSD) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren) and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic) form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride – BAK), which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma). Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  6. A wide angle view imaging diagnostic with all reflective, in-vessel optics at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, M. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garcia-Sanchez, P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Patel, K. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sergienko, G. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Soler, D. [Winlight System, 135 rue Benjamin Franklin, ZA Saint Martin, F-84120 Pertuis (France); Stamp, M.F.; Williams, J.; Zastrow, K.-D. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A new wide angle view camera system has been installed at JET. ► The system helps to protect the ITER-like wall plasma facing components from damage. ► The coverage of the vessel by camera observation systems was increased. ► The system comprises an in-vessel part with parabolic and flat mirrors. ► The required image quality for plasma monitoring and wall protection was delivered. -- Abstract: A new wide angle view camera system has been installed at JET in preparation for the ITER-like wall campaigns. It considerably increases the coverage of the vessel by camera observation systems and thereby helps to protect the – compared to carbon – more fragile plasma facing components from damage. The system comprises an in-vessel part with parabolic and flat mirrors and an ex-vessel part with beam splitters, lenses and cameras. The system delivered the image quality required for plasma monitoring and wall protection.

  7. Investigations of time resolved x-ray wide-angle scattering and x-ray small-angle scattering at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.G.; Gehrke, R.; Prieske, W.; Riekel, C.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumentation is described for the simultaneous wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scattering. The method was applied to the study of the isothermal crystallization of polyethylene terephthalates. In agreement with the classical theories of crystallization, the data showed that the density difference between the crystals and the non-crystalline regions does not change with time. The mechanisms of melting, recrystallization, and crystal thickening were investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering with stepwise changes and continuous changes of temperature using polyethylene terephthalate

  8. AIRBORNE X-HH INCIDENCE ANGLE IMPACT ON CANOPY HEIGHT RETREIVAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPACEBORNE X-HH TANDEM-X GLOBAL CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Tighe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To support international climate change mitigation efforts, the United Nations REDD+ initiative (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation seeks to reduce land use induced greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It requires independent monitoring of forest cover and forest biomass information in a spatially explicit form. It is widely recognised that remote sensing is required to deliver this information. Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR techniques have gained traction in the last decade as a viable technology from which vegetation canopy height and bare earth elevations can be derived. The viewing geometry of a SAR sensor is side-looking where the radar pulse is transmitted out to one side of the aircraft or satellite, defining an incidence angle (θ range. The incidence angle will change from near-range (NR to far-range (FR across of the track of the SAR platform. InSAR uses image pairs and thus, contain two set of incidence angles. Changes in the InSAR incidence angles can alter the relative contributions from the vegetation canopy and the ground surface and thus, affect the retrieved vegetation canopy height. Incidence angle change is less pronounced in spaceborne data than in airborne data and mitigated somewhat when multiple InSAR-data takes are combined. This study uses NEXTMap® single- and multi-pass X-band HH polarized InSAR to derive vegetation canopy height from the scattering phase centre height (hspc. Comparisons with in situ vegetation canopy height over three test sites (Arizona-1, Minnesota-2; the effect of incidence angle changes across swath on the X-HH InSAR hspc was examined. Results indicate at steep incidence angles (θ = 35º, more exposure of lower vegetation canopy structure (e.g. tree trunks led to greater lower canopy double bounce, increased ground scattering, and decreased volume scattering. This resulted in a lower scattering phase centre height (hspc or a greater underestimation of

  9. Gracing incidence small angle neutron scattering of incommensurate magnetic structures in MnSi thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Birgit; Pfleiderer, Christian; Boeni, Peter [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zhang, Shilei; Hesjedal, Thorsten [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Khaydukov, Yury; Soltwedel, Olaf; Keller, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung (Germany); Max Planck Society, Outstation at FRM-II (Germany); Muehlbauer, Sebastian [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Chacon, Alfonso [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The topological stability of skyrmions in bulk samples of MnSi and the observation of spin transfer torque effects at ultra-low current densities have generated great interest in skyrmions in chiral magnets as a new route towards next generation spintronics devices. Yet, the formation of skyrmions in MBE grown thin films of MnSi reported in the literature is highly controversial. We report gracing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) of the magnetic order in selected thin films of MnSi grown by state of the art MBE techniques. In combination with polarised neutron reflectometry (PNR) and magnetisation measurements of the same samples our data provide direct reciprocal space information of the incommensurate magnetic order, clarifying the nature of magnetic phase diagram.

  10. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    for the highest frequencies are less than the sound insulation of the same window measured in the laboratory. The aim of this paper is through simulations in the geometric acoustic simulation software ODEON, to investigate the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of the Supply Air Window......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  11. Proteins on surfaces investigated by microbeam grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Vendrely, Charlotte [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, ERRMECE, F-95000, Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Grazing incidence small angle scattering with a 1 micron x-ray beam ({mu}GISAXS) is applied to study structural ordering of casein micelles and fibroin in solution cast films. {mu}GISAXS scans provide the possibility to locate highly ordered areas and to investigate variation in the molecular packing. In the case of the casein micelles, ordered film structures have been generated by decreasing their natural size dispersion. While dynamic light scattering was used to characterize the different size fractions in solution, {mu}GISAXS and roughness are measured on the resulting casein films. GISAXS-Patterns are analyzed by simulations providing the dimension and nearest neighbor distances of casein micelles. In the case of fibroin, ordering of nano-fibers formed during the drying process is investigated. The experimental data are analyzed by simulations and compared to SEM, AFM and Raman scattering experiments.

  12. The interdependence between the incidence angles associated with quasi-stable intersections during ion erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliu, F.; Frunza, S.

    1984-01-01

    A general discussion, which is valid for any angular dependence of sputtering yield S = S(theta), concerning the interdependence between the incidence angles thetasub(e) and theta 0 , associated with quasi-stable intersections during ion erosion, is given. The object was firstly to establish the location of thetasub(e) roots as a function of theta 0 and secondly to identify the stationary points and general trend for the complex dependence thetasub(e) = thetasub(e)(theta 0 ). The results obtained are applied to a quasi-stability analysis of some specific surface features during ion erosion. Various possible types of quasi-stable intersections (surface-surface, plane-surface, plane-plane) are reviewed from the point of view of their evolution caused by ion bombardment. (author)

  13. Tungsten self-sputtering yield with different incidence angles and target temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandourko, V.; Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Jimbou, R.

    1998-01-01

    The self-sputtering of different types of tungsten due to 1 keV W + bombardment at temperatures of 25 C and 600 C and incident angles in the range of 30-60 was studied by means of the weight loss method. The experimental data at room temperature agreed reasonably with the results of TRIM calculations. Enhanced self-sputtering yields due to beam-induced desorption of WO 2 were found at a temperature of 600 C. The weight loss of W-Cu composite is larger than that of the CVD-W and ps-W under the same irradiation conditions due to the selective removal of copper. (orig.)

  14. The effect of incidence angle on ion bombardment induced surface topography development on single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fluence dependence of development of microscopic surface features, particularly etch pits, during 9 keV Ar + ion bombardment of (11,3,1) oriented Cu single crystals has been studied employing quasi-dynamic irradiation and observation techniques in a scanning electron microscope-accelerator system. 9 keV ions are observed not to produce crystallographic pyramids under all irradiation conditions for this surface, a very different result from our earlier studies with higher energy ions. The bombardment does elaborate etch pits however, the habits and growth kinetics of which depend upon both polar and azimuthal angles of ion incidence to the surface. The results are explained in terms of differential erosion of crystal planes modified by the presence of pre-existing and irradiation induces extended defects. (orig.)

  15. Doppler Aliasing Reduction in Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Phase Modulated Random Stepped-Frequency Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyatt, Andrew W

    2006-01-01

    ...) waveforms in a Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar (WA-SAR) scenario. RSF waveforms have been demonstrated to have desirable properties which allow for cancelling of Doppler aliased scatterers in WA-SAR images...

  16. The GPD H and spin correlations in wide-angle Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, P. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Wide-angle Compton scattering (WACS) is discussed within the handbag approach in which the amplitudes are given by products of hard subprocess amplitudes and form factors, specific to Compton scattering, which represent 1/x-moments of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). The quality of our present knowledge of these form factors and of the underlying GPDs is examined. As will be discussed in some detail the form factor R{sub A} and the underlying GPD H are poorly known. It is argued that future data on the spin correlations A{sub LL} and/or K{sub LL} will allow for an extraction of R{sub A} which can be used to constrain the large -t behavior of H. (orig.)

  17. Efficient Terahertz Wide-Angle NUFFT-Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging Considering Spherical Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkun Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient wide-angle inverse synthetic aperture imaging method considering the spherical wavefront effects and suitable for the terahertz band is presented. Firstly, the echo signal model under spherical wave assumption is established, and the detailed wavefront curvature compensation method accelerated by 1D fast Fourier transform (FFT is discussed. Then, to speed up the reconstruction procedure, the fast Gaussian gridding (FGG-based nonuniform FFT (NUFFT is employed to focus the image. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are carried out and the results are compared with the ones obtained by the convolution back-projection (CBP algorithm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the presented method. This imaging method can be directly used in the field of nondestructive detection and can also be used to provide a solution for the calculation of the far-field RCSs (Radar Cross Section of targets in the terahertz regime.

  18. Automated grain mapping using wide angle convergent beam electron diffraction in transmission electron microscope for nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    The grain size statistics, commonly derived from the grain map of a material sample, are important microstructure characteristics that greatly influence its properties. The grain map for nanomaterials is usually obtained manually by visual inspection of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs because automated methods do not perform satisfactorily. While the visual inspection method provides reliable results, it is a labor intensive process and is often prone to human errors. In this article, an automated grain mapping method is developed using TEM diffraction patterns. The presented method uses wide angle convergent beam diffraction in the TEM. The automated technique was applied on a platinum thin film sample to obtain the grain map and subsequently derive grain size statistics from it. The grain size statistics obtained with the automated method were found in good agreement with the visual inspection method.

  19. Fabrication of multi-focal microlens array on curved surface for wide-angle camera module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-Gu; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-angle and compact camera module that consists of microlens array with different focal lengths on curved surface. The design integrates the principle of an insect's compound eye and the human eye. It contains a curved hexagonal microlens array and a spherical lens. Compared with normal mobile phone cameras which usually need no less than four lenses, but our proposed system only uses one lens. Furthermore, the thickness of our proposed system is only 2.08 mm and diagonal full field of view is about 100 degrees. In order to make the critical microlens array, we used the inkjet printing to control the surface shape of each microlens for achieving different focal lengths and use replication method to form curved hexagonal microlens array.

  20. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  1. Trans-palpebral illumination: an approach for wide-angle fundus photography without the need for pupil dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Toslak, Devrim; Thapa, Damber; Chen, Yanjun; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Paul Chan, R. V.; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-01-01

    It is technically difficult to construct wide-angle fundus imaging devices due to the complexity of conventional transpupillary illumination and imaging mechanisms. We report here a new method, i.e., trans-palpebral illumination, for wide-angle fundus photography without the need for pupil dilation. By constructing a smartphone-based prototype imaging device, we demonstrated a 152° view in a single-shot image. The unique combination of low-cost smartphone design and automatic illumination opt...

  2. Predictors of Intraocular Pressure After Phacoemulsification in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Eyes with Wide Versus Narrower Angles (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan C; Masis, Marisse; Porco, Travis C; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-08-01

    To assess if narrower-angle status and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters can predict intraocular pressure (IOP) drop in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients after cataract surgery. This was a prospective case series of consecutive cataract surgery patients with POAG and no peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) using a standardized postoperative management protocol. Preoperatively, patients underwent gonioscopy and AS-OCT. The same glaucoma medication regimen was resumed by 1 month. Potential predictors of IOP reduction included narrower-angle status by gonioscopy and angle-opening distance (AOD500) as well as other AS-OCT parameters. Mixed-effects regression adjusted for use of both eyes and other potential confounders. We enrolled 66 eyes of 40 glaucoma patients. The IOP reduction at 1 year was 4.2±3 mm Hg (26%, P gonioscopy. By AOD500 classification, the narrower-angle group had 3.4±3 mm Hg (21%, P <.001) reduction vs 2.5±3 mm Hg (16%, P <.001) in the wide-angle group ( P =.031 for difference). When the entire cohort was assessed, iris thickness, iris area, and lens vault were correlated with increasing IOP reduction at 1 year ( P <.05 for all). In POAG eyes, cataract surgery lowered IOP to a greater degree in the narrower-angle group than in the wide-angle group, and parameters relating to iris thickness and area, as well as lens vault, were correlated with IOP reduction. These findings can guide ophthalmologists in their selection of cataract surgery as a potential management option.

  3. Broadband and wide angle near-unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal thin film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    Broadband unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal (GIM) structures is demonstrated in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The spectral characteristics possess broadband absorption peaks, by simply choosing a stack of GIM, while no nanofabrication steps and patterning are required, and thus can be easily fabricated to cover a large area. The electromagnetic (EM) waves can be entirely trapped and the absorption can be greatly enhanced are verified with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The position and the number of the absorption peak can be totally controlled by adjusting the thickness of the insulator layer. The proposed absorber maintains high absorption (above 90%) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and for angles of incidence up to 80°. This work opens up a promising approach to realize perfect absorption (PA) with ultra-thin film, which could implicate many potential applications in optical detection and optoelectronic devices.

  4. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTREMELY WIDE-ANGLE BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN AFGL 5142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Chang-Won; Cho, Se-Hyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650091 (China); Mardones, Diego, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-06-10

    Most bipolar outflows are associated with individual young stellar objects and have small opening angles. Here we report the discovery of an extremely wide-angle (∼180°) bipolar outflow (“EWBO”) in a cluster forming region AFGL 5142 from low-velocity emission of the HCN (3–2) and HCO{sup +} (3–2) lines. This bipolar outflow is along a north-west to south-east direction with a line of sight flow velocity of about 3 km s{sup −1} and is spatially connected to the high-velocity jet-like outflows. It seems to be a collection of low-velocity material entrained by the high-velocity outflows due to momentum feedback. The total ejected mass and mass loss rate due to both high-velocity jet-like outflows and the “EWBO” are ∼24.5 M {sub ⊙} and ∼1.7 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively. Global collapse of the clump is revealed by the “blue profile” in the HCO{sup +} (1–0) line. A hierarchical network of filaments was identified in NH{sub 3} (1, 1) emission. Clear velocity gradients of the order of 10 km s{sup −1} pc{sup −1} are found along filaments, indicating gas inflow along the filaments. The sum of the accretion rate along filaments and mass infall rate along the line of sight is ∼3.1 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which exceeds the total mass loss rate, indicating that the central cluster is probably still gaining mass. The central cluster is highly fragmented and 22 condensations are identified in 1.1 mm continuum emission. The fragmentation process seems to be determined by thermal pressure and turbulence. The magnetic field may not play an important role in fragmentation.

  5. Accuracy and efficiency considerations for wide-angle wavefield extrapolators and scattering operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.

    2005-10-01

    Several observations are made concerning the numerical implementation of wide-angle one-way wave equations, using for illustration scalar waves obeying the Helmholtz equation in two space dimensions. This simple case permits clear identification of a sequence of physically motivated approximations of use when the mathematically exact pseudo-differential operator (PSDO) one-way method is applied. As intuition suggests, these approximations largely depend on the medium gradients in the direction transverse to the main propagation direction. A key point is that narrow-angle approximations are to be avoided in the interests of accuracy. Another key consideration stems from the fact that the so-called `standard-ordering' PSDO indicates how lateral interpolation of the velocity structure can significantly reduce computational costs associated with the Fourier or plane-wave synthesis lying at the heart of the calculations. A third important point is that the PSDO theory shows what approximations are necessary in order to generate an exponential one-way propagator for the laterally varying case, representing the intuitive extension of classical integral-transform solutions for a laterally homogeneous medium. This exponential propagator permits larger forward stepsizes. Numerical comparisons with Helmholtz (i.e. full) wave-equation finite-difference solutions are presented for various canonical problems. These include propagation along an interfacial gradient, the effects of a compact inclusion and the formation of extended transmitted and backscattered wave trains by model roughness. The ideas extend to the 3-D, generally anisotropic case and to multiple scattering by invariant embedding. It is concluded that the method is very competitive, striking a new balance between simplifying approximations and computational labour. Complicated wave-scattering effects are retained without the need for expensive global solutions, providing a robust and flexible modelling tool.

  6. Dispersion measurement on chirped mirrors at arbitrary incidence angle and polarization state (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Mate; Somoskoi, Tamas; Seres, Imre; Borzsonyi, Adam; Sipos, Aron; Osvay, Károly

    2017-05-01

    The optical elements of femtosecond high peak power lasers have to fulfill more and more strict requirements in order to support pulses with high intensity and broad spectrum. In most cases chirped pulse amplification scheme is used to generate high peak power ultrashort laser pulses, where a very precise control of spectral intensity and spectral phase is required in reaching transform-limited temporal shape at the output. In the case of few cycle regime, the conventional bulk glass, prism-, grating- and their combination based compressors are not sufficient anymore, due to undesirable nonlinear effects in their material and proneness to optical damages. The chirped mirrors are also commonly used to complete the compression after a beam transport system just before the target. Moreover, the manufacturing technology requires quality checks right after production and over the lifetime of the mirror as well, since undesired deposition on the surface can lead alteration from the designed value over a large part of the aperture. For the high harmonic generation, polarization gating technology is used to generate single attosecond pulses [1]. In this case the pulse to be compressed has various polarization state falling to the chirped mirrors. For this reason, it is crucial to measure the dispersion of the mirrors for the different polarization states. In this presentation we demonstrate a simple technique to measure the dispersion of arbitrary mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 55 degree, even for a 12" optics. A large aperture 4" mirror has been scanned over with micrometer accuracy and the dispersion property through the surface has been investigated with a stable interference fringes in that robust geometry. We used Spectrally Resolved Interferometry, which is based on a Michaelson interferometer and a combined visible and infrared spectrometer. Tungsten halogen lamp with 10 mW coupled optical power was used as a white-light source so with the selected

  7. Posterior Vitreous Detachment as Observed by Wide-Angle OCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Mayuka; Mori, Keiko; Gehlbach, Peter L; Mori, Keisuke

    2018-04-06

    Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) plays an important role in vitreoretinal interface disorders. Historically, observations of PVD using OCT have been limited to the macular region. The purpose of this study is to image the wide-angle vitreoretinal interface after PVD in normal subjects using montaged OCT images. An observational cross-sectional study. A total of 144 healthy eyes of 98 normal subjects aged 21 to 95 years (51.4±22.0 [mean ± standard deviation]). Montaged images of horizontal and vertical OCT scans through the fovea were obtained in each subject. Montaged OCT images. By using wide-angle OCT, we imaged the vitreoretinal interface from the macula to the periphery. PVD was classified into 5 stages: stage 0, no PVD (2 eyes, both aged 21 years); stage 1, peripheral PVD limited to paramacular to peripheral zones (88 eyes, mean age 38.9±16.2 years, mean ± standard deviation); stage 2, perifoveal PVD extending to the periphery (12 eyes, mean age 67.9±8.4 years); stage 3, peripapillary PVD with persistent vitreopapillary adhesion alone (7 eyes, mean age 70.9±11.9 years); stage 4, complete PVD (35 eyes, mean age 75.1±10.1 years). All stage 1 PVDs (100%) were observed in the paramacular to peripheral region where the vitreous gel adheres directly to the cortical vitreous and retinal surface. After progression to stage 2 PVD, the area of PVD extends posteriorly to the perifovea and anteriorly to the periphery. Vitreoschisis was observed in 41.2% at PVD initiation (stage 1a). Whereas prior work suggests that PVD originates in the perifoveal region and after the sixth decade, our observations demonstrate that (1) PVD first appears even in the third decade of life and gradually appears more extensively throughout life; (2) more than 40% of eyes without fundus diseases at their PVD initiation are associated with vitreoschisis; and (3) PVD is first noted primarily in the paramacular-peripheral region where vitreous gel adheres to the retinal surface and is

  8. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    Orphan Basin is located on the eastern margin of Canada, offshore of Newfoundland and East of Flemish Cap. It is an aborted continental rift formed by multiple episodes of rifting. The crustal structure across the basin has been determined by an earlier refraction study using 15 instruments on a 550 km long line. It shows that the continental crust was extended over an unusually wide region but did not break apart. The crustal structure of the basin thus documents stages in the formation of a magma-poor rifted margin up to crustal breakup. The OBWAVE (Orphan Basin Wide-Angle Velocity Experiment) survey was carried out to image crustal structures across the basin and better understand the processes of formation of this margin. The spacing of the 89 recording stations varies from 3 to 5 km along this 500-km-long line, which was acquired along a pre-existing reflection line. The highest resolution section corresponds to the part of the profile where the crust was expected to be the thinnest. We present the results from a joint tomography inversion of first and Moho reflected arrival times. The high data density allows us to define crustal structures with greater detail than for typical studies and to improve the understanding of the processes leading to the extreme stretching of continental crust. The final model was computed following a detailed parametric study to determine the optimal parameters controlling the ray-tracing and the inversion processes. The final model shows very good resolution. In particular, Monte Carlo standard deviations of crustal velocities and Moho depths are generally Orphan Basin is the result of rifting of a non-homogeneous Avalon terrane where the lower crust is primarily ductile.

  9. Crustal structure of the Murray Ridge, northwest Indian Ocean, from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Edwards, R. A.; Flueh, E. R.

    2015-07-01

    The Murray Ridge/Dalrymple Trough system forms the boundary between the Indian and Arabian plates in the northern Arabian Sea. Geodetic constraints from the surrounding continents suggest that this plate boundary is undergoing oblique extension at a rate of a few millimetres per year. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrains the composition of the Ridge and of adjacent lithosphere beneath the Indus Fan. We infer that Murray Ridge, like the adjacent Dalrymple Trough, is underlain by continental crust, while a thin crustal section beneath the Indus Fan represents thinned continental crust or exhumed serpentinized mantle that forms part of a magma-poor rifted margin. Changes in crustal structure across the Murray Ridge and Dalrymple Trough can explain short-wavelength gravity anomalies, but a long-wavelength anomaly must be attributed to deeper density contrasts that may result from a large age contrast across the plate boundary. The origin of this fragment of continental crust remains enigmatic, but the presence of basement fabrics to the south that are roughly parallel to Murray Ridge suggests that it separated from the India/Seychelles/Madagascar block by extension during early breakup of Gondwana.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  11. Evaluation of the Quality of Action Cameras with Wide-Angle Lenses in Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-06-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  12. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C. J., E-mail: lasnier@LLNL.gov; Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Crabtree, K. [College of Optics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  13. SAR target recognition using behaviour library of different shapes in different incidence angles and polarisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mojtaba Behzad; Dehghani, Hamid; Jabbar Rashidi, Ali; Sheikhi, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    Target recognition is one of the most important issues in the interpretation of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Modelling, analysis, and recognition of the effects of influential parameters in the SAR can provide a better understanding of the SAR imaging systems, and therefore facilitates the interpretation of the produced images. Influential parameters in SAR images can be divided into five general categories of radar, radar platform, channel, imaging region, and processing section, each of which has different physical, structural, hardware, and software sub-parameters with clear roles in the finally formed images. In this paper, for the first time, a behaviour library that includes the effects of polarisation, incidence angle, and shape of targets, as radar and imaging region sub-parameters, in the SAR images are extracted. This library shows that the created pattern for each of cylindrical, conical, and cubic shapes is unique, and due to their unique properties these types of shapes can be recognised in the SAR images. This capability is applied to data acquired with the Canadian RADARSAT1 satellite.

  14. Variation in emission and energy recovery concerning incident angle in a scheme recovering high energy ions by secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Konno, Shota; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2016-01-01

    As an energy recovery device for fast protons produced in D- 3 He nuclear fusion, secondary electron (SE) direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed in addition to traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Some protons passing through a TWDEC come into an SEDEC, where protons penetrate to a number of foil electrodes and emitted SEs are recovered. Following to a development of SE orbit control by magnetic field, dependence on incident angle of protons was examined to optimize structure of SEDEC. Based on a theoretical expectation, experiments were performed by changing incident angle of protons and variation in emission and energy recovery were measured. Both emission and energy recovery increased as the angle increased, and differences with theoretical expectation are discussed. (author)

  15. Technical Note: An investigation of polarity effects for wide-angle free-air chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H., E-mail: Hong.Shen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Ross, C. K. [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Culberson, W. S. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Wide-angle free-air chambers (WAFACs) are used as primary standard measurement devices for establishing the air-kerma strength of low-energy, low-dose rate brachytherapy seeds. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is commissioning a primary standard wide-angle free-air chamber (NRC WAFAC) to serve the calibration needs of Canadian clients. The University of Wisconsin has developed a similar variable-aperture free-air chamber (UW VAFAC) to be used as a research tool. As part of the NRC commissioning, measurements were carried out for both polarities of the applied bias voltage and the resulting effects were observed to be very large. Similar effects were identified with the UW VAFAC. The authors describe the measurements carried out to determine the underlying causes of the polarity effect and the approach used to eliminate it. Methods: The NRC WAFAC is based on the WAFAC design developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the USA. Charge measurements for {sup 125}I and {sup 241}Am sources were carried out for both negative and positive polarities on the NRC WAFAC and UW VAFAC. Two aperture sizes were also investigated with the UW VAFAC. In addition, measurements on the NRC WAFAC were carried out with a small bias between the collecting electrode and the shield foil at the downstream end of the chamber. To mitigate all of the polarity effects, the downstream surface of the collecting electrode was covered with a thin layer of graphite on both the NRC and UW chambers. Results: Both chamber designs showed a difference of more than 30 % between the charge collected with positive and negative bias voltages for the smallest electrode separation. It was shown for the NRC WAFAC that charge could be collected in the small gap downstream of the collecting volume by applying a voltage between the shield foil and the collecting electrode, even though an insulating foil (Mylar or polyimide film) separated the conducting surface from the

  16. Technical Note: An investigation of polarity effects for wide-angle free-air chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.; Ross, C. K.; Culberson, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Wide-angle free-air chambers (WAFACs) are used as primary standard measurement devices for establishing the air-kerma strength of low-energy, low-dose rate brachytherapy seeds. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is commissioning a primary standard wide-angle free-air chamber (NRC WAFAC) to serve the calibration needs of Canadian clients. The University of Wisconsin has developed a similar variable-aperture free-air chamber (UW VAFAC) to be used as a research tool. As part of the NRC commissioning, measurements were carried out for both polarities of the applied bias voltage and the resulting effects were observed to be very large. Similar effects were identified with the UW VAFAC. The authors describe the measurements carried out to determine the underlying causes of the polarity effect and the approach used to eliminate it. Methods: The NRC WAFAC is based on the WAFAC design developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the USA. Charge measurements for 125 I and 241 Am sources were carried out for both negative and positive polarities on the NRC WAFAC and UW VAFAC. Two aperture sizes were also investigated with the UW VAFAC. In addition, measurements on the NRC WAFAC were carried out with a small bias between the collecting electrode and the shield foil at the downstream end of the chamber. To mitigate all of the polarity effects, the downstream surface of the collecting electrode was covered with a thin layer of graphite on both the NRC and UW chambers. Results: Both chamber designs showed a difference of more than 30 % between the charge collected with positive and negative bias voltages for the smallest electrode separation. It was shown for the NRC WAFAC that charge could be collected in the small gap downstream of the collecting volume by applying a voltage between the shield foil and the collecting electrode, even though an insulating foil (Mylar or polyimide film) separated the conducting surface from the small gap

  17. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of Mercury's radius decrease obtained using the amount of strain recorded by tectonics on the planet range from 0.5 km to 2 km. These latter figures appear too low with respect to the radius contraction (up to 5-6 km) predicted by the most accredited studies based on thermo-mechanical evolution models. For this reason, it has been suggested that there may be hidden strain accommodated by features yet unseen on Mercury. Indeed, as it has been already cautioned by previous studies, the identification of tectonic features on Mercury might be largely biased by the lighting geometry of the used basemaps. This limitation might have affected the results of the extrapolations for estimating the radius change. In this study, we mapped tectonic features at the terminator thus using images acquired at high sun incidence angle (>50°) that represents the optimal condition for their observation. In fact, images with long shadows enhance the topography and texture of the surface and are ideal to detect tectonic structures. This favorable illumination conditions allowed us to infer reliable measurements of spatial distribution (i.e. frequency, orientation, and areal density) of tectonic features which can be used to estimate the average contractional strain and planetary radius decrease. We digitized tectonic structures within a region extending for an area of about 12 million sq. km (~16% of planet's surface). More than 1300 tectonic lineaments were identified and interpreted to be compressional features (i.e. lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges) with a total length of more than 12300 km. Assuming that the extensional strain is negligible within the area, the average contractional strain calculated for the survey area is ~0.21-0.28% (~0.24% for θ=30°). This strain, extrapolated to the entire surface, corresponds to a contraction in radius of about 2.5-3.4 km (~2.9 km for θ=30°). Interestingly, the values of contractional strain and radius decrease

  18. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2–3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  19. Examination of the ''Ultra-wide-angle compton camera'' in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has made the camera in the title, which can visualize radioactive substances emitting gamma ray in a wide-angle view of almost 180 degrees (hemisphere) and this paper explains its technological details and actual examination in Iitatemura Village, Fukushima Prefecture. The camera has a detector module consisting from 5-laminated structure of 2 layers of Si-double-sided strip detector (Si-DSD) and 3 layers of CdTe-DSD at 4 mm pitch, and their device size and electrode pitch are made the same, which enables the detector tray and analog application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) usable to communize the read-out circuits and for economical reduction. Two modules are placed side by side for increasing sensitivity and car-loaded to operate at -5 degree for the examination. The CdTe-DSD has actually Pt cathode and Al anode (Pt/CdTe/Al) for reduction of electric leaking and increase of energy resolution for 137 Cs gamma ray (662 keV). Data from the detector are digital pulse height values, which are then converted to the hit information of the detected position and energy. The hit event due to photoelectric absorption peak in CdTe originated from Compton scattering in Si is selected to be back-projected on the celestial hemisphere, leading to the torus depending on the direction of the gamma ray, of which accumulation results in specifying the position of the source. At the Village of 2-3 mcSv/h of ambient dose environment, locally accumulated radioactive substances (30 mcSv/h) are successfully visualized. With use of soft gamma ray detector in ASTRO-H satellite under development in JAXA, the improved camera can be more sensitive and may be useful in such a case as de-contamination to monitor its results in real time. (T.T.)

  20. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  1. Constraining variable density of ice shelves using wide-angle radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Brown, Joel; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Witrant, Emmanuel; Philippe, Morgane; Hubbard, Bryn; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The thickness of ice shelves, a basic parameter for mass balance estimates, is typically inferred using hydrostatic equilibrium, for which knowledge of the depth-averaged density is essential. The densification from snow to ice depends on a number of local factors (e.g., temperature and surface mass balance) causing spatial and temporal variations in density-depth profiles. However, direct measurements of firn density are sparse, requiring substantial logistical effort. Here, we infer density from radio-wave propagation speed using ground-based wide-angle radar data sets (10 MHz) collected at five sites on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. We reconstruct depth to internal reflectors, local ice thickness, and firn-air content using a novel algorithm that includes traveltime inversion and ray tracing with a prescribed shape of the depth-density relationship. For the particular case of an ice-shelf channel, where ice thickness and surface slope change substantially over a few kilometers, the radar data suggest that firn inside the channel is about 5 % denser than outside the channel. Although this density difference is at the detection limit of the radar, it is consistent with a similar density anomaly reconstructed from optical televiewing, which reveals that the firn inside the channel is 4.7 % denser than that outside the channel. Hydrostatic ice thickness calculations used for determining basal melt rates should account for the denser firn in ice-shelf channels. The radar method presented here is robust and can easily be adapted to different radar frequencies and data-acquisition geometries.

  2. Anomalously-dense firn in an ice-shelf channel revealed by wide-angle radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R.; Brown, J.; Matsuoka, K.; Witrant, E.; Philippe, M.; Hubbard, B.; Pattyn, F.

    2015-10-01

    The thickness of ice shelves, a basic parameter for mass balance estimates, is typically inferred using hydrostatic equilibrium for which knowledge of the depth-averaged density is essential. The densification from snow to ice depends on a number of local factors (e.g. temperature and surface mass balance) causing spatial and temporal variations in density-depth profiles. However, direct measurements of firn density are sparse, requiring substantial logistical effort. Here, we infer density from radio-wave propagation speed using ground-based wide-angle radar datasets (10 MHz) collected at five sites on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Using a novel algorithm including traveltime inversion and raytracing with a prescribed shape of the depth-density relationship, we show that the depth to internal reflectors, the local ice thickness and depth-averaged densities can reliably be reconstructed. For the particular case of an ice-shelf channel, where ice thickness and surface slope change substantially over a few kilometers, the radar data suggests that firn inside the channel is about 5 % denser than outside the channel. Although this density difference is at the detection limit of the radar, it is consistent with a similar density anomaly reconstructed from optical televiewing, which reveals 10 % denser firn inside compared to outside the channel. The denser firn in the ice-shelf channel should be accounted for when using the hydrostatic ice thickness for determining basal melt rates. The radar method presented here is robust and can easily be adapted to different radar frequencies and data-acquisition geometries.

  3. Impact and Penetration of Thin Aluminum 2024 Flat Panels at Oblique Angles of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    under more extreme conditions, using a projectile with a more complex shape and sharp contacts, impacting flat panels at oblique angles of incidence.

  4. Protein Interaction-Based Genome-Wide Analysis of Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Karoline; Pers, Tune Hannes; Dworzynski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    in genes associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results-Genome-wide association analyses of approximately approximate to 700 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 899 incident CHD cases and 1823 age-and sex-matched controls within the Nurses' Health and the Health Professionals...... complex. Conclusions-The integration of a GWA study with PPI data successfully identifies a set of candidate susceptibility genes for incident CHD that would have been missed in single-marker GWA analysis. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011; 4:549-556.)...

  5. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  6. The design and q resolution of the small and wide angle neutron scattering instrument (TAIKAN) in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Oku, Takayuki; Tominaga, Taiki; Nakatani, Takeshi; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Suzuya, Kentaro; Aizawa, Kazuya; Arai, Masatoshi; Ohishi, Kazuki; Iwase, Hiroki; Ito, Takayoshi; Otomo, Toshiya; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The small and wide angle neutron scattering instrument (TAIKAN) is designed to cover the wide q range of 0.005 0.3 Å"-"1 with the other banks. The q resolution was compared with the values experimentally obtained from the widths of Bragg peaks of a standard sample, silver behenate. The results of the experiment were consistent with the theory. It was confirmed that TAIKAN was completed as was expected. (author)

  7. Performance characterization of a pressure-tuned wide-angle Michelson interferometric spectral filter for high spectral resolution lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Shane T.; Cook, Anthony L.; Scola, Salvatore J.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Miller, Ian; Welch, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) is typically realized using an absorption filter to separate molecular returns from particulate returns. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has designed and built a Pressure-Tuned Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometer (PTWAMI) as an alternate means to separate the two types of atmospheric returns. While absorption filters only work at certain wavelengths and suffer from low photon efficiency due to light absorption, an interferometric spectral filter can be designed for any wavelength and transmits nearly all incident photons. The interferometers developed at LaRC employ an air spacer in one arm, and a solid glass spacer in the other. Field widening is achieved by specific design and selection of the lengths and refractive indices of these two arms. The principal challenge in using such an interferometer as a spectral filter for HSRL aboard aircraft is that variations in glass temperature and air pressure cause changes in the interferometer's optical path difference. Therefore, a tuning mechanism is needed to actively accommodate for these changes. The pressure-tuning mechanism employed here relies on changing the pressure in an enclosed, air-filled arm of the interferometer to change the arm's optical path length. However, tuning using pressure will not adjust for tilt, mirror warpage, or thermally induced wavefront error, so the structural, thermal, and optical behavior of the device must be well understood and optimized in the design and manufacturing process. The PTWAMI has been characterized for particulate transmission ratio, wavefront error, and tilt, and shows acceptable performance for use in an HSRL instrument.

  8. Integration of least angle regression with empirical Bayes for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...

  9. Sunda-Banda Arc Transition: Marine Wide-Angle Seismic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgin, A.; Planert, L.; Kopp, H.; Mueller, C.; Lueschen, E.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Sindbad Working Group, T

    2008-12-01

    The Sunda-Banda Arc transition is the region of active convergence and collision of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. The style of subduction changes from an oceanic-island arc subduction to a continental- island arc collision. The character of the incoming plate varies from the rough topography of the Roo Rise, to the smooth seafloor of the Abyssal Plain off Bali, Sumbawa. Forearc structures include well-developed forearc basins and an accretionary prism/outer forearc high of variable size and shape. To quantify the variability of structure of the lower plate and the effects on the upper plate a refraction seismic survey was carried during cruise SO190-2. A total of 245 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed along 1020 nm of wide-angle seismic profiles in four major north-south oriented corridors. To assess the velocity structure we used a tomographic method which jointly inverts for refracted and reflected phases. The sedimentary layers of the models, obtained by the analysis of high-resolution MCS data (see Lueschen et al), were incorporated into the starting model. The obtained models exhibit strong changes of the incoming oceanic crust for the different portions of the margin: The westernmost profile off eastern Java shows a crustal thickness of more than 15 km, most likely related to the presence of an oceanic plateau. Profiles off Lombok reveal an oceanic crust of 8-9 km average thickness in the Argo Abyssal Plain. Crustal and upper mantle velocities are slightly decreased within an area of about 50-60 km seaward of the trench, indicating fracturing and related serpentinization due to bending of the oceanic crust and associated normal faulting. The outer forearc high is characterized by velocities of 2.5-5.5 km/s. For the Lombok Basin, the profiles show a sedimentary infill of up to 3.5 km thick and typical sediment velocities of 1.75-3.0 km/s. A reflector at 16 km depth and velocity values of 7.4-7.8 km/s beneath it suggest the presence of a shallow

  10. The Design and Implementation of the Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometer to Observe Thermospheric Winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William Edmund

    The design and implementation of a Wide-Angle Michelson interferometer (WAMI) as a high spectral resolution device for measuring Doppler shifts and temperatures in the thermosphere is discussed in detail. A general theoretical framework is developed to describe the behavior of interferometers and is applied to the WAMI. Notions concerning the optical coupling of various surfaces within an interferometer are developed and used to investigate the effects of misalignments in the WAMI optics. In addition, these notions in combination with ideas on the polarization behavior of interferometers are used to suggest how complex multisurfaced interferometers might be developed, what features affect their behavior most strongly, and how this behavior might be controlled. Those aspects of the Michelson interferometer important to its use as a high resolution spectral device are outlined and expressions relating the physical features of the interferometer and the spectral features of the radiation passing through the instrument, to the form of the observed interference pattern are derived. The sensitivity of the WAMI to misalignments in its optical components is explored, and quantitative estimations of the effects of these misalignments made. A working WAMI with cube corners instead of plane mirrors was constructed and is described. The theoretical notions outlined above are applied to this instrument and found to account for most of its features. A general digital procedure is developed for the analysis of the observed interference fringes which permits an estimation of the amplitude, visibility and phase of the fringes. This instrument was taken to Bird, northern Manitoba as part of the ground based support for the Auroral Rocket and Image Excitation Study (ARIES) rocket campaign. Doppler shifts and linewidth variations in O(^1 D) and O(^1S) emissions in the aurora were observed during several nights and constitute the first synoptic wind measurements taken with a WAMI. The

  11. Angle change of the parent arteries after stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.-S.; Kang, H.-S.; Kim, J.E.; Kwon, O.-K.; Oh, C.W.; Cho, Y.D.; Han, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the angle changes of the parent arteries after stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms. Materials and methods: The adjacent parent arterial angles before and after stent-assisted coil embolization were measured in 38 patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoAA) and 41 patients with bifurcation aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCABA). Variables were analysed in relation to the angle changes. Results: Vascular angles of the parent arteries significantly increased by 27.8° (±18.5°) immediately after stent-assisted coil embolization in 79 cases (p < 0.001), with 25.7° (±14.8°) in ACoAA and 29.7° (±21.4°) in MCABA, respectively. In 51 (64.6%) cases with follow-up angiography (mean interval 13.5 ± 4.1 months), vascular angles increased by 27.2° (±17.1°) immediately after treatment and further increased by 20.7° (±14.3°) at the last follow-up (all p < 0.001). More acute pre-stent angles of the parent arteries correlated with greater post-stent angle changes (p = 0.006). Younger age tended to be inversely related to post-stent angle changes (p = 0.091). Conclusion: Stent placement during coil embolization induced significant changes in the aneurysm–parent artery relationship. Further study is needed to elicit the association between angle change of the parent arteries and aneurysmal stability after coil embolization

  12. Deviation from an inverse cosine dependence of kinetic secondary electron emission for angle of incidence at keV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Kawata, Jun; Mori, Ichiro

    1989-01-01

    Incident angle dependence of kinetic secondary electron emission from metals resulting from incidence of keV ions is investigated by computer simulation with the TRIM Monte Carlo program of ion scattering in matter. The results show large deviations from the inverse cosine dependence, which derives from high-energy approximation, because of a series of elastic collisions of incident ions with metal atoms. In the keV energy region, the elastic collisions have two different effects on the angular dependence for relatively high-energy light ions and for low-energy heavy ions: they result in over- and under-inverse-cosine dependences, respectively. The properties are observed even with an experiment of the keV-neutral incidence on a contaminated surface. In addition, the effects of the thin oxide layer and roughness on the surface are examined with simplified models. (author)

  13. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators' operating points that enables informative visualization...

  14. Monitoring the recrystallisation of amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Emmi; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Ehlers, Henrik; Svedström, Kirsi; Huotari, Simo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2016-07-11

    In this paper we present a fast model system for monitoring the recrystallization of quench-cooled amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The use of these two methods enables comparison between surface and bulk crystallization. Non-ordered mesoporous silica micro-particles were added to the system in order to alter the rate of crystallization of the amorphous xylitol. Raman measurements showed that adding silica to the system increased the rate of surface crystallization, while X-ray measurements showed that the rate of bulk crystallization decreased. Using this model system it is possible to measure fast changes, which occur in minutes or within a few hours. Raman-spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering were found to be complementary techniques when assessing surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  16. 25G compared with 20G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses for Terson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinbang; You, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of 25G vitrectomy to standard 20G vitrectomy for treatment of Terson syndrome under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses. This was a case-control study of 20 patients with Terson syndrome (study group) that underwent 25G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses, with those of 20 matched patients that underwent 20G vitrectomy (control group). Medical records were reviewed from between July 2011 and October 2013. Data included results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study examination, ophthalmology B-scan ultrasonography and fundus photography. The mean age, follow-up time, the preoperative visual acuity of LogMAR and the preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) were all comparable in the two groups (all P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in postoperative visual acuity of LogMAR compared with preoperative visual acuity (Pcontact wide-angle lenses can achieve a significantly shorter operative time and lower post-operative IOP compared with 20G Vitrectomy.

  17. Wide-angle NSE and TOF the spectrometer SPAN at BENSC

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, C; Kischnik, R; Mezei, F

    2002-01-01

    The cylindrical symmetry of the magnetic field configuration of SPAN allows for simultaneous neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements over the whole range of scattering angles accessible by a spectrometer. The open construction also allows for time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, which can be performed under the same conditions as NSE, in particular with polarization analysis. TOF and NSE spectra are then directly comparable with each other, without any adjustable parameters, covering a dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude at a single wavelength. (orig.)

  18. Wide-angle NSE and TOF: the spectrometer SPAN at BENSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, C.; Triolo, A.; Kischnik, R.; Mezei, F.

    2002-01-01

    The cylindrical symmetry of the magnetic field configuration of SPAN allows for simultaneous neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements over the whole range of scattering angles accessible by a spectrometer. The open construction also allows for time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, which can be performed under the same conditions as NSE, in particular with polarization analysis. TOF and NSE spectra are then directly comparable with each other, without any adjustable parameters, covering a dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude at a single wavelength. (orig.)

  19. Three-dimensional liquid flattened Luneburg lens with ultra-wide viewing angle and frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Tian, Xiaoyong; Yin, Ming; Li, Dichen; Tang, Yiping

    2013-08-01

    Traditional Luneburg lens is a dielectric spherical antenna. It can focus the incoming collimated electromagnetic waves on its spherical surface, which causes the incompatibility with the planar feeding and receiving devices. Furthermore, the difficulties in the fabrication process also limited its applications. In this paper, a three-dimensional flattened Luneburg lens with a field-of-view angle up to 180° has been realized based on a liquid medium approach and a 3D-printing process. The fabricated three-dimensional lens showed a broadband transmission characteristic from 12.4 GHz to 18 GHz. The performance of the proposed lens was demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  20. SU-E-T-494: Influence of Proton Track-Cell Nucleus Incidence Angle On Relative Biological Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, P; Backstrom, G; Enger, S; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Villegas, F; Ahnesjo, A [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explain a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation artifact whereby differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of initial double strand breaks are observed as a function of the proton track incidence angles in a geometric cell nucleus model. Secondly, to offer an alternative isotropic irradiation procedure to mitigate this effect. Methods: MC tracks of 1 MeV protons were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cylindrical model of a cell nucleus containing 6×109 nucleotide base pairs. The tracks incidence angle θ with respect to the cell nucleus’s axis was varied in 10 degrees intervals, each time generating one hundred fractions of ∼2 Gy. Strand breaks were scored in the modeled DNA sugar-phosphate groups and further sub-classified into single or double strand breaks (ssbs or dsbs). For each angle, an RBE for the induction of initial dsbs with reference to Co-60 was calculated. Results: Our results show significant angular dependencies of RBE, with maximum values for incidence angles parallel to the nucleus central axis. Further examination shows that the higher cross-sections for the creation of dsbs is due to the preferential alignment of tracks with geometrical sub-parts of the cell nucleus model, especially the nucleosomes containing the sugar-phosphate groups. To alleviate the impact of this simulation artifact, an average RBE was calculated with a procedure based on a weighted sampling of the angular data. Conclusion: This work demonstrates a possible numerical artifact in estimated RBE if the influence of the particle incidence angle is not correctly taken into account. A correction procedure is presented to better conform the simulations to real-life experimental conditions. We would like to acknowledge support from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec Sante (FRQS), from the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant (number 432290) of NSERC, support from NSERC under grants RGPIN 397711-11 and

  1. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8510 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomohiro [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki [Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide, E-mail: htakahas@chem-bio.gunma-u.ac.j [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  2. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  3. Residual stress analysis on materials with steep stress gradient by using X-ray incidence at higher angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Maeno, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    X-ray stress measurements for isotropic polycrystalline are materials are usually carried out by the sin 2 ψ method under the assumption of no stress gradient in X-ray penetration depth. When a steep stress gradient exists in the vicinity of surface layer, however, non-linear sin 2 ψ relation is observed and the sin 2 ψ method cannot be applied on such cases. Although several X-ray stress analyzers have been developed for materials with steep stress gradient in the surface layer, it is desirable to use diffraction data at higher incident angles of ψ 0 as possible as close on 90 degrees in order to determine the both values of surface stress and stress gradient with high accuracy. In the present study, an X-ray stress analyzer based on Ω geometry was fabricated to enable X-ray incidence at higher angle of ψ 0 . The X-ray detector was positioned on -η side against X-ray incident beam. Both of the residual surface stress and stress gradient were determined by use of the COSψ method on shot-peened steel and silicon nitride specimens. This prototype stress analyzer was found effective to perform a biaxial or triaxial stress analysis. (author)

  4. A verification scenario of nuclear plus interference scattering effects using neutron incident angle distribution to the wall in beam-injected deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Shota; Matsuura, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Daisuke; Sawada, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Goto, Takuya; Mitarai, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    A verification scenario of knock-on tail formation in the deuteron distribution function due to nuclear plus interference scattering is presented by observing the incident angle distribution of neutrons in a vacuum vessel. Assuming a knock-on tail created in a "3He-beam-injected deuterium plasma, the incident angle distribution and energy spectra of the neutrons produced by fusion reactions between 1-MeV and thermal deuterons are evaluated. The relation between the neutron incident angle to the vacuum vessel and neutron energy is examined in the case of anisotropic neutron emission due to knock-on tail formation in neutral-beam-injected plasmas. (author)

  5. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator’s capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase...... of multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from time-domain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method’s capability to efficiently identify the location...... in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators’ operating points that enables informative visualization...

  6. Feasibility of studying large p/sub perpendicular to/ in ISABELLE's wide-angle hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Danby, G.; Engelmann, R.; Foley, K.; McCarthy, R.; Paige, F.; Pope, B.; Thorndike, A.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental area at 6 o'clock in the present ISABELLE site plan has a configuration suitable for studying particles produced at large angles relative to the beam lines. It is natural to think of housing a program of large p/perpendicular to/ studies in this area. A particular device has been considered, namely a pair of multiparticle spectrometers back-to-back at 90 0 to the beams, as a vehicle for carrying out this program. Enough details are presented to allow for a reasonable test of the planned 6 o'clock area as a site for such experiments. In summer, this study shows that a rather ambitious program of experiments can be performed in this area with some relatively easily implemented changes in the hall design

  7. The effect of alpha incident- and poloidal-angle distributions on blister-induced first-wall erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.; Hively, L.; Miley, G.

    1979-01-01

    The incident velocity distribution of high-energy alpha particles bombarding the first wall of an axisymmetric tokamak is evaluated as a function of poloidal angle (theta). The resulting helium concentration profile as a function of the poloidal angle and the implant depth is calculated for a typical Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) design. The critical helium concentration for blistering is first exceeded at theta approx. 55 0 . Peak concentrations are reduced somewhat through continuous D-T sputtering which, dependent on theta, reduces the blister skin thicknesses. The blistering-induced impurity level is found to increase drastically (< approx. 50%), relative to sputtering-induced impurities, at periodic intervals corresponding to approx. 4000 hours operation when each generation of blister begins to exfoliate. (orig.)

  8. The incidence angle influence on the structure of secondary-emission characteristics of single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, E.R.; Aliyev, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The dependences of Wand MO single crystals in different atom planes have been studied in this work. It is revealed that maximums are added to each dependency and also minimums of first and second degree. This fact is explained by diffraction dynamic theory. It is established that electron diffraction oriented not perpendicularly to crystal surface is the reason of appearance of second order structure on studied secondary-emission characteristics. In the present work being the continuation and development of SEE investigations of high-melting metal single crystals begun earlier by authors, the structure dependence of SEE main characteristics of angle has been studied. This angle has been chosen because as it is mentioned before the bad repeatability in different experiments for it is observed

  9. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation for the influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Wang, Aiying

    2014-01-01

    The influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms (0–60°) on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential. The present simulation revealed that as the incident angles increased from 0 to 60°, the surface roughness of DLC films increased and the more porous structure was generated. Along the growth direction of DLC films, the whole system could be divided into four regions including substrate region, transition region, stable region and surface region except the case at the incident angle of 60°. When the incident angle was 45°, the residual stress was significantly reduced by 12% with little deterioration of mechanical behavior. The further structure analysis using both the bond angles and bond length distributions indicated that the compressive stress reduction mainly resulted from the relaxation of highly distorted C–C bond length. - Highlights: • The dependence of films properties on different incident angles was investigated. • The change of incident angles reduced the stress without obvious damage of density. • The stress reduction attributed to the relaxation of highly distorted bond length

  11. Near vertical incidence skywave propagation: Elevation angles and optimum antenna height for horizontal dipole antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.; van Maanen, Erik; Petersen, George J.; Westenberg, Albert J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries, in areas lacking any other telecommunication

  12. System description and analysis. Part 1: Feasibility study for helicopter/VTOL wide-angle simulation image generation display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design for a helicopter/VSTOL wide angle simulator image generation display system is studied. The visual system is to become part of a simulator capability to support Army aviation systems research and development within the near term. As required for the Army to simulate a wide range of aircraft characteristics, versatility and ease of changing cockpit configurations were primary considerations of the study. Due to the Army's interest in low altitude flight and descents into and landing in constrained areas, particular emphasis is given to wide field of view, resolution, brightness, contrast, and color. The visual display study includes a preliminary design, demonstrated feasibility of advanced concepts, and a plan for subsequent detail design and development. Analysis and tradeoff considerations for various visual system elements are outlined and discussed.

  13. Computational design for a wide-angle cermet-based solar selective absorber for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Tanikawa, Hiroya; Yamada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to computationally design a wide-angle cermet-based solar selective absorber for high temperature applications by using a characteristic matrix method and a genetic algorithm. The present study investigates a solar selective absorber with tungsten–silica (W–SiO 2 ) cermet. Multilayer structures of 1, 2, 3, and 4 layers and a wide range of metal volume fractions are optimized. The predicted radiative properties show good solar performance, i.e., thermal emittances, especially beyond 2 μm, are quite low, in contrast, solar absorptance levels are successfully high with wide angular range, so that solar photons are effectively absorbed and infrared radiative heat loss can be decreased. -- Highlights: • Electromagnetic simulation of radiative properties by characteristic matrix method. • Optimization for multilayered W–SiO 2 cermet-based absorber by a Genetic Algorithm. • We propose a successfully high solar performance of solar selective absorber

  14. Measuring helium bubble diameter distributions in tungsten with grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M.; Kluth, P.; Doerner, R. P.; Kirby, N.; Riley, D.; Corr, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering was performed on tungsten samples exposed to helium plasma in the MAGPIE and Pisces-A linear plasma devices to measure the size distributions of resulting helium nano-bubbles. Nano-bubbles were fitted assuming spheroidal particles and an exponential diameter distribution. These particles had mean diameters between 0.36 and 0.62 nm. Pisces-A exposed samples showed more complex patterns, which may suggest the formation of faceted nano-bubbles or nano-scale surface structures.

  15. Identifying low and high density amorphous phases during zeolite amorphisation using small and wide angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneau, F.; Greaves, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    In situ experiments following the thermal amorphisation of zeolites reveal massive increases in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), persisting well beyond the stage where wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) can detect that any crystalline phase is present. This heterogeneity in the amorphised phase is attributed to the transition from a low density amorphous phase (LDA) to a high density amorphous phase (HDA) at the glass transition. The fractions of zeolite, LDA and HDA phases obtained from SAXS analysis are discussed in the context of non-linear changes detected in 29 Si solid state NMR during zeolite amorphisation. Whilst the HDA phase is chemically disordered, the LDA phase exhibits much of the Al-Si ordering present in the starting zeolite. These findings are considered in the context of perfect glasses predicted to occur when super strong liquids are supercooled

  16. Wide-band all-angle acoustic self-collimation by rectangular sonic crystals with elliptical bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Ahmet; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    Self-collimation of acoustic waves in the whole angular range of ±90 0 in the second and third bands of a two-dimensional rectangular sonic crystal with elliptical basis is demonstrated by examining the band structure and equifrequency contours. 70% and 77% of the second and third bands are available for wide-band all-angle self-collimation spanning a bandwidth of approximately 29% and 25% of the central frequencies of the all-angle self-collimation frequency ranges, respectively. Self-collimation of waves over large distances with a small divergence of beam width in the transverse direction is demonstrated through computations based on the finite element method. The second and third bands available for self-collimation are seen to vary linearly in the vast mid-range where a small group velocity dispersion prevents temporal divergence of waves with different frequencies.

  17. Effect of surface roughness on takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence of ultrathin films at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1994-01-01

    We had previously shown that takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (TAD-XRF) at glancing incidence is a useful method for the characterization of thin films. Here we report the effect of surface roughness of the substrate on TAD-XRF of an ultrathin film at a glancing incidence. An optically flat glass, scratched glasses and plano-convex lenses were used as substrates. A large-range contour such as warp and a roughness of microscopic scale affect the TAD-XRF profile. Therefore, to characterize the ultrathin film by the TAD-XRF method, the material whose roughness is being investigated should be used as the substrate in TAD-XRF measurement. (author)

  18. Scleral Buckling Using a Non-contact Wide-Angle Viewing System with a 25-Gauge Chandelier Endoilluminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jaehyuck; Moon, Byung Gil; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-12-01

    To report the outcome of scleral buckling using a non-contact wide-angle viewing system with a 25-gauge chandelier endoilluminator. Retrospective analyses of medical records were performed for 17 eyes of 16 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without proliferative vitreoretinopathy who had undergone conventional scleral buckling with cryoretinopexy using the combination of a non-contact wide-angle viewing system and chandelier endoillumination. The patients were eight males and five females with a mean age of 26.8 ± 10.2 (range, 11 to 47) years. The mean follow-up period was 7.3 ± 3.1 months. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 0.23 ± 0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units. Best-corrected visual acuity at the final visit showed improvement (0.20 ± 0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units), but the improvement was not statistically significant (p = 0.722). As a surgery-related complication, there was vitreous loss at the end of surgery in one eye. As a postoperative complication, increased intraocular pressure (four cases) and herpes simplex epithelial keratitis (one case) were controlled postoperatively with eye drops. One case of persistent RRD after primary surgery needed additional vitrectomy, and the retina was postoperatively attached. Scleral buckling with chandelier illumination as a surgical technique for RRD has the advantages of relieving the surgeon's neck pain from prolonged use of the indirect ophthalmoscope and sharing the surgical procedure with another surgical team member. In addition, fine retinal breaks that are hard to identify using an indirect ophthalmoscope can be easily found under the microscope by direct endoillumination. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  19. An upgrade beamline for combined wide, small and ultra small-angle x-ray scattering at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Pierre; Léonardon, Joachim; Sztucki, Michael; Boesecke, Peter; Gorini, Jacques; Claustre, Laurent; Sever, Franc; Morse, John; Narayanan, Theyencheri [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-27

    This contribution presents the main design features of the upgraded beamline ID02 (TRUSAXS). The beamline combines different small-angle X-ray scattering techniques in one unique instrument. The key component of this instrument is an evacuated (5×10{sup −3} mbar) stainless steel detector tube of length 34 m and diameter 2 m. Three different detectors (Rayonix MX170, Pilatus 300 K and FReLoN 4M) are housed inside a motorized wagon which travels along a rail system with very low parasitic lateral movements (± 0.3 mm). This system allows automatically changing the sample-to-detector distance from about 1 m to 31 m and selecting the desired detector. In addition, a wide angle detector (Rayonix LX170) is installed just above the entrance cone of the tube for optional wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements. The beamstop system enables monitoring of the X-ray beam intensity in addition to blocking the primary beam, and automated insertion of selected masks behind the primary beamstop. The focusing optics and collimation system permit to cover a scattering vector (q) range of 0.002 nm{sup −1} ≤ q ≤ 50 nm{sup −1} with one unique setting using 0.1 nm X-ray wavelength for moderate flux (5×10{sup 12} photons/sec). However, for higher flux (6x10{sup 13} photons/sec) or higher resolution (minimum q < 0.001 nm{sup −1}), focusing and collimation, respectively need to be varied. For a sample-to-detector distance of 31 m and 0.1 nm wavelength, two dimensional ultra small-angle X-ray scattering patterns can be recorded down to q≈0.001 nm{sup −1} with far superior quality as compared to one dimensional profiles obtained with a Bonse-Hart instrument.

  20. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical

  1. A picosecond widely tunable deep-ultraviolet laser for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Xu Zhi; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We develop a picosecond widely tunable laser in a deep-ultraviolet region from 175 nm to 210 nm, generated by two stages of frequency doubling of a 80-MHz mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire laser. A β-BaB 2 O 4 walk-off compensation configuration and a KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 prism-coupled device are adopted for the generation of second harmonic and fourth harmonics, respectively. The highest power is 3.72 mW at 193 nm, and the fluctuation at 2.85 mW in 130 min is less than ±2%

  2. O2 atmospheric band measurements with WINDII: Performance of a narrow band filter/wide angle Michelson combination in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.E.; Hersom, C.H.; Tai, C.C.; Gault, W.A.; Shepherd, G.G.; Solheim, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    Among the emissions viewed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are selected lines in the (0-0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band. These lines are viewed simultaneously using a narrow band filter/wide-angle Michelson interferometer combination. The narrow band filter is used to separate the lines on the CCD (spectral-spatial scanning) and the Michelson used to modulate the emissions so that winds and rotational temperatures may be measured from the Doppler shifts and relative intensities of the lines. In this report this technique will be outlined and the on-orbit behavior since launch summarized

  3. Investigation and modeling of the effects of light spectrum and incident angle on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliès, Antoine; Legrand, Jack; Marec, Hélène; Pruvost, Jérémy; Castelain, Cathy; Burghelea, Teodor; Cornet, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth investigation of how various illumination conditions influence microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBR) has been presented. Effects of both the light emission spectrum (white and red) and the light incident angle (0° and 60°) on the PBR surface were investigated. The experiments were conducted in two fully controlled lab-scale PBRs, a torus PBR and a thin flat-panel PBR for high cell density culture. The results obtained in the torus PBR were used to build the kinetic growth model of Chlorella vulgaris taken as a model species. The PBR model was then applied to the thin flat-panel PBR, which was run with various illumination conditions. Its detailed representation of local rate of photon absorption under various conditions (spectral calculation of light attenuation, incident angle influence) enabled the model to take into account all the tested conditions with no further adjustment. This allowed a detailed investigation of the coupling between radiation field and photosynthetic growth. Effects of all the radiation conditions together with pigment acclimation, which was found to be relevant, were investigated in depth. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:247-261, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  5. Dosimetric performance evaluation regarding proton beam incident angles of a lithium-based AB-BNCT design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Liu, Yuan-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The 7 Li(p,xn) 7 Be nuclear reaction, based on the low-energy protons, could produce soft neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT). Based on the fact that the induced neutron field is relatively divergent, the relationship between the incident angle of proton beam and the neutron beam quality was evaluated in this study. To provide an intense epithermal neutron beam, a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) was designed. And a modified Snyder head phantom was used in the calculations for evaluating the dosimetric performance. From the calculated results, the intensity of epithermal neutrons increased with the increase in proton incident angle. Hence, either the irradiation time or the required proton current can be reduced. When the incident angle of 2.5-MeV proton beam is 120 deg., the required proton current is ∼13.3 mA for an irradiation time of half an hour. The results of this study show that the BSA designs can generate neutron beams with good intensity and penetrability. Using a 20-mA, 2.5-MeV proton beam as the source, the required irradiation time, to induce 60 RBE-Gy of maximum tumour dose, is less than half an hour in any proton beam alignments. On the premise that the dosimetric performances are similar, the intensity of epithermal neutrons can be increased by using non-collinear (e.g. 90 deg., 120 deg.) incident protons. Thus, either the irradiation time or the required proton current can be reduced. The use of 120 deg. BSA model shows the possibility to reduce the required proton current to ∼13.3 mA when the goal of irradiation time is 30 min. The decrease of required proton beam current certainly will make the use of lithium target much easier. In June 2013, a 5-MeV, 30-mA radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) accelerator for BNCT was built at INFN-LNL (Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy), which shows a possibility to build a suitable RFQ accelerator for the authors' design. In addition, a 2.5-MeV, 30-mA Tandem accelerator was

  6. A honeycomb-like three-dimensional metamaterial absorber via super-wideband and wide-angle performances at millimeter wave and low THz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, Alireza; Rajabalipanah, Hamid; Abdolali, Ali; Cheldavi, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Achieving wideband absorption via three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials has revealed as a new emerging innovative field of research, especially in recent years. Here, a novel 3D metamaterial absorber (MA) having a sixfold symmetry is designed which consists of periodic resistive honeycomb-like units. The proposed 3D MA exhibits a strong absorptivity above 90% in the widest bandwidth ever reported to the authors' knowledge from 50 to 460 GHz (the bandwidth ratio larger than 1:9), covering both millimeter wave and low -terahertz spectra. To understand the physical mechanism of absorption, the electric field and surface current distributions, the power loss density as well as the deteriorating effects of the high-order Floquet modes are monitored and discussed. As a distinctive feature in comparison to the similar 3D MAs, our engineered absorber provides multiple resonances, contributing to further broadening of the operating bandwidth. In addition, it is shown that the honeycomb-like MA retains its polarization-insensitive absorption in a wide range of incident wave angles and polarization angles. Due to flexibility of the design, these superior performances can be simply extended to terahertz, infrared and visible frequencies, potentially leading to many promising applications in imaging, sensing, and camouflage technology.

  7. Measurement of SEU thresholds and cross sections at fixed incidence angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criswell, T.L.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Measel, P.R.; Wilson, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current SEU testing and analysis techniques have as basic assumptions that the charge deposited at a junction depends linearly on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ion and the pathlength of the ion through an imagined parallelepiped that represents the depletion region. This study tests these assumptions for two bipolar parts, AMD 27LS00 and Fairchild 93L422, by irradiating at fixed angles while varying the LET of two ion species. It was found that the 27LS00 shows a pronounced ion species dependence, and may show a deviation of deposited charge from the usual inverse-cosine times a fixed depletion depth, while the 93L422 exhibited the expected inverse-cosine dependence and no ion species dependence

  8. Novel Implementations of Wideband Tightly Coupled Dipole Arrays for Wide-Angle Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisir, Ersin

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and arrays are essential for high data rate communications and for addressing spectrum congestion. Tightly coupled dipole arrays (TCDAs) are of particular interest due to their low-profile, bandwidth and scanning range. But existing UWB (>3:1 bandwidth) arrays still suffer from limited scanning, particularly at angles beyond 45° from broadside. Almost all previous wideband TCDAs have employed dielectric layers above the antenna aperture to improve scanning while maintaining impedance bandwidth. But even so, these UWB arrays have been limited to no more than 60° away from broadside. In this work, we propose to replace the dielectric superstrate with frequency selective surfaces (FSS). In effect, the FSS is used to create an effective dielectric layer placed over the antenna array. FSS also enables anisotropic responses and more design freedom than conventional isotropic dielectric substrates. Another important aspect of the FSS is its ease of fabrication and low weight, both critical for mobile platforms (e.g. unmanned air vehicles), especially at lower microwave frequencies. Specifically, it can be fabricated using standard printed circuit technology and integrated on a single board with active radiating elements and feed lines. In addition to the FSS superstrate, a modified version of the stripline-based folded Marchand balun is presented. As usual the balun serves to match the 50Ω coaxial cable to the high input impedance ( 200Ω) at the terminals of array elements. Doing so, earlier Wilkinson power dividers, which degrade efficiency during E-plane scanning, are eliminated. To verify the proposed array concept, 12x12 TCDA prototype was fabricated using the modified balun and the new FSS superstrate layer. The design and experimental data showed an impedance bandwidth of 6.1:1 with VSWR<3.2. The latter VSWR was achieved even when scanning down to +/-60° in the H-plane, +/-70° in the D-plane and +/-75° in the E-plane. All array

  9. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST

  10. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

    2002-09-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  11. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry L.; Ho, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  12. Effects of incident energy and angle on carbon cluster ions implantation on silicon substrate: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ye; Sang, Shengbo; Zhou, Bing; Deng, Xiao; Chai, Jing; Ji, Jianlong; Ge, Yang; Huo, Yuanliang; Zhang, Wendong

    2017-09-01

    Carbon cluster ion implantation is an important technique in fabricating functional devices at micro/nanoscale. In this work, a numerical model is constructed for implantation and implemented with a cutting-edge molecular dynamics method. A series of simulations with varying incident energies and incident angles is performed for incidence on silicon substrate and correlated effects are compared in detail. Meanwhile, the behavior of the cluster during implantation is also examined under elevated temperatures. By mapping the nanoscopic morphology with variable parameters, numerical formalism is proposed to explain the different impacts on phrase transition and surface pattern formation. Particularly, implantation efficiency (IE) is computed and further used to evaluate the performance of the overall process. The calculated results could be properly adopted as the theoretical basis for designing nano-structures and adjusting devices’ properties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51622507, 61471255, 61474079, 61403273, 51502193, 51205273), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi (Nos. 201601D021057, 201603D421035), the Youth Foundation Project of Shanxi Province (Nos. 2015021097), the Doctoral Fund of MOE of China (No. 20131402110013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015AA042601), and the Specialized Project in Public Welfare from The Ministry of Water Resources of China (Nos. 1261530110110).

  13. Effects of spray axis incident angle on heat transfer performance of rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube interior spray evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ru-Li; Chang, Tong-Bou; Liang, Chih-Chang

    2012-01-01

    An interior spray method is proposed for enhancing the heat transfer performance of a compact rhombus-pitch shell-and-tube spray evaporator. The experimental results show that the shell-side heat transfer coefficient obtained using the proposed spray method is significantly higher than that achieved in a conventional flooded-type evaporator. Four different spray axis incident angles (0 .deg., 45 .deg., 60 .deg. and 75 .deg.) are tested in order to investigate the effect of the spray inclination angle on the heat transfer performance of the spray evaporator system. It is shown that the optimal heat transfer performance is obtained using a spray axis incident angle of 60 .deg.

  14. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  15. Dimensional nanometrology with grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernecke, Jan; Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Marggraf, Stefanie; Mueller, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Reliable methods for dimensional characterisation of structures in the nanometer range are now a necessity in many fields of industry and science, e.g. for next-generation EUV lithography, new photovoltaic devices or magnetic nanoparticles. The method we have chosen for measurements of statistically averaged structural properties of nanostructured surfaces is GISAXS. This is a versatile technique to probe statistic properties such as mean particle size, spacial distribution and roughness of nanostructured surfaces and nanoparticle assemblies on top of or buried in bulk material. The GISAXS experiments were performed at the Four-Crystal Monochromator (FCM) beamline in the laboratory of PTB at BESSY II using the SAXS setup of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). This presentation will give a short overview of the instrumentation and the capabilities of the laboratory to perform dimensional nanometrology with GISAXS and will show first experimental results. Gratings for EUV lithography have been investigated in terms of coating layer thickness, roughness, grating period and blaze angle. Furthermore, dimensional properties of Au nanoparticles on silicon substrate were determined. The obtained particle sizes were in good agreement with SAXS measurements of these particles in liquid suspension.

  16. Side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO 4 cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO 4 cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M 2 = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M 2 = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  17. The trapping of potassium atoms by a polycrystalline tungsten surface as a function of energy and angle of incidence. ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Overbosch, E.G.; Olander, D.R.; Los, J.

    1976-01-01

    The trapping probability of potassium atoms on a polycrystalline tungsten surface has been measured as a function of the angle of incidence and as a function of the energy of the incoming atoms. Below an energy of 1 eV the trapping was complete; above 20 eV only reflection occurred. The trapping probability increased with increasing angle of incidence. The measurements are compared with a simple model of the fraction of atoms initially trapped. The model, a one-dimensional cube model including a Boltzmann distribution of the velocities of oscillating surface atoms, partially explains the data. The trapping probability as a function of incoming energy is well described for normal incidence, justifying the inclusion of thermal motion of the surface atoms in the model. The angular dependence can be explained in a qualitative way, although there is a substantial discrepancy for large angles of incidence, showing the presence of surface structure. (Auth.)

  18. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering study of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weidong, E-mail: 57399942@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wu, Zhaojun [Department of Practice Teaching and Equipment Management, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Gu, Xiaohua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhonghua, E-mail: wuzh@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The size and distribution of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged silicate glass induced by thermal treatments in air at different temperatures were investigated by means of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering technique, X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra. Silver–sodium ion exchange of soda-lime silicate glasses was done at 350 °C for 240 min, then the samples were treated by thermal annealing in air at different temperatures 400, 500 and 550 °C, respectively, for 1 h. After the annealing treatment above 400 °C for 1 h, smaller Ag nanoparticles occurred, together with bigger ones. Both dissolution of smaller Ag nanoparticles and diffusion of larger ones are discussed in these stages of annealing in this contribution.

  19. Transient effects in SIMS analysis of Si with Cs sup + at high incidence angles Secondary ion yield variations

    CERN Document Server

    Heide, P A W

    2002-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis of Si wafers using 1 keV Cs sup + primary ions at large incidence angles (80 deg. ) is plagued by unusually strong transient effects (variations in both sputter and ion yields). Analysis of a native oxide terminated Si wafer with and without the aid of an O sub 2 leak, and an Ar sup + pre-sputtered wafer revealed correlations between the implanted Cs content and various secondary ion intensities consistent with that expected from a resonance charge transfer process (that assumed by the electron tunneling model). Cs concentrations were defined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the sputtered surface from SIMS profiles terminated within the transient region. These scaled with the surface roughening occurring under these conditions and can be explained as resulting from the associated drop in sputter rates. An O induced transient effect from the native oxide was also identified. Characterization of these effects allowed the reconstruction of ...

  20. In situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering investigation of polystyrene nanoparticle spray deposition onto silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Gerd; Benecke, Gunthard; Buffet, Adeline; Heidmann, Berit; Perlich, Jan; Risch, Johannes F H; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Yu, Shun; Wurth, Wilfried; Roth, Stephan V

    2013-09-10

    We investigated the spray deposition and subsequent self-assembly during drying of a polystyrene nanoparticle dispersion with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at high time resolution. During the fast deposition of the dispersion and the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, different transient stages of nanoparticle assembly can be identified. In the first stage, the solvent starts to evaporate without ordering of the nanoparticles. During the second stage, large-scale structures imposed by the breakup of the liquid film are observable. In this stage, the solvent evaporates further and nanoparticle ordering starts. In the late third drying stage, the nanoparticles self-assemble into the final layer structure.

  1. The double Brewster angle effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis

    2018-01-01

    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Lin Jiexing; Liu Xiaozhou; Liu Jiehui; Gong Xiufen

    2016-01-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. (paper)

  3. The atomic scale structure of CXV carbon: wide-angle x-ray scattering and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawelek, L; Brodka, A; Dore, J C; Honkimaki, V; Burian, A

    2013-11-13

    The disordered structure of commercially available CXV activated carbon produced from finely powdered wood-based carbon has been studied using the wide-angle x-ray scattering technique, molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations. The x-ray scattering data has been converted to the real space representation in the form of the pair correlation function via the Fourier transform. Geometry optimizations using classical molecular dynamics based on the reactive empirical bond order potential and density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g* level have been performed to generate nanoscale models of CXV carbon consistent with the experimental data. The final model of the structure comprises four chain-like and buckled graphitic layers containing a small percentage of four-fold coordinated atoms (sp(3) defects) in each layer. The presence of non-hexagonal rings in the atomic arrangement has been also considered.

  4. Dependence of secondary electron emission on the incident angle and the energy of primary electrons bombarding bowl-structured beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Jun; Ohya, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary electron emission from beryllium is combined with a model of bowl structure for surface roughness, for analyzing the difference between the electron emissions for normal and oblique incidences. At normal incidence, with increasing the roughness parameter H/W, the primary energy E pm at which the maximum electron yield occurs becomes higher, and at more than the E pm , the decrease in the yield is slower; where H and W are the depth and width of the bowl structure, respectively. The dispersion of incident angle to the microscopic surface causes a small increase in the yield at oblique incidence, whereas the blocking of primary electrons from bombarding the bottom of the structure causes an opposite trend. The strong anisotropy in the polar angular distribution with respect to the azimuthal angle is calculated at oblique incidence. (author)

  5. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. A computational procedure to define the incidence angle on airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method to calculate the incidence angle from a computed CFD flow field. • Applicable to each airfoil rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction. • Composed by four, easily automatable steps explained in details. • Robustness of the model assessed on two Darrieus turbine study cases. - Abstract: Numerical simulations provided in the last few years a significant contribution for a better understanding of many phenomena connected to the flow past rotating blades. In case of airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction, one of the most critical issues is represented by the definition of the incidence angle on the airfoil from the computed flow field. Incidence indeed changes continuously as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade and a distribution of peripheral speed is experienced along the airfoil’s thickness due to radius variation. The possibility of reducing the flow to lumped parameters (relative speed modulus and direction), however, would be of capital relevance to transpose accurate CFD numerical results into effective inputs to low-order models that are often exploited for preliminary design analyses. If several techniques are available for this scope in the case of blades rotating around an axis parallel to flow direction (e.g., horizontal-axis wind turbines), the definition of a robust procedure in case the revolution axis is orthogonal to the flow is still missing. In the study, a novel technique has been developed using data from Darrieus-like rotating airfoils. The method makes use of the virtual camber theory to define a virtual airfoil whose pressure coefficient distributions in straight flow are used to match those of the real airfoil in curved flow. Even if developed originally for vertical-axis wind turbines, the method is of general validity and is thought to represent in the near future a valuable tool for researchers to get a new insight on many complex phenomena connected to flow

  7. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao

    2013-01-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H p (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H p (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ( 137 Cs-662 keV e 60 Co - 1250 keV)

  8. SoftWAXS: a computational tool for modeling wide-angle X-ray solution scattering from biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep; Park, Sanghyun; Makowski, Lee

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to estimating wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) from proteins, which has been implemented in a computer program called SoftWAXS. The accuracy and efficiency of SoftWAXS are analyzed for analytically solvable model problems as well as for proteins. Key features of the approach include a numerical procedure for performing the required spherical averaging and explicit representation of the solute-solvent boundary and the surface of the hydration layer. These features allow the Fourier transform of the excluded volume and hydration layer to be computed directly and with high accuracy. This approach will allow future investigation of different treatments of the electron density in the hydration shell. Numerical results illustrate the differences between this approach to modeling the excluded volume and a widely used model that treats the excluded-volume function as a sum of Gaussians representing the individual atomic excluded volumes. Comparison of the results obtained here with those from explicit-solvent molecular dynamics clarifies shortcomings inherent to the representation of solvent as a time-averaged electron-density profile. In addition, an assessment is made of how the calculated scattering patterns depend on input parameters such as the solute-atom radii, the width of the hydration shell and the hydration-layer contrast. These results suggest that obtaining predictive calculations of high-resolution WAXS patterns may require sophisticated treatments of solvent.

  9. Crustal Deformation In the Northwestern Margin of the South China Sea: Results From Wide-angle Seismic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has undergone episodic spreading during the Cenozoic Era. The long-term extension has shaped the continental margins of the SCS, leading to a progressive breakup of the lithosphere. Separated blocks and rift troughs, as controlled by tectonic stretching, contains key information about the deforming mechanism of the crust. In this work, we present a P-wave velocity model of a wide-angle seismic profile OBS2013-1 which passes through the NW margin of the SCS. Modeling of 25 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) data revealed a detailed crustal structure and shallow complexities along the profile (Figure 1). The crust thins symmetrically across the Xisha Trough, from more than 20 km on flanks to 10 km in the central valley where the sediments thickens over 5 km; A volcano is situated on top of the centre basement high where the Moho drops slightly. At the distal margin around the Zhongsha Trough, the upper crust was detached and accordingly made the middle crust exhumed in a narrow area ( 20 km wide). Meanwhile, materials from the lower crust rises asymmetrically, increasing the crustal velocity by 0.3 km/s and may also giving rise to volcanisms along the hanging side. A 40 km wide hyper-stretched crust (with thickness of 5 km) was identified next to the Zhongsha Trough and covered by overflowing magma and post-rift sediments on the top. These observations argue for a depth-related and asymmetrically extension of the crust, including (1) detachment fault controls the deformation of the upper crust, leading to exhumation of the middle crust and asymmetrically rising of the lower crust, (2) The region adjacent to the exhumation region and with highly thinned crust can be considered as extinct OCT due to magma-starved supplying.

  10. Deep seismic transect across the Tonankai earthquake area obtained from the onshore- offshore wide-angle seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Fujie, G.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Kaneda, Y.; Ito, K.; Iwasaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, M8-class great earthquake area can be divided into three segments; they are source regions of the Nankai, Tonankai and presumed Tokai earthquakes. The Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. Hypocenters of these great earthquakes were usually located off the cape Shiono, Kii Peninsula, and the rupture propagated westwards and eastwards, respectively. To obtain the deep structure of the down-dip limit of around the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the segment boundary and first break area off the Kii Peninsula, the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic studies was conducted in the western and eastern part of the Kii Peninsula and their offshore area in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The result of the seismic study in 2004 is mainly shown here. Structural images along the onshore and offshore profiles have already been separately obtained. In this study, an onshore-offshore integrated image of the western part of the Kii Peninsula, ~400km in a total length, is obtained from first arrival tomography and traveltime mapping of reflection phases by combining dataset of 13 land explosions, 2269 land stations, 36 OBSs and 1806 offshore airgun shots. The subduction angle of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) gradually increases landward up to ~20-25 degree. Beneath the onshore part, the subducting PSP is estimated at ~5km shallower than that previously derived from seismicity. Low frequency earthquakes (identified and picked by Japan Meteorological Agency) are relocated around the plate interface of the subducting PSP by using the deep seismic transect obtained in this study. The offshore research is part of 'Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The onshore research carried by the Kyoto University is part of 'Special Project for

  11. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  12. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  13. The ITER Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System: Status of design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasca, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.salasca@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, Marie-Helene; Benoit, Fabrice; Cantone, Bruno; Corre, Yann; Delchambre, Elise; Ferlet, Marc; Gauthier, Eric; Guillon, Christophe; Houtte, Didier van; Keller, Delphine; Labasse, Florence; Larroque, Sebastien; Loarer, Thierry; Micolon, Frederic; Peluso, Bertrand; Proust, Maxime [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanchet, David; Peneliau, Yannick [CEA, DEN/DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Alonso, Javier [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The status of Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System is presented. • An assessment of measurement parameters relevant for machine protection has been done. • Remaining uncertainties will be clarified during the System Level Design (SLD). • WAVS design is not considered mature enough to launch prototypes of subcomponents. • Mandatory prototypes and qualification tests are already identified. • Next stage (SLD) will enable to do trade-offs and address pending design issues. - Abstract: The Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System (WAVS) is one of the ITER key diagnostics owing to its role in machine investment protection through the monitoring of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) by Infra-Red thermography and visible imaging. Foreseen to be installed in 4 equatorial port plugs to maximize the coverage of divertor, first wall, heating antennas and upper strike zone, the WAVS will likely be composed of 15 lines of sight and 15 optical systems transferring the light along several meters from the PFCs through the port plug and interspace up to detectors located in the port cell. After a conceptual design phase led by ITER Organization, the design is being further developed through a Framework Partnership Agreement signed between the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy, and a consortium gathering CEA, CIEMAT (with INTA as third party) and Bertin Technologies company. The next design step is the System Level Design (SLD) which will enable to consolidate the WAVS specifications as well as the performance realistically achievable (taking into account ITER and project constraints). The SLD has been preceded by a preparatory phase aiming at clarifying the WAVS functions and identifying critical prototyping. The outcomes of this preparatory phase are reported in this paper. First a review by the consortium of the WAVS measurement specifications is presented, for the purpose of a clearer separation of measurement

  14. Electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle and incident cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients (from the Strategies for the Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART] study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Khan, Faraaz; Roediger, Mollie P

    2013-01-01

    the baseline resting 12-lead electrocardiogram of 4,453 HIV-infected patients aged 43.5 ± 9.3 years from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. CVD events were identified during a median follow-up of 28.7 months. Quartiles of the spatial QRS-T angle was calculated for men......Widening of the electrocardiographic (ECG) spatial QRS-T angle has been predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population. However, its prognostic significance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remains unknown. The spatial QRS-T angle was derived from...... and women separately, and values in the upper quartile were considered as a widened angle (values >74° for women and >93° for men). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between a widened baseline spatial QRS-T angle and incident CVD events. During 11...

  15. Study on guided-mode resonance characteristic of multilayer dielectric grating with broadband and wide using-angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Peng, Wang; Yun-Xia, Jin; Jian-Yong, Ma; Jian-Da, Shao; Zheng-Xiu, Fan

    2010-01-01

    Guided-mode resonance in a diffraction band of multilayer dielectric gratings may lead to a catastrophic result in laser system, especially in the ultrashort pulse laser system, so the inhibition of guided-mode resonance is very important. In this paper the characteristics of guided-mode resonance in multilayer dielectric grating are studied with the aim of better understanding the physical process of guided-mode resonance and designing a broadband multilayer dielectric grating with no guided-mode resonance. By employing waveguide theory, all guided-wave modes appearing in multilayer dielectric grating are found, and the incident conditions, separately, corresponding to each guided-wave mode are also obtained. The electric field enhancement in multilayer dielectric grating is shown obviously. Furthermore, from the detailed analyses on the guided-mode resonance conditions, it is found that the reduction of the grating period would effectively avoid the appearing of guided-mode resonance. And the expressions for calculating maximum periods, which ensure that no guided-mode resonance occurs in the requiring broad angle or wavelength range, are first reported. The above results calculated by waveguide theory and Fourier mode method are compared with each other, and they are coincident completely. Moreover, the method that relies on waveguide theory is more helpful for understanding the guided-mode resonance excited process and analyzing how each parameter affects the characteristic of guided-mode resonance. Therefore, the effects of multilayer dielectric grating parameters, such as period, fill factor, thickness of grating layer, et al., on the guided-mode resonance characteristic are discussed in detail based on waveguide theory, and some meaningful results are obtained. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Analysis of thin films prepared by vacuum-evaporation and dropping solution by Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Mitose, Kengo.

    1995-01-01

    We have introduced Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence (TAD-XRF) method for thin film and surface analysis. In this method, the sample on the optically flat substrate is irradiated with the glancing incidence of the primary X-ray, and the fluorescent X-rays emitted from the sample are detected at the glancing takeoff angle. We had previously calculated the relationship between the fluorescent X-ray intensity and the takeoff angle at the glancing incidence. The characterization of the thin film is achieved by investigating the dependence of the fluorescent X-ray intensity on the takeoff angle with the calculated curve. Using this analytical method, we have reported the results of the TAD-XRF measured for the evaporated thin films and the dried films from dropping solution in this paper. The effect of the thickness of the thin film, the density of the substrate and the incident angle on the TAD-XRF curve has been reported. In the case of the dried film from the dropping solution, a broad peak was observed at the takeoff angle which was close to the critical angle for the total reflection of the fluorescent X-ray in the TAD-XRF curve. This broad peak was explained by the double-excitation of the incident beam and the refracted beam of the fluorescent X-ray with the assumption that the X-ray which has a same wavelength to the observed fluorescent X-ray impinges upon the sample surface, because the reciprocity theorem is expected in the X-ray region. (author)

  17. Angle resolved electron spectroscopy of spontaneous ionization processes occurring in doubly charged ion-surface collisions at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Emmichoven, P.A.Z. van; Niehaus, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental setup used to measure electron spectra at well defined detection angles for grazing incidence doubly charged ion-surface collisions at keV-energies is described. Electron spectra are reported for the rare gas ions colliding with a Cu(110)-surface. The spectra are analyzed in terms of various spontaneous ionization processes using a newly developed model. It is found that double capture followed by atomic auto-ionization on the incoming trajectory and Auger-capture processes in which the first and second hole in the doubly charged projectiles are successively filled are the main processes contributing to the electron spectra. From a comparison of model calculations with measured spectra it is concluded that the metal electrons cannot adapt adiabatically to the sudden changes of the charge state of the projectile in front of the surface. A parameter characterizing the partly diabatic behavior is determined. The variation of spectra upon adsorption of a monolayer of oxygen on the surface is reported and discussed. (author)

  18. A Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering View of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavcevic, M.L.; Silovic, L.; Dubcek, P.; Pavlovic, M.; Bernstorff, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of ZnO films with vertically aligned and randomly distributed nano wires, grown through a hydrothermal growth process on nano structured ZnO seeding coatings and deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon and glass, respectively. The comparison of the scattering patterns of seeding coatings and nano wires showed that the scattering of vertically aligned nano wires exhibited a specific feature: the dominant characteristic of their scattering patterns is the appearance of fine structure effects around the specular peak. These effects were clarified by the combined reflection and scattering phenomena, suggested for the aligned nano wires-substrate system. Furthermore, they enabled the calculation of the average gyration radius of nano wires in horizontal direction. The calculated value was in good agreement with the radii of nano wires estimated by surface electron microscopy. Therefore, the observed feature in the scattering pattern can serve as evidence of the aligned growth of nano wires.

  19. Critical shoulder angle in an East Asian population: correlation to the incidence of rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun; Shiota, Yuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-05-03

    Focus has recently been on the critical shoulder angle (CSA) as a factor related to rotator cuff tear and osteoarthritis (OA) in the European population. However, whether this relationship is observed in the Asian population is unclear. The correlation between the CSAs measured on anteroposterior radiographs and the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears or OA changes was assessed in 295 patients. Rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. OA findings were classified using the Samilson-Prieto classification. The CSAs among the patients with rotator cuff tears, OA changes, and those without pathologies were compared. Multivariable analyses were used to clarify the potential risks for these pathologies. The mean CSA with rotator cuff tear (33.9° ± 4.1°) was significantly greater than that without a rotator cuff tear (32.3° ± 4.5°; P = .002). Multivariable analysis also showed that a greater CSA had a significantly increased risk of rotator cuff tears, with the odds ratio of 1.08 per degree. OA findings showed no significant correlation to the CSAs. Our study demonstrates that the CSA is greater in those with a rotator cuff tear than in those without a tear or OA changes, which may be an independent risk factor for the incidence of rotator cuff tears in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-range order in Fe-based metallic glasses: Wide-angle X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babilas, Rafał; Hawełek, Łukasz; Burian, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The local atomic structure of the Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 glasses prepared in the form of ribbons has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. Structural information about the amorphous ribbons has been derived from analysis of the radial distribution functions using the least-squares curve-fitting method. The obtained structural parameters indicate that Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb and Nb–B contributions are involved in the near-neighbor coordination spheres. The possible similarities of the local atomic arrangement in the investigated glasses and the crystalline Fe 3 B, Fe 23 B 6 and bcc Fe structures are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Pair distribution functions (a) and best-fit model and experimental radial distribution functions for Fe 80 B 20 (b), Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 (c) and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 (d) metallic glasses. - Highlights: • The short-range ordering in the Fe-based metallic glasses is presented. • The results of RDF function have been analyzed using the least-squares method. • The Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb or Nb–B contributions are involved in coordination spheres. • The structural unit is distorted triangular prism containing B, Fe or Nb atoms. • Similarities of atomic arrangement in glassy and crystalline structures are discussed

  1. Conversion of Natural Tannin to Hydrothermal and Graphene-Like Carbons Studied by Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Karolina; Hawełek, Łukasz; Balin, Katarzyna; Szade, Jacek; Braghiroli, Flavia L; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain; Burian, Andrzej

    2015-08-13

    The atomic structure of carbon materials prepared from natural tannin by two different techniques, high-temperature pyrolysis and low-temperature hydrothermal carbonization, was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. The obtained diffraction data were converted to the real space representation in the form of pair distribution functions. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements provided information about the chemical state of carbon in tannin-based materials that was used to construct final structural models of the investigated samples. The results of the experimental data in both reciprocal and real spaces were compared with computer simulations based on the PM7 semiempirical quantum chemical method. Using the collected detailed information, structural models of the tannin-based carbons were proposed. The characteristics of the investigated materials at the atomic level were discussed in relation to their preparation method. The rearrangement of the tannin molecular structure and its transformation to graphene-like structure was described. The structure of tannin-based carbons pyrolyzed at 900 °C exhibited coherently scattering domains about 20 Å in size, consisting of two defected atomic layers and resembling a graphene-like arrangement.

  2. Crustal Structure of the Ionian Basin and Eastern Sicily Margin: Results From a Wide-Angle Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellong, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Kopp, Heidrun; Graindorge, David; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Murphy, Shane; Gutscher, Marc-Andre

    2018-03-01

    In the Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean) the slow convergence between Africa and Eurasia results in the formation of a narrow subduction zone. The nature of the crust of the subducting plate remains debated and could represent the last remnants of the Neo-Tethys ocean. The origin of the Ionian basin is also under discussion, especially concerning the rifting mechanisms as the Malta Escarpment could represent a remnant of this opening. This subduction retreats toward the south-east (motion occurring since the last 35 Ma) but is confined to the narrow Ionian basin. A major lateral slab tear fault is required to accommodate the slab roll-back. This fault is thought to propagate along the eastern Sicily margin but its precise location remains controversial. This study focuses on the deep crustal structure of the eastern Sicily margin and the Malta Escarpment. We present two two-dimensional P wave velocity models obtained from forward modeling of wide-angle seismic data acquired onboard the R/V Meteor during the DIONYSUS cruise in 2014. The results image an oceanic crust within the Ionian basin as well as the deep structure of the Malta Escarpment, which presents characteristics of a transform margin. A deep and asymmetrical sedimentary basin is imaged south of the Messina strait and seems to have opened between the Calabrian and Peloritan continental terranes. The interpretation of the velocity models suggests that the tear fault is located east of the Malta Escarpment, along the Alfeo fault system.

  3. High-energy coherent terahertz radiation emitted by wide-angle electron beams from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Brunetti, Enrico; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2018-04-01

    High-charge electron beams produced by laser-wakefield accelerators are potentially novel, scalable sources of high-power terahertz radiation suitable for applications requiring high-intensity fields. When an intense laser pulse propagates in underdense plasma, it can generate femtosecond duration, self-injected picocoulomb electron bunches that accelerate on-axis to energies from 10s of MeV to several GeV, depending on laser intensity and plasma density. The process leading to the formation of the accelerating structure also generates non-injected, sub-picosecond duration, 1–2 MeV nanocoulomb electron beams emitted obliquely into a hollow cone around the laser propagation axis. These wide-angle beams are stable and depend weakly on laser and plasma parameters. Here we perform simulations to characterise the coherent transition radiation emitted by these beams if passed through a thin metal foil, or directly at the plasma–vacuum interface, showing that coherent terahertz radiation with 10s μJ to mJ-level energy can be produced with an optical to terahertz conversion efficiency up to 10‑4–10‑3.

  4. Genome-wide linkage scan for primary open angle glaucoma: influences of ancestry and age at diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy R Crooks

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common form of glaucoma and one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. The genetic etiology of POAG is complex and poorly understood. The purpose of this work is to identify genomic regions of interest linked to POAG. This study is the largest genetic linkage study of POAG performed to date: genomic DNA samples from 786 subjects (538 Caucasian ancestry, 248 African ancestry were genotyped using either the Illumina GoldenGate Linkage 4 Panel or the Illumina Infinium Human Linkage-12 Panel. A total of 5233 SNPs was analyzed in 134 multiplex POAG families (89 Caucasian ancestry, 45 African ancestry. Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed on the overall dataset and within race-specific datasets (Caucasian ancestry and African ancestry. Ordered subset analysis was used to stratify the data on the basis of age of glaucoma diagnosis. Novel linkage regions were identified on chromosomes 1 and 20, and two previously described loci-GLC1D on chromosome 8 and GLC1I on chromosome 15--were replicated. These data will prove valuable in the context of interpreting results from genome-wide association studies for POAG.

  5. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15 = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  6. Combined in situ small and wide angle X-ray scattering studies of TiO2 nano-particle annealing to 1023 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    Combined in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) studies were performed in a recently developed laboratory setup to investigate the dynamical properties of dry oleic acid-capped titanium dioxide nanorods during annealing in an inert gas stream in a temperature interval of 298-1...

  7. Agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula in the Reykjavik eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csutak, A; Lengyel, I; Jonasson, F; Leung, I; Geirsdottir, A; Xing, W; Peto, T

    2010-10-01

    To establish the agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula. In 2008, the 12-year follow-up was conducted on 573 participants of the Reykjavik Eye Study. This study included the use of the Optos P200C AF ultra wide-angle laser scanning ophthalmoscope alongside Zeiss FF 450 conventional digital fundus camera on 121 eyes with or without age-related macular degeneration using the International Classification System. Of these eyes, detailed grading was carried out on five cases each with hard drusen, geographic atrophy and chorioretinal neovascularisation, and six cases of soft drusen. Exact agreement and κ-statistics were calculated. Comparison of the conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula showed an overall 96.43% agreement (κ=0.93) with no disagreement at end-stage disease; although in one eye chorioretinal neovascularisation was graded as drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment. Of patients with drusen only, the exact agreement was 96.1%. The detailed grading showed no clinically significant disagreement between the conventional 45° and 200° images. On the basis of our results, there is a good agreement between grading conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula.

  8. Per-point and per-field contextual classification of multipolarization and multiple incidence angle aircraft L-band radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Roger M.; Hussin, Yousif Ali

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized aircraft L-band radar data are classified using two different image classification algorithms: (1) a per-point classifier, and (2) a contextual, or per-field, classifier. Due to the distinct variations in radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle, the data are stratified into three incidence-angle groupings, and training and test data are defined for each stratum. A low-pass digital mean filter with varied window size (i.e., 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels) is applied to the data prior to the classification. A predominately forested area in northern Florida was the study site. The results obtained by using these image classifiers are then presented and discussed.

  9. Noble-gas ion sputtering yield of gold and copper: Dependence on the energy and angle of incidence of the projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Florio, A.; Baragiola, R.A.; Jakas, M.M.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.

    1987-02-15

    We have measured the sputtering yield of Au and Cu targets as a function of energy and the angle of incidence of noble-gas projectiles in the energy range 2--50 keV. The experimental results were compared with the analytical theory of sputtering and with computer simulations. Our study indicates that the linear-cascade model is applicable only asymptotically for low nuclear stopping powers.

  10. Lithospheric structure along wide-angle seismic profile GEORIFT 2013 in Pripyat-Dnieper-Donets Basin (Belarus and Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Yegorova, T.; Czuba, W.; Środa, P.; Lysynchuk, D.; Aizberg, R.; Garetsky, R.; Karataev, G.; Gribik, Y.; Farfuliak, L.; Kolomiyets, K.; Omelchenko, V.; Komminaho, K.; Tiira, T.; Gryn, D.; Guterch, A.; Legostaeva, O.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.

    2018-03-01

    The GEORIFT 2013 (GR'13) WARR (wide-angle reflection and refraction) experiment was carried out in 2013 in the territory of Belarus and Ukraine with broad international co-operation. The aim of the work is to study basin architecture and deep structure of the Pripyat-Dnieper-Donets Basin (PDDB), which is the deepest and best studied Palaeozoic rift basin in Europe. The PDDB is located in the southern part of the East European Craton (EEC) and crosses Sarmatia—one of the three segments of the EEC. The PDDB was formed by Late Devonian rifting associated with domal basement uplift and magmatism. The GR'13 extends in NW-SE direction along the PDDB strike and crosses the Pripyat Trough (PT) and Dnieper Graben (DG) separated by the Bragin Uplift (BU) of the basement. The field acquisition along the GR'13 (of 670 km total length) involved 14 shots and recorders deployed every ˜2.2 km for several shot points. The good quality of the data, with first arrivals visible up to 670 km for several shot points, allowed for construction of a velocity model extending to 80 km depth using ray-tracing modelling. The thickness of the sediments (Vp < 6.0 km s-1) varies from 1-4 km in the PT, to ˜5 km in the NW part of the DG, to 10-13 km in the SE part of the profile. Below the DG, at ˜330-530 km distance, we observed an upwarping of the lower crust (with Vp of ˜7.1 km s-1) to ˜25 km depth that represents a rift pillow or mantle underplate. The Moho shallows southeastwards from ˜47 km in the PT to 40-38 km in the DG with mantle velocities of 8.35 and ˜8.25 km s-1 in the PT and DG, respectively. A near-horizontal mantle discontinuity was found beneath BU (a transition zone from the PT to the DG) at the depth of 50-47 km. It dips to the depth of ˜60 km at distances of 360-405 km, similar to the intersecting EUROBRIDGE'97 profile. The crust and upper mantle structure on the GR'13 may reflect varying intensity of rifting in the PDDB from a passive stage in the PT to active rifting

  11. Details of 1π sr wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens for electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analysis combined with real space imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, László; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Goto, Kentaro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new 1π sr Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lens (WAAEL), which works as a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM), a highly sensitive display-type electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analyzer. It can display two-dimensional angular distributions of charged particles within the acceptance angle of ±60° that is much larger than the largest acceptance angle range so far and comparable to the display-type spherical mirror analyzer developed by Daimon et al. . It has good focusing capabilities with 5-times magnification and 27(4) μm lateral-resolution. The relative energy resolution is typically from 2 to 5×10 -3 depending on the diameter of energy aperture and the emission area on the sample. Although, the lateral resolution of the presented lens is far from those are available nowadays, but this is the first working model that can form images using charged particles collected from 1π sr wide acceptance angle. The realization of such lens system is one of the first possible steps towards reaching the field of imaging type atomic resolution electron microscopy Feynman et al. Here some preliminary results are shown.

  12. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-11-01

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING AND ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY (EMSAT) Task Order 0003: Design of a Circularly Polarized, 20 60 GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    previously published linear -to-circular polarizers. This is because the first sheet has a low inductance in the -direction, which acts as a wire-grid...GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning Carl R. Pfeiffer Defense Engineering Corporation Boris Tomasic Multispectral Sensing and...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F/61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Carl R. Pfeiffer (Defense Engineering Corporation) Boris Tomasic (AFRL

  14. Penetration route of functional molecules in stratum corneum studied by time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiromitsu; Obata, Yasuko; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of functional molecules on corneocytes in stratum corneum using time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction after applying a functional molecule. From these results it was revealed that in the stratum corneum a typical hydrophilic molecule, ethanol, penetrates via the transcellular route and on the other hand a typical hydrophobic molecule, d-limonene, penetrates via the intercellular route.

  15. A hands-free region-of-interest selection interface for solo surgery with a wide-angle endoscope: preclinical proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyunghwa; Choi, Hyunseok; Hong, Hanpyo; Adikrishna, Arnold; Jeon, In-Ho; Hong, Jaesung

    2017-02-01

    A hands-free region-of-interest (ROI) selection interface is proposed for solo surgery using a wide-angle endoscope. A wide-angle endoscope provides images with a larger field of view than a conventional endoscope. With an appropriate selection interface for a ROI, surgeons can also obtain a detailed local view as if they moved a conventional endoscope in a specific position and direction. To manipulate the endoscope without releasing the surgical instrument in hand, a mini-camera is attached to the instrument, and the images taken by the attached camera are analyzed. When a surgeon moves the instrument, the instrument orientation is calculated by an image processing. Surgeons can select the ROI with this instrument movement after switching from 'task mode' to 'selection mode.' The accelerated KAZE algorithm is used to track the features of the camera images once the instrument is moved. Both the wide-angle and detailed local views are displayed simultaneously, and a surgeon can move the local view area by moving the mini-camera attached to the surgical instrument. Local view selection for a solo surgery was performed without releasing the instrument. The accuracy of camera pose estimation was not significantly different between camera resolutions, but it was significantly different between background camera images with different numbers of features (P solo surgeries without a camera assistant.

  16. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (∼10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (∼3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon–electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good

  17. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, Jose Trancoso

    2001-01-01

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 μm, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  18. Inner Stucture of Thin Films of Lamellar Poly(styrene-em>b>-butadiene) Diblock Copolymers as revealed by Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The lamellar orientation in supported, thin films of poly(styrene-b-butadiene) (P(S-b-B)) depends on block copolymer molar mass. We have studied films from nine block copolymer samples with molar masses between 13.9 and 183 kg/mol using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ...... quantitatively in the framework of our recently developed distorted-wave Born approximation model (Busch, P.; et al. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2006, 39, 433). The results cannot be explained from enthalpic considerations alone but point to the importance of entropic factors....

  19. Investigating the use of the dual-polarized and large incident angle of SAR data for mapping the fluvial and aeolian deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2] using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand. The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (σ° and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θi = 39.7 of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological

  20. Analyzing the Influence of the Angles of Incidence and Rotation on MBU Events Induced by Low LET Heavy Ions in a 28-nm SRAM-Based FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonfat, Jorge; Kastensmidt, Fernanda Lima; Artola, Laurent; Hubert, Guillaume; Medina, Nilberto H.; Added, Nemitala; Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, Fernando; Macchione, Eduardo L. A.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper shows the impact of low linear energy transfer heavy ions on the reliability of 28-nm Bulk static random access memory (RAM) cells from Artix-7 field-programmable gate array. Irradiation tests on the ground showed significant differences in the multiple bit upset cross section of configuration RAM and block RAM memory cells under various angles of incidence and rotation of the device. Experimental data are analyzed at transistor level by using the single-event effect prediction tool called multiscale single-event phenomenon prediction platform coupled with SPICE simulations.

  1. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawolle, M.; Körstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Metwalli, E.; Guo, S.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Herzog, G.; Benecke, G.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Buffet, A.; Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scattered intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.

  2. Structural evolution of regenerated silk fibroin under shear: Combined wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossle, Manfred; Panine, Pierre; Urban, Volker S.; Riekel, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The structural evolution of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin during shearing with a Couette cell has been studied in situ by synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques. An elongation of fibroin molecules was observed with increasing shear rate, followed by an aggregation phase. The aggregates were found to be amorphous with β-conformation according to infrared spectroscopy. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction with a 5 (micro)m beam on aggregated material, which had solidified in air, showed silk II reflections and a material with equatorial reflections close to the silk I structure reflections, but with strong differences in reflection intensities. This silk I type material shows up to two low-angle peaks suggesting the presence of water molecules that might be intercalated between hydrogen-bonded sheets.

  3. Structural evolution of regenerated silk fibroin under shear: Combined wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossle, Manfred [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), France; Panine, Pierre [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Riekel, Christine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)

    2004-04-01

    The structural evolution of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin during shearing with a Couette cell has been studied in situ by synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques. An elongation of fibroin molecules was observed with increasing shear rate, followed by an aggregation phase. The aggregates were found to be amorphous with {beta}-conformation according to infrared spectroscopy. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction with a 5 {micro}m beam on aggregated material, which had solidified in air, showed silk II reflections and a material with equatorial reflections close to the silk I structure reflections, but with strong differences in reflection intensities. This silk I type material shows up to two low-angle peaks suggesting the presence of water molecules that might be intercalated between hydrogen-bonded sheets.

  4. In-situ small/wide-angle neutron scattering studies of the cluster structure in polyelectrolyte membrane for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Michiyo; Otomo, Toshiya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Kanno, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Satoru; Hyodo, Shiaki

    2007-01-01

    Proton conductivity of Nafion membrane is varied by humidity and it has been thought to be affected by the cluster structure of the membrane. We applied Small-Angle Scattering technique under humidity-controlled atmosphere with X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) to clarify the relationship between the cluster structure and molecular structure in two types of Nafion membrane, N115 and NE151F, which have different equivalent weight (EW). The proton conductivity of N115 is higher than that of NE151F. By these two measurements, three different sized periodic structures were observed in the Nafion membrane. Contrast variation method (D/H=60/40, 75/25, 80/20, 90/10) was also applied in SANS experiments and it was suggested that two of three peaks are originated from two different sizes of water clusters. A distinguishing peak at q=0.2[A -1 ], which shifts to lower q region by humidity increase, was reproduced by a simulation of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD): the shifts of the peak was interpreted as the swelling of cluster structure. The size of the cluster calculated from the peak position is positively correlated with the proton conductivity. Finally, the effect of EW on the proton conductivity of Nafion membrane was briefly discussed from the point of its cluster structure. (author)

  5. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  6. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Stewart, L.; Hale, G.M.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  7. Diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis with a wide scan angle compared to full-field digital mammography for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, Paola; Nagl, Georg; Helbich, Thomas H.; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Weber, Michael; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wide scan-angle DBT alone shows a high detection rate for microcalcifications. • DBT and FFDM can characterize microcalcifications at a comparable level. • Characterization is influenced by reader and by lesion type (benign vs malignant). • DBT might be used as a stand-alone technique for the assessment of microcalcifications. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), with a wide scan-angle, compared to full-field digital mammography (FFDM), for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. We selected 150 FFDM and DBT (50 benign and 50 malignant histologically verified microcalcifications, 50 cases classified as BI-RADS 1). Four radiologists evaluated, in separate sessions and blinded to patients’ history and histology, the presence of microcalcifications. Cases with microcalcifications were assessed for visibility, characteristics, and grade of suspicion using BI-RADS categories. Detection rate and diagnostic performance were calculated. Visibility, lesions’ characteristics and reading time were analysed. Results: Detection rate and visibility were good for both FFDM and DBT, without intra-reader differences (P = 0.510). Inter-reader differences were detected (P < 0.018). Only two lesions were not detected by any reader on either FFDM or DBT. Diagnostic performance with DBT was as good as that of FFDM, but a significant inter-reader difference was found (P = 0.041). High inter-reader variability in the use of the descriptors was found. Reading time for DBT was almost twice that for FFDM (44 and 25 s, respectively). Conclusion: Wide scan-angle DBT enabled the detection and characterization of microcalcifications with no significant differences from FFDM. Inter-reader variability was seen.

  8. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  9. Diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis with a wide scan angle compared to full-field digital mammography for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, Paola, E-mail: paola.clauser@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Nagl, Georg [Department for Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Landesklinikum Horn, Spitalgasse 10, 3580 Horn (Austria); Helbich, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.helbich@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Baltzer, Pascal A.T. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Wide scan-angle DBT alone shows a high detection rate for microcalcifications. • DBT and FFDM can characterize microcalcifications at a comparable level. • Characterization is influenced by reader and by lesion type (benign vs malignant). • DBT might be used as a stand-alone technique for the assessment of microcalcifications. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), with a wide scan-angle, compared to full-field digital mammography (FFDM), for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. We selected 150 FFDM and DBT (50 benign and 50 malignant histologically verified microcalcifications, 50 cases classified as BI-RADS 1). Four radiologists evaluated, in separate sessions and blinded to patients’ history and histology, the presence of microcalcifications. Cases with microcalcifications were assessed for visibility, characteristics, and grade of suspicion using BI-RADS categories. Detection rate and diagnostic performance were calculated. Visibility, lesions’ characteristics and reading time were analysed. Results: Detection rate and visibility were good for both FFDM and DBT, without intra-reader differences (P = 0.510). Inter-reader differences were detected (P < 0.018). Only two lesions were not detected by any reader on either FFDM or DBT. Diagnostic performance with DBT was as good as that of FFDM, but a significant inter-reader difference was found (P = 0.041). High inter-reader variability in the use of the descriptors was found. Reading time for DBT was almost twice that for FFDM (44 and 25 s, respectively). Conclusion: Wide scan-angle DBT enabled the detection and characterization of microcalcifications with no significant differences from FFDM. Inter-reader variability was seen.

  10. Higher-order-structure formation in liquid crystal epoxy thermosets investigated by synchrotron radiation-wide-angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Rina; Okuhara, Kenta; Nakamura, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Uehara, Yasushi; Motoya, Tsukasa; Nobutoki, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

    We report the investigation of the mesophase transformations of a liquid crystalline molecule with terminal epoxy groups from the initial stages of curing with a diamine compound. The ordered arrangement of molecules within the smectic layers in the thermoset formed at the end of the curing process was characterized by synchrotron radiation-wide-angle X-ray diffraction (SR-WAXD). Data from this experiment helps us understand the phase transitions from the nematic to smectic phases of curing liquid crystalline epoxies. (author)

  11. New calculations of cross-sections and charge asymmetries for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering in e+e- collisions near the Z-peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    1994-03-01

    A new event generator for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering, BHAGENE3, is presented. Both electroweak and higher order (beyond O(α) QED corrections are included. Comparisons are made with results from the programs, based on the structure function formalism, ALIBABA, TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. For the case of the final states l+l-γγ ( l = e, μ, τ) BHAGENE3 results are compared with those of Monte Carlo generators that use the exact O( α2) amplitudes.

  12. Accuracy & Computational Considerations for Wide--Angle One--way Seismic Propagators and Multiple Scattering by Invariant Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Pseudodifferential operators (PSDOs) yield in principle exact one--way seismic wave equations, which are attractive both conceptually and for their promise of computational efficiency. The one--way operators can be extended to include multiple--scattering effects, again in principle exactly. In practice approximations must be made and, as an example, the variable--wavespeed Helmholtz equation for scalar waves in two space dimensions is here factorized to give the one--way wave equation. This simple case permits clear identification of a sequence of physically reasonable approximations to be used when the mathematically exact PSDO one--way equation is implemented on a computer. As intuition suggests, these approximations hinge on the medium gradients in the direction transverse to the main propagation direction. A key point is that narrow--angle approximations are to be avoided in the interests of accuracy. Another key consideration stems from the fact that the so--called ``standard--ordering'' PSDO indicates how lateral interpolation of the velocity structure can significantly reduce computational costs associated with the Fourier or plane--wave synthesis lying at the heart of the calculations. The decision on whether a slow or a fast Fourier transform code should be used rests upon how many lateral model parameters are truly distinct. A third important point is that the PSDO theory shows what approximations are necessary in order to generate an exponential one--way propagator for the laterally varying case, representing the intuitive extension of classical integral--transform solutions for a laterally homogeneous medium. This exponential propagator suggests the use of larger discrete step sizes, and it can also be used to approach phase--screen like approximations (though the latter are not the main interest here). Numerical comparisons with finite--difference solutions will be presented in order to assess the approximations being made and to gain an understanding

  13. Bio-Inspired Wide-Angle Broad-Spectrum Cylindrical Lens Based on Reflections from Micro-Mirror Array on a Cylindrical Elastomeric Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chieh Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a wide-angle, broad-spectrum cylindrical lens based on reflections from an array of three-dimensional, high-aspect-ratio micro-mirrors fabricated on a cylindrical elastomeric substrate, functionally inspired by natural reflecting superposition compound eyes. Our device can perform one-dimensional focusing and beam-shaping comparable to conventional refraction-based cylindrical lenses, while avoiding chromatic aberration. The focal length of our cylindrical lens is 1.035 mm, suitable for micro-optical systems. Moreover, it demonstrates a wide field of view of 152° without distortion, as well as modest spherical aberrations. Our work could be applied to diverse applications including laser diode collimation, barcode scanning, holography, digital projection display, microlens arrays, and optical microscopy.

  14. A wide-angle gradient index optical model of the crystalline lens and eye of the octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, W S; Sands, P J

    1999-08-01

    Cephalopods and fish have had no common ancestor since the Cambrian, and their eyes are a classic example of convergent evolution. The octopus has no cornea, and immerson renders the trout cornea optically ineffective. As a result, the nearly spherical lens is responsible for all refraction in these eyes. In spite of the fact that the octopus lens consists of two joined parts, while the trout lens consists of one part, we show here that their optical properties are very similar. An index gradient bends rays within these lenses, adding power and correcting spherical aberration. High spherical symmetry in both lenses strongly reduces other monochromatic aberrations and yields a wide field of vision, advantageous in attack and evasion. The octopus Mattheissen's ratio, 2.83, an inverse measure of light-gathering power, lies above the trout value of 2.38 but within the range of values reported for fish. Strong uncorrected longitudinal chromatic aberration is nearly identical in both animals as a result of similar lens protein optical properties, and will limit resolution. We discuss how animal lifestyle requirements and lens material properties influence the design of these eyes.

  15. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  16. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A.B.; Rohde, C.A.; Ho, Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  17. Scalable, "Dip-and-Dry" Fabrication of a Wide-Angle Plasmonic Selective Absorber for High-Efficiency Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jyotirmoy; Wang, Derek; Overvig, Adam C; Shi, Norman N; Paley, Daniel; Zangiabadi, Amirali; Cheng, Qian; Barmak, Katayun; Yu, Nanfang; Yang, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    A galvanic-displacement-reaction-based, room-temperature "dip-and-dry" technique is demonstrated for fabricating selectively solar-absorbing plasmonic-nanoparticle-coated foils (PNFs). The technique, which allows for facile tuning of the PNFs' spectral reflectance to suit different radiative and thermal environments, yields PNFs which exhibit excellent, wide-angle solar absorptance (0.96 at 15°, to 0.97 at 35°, to 0.79 at 80°), and low hemispherical thermal emittance (0.10) without the aid of antireflection coatings. The thermal emittance is on par with those of notable selective solar absorbers (SSAs) in the literature, while the wide-angle solar absorptance surpasses those of previously reported SSAs with comparable optical selectivities. In addition, the PNFs show promising mechanical and thermal stabilities at temperatures of up to 200 °C. Along with the performance of the PNFs, the simplicity, inexpensiveness, and environmental friendliness of the "dip-and-dry" technique makes it an appealing alternative to current methods for fabricating selective solar absorbers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Seismic structure from multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle data of Transect 0E in the Southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, P.; Holbrook, W.; Brown, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Fletcher, J.; Umhoefer, P.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Axen, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a velocity model from wide-angle data along with coincident prestack depth migration sections from seismic reflection data collected in the southern Gulf of California. Transect 0E runs NE to SW from the hills of Sierra Madre in mainland Mexico near Mazatlan to approximately 115 km into Gulf of California waters. Wide-angle data were recorded by 9 ocean bottom seismometers, deployed by the R/V New Horizon and 10 Reftek seismometers located along onshore extension of the transect. The average spacing for the OBS and Refteks is ~12 km and shots were fired from the R/V Maurice Ewing at 150 m intervals. Transect 0E crosses what it is believed to be extended continental crust and lies in the initial direction of extension characteristic of the proto-gulf. Preliminary results from the velocity model show upper crustal velocities of 6.1-6.3 km/s and lower crustal velocities of 6.7-7.0 km/s along the entire transect. Seismic velocities and crustal thicknesses observed along transect 0E are characteristic of non-volcanic margins.

  19. New developments in the simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scatterings and vibrational spectra for the static and dynamic analyses of the hierarchical structures of polymer solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Taiyo; Ninh, Tran Hai; Shimada, Shigeru; Nakatani, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Noboru; Masunaga, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    A simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Raman or transmission-type infrared spectroscopy was developed by us. Its purposes is to clarify the static and dynamic structural changes of polymer materials subjected to the various external condition changes. Some examples described here include the study of the stretch-induced reorientation phenomenon of a-axially-oriented polyethylene, the study of structural change in photo-induced solid-state polymerization reaction of muconic acid ester monomer crystal, the study of the two-stage high-temperature phase transitions of aliphatic nylons, the study of stress-induced crystalline phase transition of an oriented poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) sample and its relation to the higher-order structural change, and the study of structural regularization process of poly(L-lactic acid) in the isothermal crystallization of the meso phase. These case studies in the clarification of hierarchical structural changes of polymer materials have proven that the simultaneous measurement systems can be useful to examine the structural changes in polymer systems. (author)

  20. On the Emission of Electrons from Solid H_2 and D_2 by Bombardment with 1-3 keV Electrons up to Very Large Angles of Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition......Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60......, an ionization cascade treatment leads to an expression for the behavior of the yield of those secondary electrons that are generated directly by the primaries. The agreement with experimental data is good...

  1. The effect of oblique angle of sound incidence, realistic edge conditions, curvature and in-plane panel stresses on the noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, F.; Lameris, J.; Dunn, D.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments and a theoretical analysis were conducted to predict the noise reduction of inclined and curved panels. These predictions are compared to the experimental results with reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for panels under an oblique angle of sound incidence. Theoretical as well as experimental results indicate a big increase in noise reduction when a flat test panel is curved. Further curving the panel slightly decreases the noise reduction. Riveted flat panels are shown to give a higher noise reduction in the stiffness-controlled frequency region, while bonded panels are superior in this region when the test panel is curved. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. These test results indicate an important improvement in the noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity frequency.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of electron depth distribution and backscattering for carbon films deposited on aluminium as a function of incidence angle and primary energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Carbon films are deposited on various substrates (polymers, polyester fabrics, polyester yarns, metal alloys) both for experimental and technological motivations (medical devices, biocompatible coatings, food package and so on). Computational studies of the penetration of electron beams in supported thin film of carbon are very useful in order to compare the simulated results with analytical techniques data (obtained by scanning electron microscopy and/or Auger electron spectroscopy) and investigate the film characteristics. In the present paper, the few keV electron depth distribution and backscattering coefficient for the special case of film of carbon deposited on aluminium are investigated, by a Monte Carlo simulation, as a function of the incidence angle and primary electron energy. The simulated results can be used as a way to evaluate the carbon film thickness by a set of measurements of the backscattering coefficient.

  3. Accurate Molecular Orientation Analysis Using Infrared p-Polarized Multiple-Angle Incidence Resolution Spectrometry (pMAIRS) Considering the Refractive Index of the Thin Film Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Nobutaka; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Murdey, Richard; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    Infrared (IR) p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (pMAIRS) is a powerful tool for analyzing the molecular orientation in an organic thin film. In particular, pMAIRS works powerfully for a thin film with a highly rough surface irrespective of degree of the crystallinity. Recently, the optimal experimental condition has comprehensively been revealed, with which the accuracy of the analytical results has largely been improved. Regardless, some unresolved matters still remain. A structurally isotropic sample, for example, yields different peak intensities in the in-plane and out-of-plane spectra. In the present study, this effect is shown to be due to the refractive index of the sample film and a correction factor has been developed using rigorous theoretical methods. As a result, with the use of the correction factor, organic materials having atypical refractive indices such as perfluoroalkyl compounds ( n = 1.35) and fullerene ( n = 1.83) can be analyzed with high accuracy comparable to a compound having a normal refractive index of approximately 1.55. With this improved technique, we are also ready for discriminating an isotropic structure from an oriented sample having the magic angle of 54.7°.

  4. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.will@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Cluster of Excellence Engineering of Advanced Materials (EAM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Altenhoff, Michael [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  5. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Altenhoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  6. A novel approach to electron data background treatment in an online wide-angle spectrometer for laser-accelerated ion and electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, F. H.; Bin, J. H.; Englbrecht, F.; Haffa, D.; Bolton, P. R.; Gao, Y.; Hartmann, J.; Hilz, P.; Kreuzer, C.; Ostermayr, T. M.; Rösch, T. F.; Speicher, M.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P. G.; Schreiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-based ion acceleration is driven by electrical fields emerging when target electrons absorb laser energy and consecutively leave the target material. A direct correlation between these electrons and the accelerated ions is thus to be expected and predicted by theoretical models. We report on a modified wide-angle spectrometer, allowing the simultaneous characterization of angularly resolved energy distributions of both ions and electrons. Equipped with online pixel detectors, the RadEye1 detectors, the investigation of this correlation gets attainable on a single shot basis. In addition to first insights, we present a novel approach for reliably extracting the primary electron energy distribution from the interfering secondary radiation background. This proves vitally important for quantitative extraction of average electron energies (temperatures) and emitted total charge.

  7. Microstructural Parameters in 8 MeV Electron-Irradiated BOMBYX MORI Silk Fibers by Wide-ANGLE X-Ray Scattering Studies (waxs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangappa, Asha, S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Subramanya, G.; Parameswara, P.; Somashekar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The present work looks into the microstructural modification in electron irradiated Bombyx mori P31 silk fibers. The irradiation process was performed in air at room temperature using 8 MeV electron accelerator at different doses: 0, 25, 50 and 100 kGy. Irradiation of polymer is used to cross-link or degrade the desired component or to fix the polymer morphology. The changes in microstructural parameters in these natural polymer fibers have been computed using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data and employing line profile analysis (LPA) using Fourier transform technique of Warren. Exponential, Lognormal and Reinhold functions for the column length distributions have been used for the determination of crystal size, lattice strain and enthalpy parameters.

  8. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.

    1990-10-01

    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  9. Measurable position-sensitive wide-angle interference effects of single photons radiated by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor Varro

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon wide-angle interference phenomena have been studied theoretically for glass-diamond-oil (air) layered structures. As a single optical radiator, one NV-center has been assumed close to the upper surface of a diamond plate, and it was represented by a Hertzian dipole of arbitrary orientation. It has been shown that the far-field interference pattern (of 3/5 or 100% visibility) is sensitive to the vertical position of the NV-center, to that extent that ∼2 nm difference in distance from the upper surface of the diamond results in ∼0.01 degree shift of the pattern, which should be a measurable effect. (author)

  10. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanny, M.; Salasca, S.; Dapena, M.; Cantone, B.; Travère, J. M.; Thellier, C.; Fermé, J. J.; Marot, L.; Buravand, O.; Perrollaz, G.; Zeile, C.

    2012-01-01

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  11. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: a comparison of new and existing models from wide angle and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biari, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Louden, K. E.; Berglar, K.; Moulin, M.; Mehdi, K.; Graindorge, D.; Evain, M.; Benabellouahed, M.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from three study regions along the margin located in the North Moroccan salt basin, on the central continental margin offshore Safi and in the south, offshore Dakhla. In each of the study areas several combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles perpendicular and parallel to the margin have been acquired and forward modelled using comparable methods. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. In the North Moroccan Basin continental crust thins from originally 36 km to about 8 km in a 150 km wide zone. The basin itself is underlain by highly thinned continental crust. Offshore safi thinning of the continental crust is confined to a 130 km wide zone with no neighboring sedimentary basin underlain by continental crust. In both areas the zone of crustal thinning is characterised by the presence of large blocks and abundant salt diapirs. In the south crustal thinning is more rapid in a zone of 90 km and asymmetric with the upper crust thinning more closely to the continent than the lower crust, probably due to depth-dependent stretching and the presence of the precambrian Reguibat Ridge on land. Oceanic crust is characterised by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganisation. Volcanic activity seems to be confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the oceanic, which was related to no

  12. Microstructural parameters in 8 MeV Electron irradiated Bombyx mori silk fibers by wide-angle X-ray scattering studies (WAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halabhavi, Sangappa

    2009-01-01

    The present work looks into the microstructural modification in Bombyx mori silk fibers, induced by electron irradiation. The irradiation process was performed in air at room temperature by use of 8 MeV electron accelerators at different doses: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy respectively. Irradiation of polymer can be used to crosslink or degrade the desired component or to fixate the polymer morphology. The changes in microstructural parameters in these natural polymer fibers have been studied using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method. The crystal imperfection parameters such as crystallite size , lattice strain (g in %) and enthalpy (a * ) have been determined by line profile analysis (LPA) using Fourier method of Warren. Exponential, Lognormal and Reinhold functions for the column length distributions have been used for the determination of these parameters. The goodness of the fit and the consistency of these results suggest that the exponential distribution gives much better results, even though lognormal distribution has been widely used to estimate the similar stacking faults in metal oxide compounds. (author)

  13. High energy, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with a deformed pump and optimal crystal location for angle tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Chen, Zhenlei

    2017-03-20

    A high energy, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) has been demonstrated by using a deformed pump. The deformed pump is cut from a beam spot of 2 mm in diameter by a 1-mm-wide slit. In comparison with a small pump spot (1-mm diameter), the THz-wave coupling area for the deformed pump is increased without limitation to the low-frequency end of the tuning range. Besides, the crystal location is specially designed to eliminate the alteration of the output position of the pump during angle tuning, so the initially adjusted nearest pumped region to the THz-wave exit surface is maintained throughout the tuning range. The tuning range is 0.58-2.5 THz for the deformed pump, while its low frequency end is limited at approximately 1.2 THz for the undeformed pump with 2 mm diameter. The highest THz-wave output of 2 μJ, which is 2.25 times as large as that from the pump of 1 mm in diameter, is obtained at 1.15 THz under 38 mJ (300  MW/cm2) pumping. The energy conversion efficiency is 5.3×10-5.

  14. Tectonic History and Deep Structure of the Demerara Plateau from Combined Wide-Angle and Reflection Seismic Data and Plate Kinematic Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Museur, T.; Roest, W. R.; Graindorge, D.; Chauvet, F.; Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Poetisi, E.; Deverchere, J.; Lebrun, J. F.; Perrot, J.; Heuret, A.

    2017-12-01

    Many transform margins have associated intermediate depth marginal plateaus, which are commonly located between two oceanic basins. The Demerara plateau is located offshore Surinam and French Guiana. Plate kinematic reconstructions show that the plateau is located between the central and equatorial Atlantic in a position conjugate to the Guinean Plateau. In the fall of 2016, the MARGATS cruise acquired geophysical data along the 400 km wide Demerara plateau. The main objective of the cruise was to image the deep structure of the Demerara plateau and to study its tectonic history. A set of 4 combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles was acquired along the plateau, using 80 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 3 km long seismic streamer and a 8000 cu inch tuned airgun array. Forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data on a profile, located in the eastern part of the plateau and oriented in a NE-SW direction, images the crustal structure of the plateau, the transition zone and the neighbouring crust of oceanic origin, up to a depth of 40 km. The plateau itself is characterised by a crust of 30 km thickness, subdivided into three distinct layers. However, the velocities and velocity gradients do not fit typical continental crust, with a lower crustal layer showing untypically high velocities and an upper layer having a steep velocity gradient. From this model we propose that the lowermost layer is probably formed from volcanic underplated material and that the upper crustal layer likely consists of the corresponding extrusive volcanic material, forming thick seaward-dipping reflector sequences on the plateau. A basement high is imaged at the foot of the slope and forms the ocean-continent transition zone. Further oceanward, a 5-6 km thick crust is imaged with velocities and velocity gradients corresponding to a thin oceanic crust. A compilation of magnetic data from the MARGATS and 3 previous cruises shows a high amplitude magnetic anomaly along the northern

  15. Surface Plasmon Polariton Resonance of Gold, Silver, and Copper Studied in the Kretschmann Geometry: Dependence on Wavelength, Angle of Incidence, and Film Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kentaro; Nair, Selvakumar V.; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Seto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2017-12-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance spectra for noble metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) were comprehensively studied in the Kretschmann attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry, in the wavelength (λ) range from 300 to 1000 nm with the angle of incidence (θ) ranging from 45 to 60° and the film thickness (d) ranging from 41 to 76 nm. The experimental plasmon resonance spectra were reproduced by a calculation that included the broadening effects as follows: (1) the imaginary part of the bulk dielectric constant, (2) the thickness-dependent radiative coupling of the SPP at the metal-air interface to the prism, (3) the lack of conservation of the wavevector parallel to the interface kx(k||) caused by the surface roughness, (4) scanning λ at a fixed θ (changing both energy and kx at the same time) over the SPP dispersion relation. For Au and Ag, the experimental results were in good agreement with the calculated results using the bulk dielectric constants, showing no film thickness dependence of the plasmon resonance energy. A method to extract the true width of the plasmon resonance from raw ATR spectra is proposed and the results are rigorously compared with those expected from the bulk dielectric function given in the literature. For Au and Ag, the width increases with energy, in agreement with that expected from the relaxation of bulk free electrons including the electron-electron interaction, but there is clear evidence of extra broadening, which is more significant for thinner films, possibly due to relaxation pathways intrinsic to plasmons near the interface. For Cu, the visibility of the plasmon resonance critically depends on the evaporation conditions, and low pressures and fast deposition rates are required. Otherwise, scattering from the surface roughness causes considerable broadening of the plasmon resonance, resulting in an apparently fixed resonance energy without clear incident angle dependence. For Cu, the observed plasmon dispersion agrees well with

  16. Increasing incidence of statin prescribing for the elderly without previous cardiovascular conditions:  A nation wide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    Supported by the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of statins in a range of conditions, statin utilization has increased considerably in most Western countries over the last decade. Objectives To estimate to what extent a widening of indication scope for statins accounts for the increasing...... Danish statin utilization during 1996-2005, applying treatment incidence as a measure of changing prescribing behaviour Methods From three nationwide registers, we retrieved individual records on demographics, dispensed prescription drugs and hospital discharges. Danish inhabitants were followed...... for seven cardiovascular conditions, corresponding to a hierarchy of statin indications. Poisson regression analyses were applied to quantify the incidence growth, according to age and indication.  Results Treatment incidence increased from 4/1000 person years in 2000 to 17/1000 in 2005, the increase being...

  17. SU-F-T-84: Measurement and Monte-Carlo Simulation of Electron Phase Spaces Using a Wide Angle Magnetic Electron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englbrecht, F; Lindner, F; Bin, J; Wislsperger, A; Reiner, M; Kamp, F; Belka, C; Dedes, G; Schreiber, J; Parodi, K [LMU Munich, Munich, Bavaria (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To measure and simulate well-defined electron spectra using a linear accelerator and a permanent-magnetic wide-angle spectrometer to test the performance of a novel reconstruction algorithm for retrieval of unknown electron-sources, in view of application to diagnostics of laser-driven particle acceleration. Methods: Six electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 MeV, 40cm × 40cm field-size) delivered by a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator were recorded using a permanent-magnetic wide-angle electron spectrometer (150mT) with a one dimensional slit (0.2mm × 5cm). Two dimensional maps representing beam-energy and entrance-position along the slit were measured using different scintillating screens, read by an online CMOS detector of high resolution (0.048mm × 0.048mm pixels) and large field of view (5cm × 10cm). Measured energy-slit position maps were compared to forward FLUKA simulations of electron transport through the spectrometer, starting from IAEA phase-spaces of the accelerator. The latter ones were validated against measured depth-dose and lateral profiles in water. Agreement of forward simulation and measurement was quantified in terms of position and shape of the signal distribution on the detector. Results: Measured depth-dose distributions and lateral profiles in the water phantom showed good agreement with forward simulations of IAEA phase-spaces, thus supporting usage of this simulation source in the study. Measured energy-slit position maps and those obtained by forward Monte-Carlo simulations showed satisfactory agreement in shape and position. Conclusion: Well-defined electron beams of known energy and shape will provide an ideal scenario to study the performance of a novel reconstruction algorithm using measured and simulated signal. Future work will increase the stability and convergence of the reconstruction-algorithm for unknown electron sources, towards final application to the electrons which drive the interaction of TW-class laser

  18. Genome-wide analysis of central corneal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma cases in the NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Megan; Li, Jun; Yaspan, Brian L; Ozel, Ayse Bilge; Richards, Julia E; Moroi, Sayoko E; Hawthorne, Felicia; Budenz, Donald L; Friedman, David S; Gaasterland, Douglas; Haines, Jonathan; Kang, Jae H; Lee, Richard; Lichter, Paul; Liu, Yutao; Pasquale, Louis R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Realini, Anthony; Schuman, Joel S; Singh, Kuldev; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Young, Terri; Allingham, R Rand; Wiggs, Janey L; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Hauser, Michael A

    2012-07-03

    To investigate the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT)-associated variants on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) risk using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) and National Eye Institute (NEI) Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortia. A replication analysis of previously reported CCT SNPs was performed in a CCT dataset (n = 1117) and these SNPs were then tested for association with POAG using a larger POAG dataset (n = 6470). Then a CCT genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Top SNPs from this analysis were selected and tested for association with POAG. cDNA libraries from fetal and adult brain and ocular tissue samples were generated and used for candidate gene expression analysis. Association with one of 20 previously published CCT SNPs was replicated: rs12447690, near the ZNF469 gene (P = 0.001; β = -5.08 μm/allele). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with POAG. In the CCT GWAS, no SNPs reached genome-wide significance. After testing 50 candidate SNPs for association with POAG, one SNP was identified, rs7481514 within the neurotrimin (NTM) gene, that was significantly associated with POAG in a low-tension subset (P = 0.00099; Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.28). Additionally, SNPs in the CNTNAP4 gene showed suggestive association with POAG (top SNP = rs1428758; P = 0.018; OR = 0.84). NTM and CNTNAP4 were shown to be expressed in ocular tissues. The results suggest previously reported CCT loci are not significantly associated with POAG susceptibility. By performing a quantitative analysis of CCT and a subsequent analysis of POAG, SNPs in two cell adhesion molecules, NTM and CNTNAP4, were identified and may increase POAG susceptibility in a subset of cases.

  19. Hyperthyroidism incidence fluctuates widely in and around pregnancy and is at variance with some other autoimmune diseases: a Danish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women of reproductive age is predominantly caused by Graves' disease. Pregnancy associated changes in the immune system may influence the onset of disease, but population-based incidence rates in and around pregnancy have not been reported. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of maternal hyperthyroidism (defined by redeemed prescription of antithyroid drugs) in and around pregnancy and to compare this with the incidence of other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a population-based cohort study. The study used the Danish nationwide registers. The participants were women who gave birth to singleton liveborn children in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403,958). Incidence rates (IR) of maternal hyperthyroidism during a 4-year period beginning 2 years before and ending 2 years after the date when the mother was giving birth for the first time in the study period were measured. Altogether 3673 women (0.9%) were identified with an onset of hyperthyroidism from 1997 to 2010, and the overall IR of maternal hyperthyroidism was 65.0/100,000/year. The IR of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy varied widely and was high in the first 3 months of pregnancy [incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs the remaining study period: 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06)), very low in the last 3 months of pregnancy (0.26 (0.15-0.44)], and reached the highest level 7-9 months postpartum [3.80 (2.88-5.02)]. The incidence variation in and around pregnancy was different for RA and IBD. These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence of hyperthyroidism was high in early pregnancy and postpartum, whereas such particular pattern was not observed for other diseases of autoimmune origin.

  20. Responses of three-dimensional flow to variations in the angle of incident wind and profile form of dunes: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Namikas, Steven L.; Ollerhead, Jeff

    2009-04-01

    This study reports the responses of three-dimensional near-surface airflow over a vegetated foredune to variations in the conditions of incident flow during an 8-h experiment. Two parallel measurement transects were established on morphologically different dune profiles: i) a taller, concave-convex West foredune transect with 0.5-m high, densely vegetated (45%), seaward incipient foredune, and ii) a shorter, concave-straight East foredune transect with lower, sparsely vegetated (14%) seaward incipient foredune. Five stations on each transect from the incipient dune to the crest were equipped with ultrasonic anemometers at 0.6 and 1.65 m height and logged at 1 Hz. Incident conditions were recorded from a 4-m tower over a flat beach. Winds increased from 6 m s - 1 to > 20 m s - 1 and were generally obliquely onshore (ENE, 73°). Three sub-events and the population of 10-minute averages of key properties of flow ( U, W, S, CV U) from all sample locations on the East transect ( n = 235) are examined to identify location- and profile-specific responses over 52° of the incident direction of flow (from 11 to 63° onshore). Topographic steering and forcing cause major deviations in the properties and vectors of near-surface flow from the regional wind. Topographic forcing on the concave-straight dune profile increases wind speed and steadiness toward the crest, with speed-up values to 65% in the backshore. Wind speed and steadiness of flow are least responsive to changes in incident angle in the backshore because of stagnation of flow and are most responsive at the lower stoss under pronounced streamline compression. On the steeper concave-convex profile, speed and steadiness decrease toward the crest because of stagnation of flow at the toe and flow expansion at the slope inflection point on the lower stoss. Net downward vertical velocity occurs over both profiles, increases toward the crest, and reflects enhanced turbulent momentum conveyance toward the surface. All of

  1. Influences of wide-angle and multi-beam interference on the chromaticity and efficiency of top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Lingling; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Shufen, E-mail: iamsfchen@njupt.edu.cn; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lianhui [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shi, Hongying [Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Huang, Wei, E-mail: iamdirector@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Wide-angle interference (WI) and multi-beam interference (MI) in microcavity are analyzed separately to improve chromaticity and efficiency of the top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes (TWOLEDs). A classic electromagnetic theory is used to calculate the resonance intensities of WI and MI in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs) with influence factors (e.g., electrodes and exciton locations) being considered. The role of WI on the performances of TOLEDs is revealed through using δ-doping technology and comparing blue and red EML positions in top-emitting and bottom-emitting devices. The blue light intensity significantly increases and the chromaticity of TWOLEDs is further improved with the use of enhanced WI (the blue emitting layer moving towards the reflective electrode) in the case of a weak MI. In addition, the effect of the thicknesses of light output layer and carrier transport layers on WI and MI are also investigated. Apart from the microcavity effect, other factors, e.g., carrier balance and carrier recombination regions are considered to obtain TWOLEDs with high efficiency and improved chromaticity near white light equal-energy point.

  2. A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration in 2002 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica-Outline of observations (JARE-43-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration was successfully conducted along a profile crossing the JARE-41 seismic profile on the Mizuho Plateau, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 2001-2002 (JARE-43. One hundred sixty-one seismic stations were temporarily installed along a profile about 151 km long and seven large shots with about 700 kg of dynamite were fired. In addition, one shot with charge size of 20 kg was also arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals at distances of less than 100 km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and dispersed surface waves were clearly observed. Some later reflection phases were also detected. The obtained first travel time data show that the ice sheet is a two-layered structure consisting of an upper layer with a P wave velocity of 2.7-2.9 km/s and a lower layer of 3.7-3.9 km/s. The thickness of the upper layer is estimated to be about 36-45 m. The apparent velocity in the basement rock just beneath the ice sheet is 6.1-6.2 km/s in the central and southern parts of the profile and almost 5.9 km/s in the northern part. This report describes basic outlines of the exploration and the obtained seismic data.

  3. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  4. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  5. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  6. An analysis of the first-arrival times picked on the DSS and wide-angle seismic section recorded in Italy since 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tondi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed an analysis of refraction data recorded in Italy since 1968 in the frame of the numerous deep seismic sounding and wide-angle reflection/refraction projects. The aims of this study are to construct a parametric database including the recording geometric information relative to each profile, the phase pickings and the results of some kinematic analyses performed on the data, and to define a reference 1D velocity model for the Italian territory from all the available refraction data. As concerns the first goal, for each seismic section we picked the P-wave first-arrival-times, evaluated the uncertainties of the arrival-times pickings and determined from each travel time-offset curve the 1D velocity model. The study was performed on 419 seismic sections. Picking was carried out manually by an algorithm which includes the computation of three picking functions and the picking- error estimation. For each of the travel time-offset curves a 1D velocity model has been calculated. Actually, the 1D velocity-depth functions were estimated in three different ways which assume: a constant velocitygradient model, a varying velocity-gradient model and a layered model. As regards the second objective of this work, a mean 1D velocity model for the Italian crust was defined and compared with those used for earthquake hypocentre locations and seismic tomographic studies by different institutions operating in the Italian area, to assess the significance of the model obtained. This model can be used in future works as input for a next joint tomographic inversion of active and passive seismic data.

  7. Crustal thickness and velocity structure across the Moroccan Atlas from long offset wide-angle reflection seismic data: The SIMA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Palomeras, I.; Martí, D.; Kchikach, A.; Harnafi, M.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M. L.; Alcalde, J.; Fernández, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.

    2014-05-01

    The crustal structure and topography of the Moho boundary beneath the Atlas Mountains of Morocco has been constrained by a controlled source, wide-angle seismic reflection transect: the SIMA experiment. This paper presents the first results of this project, consisting of an almost 700 km long, high-resolution seismic profile acquired from the Sahara craton across the High and the Middle Atlas and the Rif Mountains. The interpretation of this seismic data set is based on forward modeling by raytracing, and has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness, with the Moho located at a minimum depth of 35 km to the S and at around 31 km to the N, in the Middle Atlas. Upper crustal shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust underthrusts the northern Moroccan crust. This feature defines a lower crust imbrication that, locally, places the Moho boundary at ˜40-41 km depth in the northern part of the High Atlas. The P-wave velocity model is characterized by relatively low velocities, mostly in the lower crust and upper mantle, when compared to other active orogens and continental regions. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as conductivity estimates derived from MT measurements, moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly, high heat flow, and surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanism lead to a model where partial melts are currently emplaced at deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The resulting model supports the existence of a mantle upwelling as mechanism that would contribute significantly to sustain the High Atlas topography. However, the detailed Moho geometry deduced in this work should lead to a revision of the exact geometry and position of this mantle feature and will require new modeling efforts.

  8. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: A comparison of new and existing models from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Biari, Youssef; Sahabi, Mohamed; Aslanian, Daniel; Schnabel, Michael; Matias, Luis; Benabdellouahed, Massinissa; Funck, Thomas; Gutscher, Marc-André; Reichert, Christian; Austin, James A.

    2016-04-01

    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from four study regions along the margin located in the south offshore DAKHLA, on the central continental margin offshore Safi, in the northern Moroccan salt basin, and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. Crustal thinning takes place over a region of 150 km in the north and only 70 km in the south. The North Moroccan Basin is underlain by highly thinned continental crust of only 6-8 km thickness. The ocean-continent transition zone shows a variable width between 40 and 70 km and is characterized by seismic velocities in between those of typical oceanic and thinned continental crust. The neighbouring oceanic crust is characterized by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganization. Volcanic activity seems to be mostly confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the ocean, which was associated to only weak volcanism. Comparison with the conjugate margin off Nova Scotia shows comparable continental crustal structures, but 2-3 km thinner oceanic crust on the American side than on the African margin.

  9. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation; Estudo da influencia da angulacao do feixe laser na morfologia de esmalte e dentina irradiados com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  10. Reduction of the divergence angle of an incident beam to enhance the demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system of several tens of keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system that produces ion beams with energies in the order of 10 keV was enhanced in this study so that a hydrogen ion beam with a diameter of 115 nm could be produced. The reduction of the divergence angle of the incident beam into the two-stage acceleration lens is the effective method for enhancing the demagnification factor. The divergence angle has been gradually reduced by firstly introducing the preacceleration electrodes to control the divergence angle, namely divergence-angle-control electrodes, and secondly replacing an anode with a modified anode that possesses a Pierce electrode, both of which were in an ion source directly connected to the lens. In this study, the divergence angle of less than 3.6 × 10-4 rad that was previously used to produce a 160-nm hydrogen ion beam with the energy of 46 keV by the above procedure was numerically determined using an ion beam extraction simulation code. The determined minimum divergence angle of the incident ion beam was calculated to be 2.0 × 10-4 rad, which was about half of the previously obtained divergence angle; this was used to experimentally form a hydrogen beam with a diameter of 115 ± 10 nm and the energy of 47 keV. The demagnification factor was estimated to be 1,739 using the newly formed hydrogen beam, which was similar to the simulation result.

  11. Deep structure of the continental margin and basin off Greater Kabylia, Algeria - New insights from wide-angle seismic data modeling and multichannel seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdi, Chafik; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdel Karim; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Bracene, Rabah; Galve, Audrey; Bounif, Abdallah; Schenini, Laure; Hamai, Lamine; Schnurle, Philippe; Djellit, Hamou; Sage, Françoise; Charvis, Philippe; Déverchère, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey aimed at investigating the deep structure of the Algerian margin and basin, two coincident wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles were acquired in central Algeria, offshore Greater Kabylia, together with gravimetric, bathymetric and magnetic data. This 260 km-long offshore-onshore profile spans the Balearic basin, the central Algerian margin and the Greater Kabylia block up to the southward limit of the internal zones onshore. Results are obtained from modeling and interpretation of the combined data sets. The Algerian basin offshore Greater Kabylia is floored by a thin oceanic crust ( 4 km) with P-wave velocities ranging between 5.2 and 6.8 km/s. In the northern Hannibal High region, the atypical 3-layer crustal structure is interpreted as volcanic products stacked over a thin crust similar to that bordering the margin and related to Miocene post-accretion volcanism. These results support a two-step back-arc opening of the west-Algerian basin, comprising oceanic crust accretion during the first southward stage, and a magmatic and probably tectonic reworking of this young oceanic basement during the second, westward, opening phase. The structure of the central Algerian margin is that of a narrow ( 70 km), magma-poor rifted margin, with a wider zone of distal thinned continental crust than on the other margin segments. There is no evidence for mantle exhumation in the sharp ocean-continent transition, but transcurrent movements during the second opening phase may have changed its initial geometry. The Plio-Quaternary inversion of the margin related to ongoing convergence between Africa and Eurasia is expressed by a blind thrust system under the margin rising toward the surface at the slope toe, and by an isostatic disequilibrium resulting from opposite flexures of two plates decoupled at the continental slope. This disequilibrium is likely responsible for the peculiar asymmetrical shape of the crustal neck that may thus

  12. Seismic Refraction & Wide-angle Reflection Experiment on the Northern Margin of North China Craton -Data Acquisition and Preliminary Processing Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Hou, H.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Chang, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Guan, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution history of Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) is still the main tectonic problems in northeastern Asia. The Siberia Craton (NC), North China Craton (NCC) and several blocks collided, and the resulting tectonic collage formed as the Paleo-Asian Ocean disappeared. Concerning the northern margin of North China Craton, many different geological questions remain unanswered, such as: the intracontinental orogenic process in the Yanshan orogen and the nature and location of the suture between the southern NC and the northern NCC. In Dec 2009, a 400 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profile was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. The survey line extended from the west end of the Yanshan orogen, across a granitoid belt to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explosions (500~1500 kg each) was conducted in four deployments of 300 Reftek125 (Texan) seismic recorders, with an average spacing of 1 km. For the calculations, we used the Rayinvr, Vmed and Zplot programs for ray tracing, model modification and phase picking. The initial result show that: 1)the depth of low velocity sediment cover ranges from 0.6 to 2.7 km (velocity: 2.8~5.6 km/s); 2)the depth of basement is 5.6~10 km (the depth of basement under the granitoid belt deepens to 10 km and velocity increases to 6.2 km/s); 3)the upper crust extends to a depth of 15.5~21 km and has the P-wave velocities between 5.6 and 6.4 km/s; 4)the thickness of the lower crust ranges from 22~28 km(velocity: 6.4~6.9 km/s); and 5)the depth of Moho varies from 39.5 km under the granitoid belt to 49 km under the Yanshan orogen. Based on these results, we can preliminarily deduce that: 1) the concave depression of the Moho observed represents the root of the Yanshan orogen, and it may prove that the orogen is dominated by thick-skinned tectonics; 2) the shape of velocity variations under the granitoid belt is suggestive of a magma conduit. It

  13. The structure of the Calabrian subduction system from the fore-arc to the back-arc: new insights from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, M.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.; Zitellini, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Calabrian arc is a Neogene-Quaternary arcuate orogen result from the subduction of the Ionian Lithosphere under Calabria. The SE migration of this subduction system, triggered by slab rollback, caused the opening of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. The large-scale lithospheric structure of the subduction system is mostly imaged by regional earthquake tomography studies. The limited resolution of these studies, however, hinders the definition of smaller-scale details on the location, nature and transition of different lithospheric domains, which are crucial to study the geodynamic evolution of the system. Here we perform travel-time tomography of offshore and onshore active-source wide-angle seismic data to define the 2D Vp structure of the entire Calabrian subduction system. The data were acquired along a 550 km-long transect that extends from the Tyrrhenian back-arc domain to the fore-arc in the Ionian Sea, across Calabria. From NW to SE, the tomographic model shows abrupt variations of the velocity structure. In the back-arc system, particularly in the Vavilov and Marsili basins, OBS sections lack PmP-like arrivals and the velocity structure shows a continuous and strong vertical velocity gradient of 1 s-1. These results strongly support the presence of a basement made of exhumed mantle rocks. Between the Vavilov and Marsili basins, a relatively thick, low-velocity block is interpreted to be of continental affinity. The transition between Marsili Basin and Calabria is marked by a steep Moho geometry that shallows from SE to NW, revealing a dramatic crustal thinning along the N Calabrian margin. The lower crust of the margin has localized Vp of 7 km/s under the submarine volcanic arc. SE Calabria, the model shows a strong horizontal velocity gradient that is interpreted as the backstop of the subduction. In the Ionian, a 3-5 km thick sedimentary wedge thickens towards the NW. The frontal part of the wedge shows sub-vertical low-velocity anomalies indicating the

  14. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  15. Watching Nanoparticles Form: An In Situ (Small-/Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Total Scattering) Study of the Growth of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia in Supercritical Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Pauw, Brian; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding nanoparticle formation reactions requires multitechnique in situ characterisation, since no single characterisation technique provides adequate information. Here, the first combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/total-scattering study of nano...... of nanoparticle formation is presented. We report on the formation and growth of yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) under the extreme conditions of supercritical methanol for particles with Y2O3 equivalent molar fractions of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 25%....

  16. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood from Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John C; Loh, Marie; Lehne, Benjamin; Drong, Alexander; Kriebel, Jennifer; Motta, Valeria; Wahl, Simone; Elliott, Hannah R; Rota, Federica; Scott, William R; Zhang, Weihua; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Yengo, Loic; Richmond, Rebecca C; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Afzal, Uzma; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Mok, Zuan Yu; Ng, Hong Kiat; Pattou, François; Prokisch, Holger; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Tarantini, Letizia; Abbott, James; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Albetti, Benedetta; Ammerpohl, Ole; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Blancher, Christine; Caiazzo, Robert; Danesh, John; Gaunt, Tom R; de Lusignan, Simon; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Jha, Sujeet; Jones, Simon; Jowett, Jeremy; Kangas, Antti J; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Kato, Norihiro; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Punjabi, Prakash; Saleheen, Danish; Schafmayer, Clemens; Soininen, Pasi; Tai, E-Shyong; Thorand, Barbara; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Aitman, Timothy J; Herder, Christian; Hampe, Jochen; Cauchi, Stéphane; Relton, Caroline L; Froguel, Philippe; Soong, Richie; Vineis, Paolo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Scott, James; Grallert, Harald; Bollati, Valentina; Elliott, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2015-07-01

    Indian Asians, who make up a quarter of the world's population, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether DNA methylation is associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence in Indian Asians and whether differences in methylation patterns between Indian Asians and Europeans are associated with, and could be used to predict, differences in the magnitude of risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We did a nested case-control study of DNA methylation in Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes who were identified from the 8-year follow-up of 25 372 participants in the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) study. Patients were recruited between May 1, 2002, and Sept 12, 2008. We did epigenome-wide association analysis using samples from Indian Asians with incident type 2 diabetes and age-matched and sex-matched Indian Asian controls, followed by replication testing of top-ranking signals in Europeans. For both discovery and replication, DNA methylation was measured in the baseline blood sample, which was collected before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Epigenome-wide significance was set at pdiabetes at baseline to estimate the potential contribution of DNA methylation to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian Asians. 1608 (11·9%) of 13 535 Indian Asians and 306 (4·3%) of 7066 Europeans developed type 2 diabetes over a mean of 8·5 years (SD 1·8) of follow-up. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3·1 times (95% CI 2·8-3·6; pdiabetes, and baseline glycaemic measures. The mean absolute difference in methylation level between type 2 diabetes cases and controls ranged from 0·5% (SD 0·1) to 1·1% (0·2). Methylation markers at five loci were associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence; the relative risk per 1% increase in methylation was 1·09 (95% CI 1·07-1·11; p=1·3 × 10(-17)) for ABCG1, 0·94 (0·92-0·95; p=4·2 × 10(-11)) for PHOSPHO1, 0

  17. Note: An X-ray powder diffractometer with a wide scattering-angle range of 72° using asymmetrically positioned one-dimensional detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Song, Chulho [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ito, Kimihiko; Kubo, Yoshimi [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakata, Osami, E-mail: SAKATA.Osami@nims.go.jp [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Group, Quantum Beam Unit, NIMS, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    An X-ray powder diffractometer has been developed for a time-resolved measurement without the requirement of a scattering angle (2θ) scan. Six one-dimensional detector modules are asymmetrically arranged in a vertical line at a designed distance of 286.5 mm. A detector module actually covers a diffraction angle of about 12° with an angular resolution of 0.01°. A diffracted intensity pattern is simultaneously recorded in a 2θ angular range from 1.63° to 74.37° in a “one shot” measurement. We tested the performance of the diffractometer with reference CeO{sub 2} powders and demonstrated diffraction measurements from an operating lithium-air battery.

  18. Secondary emission coefficient dependence on the angle of incidence of primary electrons on CsI and LiF layers. [0. 9 to 3 keV, mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabel' nikova, A E; Yasnopol' skii, N L

    1976-08-01

    The angular dependence was studied of the secondary emission coefficient sigma for CsI and LiF dielectrics which have large sigma in conditions of normal incidence of primary electrons. Measurements were taken down to the angle of 85 deg for energies of primary electrons between 0.9 and 3 keV. In the whole range of angles a nonmonotonic angular dependence sigma is observed. The dependence shows itself particularly clearly for CsI at large energies of primary electrons. Such a behaviour is due to the decrease in the depth of yield of inelastically reflected electrons and to the increase in the inelastic reflection coefficient of the substance.

  19. Quasi-3-D Seismic Reflection Imaging and Wide-Angle Velocity Structure of Nearly Amagmatic Oceanic Lithosphere at the Ultraslow-Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Ekeabino; Cannat, Mathilde; Watremez, Louise; Leroy, Sylvie; Singh, Satish C.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from 3-D processing of 2-D seismic data shot along 100 m spaced profiles in a 1.8 km wide by 24 km long box during the SISMOSMOOTH 2014 cruise. The study is aimed at understanding the oceanic crust formed at an end-member mid-ocean ridge environment of nearly zero melt supply. Three distinct packages of reflectors are imaged: (1) south facing reflectors, which we propose correspond to the damage zone induced by the active axial detachment fault: reflectors in the damage zone have dips up to 60° and are visible down to 5 km below the seafloor; (2) series of north dipping reflectors in the hanging wall of the detachment fault: these reflectors may correspond to damage zone inherited from a previous, north dipping detachment fault, or small offset recent faults, conjugate from the active detachment fault, that served as conduits for isolated magmatic dykes; and (3) discontinuous but coherent flat-lying reflectors at shallow depths (serpentinization and fracturation of the exhumed mantle-derived peridotites in the footwall of active and past detachment faults.

  20. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  1. Ion desorption from solid surfaces under slow (KeV) and fast (MeV) ion sputtering. Influence of the charge state and of the incidence angle on the input channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joret, H.

    1990-06-01

    Solid surfaces of organic and inorganic materials have been bombarded by fast heavy ions (several MeV). It is shown that the charge state of the projectile has a strong influence on the atomic and molecular ion desorption yield. Experimental studies proved that molecular ions can be emitted intact from deep layers underneath the surface (volume emission) with the existence of a crater emission. On the other hand light ions like H(+), H(+)-2, H(+)-3 are emitted from the surface of the solid in a time around 10 -16 second. The H(+) depends on the incident charge state g-i. When using slow ions (keV) the same dependence was observed for the first time and compared to the fast ion results. The equilibrum charge state of fast ions passing through solids was measured. The influence of the angle of incidence was investigated. Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid were used. A geometrical model is developed for the 50 angstroms layer [fr

  2. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral.

  3. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wing-Yee; de Kwaadsteniet, Marjolein CE; Harmsen, Mirjam; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette WA; Schellevis, François G; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral. PMID:16584577

  4. Wide Angle, Color, Holographic Infinity Optics Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    platform which will suoort one of the mirrors. This platform is raised and surrounded by a container structure which will col- lect the excess of cement...e. ra ’. cocl for the C,;n’on wix len t +f ’rr cOr the red wa’ 1 (It i, 0-, t ’r’.1 r. Continued Of".’( l ’-n i ru’>’". . ’t’ 1"’ - , resolut ion cf

  5. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence; Calibracao de dosimetros fotograficos para avaliar o equivalente de dose pessoal, Hp(10), irradiados por diferentes qualidades de radiacao e angulos de incidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao, E-mail: chsantoro@gmail.com, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P.; Goncalves Filho, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: l.filho@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, Pe (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H{sub p} (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H{sub p} (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs-662 keV e {sup 60}Co - 1250 keV)

  6. Universal shift of the Brewster angle and disorder-enhanced delocalization of p waves in stratified random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Kim, Kihong

    2011-10-10

    We study theoretically the propagation and the Anderson localization of p-polarized electromagnetic waves incident obliquely on randomly stratified dielectric media with weak uncorrelated Gaussian disorder. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate the localization length and the disorder-averaged transmittance in a numerically precise manner. We find that the localization length takes an extremely large maximum value at some critical incident angle, which we call the generalized Brewster angle. The disorder-averaged transmittance also takes a maximum very close to one at the same incident angle. Even in the presence of an arbitrarily weak disorder, the generalized Brewster angle is found to be substantially different from the ordinary Brewster angle in uniform media. It is a rapidly increasing function of the average dielectric permittivity and approaches 90° when the average relative dielectric permittivity is slightly larger than two. We make a remarkable observation that the dependence of the generalized Brewster angle on the average dielectric permittivity is universal in the sense that it is independent of the strength of disorder. We also find, surprisingly, that when the average relative dielectric permittivity is less than one and the incident angle is larger than the generalized Brewster angle, both the localization length and the disorder-averaged transmittance increase substantially as the strength of disorder increases in a wide range of the disorder parameter. In other words, the Anderson localization of incident p waves can be weakened by disorder in a certain parameter regime.

  7. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.Y. Kwok (Wing-Yee); M.C. Kwaadsteniet (Marjolein); M. Harmsen (Mirjam); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195

  8. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, W.Y.; Kwaadsteniet, M.C. de; Harmsen, M.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195 general

  9. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  10. Surface morphology of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on Si substrate studied by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering: I. The initial stage of formation of pentacene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Ichiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki

    2018-03-01

    The progress of the surface morphology of a growing sub-monolayered pentacene film on a Si substrate was studied by in situ grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The observed GISAXS profiles did not show sizes of pentacene islands but mainly protuberances on the boundaries around pentacene film. Scattering of X-ray by residual pits in the pentacene film was also detected in the GISAXS profiles of an almost fully covered film. The average radius of pentacene protuberances increased from 13 to 24 nm as the coverage increased to 0.83 monolayer, and the most frequent radius was almost constant at approximately 9 nm. This result suggests that the population of larger protuberances increase with increasing lengths of boundaries of the pentacene film. It can also be considered that the detected protuberances were crystallites of pentacene, since the average size of protuberances was nearly equal to crystallite sizes of pentacene films. The almost constant characteristic distance of 610 nm and amplitudes of pair correlation functions at low coverages suggest that the growth of pentacene films obeyed the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model, as previously reported. It is also considered that the sites of islands show a triangular distribution for small variations of estimated correlation distances.

  11. A customizable software for fast reduction and analysis of large X-ray scattering data sets: applications of the new DPDAK package to small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-10-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed.

  12. Crustal structure of the Ionian basin and eastern Sicily margin : results from a wide angle seismic survey and implication for the crustal nature and origin of the basin, and the recent tear fault location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M. A.; Dellong, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Kopp, H.; Graindorge, D.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.

    2017-12-01

    In the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean) the slow convergence between Africa and Eurasia results in the formation of a narrow subduction zone. The nature of the crust and lithosphere of the subducting plate remain debated and could represent the last remnants of the Neo-Tethys ocean. The rifting mechanism that produced the Ionian basin are also still under discussion with the Malta escarpment representing a possible remnant of this opening. At present, this subduction is still retreating to the south-east (motion occurring since the last 35 Ma) but is confined to the narrow Ionian Basin. In order to accommodate slab roll-back, a major lateral slab tear fault is required. This fault is thought to propagate along the eastern Sicily margin but its precise location remains controversial. This study focuses on the deep crustal structure of the Eastern-Sicily margin and the Malta Escarpment by presenting two wide-angle velocity profiles crossing these structures roughly orthogonally. The data used for the forward velocity modeling were acquired onboard the R/V Meteor during the DIONYSUS cruise in 2014. The results image an oceanic crust within the Ionian basin as well as the deep structure of the Malta Escarpment which presents characteristics of a transform margin. A deep and asymmetrical sedimentary basin is imaged south of the Messina strait and seems to have opened in between the Calabrian and Peloritan continental terranes. The interpretation of the velocity models suggests that the tear fault is located east of the Malta Escarpment, along the Alfeo fault system.

  13. The impact of hospital-wide use of a tapered-cuff endotracheal tube on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowton, David L; Hite, R Duncan; Martin, R Shayn; Sherertz, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal secretions is a major factor in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A tapered-cuff endotracheal tube (ETT) has been demonstrated to reduce aspiration around the cuff. Whether these properties are efficacious in reducing VAP is not known. This 2-period, investigator-initiated observational study was designed to assess the efficacy of a tapered-cuff ETT to reduce the VAP rate. All intubated, mechanically ventilated patients over the age of 18 were included. During the baseline period a standard, barrel-shaped-cuff ETT (Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo) was used. All ETTs throughout the hospital were then replaced with a tapered-cuff ETT (TaperGuard). The primary outcome variable was the incidence of VAP per 1,000 ventilator days. We included 2,849 subjects, encompassing 15,250 ventilator days. The mean ± SD monthly VAP rate was 3.29 ± 1.79/1,000 ventilator days in the standard-cuff group and 2.77 ± 2.00/1,000 ventilator days in the tapered-cuff group (P = .65). While adherence to the VAP prevention bundle was high throughout the study, bundle adherence was significantly higher during the standard-cuff period (96.5 ± 2.7%) than in the tapered-cuff period (90.3 ± 3.5%, P = .01). In the setting of a VAP rate very near the average of ICUs in the United States, and where there was high adherence to a VAP prevention bundle, the use of a tapered-cuff ETT was not associated with a reduction in the VAP rate.

  14. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  15. A comparative study on omnidirectional anti-reflection SiO2 nanostructure films coating by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachachet, R.; Samransuksamer, B.; Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Limwichean, S.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Lertvanithphol, T.; Muthitamongkol, P.; Boonruang, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2018-02-01

    Fabricated omnidirectional anti-reflection nanostructure films as a one of the promising alternative solar cell applications have attracted enormous scientific and industrial research benefits to their broadband, effective over a wide range of incident angles, lithography-free and high-throughput process. Recently, the nanostructure SiO2 film was the most inclusive study on anti-reflection with omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. In this work, the three-dimensional silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanostructured thin film with different morphologies including vertical align, slant, spiral and thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on the glass slide and silicon wafer substrate. The morphological of the prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The transmission, omnidirectional and birefringence property of the nanostructure SiO2 films were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE). The spectrophotometer measurement was performed at normal incident angle and a full spectral range of 200 - 2000 nm. The angle dependent transmission measurements were investigated by rotating the specimen, with incidence angle defined relative to the surface normal of the prepared samples. This study demonstrates that the obtained SiO2 nanostructure film coated on glass slide substrate exhibits a higher transmission was 93% at normal incident angle. In addition, transmission measurement in visible wavelength and wide incident angles -80 to 80 were increased in comparison with the SiO2 thin film and glass slide substrate due to the transition in the refractive index profile from air to the nanostructure layer that improve the antireflection characteristics. The results clearly showed the enhanced omnidirectional and broadband characteristic of the three dimensional Si

  16. An investigation of the effects of droplet impact angle in thermal spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Neiser, R.A.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely held that spraying at off-normal angles can influence deposition efficiency and the properties of the deposited material. However, little quantitative information on such effects has been published. This paper reports on a series of experiments to investigate the angular dependence of deposition efficiency, surface roughness, and porosity for several thermal spray materials and processes at incidence angles ranging from 90 degree to 30 degree relative to the substrate surface. At incidence angles from 90 degree out to 60 degree, the observed changes were small and often statistically insignificant. Some significant changes began to appear at 45 degree, and at 30 degree significant changes were observed for nearly all materials and processes: deposition efficiency decreased while surface roughness and porosity increased. It is proposed that droplet splashing may cause some of the observed effects

  17. Effect of substrate material selection on polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency for multilayer diffractive optics in oblique incident situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Cui, Qingfeng; Piao, Mingxu

    2018-05-01

    The effect of substrate material selection for multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) on polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency (PIDE) is studied in the oblique incident situation. A mathematical model of substrate material selection is proposed to obtain the high PIDE with large incident angle. The extended expression of the microstructure heights with consideration of incident angle is deduced to calculate the PIDE difference Δ η bar(λ) for different substrate material combinations. The smaller value of Δ η bar(λ) indicates the more optimal substrate material combination in a wide incident angle range. Based on the deduced mathematical model, different MLDOEs are analyzed in visible and infrared wavebands. The results show that the three-layer DOEs can be applied in larger incident angle situation than the double-layer DOEs in visible waveband. When the two substrate materials are the same, polycarbonate (PC) is more reasonable than poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the middle filling optical material for the three-layer DOEs. In the infrared waveband, the PIDE decreases in the LWIR are obviously smaller than that in the MWIR for the same substrate material combination, and the PIDE cannot be calculated when the incident angle larger than critical angle. The analysis results can be used to guide the hybrid optical system design with MLDOEs.

  18. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles; Avaliacao morfologica das superficies do esmalte e do cimento dental apos a irradiacao do laser de Er:YAG em diferentes angulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannous, Jose Trancoso

    2001-07-01

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 {mu}m, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  19. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  20. The paediatric Bohler's angle and crucial angle of Gissane: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Haemish A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane can be used to assess calcaneal fractures. While the normal adult values of these angles are widely known, the normal paediatric values have not yet been established. Our aim is to investigate Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population and establish normal paediatric reference values. Method We measured Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane using normal plain ankle radiographs of 763 patients from birth to 14 years of age completed over a five year period from July 2003 to June 2008. Results In our paediatric study group, the mean Bohler's angle was 35.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 111.3 degrees. In an adult comparison group, the mean Bohler's angle was 39.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 113.8 degrees. The differences in Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane between these two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion We have presented the normal values of Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population. These values may provide a useful comparison to assist with the management of the paediatric calcaneal fracture.

  1. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  2. La réflexion des ondes électromagnétiques du milieu de gyrotropie anisotrope, avec un axe d'anisotropie et un angle d'incidence arbitraires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchalyk, A.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of plane electromagnetic wave with half-infinit gyrotropic media for different directions of propagation of incident microwave radiation and various directions of gyrotropic axis are investigated. The equations for calculation of wave's parameters exited in media and reflected from media-surface are obtained. On étudie l'interaction d'une onde électromagnétique plane avec un milieu gyrotrope à demi-infini dans le cas d'une direction arbitraire de propagation de la radiation électromagnétique incidente et de l'axe de gyrotropie. On a obtenu des expressions permettant de calculer les caractéristiques des ondes excitées dans et par le milieu.

  3. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  4. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  5. High accuracy subwavelength distance measurements: A variable-angle standing-wave total-internal-reflection optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynie, A.; Min, T.-J.; Luan, L.; Mu, W.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an extension of the total-internal-reflection microscopy technique that permits direct in-plane distance measurements with high accuracy (<10 nm) over a wide range of separations. This high position accuracy arises from the creation of a standing evanescent wave and the ability to sweep the nodal positions (intensity minima of the standing wave) in a controlled manner via both the incident angle and the relative phase of the incoming laser beams. Some control over the vertical resolution is available through the ability to scan the incoming angle and with it the evanescent penetration depth.

  6. Side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration; Laser de Nd:YVO{sub 4} bombeado transversalmente em configuracao com angulo rasante interno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO{sub 4} cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M{sup 2} = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M{sup 2} = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  7. Microwave Absorption Properties of Co@C Nanofiber Composite for Normal and Oblique Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junming; Wang, Peng; Chen, Yuanwei; Wang, Guowu; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-05-01

    Co@C nanofibers have been prepared by an electrospinning technique. Uniform morphology of the nanofibers and good dispersion of the magnetic cobalt nanoparticles in the carbon fiber frame were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electromagnetic parameters of a composite absorber composed of Co@C nanofibers/paraffin were measured from 2 GHz to 15 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties were simulated and investigated in the case of normal and oblique incidence. In the normal case, the absorber achieved absorption performance of - 40 dB at 7.1 GHz. When the angle of incidence was increased to 60°, the absorption effect with reflection loss (RL) exceeding - 10 dB could still be obtained. These results demonstrate that the reported Co@C nanofiber absorber exhibits excellent absorption performance over a wide range of angle of incidence.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  10. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-μm-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of the Incidence and Survival Patterns of Lung Cancer by Histologies, Including Rare Subtypes, in the Era of Molecular Medicine and Targeted Therapy: A Nation-Wide Cancer Registry-Based Study From Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Chen, Li-Tzong; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsiao, Sheng-Yen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Yu, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Jen

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and has the highest cancer mortality rate. A worldwide increasing trend of lung adenocarcinoma has been noted. In addition, the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the introduction of EGFR inhibitors to successfully treat EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancers are breakthroughs for lung cancer treatment. The current study evaluated the incidence and survival of lung cancer using data collected by the Taiwan Cancer Registry between 1996 and 2008. The results showed that the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer was adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer in Taiwan increased significantly from 1996 to 2008. An increased incidence was observed for adenocarcinoma, particularly for women, with an annual percentage change of 5.9, whereas the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma decreased. Among the subtypes of lung cancer, the most rapid increase occurred in neuroendocrine tumors with an annual percentage change of 15.5. From 1996-1999 to 2005-2008, the 1-year survival of adenocarcinoma increased by 10% for men, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of adenocarcinoma for women increased by 18%, 11%, and 5%, respectively. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Taiwan, although the trends were variable by subtype. The introduction of targeted therapies was associated with a significantly improved survival for lung adenocarcinoma in Taiwan; however, more studies are needed to explain the rising incidence of lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it is important to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of the various subtypes of lung cancer to develop novel therapeutic agents.

  12. Angle-selective all-dielectric Huygens’ metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, D.; Chong, K. E.; Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Choi, D.-Y.; Neshev, D. N.; Pertsch, T.; Kivshar, Y. S.; Staude, I.

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally and numerically study the angularly resolved transmission properties of dielectric metasurfaces consisting of silicon nanodisks which support electric and magnetic dipolar Mie-type resonances in the near-infrared spectral range. First, we concentrate on Huygens’ metasurfaces which are characterised by a spectral overlap of the fundamental electric and magnetic dipole resonances of the silicon nanodisks at normal incidence. Huygens’ metasurfaces exhibit a high transmitted intensity over the spectral width of the resonances due to impedance matching, while the transmitted phase shows a variation of 2π as the wavelength is swept across the width of the resonances. We observe that the transmittance of the Huygens’ metasurfaces depends on the incidence angle and is sensitive to polarisation for non-normal incidence. As the incidence angle is increased starting from normal incidence, the two dipole resonances are shifted out of the spectral overlap and the resonant features appear as pronounced transmittance minima. Next, we consider a metasurface with an increased nanodisk radius as compared to the Huygens’ metasurface, which supports spectrally separate electric and magnetic dipole resonances at normal incidence. We show that for TM polarisation, we can shift the resonances of this metasurface into spectral overlap and regain the high resonant transmittance characteristic of Huygens’ metasurfaces at a particular incidence angle. Furthermore, both metasurfaces are demonstrated to reject all TM polarised light incident under angles other than the design overlap angle at their respective operation frequency. Our experimental observations are in good qualitative agreement with numerical calculations.

  13. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  14. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  15. Wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer. [measuring atmospheric emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The optical system, stepping control, phase and modulation depth, array detector, and directions sensor are described for a specialized type of Michelson interferometer which works at sufficiently high resolution to measure the line widths and Doppler shifts of naturally occurring atmospheric emissions. With its imaging capability, the instrument can potentially supply this data independently for each element of the 100 x 100 detector array. The experiment seeks: (1) to obtain vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures as functions of latitude by observing near the limb; (2) to acquire exploratory wind and temperature data on smaller scale structures in airglow irregularities and in auroral forms; and (3) to collaborate with other Spacelab experiments, such as barium cloud releases, in providing wind and temperature data.

  16. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  17. Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be; Maes, B. [Micro- and Nanophotonic Materials Group, Faculty of Science, University of Mons, Avenue Maistriau 19, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-08-07

    Transparent conducting electrodes, which are not made from indium tin oxide, and which display a strong angular dependence are useful for various technologies. Here, we introduce a tilted silver grating that combines a large conductance with a strong and angle-specific transmittance. When the light incidence angle matches the tilt angle of the grating, transmittance is close to the maximum along a very broadband range. We explain the behavior through simulations that show in detail the plasmonic and interference effects at play.

  18. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  19. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  20. Optical Interference Coatings Design Contest 2013: angle-independent color mirror and shortwave infrared/midwave infrared dichroic beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Karen; Kruschwitz, Jennifer D T; Keck, Jason

    2014-02-01

    An angle-independent color mirror and an infrared dichroic beam splitter were the subjects of a design contest held in conjunction with the 2013 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. A total of 17 designers submitted 63 designs, 22 for Problem A and 41 for Problem B. The submissions were created through a wide spectrum of design approaches and optimization strategies. Michael Trubetskov and Weidong Shen won the first contest by submitting color mirror designs with a zero color difference (ΔE00) between normal incidence and all other incidence angles up to 60° as well as the thinnest design. Michael Trubetskov also won the second contest by submitting beam-splitter designs that met the required transmission while having the lowest mechanical coating stress and thinnest design. Fabien Lemarchand received the second-place finish for the beam-splitter design. The submitted designs are described and evaluated.

  1. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  2. Tibial and fibular angles in homozygous sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamaguna, A.I.; Odita, J.C.; Ugbodaga, C.I.; Okafor, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the tibial and fibular angles made on ankle radiographs of 34 patients with sickle cell disease were compared with those of 36 normal Nigerians. Widening of the fibular angle, which is an indication of tibiotalar slant, was demonstrated in about 79% of sickle cell disease patients. By using fibular angle measurements as an objective method of assessing subtle tibiotalar slant, it is concluded that the incidence of this deformity is much higher among sickle cell disease patients than previously reported. The mean values of tibial and fibular angles in normal Nigerians are higher than has been reported amongst Caucasians. (orig.)

  3. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  4. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  5. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  6. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  7. A calibrated iterative reconstruction for quantitative photoacoustic tomography using multi-angle light-sheet illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihan; Lu, Tong; Zhang, Songhe; Song, Shaoze; Wang, Bingyuan; Li, Jiao; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography (q-PAT) is a nontrivial technique can be used to reconstruct the absorption image with a high spatial resolution. Several attempts have been investigated by setting point sources or fixed-angle illuminations. However, in practical applications, these schemes normally suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or poor quantification especially for large-size domains, due to the limitation of the ANSI-safety incidence and incompleteness in the data acquisition. We herein present a q-PAT implementation that uses multi-angle light-sheet illuminations and a calibrated iterative multi-angle reconstruction. The approach can acquire more complete information on the intrinsic absorption and SNR-boosted photoacoustic signals at selected planes from the multi-angle wide-field excitations of light-sheet. Therefore, the sliced absorption maps over whole body can be recovered in a measurementflexible, noise-robust and computation-economic way. The proposed approach is validated by the phantom experiment, exhibiting promising performances in image fidelity and quantitative accuracy.

  8. Brewster angle for an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a moving dielectric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Brewster-angle phenomena of total transmission has been investigated with reference to an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a dielectric half-space moving along the interface. Analytic conditions are derived for the existence of Brewster angles. We also discuss how the Brewster angles are modified by replacing the incident region (in which the incident electromagnetic wave is propagated) with an isotropic or a uniaxially anisotropic plasma. The Brewster angles are found to behave in a remarkably different fashion under various conditions. Numerical results for the Brewster angles, showing their dependence on the nondimensional velocity of the medium β, are presented for several values of the physical parameters

  9. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  10. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  11. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  12. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.......The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing......-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments...

  13. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles. PMID:26917133

  14. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.

  15. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Beecher, S. J.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs

  16. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  17. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We study the angle dependence of the Andreev scattering at a semiconductor-superconductor interface, generalizing the one-dimensional theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK),An increase of the momentum parallel to the interface leads to suppression of the probability of Andreev reflection...... and increase of the probability of normal reflection. We show that in the presence of a Fermi velocity mismatch between the semiconductor and the superconductor the angles of incidence and transmission are related according to the well-known Snell's law in optics. As a consequence there is a critical angle...

  18. Metasurface-based angle-selective multichannel acoustic refractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingyi; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically study the angle-selective refractions of an impedance-matched acoustic gradient-index metasurface, which is integrated with a rigid bar array of a deep subwavelength period. An interesting refraction order appears under the all-angle incidence despite the existence of a critical angle, and notably, the odevity of the phase-discretization level apparently selects the transmitted diffraction orders. We utilize the strategy of multilayered media design to realize a three-channel acoustic refractor, which shows good promise for constructing multifunctional diffractive acoustic elements for acoustic communication.

  19. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  20. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  1. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurements of diamond-turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond-turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance, at high angles of incidence, is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The affects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  3. Measurements of diamond turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance at high angles of incidence is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The effects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  4. Evolution of the ischio-iliac lordosis during natural growth and its relation with the pelvic incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Janssen, Michiel M A; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Oner, F Cumhur; Viergever, Max A; Vincken, Koen L; Castelein, René M

    2014-07-01

    Human fully upright ambulation, with fully extended hips and knees, and the body's center of gravity directly above the hips, is unique in nature, and distinguishes humans from all other mammalians. This bipedalism is made possible by the development of a lordosis between the ischium and ilium; it allows to ambulate in this unique bipedal manner, without sacrificing forceful extension of the legs. This configuration in space introduces unique biomechanical forces with relevance for a number of spinal conditions. The aim of this study was to quantify the development of this lordosis between ischium and ilium in the normal growing and adult spine and to evaluate its correlation with the well-known clinical parameter, pelvic incidence. Consecutive series of three-dimensional computed tomography scans of the abdomen of 189 children and 310 adults without spino-pelvic pathologies were used. Scan indications were trauma screening or acute abdominal pathology. Using previously validated image processing techniques, femoral heads, center of the sacral endplate and the axes of the ischial bones were semi-automatically identified. A true sagittal view of the pelvis was automatically reconstructed, on which ischio-iliac angulation and pelvic incidence were calculated. The ischio-iliac angle was defined as the angle between the axes of the ischial bones and the line from the midpoint of the sacral endplate to the center of the femoral heads. A wide natural variation of the ischio-iliac angle (3°-46°) and pelvic incidence (14°-77°) was observed. Pearson's analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the ischio-iliac angle and pelvic incidence (r = 0.558, P lordosis is unique in nature, is in harmonious continuity with the highly individual lumbar lordosis and defines the way the human spine is biomechanically loaded. The practical parameter that reflects this is the pelvic incidence; both values increase during growth and remain stable in adulthood.

  5. Complete 360° circumferential SSOCT gonioscopy of the iridocorneal angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Ryan P.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2014-02-01

    The ocular iridocorneal angle is generally an optically inaccessible area when viewed directly through the cornea due to the high angle of incidence required and the large index of refraction difference between air and cornea (nair = 1.000 and ncornea = 1.376) resulting in total internal reflection. Gonioscopy allows for viewing of the angle by removing the aircornea interface through the use of a special contact lens on the eye. Gonioscopy is used clinically to visualize the angle directly but only en face. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image the angle and deeper structures via an external approach. Typically, this imaging technique is performed by utilizing a conventional anterior segment OCT scanning system. However, instead of imaging the apex of the cornea, either the scanner or the subject is tilted such that the corneoscleral limbus is orthogonal to the optical axis of the scanner requiring multiple volumes to obtain complete circumferential coverage of the ocular angle. We developed a novel gonioscopic OCT (GOCT) system that images the entire ocular angle within a single volume via an "internal" approach through the use of a custom radially symmetric gonioscopic contact lens. We present, to our knowledge, the first complete 360° circumferential volumes of the iridocorneal angle from a direct, internal approach.

  6. Wide-Field Optic for Autonomous Acquisition of Laser Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman A.; Charles, Jeffrey R.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An innovation reported in Two-Camera Acquisition and Tracking of a Flying Target, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 8 (August 2008), p. 20, used a commercial fish-eye lens and an electronic imaging camera for initially locating objects with subsequent handover to an actuated narrow-field camera. But this operated against a dark-sky background. An improved solution involves an optical design based on custom optical components for the wide-field optical system that directly addresses the key limitations in acquiring a laser signal from a moving source such as an aircraft or a spacecraft. The first challenge was to increase the light collection entrance aperture diameter, which was approximately 1 mm in the first prototype. The new design presented here increases this entrance aperture diameter to 4.2 mm, which is equivalent to a more than 16 times larger collection area. One of the trades made in realizing this improvement was to restrict the field-of-view to +80 deg. elevation and 360 azimuth. This trade stems from practical considerations where laser beam propagation over the excessively high air mass, which is in the line of sight (LOS) at low elevation angles, results in vulnerability to severe atmospheric turbulence and attenuation. An additional benefit of the new design is that the large entrance aperture is maintained even at large off-axis angles when the optic is pointed at zenith. The second critical limitation for implementing spectral filtering in the design was tackled by collimating the light prior to focusing it onto the focal plane. This allows the placement of the narrow spectral filter in the collimated portion of the beam. For the narrow band spectral filter to function properly, it is necessary to adequately control the range of incident angles at which received light intercepts the filter. When this angle is restricted via collimation, narrower spectral filtering can be implemented. The collimated beam (and the filter) must be relatively large to

  7. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  8. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  9. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  10. The anterior chamber angle width in adults in a tertiary eye hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-25

    Mar 25, 2011 ... had visual acuity assessment, visual field analysis, ophthalmoscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, ... Peripheral anterior synechiae were observed in three eyes. ..... The high incidence of narrow angles with the near.

  11. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Center, Odette Cancer Centre, Cancer Care Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  12. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  13. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  15. Low-angle polarized neutron and X-ray scattering from magnetic nanolayers and nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Amitesh

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph presents the latest results related to the characterization of low dimensional systems. Low-angle polarized neutron scattering and X-ray scattering at grazing incidence are used as the two main techniques to explore various physical phenomena of these systems. Special focus is put on systems like thin film transition metal and rare-earth layers, oxide heterostructures, hybrid systems, self-assembled nanostructures and self-diffusion.  Readers will gain in-depth knowledge about the usage of specular scattering and off-specular scattering techniques. Investigation of in-plane and out-of-plane structures and magnetism with vector magnetometric information is illustrated comprehensively. The book caters to a wide audience working in the field of nano-dimensional magnetic systems and the neutron and X-ray reflectometry community in particular.

  16. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  18. ORNL 10-m small-angle X-ray scattering camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    A new small-angle x-ray scattering camera utilizing a rotating anode x-ray source, crystal monochromatization of the incident beam, pinhole collimation, and a two-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter was developed. The sample, and the resolution element of the detector are each approximately 1 x 1 mm 2 , the camera was designed so that the focal spot-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances may each be varied in 0.5-m increments up to 5 m to provide a system resolution in the range 0.5 to 4.0 mrad. A large, general-purpose specimen chamber has been provided into which a wide variety of special-purpose specimen holders can be mounted. The detector has an active area of 200 x 200 mm and has up to 200 x 200 resolution elements. The data are recorded in the memory of a minicomputer by a high-speed interface which uses a microprocessor to map the position of an incident photon into an absolute minicomputer memory address. The data recorded in the computer memory can be processed on-line by a variety of programs designed to enhance the user's interaction with the experiment. At the highest angular resolution (0.4 mrad), the flux incident on the specimen is 1.0 x 10 6 photons/s with the x-ray source operating at 45 kV and 100 mA. SAX and its associated programs OVF and MOT are high-priority, pre-queued, nonresident foreground tasks which run under the ModComp II MAX III operating system to provide complete user control of the ORNL 10-m small-angle x-ray scattering camera

  19. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Growth characteristics of inclined columns produced by Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) and colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Morten; Besenbacher, Flemming; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    Nanocolumns were produced by performing Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) onto self-assembled template arrays consisting of platinum coated polystyrene spheres. By varying the angle of incidence (θ = 35°, 10° and 5°) and the deposited surface mass density it was possible to control the shape of th...

  1. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  2. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  3. Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Jin; Jeong, Eun; Chin, Mi Hyung; Lee, Seung Hee; Ji, Seunghoon; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Viewing angle control of a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) liquid crystal display using only one panel is investigated. In conventional PVA modes, a vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) director tilts down in four directions making 45 deg. with respect to crossed polarizers to exhibit a wide viewing angle. In the viewing angle control device, one pixel was divided into two sub-pixels such that the LC director in the main pixel is controlled to be tilted down in multiple directions making an angle with the polarizer, playing the role of main display with the wide viewing angle, while the LC director in the sub-pixel is controlled to be tilted down to the polarizer axis, playing the role of sub-pixel to the viewing angle control for the narrow viewing angle. Using sub-pixel control, light leakage or any type of information such as characters and image can be generated in oblique viewing directions without distorting the image quality in the normal direction, which will prevent others from peeping at the displayed image by overlapping the displayed image with the made image

  4. An isodose shift technique for obliquely incident electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that when an electron beam is incident obliquely on the surface of a phantom, the depth dose curve measured normal to the surface is shifted toward the surface. Based on geometrical arguments alone, the depth of the nth isodose line for an electron beam incident at an angle θ should be equal to the product of cos θ and the depth of the nth isodose line at normal incidence. This method, however, ignores the effects of scatter and can lead to significant errors in isodose placement for beams at large angles of incidence. A semi-empirical functional relationship and a table of isodose shift factors have been developed with which one may easily calculate the depth of any isodose line for beams at incident angles of 0 degree to 60 degree. The isodose shift factors are tabulated in terms of beam energy (6--22 MeV) and isodose line (10%--90%) and are shown to be relatively independent of beam size and incident angle for angles <60 degree. Extensive measurements have been made on a Varian Clinac 2500 linear accelerator with a parallel-plate chamber and polystyrene phantom. The dependence of the chamber response on beam angulation has been checked, and the scaling factor of the polystyrene phantom has been determined to be equal to 1.00

  5. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  6. A study on projection angles for an optimal image of PNS water's view on children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Sang Hyuk; Song, Young Geun; Kim, Sung Kyu; Hong, Sang Woo; Kim, Je Bong

    2007-01-01

    This study is to calculate the proper angle for the optimal image of PNS Water's view on children, comparing and analyzing the PNS Water's projection angles between children and adults at every age. This study randomly selected 50 patients who visited the Medical Center from January to May in 2005, and examined the incidence path of central ray, taking a PNS Water's and skull trans-Lat. view in Water's filming position while attaching a lead ball mark on the Orbit, EAM, and acanthion of the patient's skull. And then, we calculated the incidence angles (angle A) of the line connected from OML and the petrous ridge to the inferior margin of maxilla on general (random) patient's skull image, following the incidence path of central ray. Finally, we analyzed two pieces of the graphs at ages, developing out the patient's ideal images at PNS Water's filming position taken by a digital camera, and calculating the angle (angle B) between OML and IP(Image Plate). The angle between OML and IP is about 43 .deg. in 4-years-old children, which is higher than 37 .deg. as age increases the angle decreases, it goes to 37 .deg. around 30 years of age. That is similar result to maxillary growth period. We can get better quality of Water's image for children when taking the PNS Water's view if we change the projection angles, considering maxillary growth for patients in every age stage

  7. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  8. SWIMS: a small-angle multiple scattering computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, R.O.

    1976-07-01

    SWIMS (Sigmund and WInterbon Multiple Scattering) is a computer code for calculation of the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media. The code uses the tabulated angular distributions of Sigmund and Winterbon for a Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. The fraction of the incident beam scattered into a cone defined by the polar angle α is computed as a function of α for reduced thicknesses over the range 0.01 less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 10.0. 1 figure, 2 tables

  9. X-ray diffraction at Bragg angles around π/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayolo, C.M.G. de.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction at Bragg angles around π/2 is studied from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The proposed corrections to the dynamical theory in the θ β ≅ π/2 cases, has been reviewed showing the equivalence between two formalisms leading to a corrected expression for the dependence of the angular parameter y with the angle of incidence. An expression for y valid in the conventional and θ β ≅ π/2 cases has been obtained. A general expression for Bragg law and for energy resolution after a Bragg diffraction was also deduced. (author)

  10. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  11. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... one-layer surface textures of silicon.We explored four patterns of square structures in a square lattice with periods of 500, 400, 300, and 200 nm. The reflectivity and daylight-colors were measured and compared with simulations based on rigorously coupledwave analysis with excellent agreement. Based...... on the 200-nm periodic pattern, it was found that angle-independent specular colors up to 60 deg of incidence may be provided. The underlying mechanisms include (1) the suppression of diffraction and (2) a strong coupling of light to localized surface states. The strong coupling yields absorption anomalies...

  12. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  13. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  14. LPI studies with grazing incidence irradiation at the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R.; Seely, J.

    2013-10-01

    Studies of laser plasma instabilities (LPI) at the Nike laser facility at NRL have previously concentrated on planar targets irradiated with their surface normal aligned to the central axis of the laser. Shots with planar targets rotated up 60° to the laser have shown changes in thresholds for the two-plasmon decay instability and stimulated Raman scattering near the quarter critical region. In the case of rotated low-Z targets, spectra were observed to shift to lower wavelength and were substantially stronger in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges. The low-Z target data show growth at an incident intensity slightly below (~30%) the threshold values observed at normal incidence. A rapid rise in signal level over the same laser intensities was also observed in the hard x-ray data which serve as an overall indicator of LPI activity. Shots with rotated planar high-Z targets showed that the visible and ultraviolet emissions dropped significantly when compared to low-Z targets in the same geometry. This presentation will include results from upcoming experiments to determine the LPI signal for low-Z, high-Z, and high-Z coated targets at lower laser intensities for several angles of target rotation. Shots with widely separated laser beams are also planned to explore cross beam energy transport at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  15. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Tomczyk-Socha, Martyna; Kaczorowski, Kamil; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is the most frequently identifiable cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma, known as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. The exact pathophysiology and etiology of PEX and associated glaucoma remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the morphology of the anterior chamber angle in people with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared to a control group. We also evaluated the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and pigmentation of the angle with the amount of exfoliated material in the anterior segment. The study group was composed of 155 eyes from 103 patients aged between 43 and 86 years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Some difference was found in intraocular pressure between the PEX group and the control group and between the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group and the control group, but no significant difference was found between the 2 study groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of some degree of pigmentation in the anterior chamber angle and no difference in the widths of the angle between each group. A significant positive relationship was observed between intraocular pressure and the degree of pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle in both the PEX group and the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group. The results of this study indicate that the amount of pigmentation and exfoliation material in the anterior segment significantly correlates with the level of IOP and possibly with the degree of trabecular dysfunction. It seems that for clear identification of PEX and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma factors, clinical assessment appears to be insufficient.

  16. Vacuum variable-angle far-infrared ellipsometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friš, Pavel; Dubroka, Adam

    2017-11-01

    We present the design and performance of a vacuum far-infrared (∼50-680 cm-1) ellipsometer with a rotating analyser. The system is based on a Fourier transform spectrometer, an in-house built ellipsometer chamber and a closed-cycle bolometer. The ellipsometer chamber is equipped with a computer controlled θ-2θ goniometer for automated measurements at various angles of incidence. We compare our measurements on SrTiO3 crystal with the results acquired above 300 cm-1 with a commercially available ellipsometer system. After the calibration of the angle of incidence and after taking into account the finite reflectivity of mirrors in the detector part we obtain a very good agreement between the data from the two instruments. The system can be supplemented with a closed-cycle He cryostat for measurements between 5 and 400 K.

  17. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  18. Hadron elastic scattering at small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is an extension of the measurements of the WA9 experiment up to the highest energies available in the North Area. It will measure the differential cross-section for hadron elastic scattering in the t-range 0.002-0.05 (GeV/c)$^{2}$ using an ionization chamber for the measurement of the energy and the angle of the recoil and a magnet-WC spectrometer to measure the momentum and direction of the forward particle. From these measurements will be obtained the ratio $\\rho$ of the real to imaginary parts of the forward elastic amplitude and the exponential slope parameter b of the hadronic amplitude at small t. The precision expected in these measurements is $\\Delta \\rho \\approx \\pm 0.01$ and $\\Delta$b $\\approx \\pm 0.2$ (GeV/c)$^{-2}$. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental programme includes: \\\\\\\\ i) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi$p elastic scattering at incident momenta between 150 GeV/c and 300 GeV/c; \\\\ ii) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi^{+}$p and pp elastic scattering at incident momenta between 5...

  19. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality in Serbia 1999-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Zivković, Snežana; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in cancer incidence in the last years in Serbia, no nation-wide, population-based cancer epidemiology data have been reported. In this study cancer incidence and mortality rates for Serbia are presented using nation-wide data from two population-based cancer

  1. Note: Optimization of magnifying a polarization angle with Littrow layout blazed gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, H; Arakawa, H; Imazawa, R; Kawano, Y; Itami, K; Kubo, H

    2017-03-01

    Magnification of a polarization angle with Littrow layout gratings has been developed. High magnification with a factor of 7.7 using two gratings in Littrow layout was experimentally proved. The magnification range was investigated by calculation at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. The method can be applied for a high magnification factor >30. Larger groove numbers and smaller blaze angles are suitable for the large magnification. Statistical fluctuation of the diffracted polarization angle is compared with that of the incident polarization angle.

  2. Multi-angle backscatter classification and sub-bottom profiling for improved seafloor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Evangelos; Snellen, Mirjam; Simons, Dick; Siemes, Kerstin; Greinert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This study applies three classification methods exploiting the angular dependence of acoustic seafloor backscatter along with high resolution sub-bottom profiling for seafloor sediment characterization in the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea Germany. This area is well suited for acoustic backscatter studies due to its shallowness, its smooth bathymetry and the presence of a wide range of sediment types. Backscatter data were acquired using a Seabeam1180 (180 kHz) multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler data were recorded using a SES-2000 parametric sonar transmitting 6 and 12 kHz. The high density of seafloor soundings allowed extracting backscatter layers for five beam angles over a large part of the surveyed area. A Bayesian probability method was employed for sediment classification based on the backscatter variability at a single incidence angle, whereas Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were applied to the multi-angle layers. The Bayesian approach was used for identifying the optimum number of acoustic classes because cluster validation is carried out prior to class assignment and class outputs are ordinal categorical values. The method is based on the principle that backscatter values from a single incidence angle express a normal distribution for a particular sediment type. The resulting Bayesian classes were well correlated to median grain sizes and the percentage of coarse material. The MLC method uses angular response information from five layers of training areas extracted from the Bayesian classification map. The subsequent PCA analysis is based on the transformation of these five layers into two principal components that comprise most of the data variability. These principal components were clustered in five classes after running an external cluster validation test. In general both methods MLC and PCA, separated the various sediment types effectively, showing good agreement (kappa >0.7) with the Bayesian

  3. Sensitivity determination of CR-39 from Normal and inclined incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, A.A.; El-Kheir, A.A.; Daas, A.F.; Awwad, Z.; Reda, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study have been carried out on alpha- particle track opening (Major and minor axes) using alpha-particles of different energies incident with different angels in addition to the normal incidence. The sensitivity of CR-39 in present work is determined for each of normal and inclined incidence. The results indicated a difference in the sensitivity according to angle of incidence. The variation of alpha- particle tracks (major and minor axes) are calculated and compared with our measured values. Also, it is found that the sensitivity of CR-39 detector is change due to the storage time at room temperature

  4. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  5. Angle imaging: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037

  6. Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.

    2017-05-05

    The optical constants n and k can be used to model infrared spectra, including refraction, absorption, reflectance, and emissivity, but obtaining reliable values for solid materials (pure or otherwise) presents a challenge: In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, homogeneous materials, free of defects. That is, materials where the Fresnel equations are operant since there is no light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain a pure macroscopic (crystalline) material, it may be possible to press the material into a (uniform, void-free) disk. We have recently been able to do this with ammonium sulfate powder and then measured the n & k values via two independent methods: 1) Ellipsometry - which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) Single angle specular reflectance with an FT spectrometer using a specular reflectance device within an FT instrument which measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence over a wide wavelength range. The quality of the derived n & k values was tested by generating the reflectance spectra of the pellet and comparing to the calculated to measured reflectance spectra of the pure material which has been previously published. The comparison to literature values showed good accuracy and good agreement, indicating promise to measure other materials by such methods.

  7. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  8. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  9. Kinematics of reflections in subsurface offset and angle-domain image gathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Raanan; Symes, William W.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic migration in the angle-domain generates multiple images of the earth's interior in which reflection takes place at different scattering-angles. Mechanically, the angle-dependent reflection is restricted to happen instantaneously and at a fixed point in space: Incident wave hits a discontinuity in the subsurface media and instantly generates a scattered wave at the same common point of interaction. Alternatively, the angle-domain image may be associated with space-shift (regarded as subsurface offset) extended migration that artificially splits the reflection geometry. Meaning that, incident and scattered waves interact at some offset distance. The geometric differences between the two approaches amount to a contradictory angle-domain behaviour, and unlike kinematic description. We present a phase space depiction of migration methods extended by the peculiar subsurface offset split and stress its profound dissimilarity. In spite of being in radical contradiction with the general physics, the subsurface offset reveals a link to some valuable angle-domain quantities, via post-migration transformations. The angle quantities are indicated by the direction normal to the subsurface offset extended image. They specifically define the local dip and scattering angles if the velocity at the split reflection coordinates is the same for incident and scattered wave pairs. Otherwise, the reflector normal is not a bisector of the opening angle, but of the corresponding slowness vectors. This evidence, together with the distinguished geometry configuration, fundamentally differentiates the angle-domain decomposition based on the subsurface offset split from the conventional decomposition at a common reflection point. An asymptotic simulation of angle-domain moveout curves in layered media exposes the notion of split versus common reflection point geometry. Traveltime inversion methods that involve the subsurface offset extended migration must accommodate the split geometry

  10. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  11. Blindness following bleb-related infection in open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroki; Sawada, Akira; Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the risk of blindness following bleb-related infection after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in open angle glaucoma, utilizing data obtained from two prospective multicenter studies. The incidence of bleb-related infection in open angle glaucoma after the first or second glaucoma surgery was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and data from the Collaborative Bleb-related Infection Incidence and Treatment Study (CBIITS). The rate of blindness following bleb-related infection was calculated using data from the Japan Glaucoma Society Survey of Bleb-related Infection (JGSSBI). Finally, the rate of blindness following bleb-related infection after filtering surgery was estimated based on the above two data sets. Blindness was defined as an eye with a visual acuity of 0.04 or less. The incidences of development of bleb-related infection at 5 years were 2.6 ± 0.7 % (calculated cumulative incidence ± standard error) for all infections and 0.9 ± 0.4 % for endophthalmitis in all cases in the CBIITS data. The rates of blindness in the JGSSBI data were 14 % for the total cases with bleb-related infection and 30 % for the endophthalmitis subgroup. The rate of blindness developing within 5 years following trabeculectomy was estimated to be approximately 0.24-0.36 %. The rate of blindness following bleb-related infection within 5 years after trabeculectomy is considerable and thus careful consideration must be given to the indication for trabeculectomy and the selection of surgical techniques.

  12. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  13. Femoral varus: what's the angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation...

  14. Depth distribution of chemical phase concentration determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, P.; Ballo, P.; Dobrocka, E.; Vallo, M.; Lalinsky, T.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing incidence geometry is widely used in X-ray diffraction analysis of thin films. Penetration depth of radiation can be easily changed by an appropriate selection of the angle of incidence α that enables obtaining information from different depths of the sample. This depth can be decreased up to a nanometer scale by approaching the critical angle α_c for total external reflection. This method therefore provides an efficient tool for the analysis of depth distribution of various structural properties, such as the crystallite size, the amorphous fraction, stress or the concentration of chemical phase. However, absorption of the radiation can be characterized by an average attenuation coefficient μ a special care has to be paid to the last property. Variation of chemical phase concentration with depth usually results in depth dependence on the attenuation coefficient. In this contribution a method for determination of depth distribution of a chemical phase is outlined. The method correctly takes into account the depth variation of the attenuation coefficient. The method is tested on thin oxidized Ir layers. The aim of this paper is a comparison two simple model cases with the experimental results. (authors)

  15. Determinants of developing widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Roediger, Mollie P; Grandits, Greg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A widened electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. However, determinants and risk factors of developing widened QRS-T angle over time in this population remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spatial...... QRS-T angle was automatically measured from standard electrocardiogram of 1444 HIV-infected individuals without baseline widened spatial QRS-T angle from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART], a clinical trial comparing two antiretroviral treatment strategies [Drug...... Conservation (DC) vs. Viral Suppression (VS)]. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline characteristics and incident widened spatial QRS-T angle (a new angle>93° in males and>74° in females). During 2544 person-years of follow-up, 199 participants developed...

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  18. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  19. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.) [de

  20. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.

    1993-01-01

    The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line

  1. An ultrathin wide-band planar metamaterial absorber based on a fractal frequency selective surface and resistive film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yue-Nong; Cheng Yong-Zhi; Nie Yan; Wang Xian; Gong Rong-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    We propose an ultrathin wide-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on a Minkowski (MIK) fractal frequency selective surface and resistive film. This absorber consists of a periodic arrangement of dielectric substrates sandwiched with an MIK fractal loop structure electric resonator and a resistive film. The finite element method is used to simulate and analyze the absorption of the MA. Compared with the MA-backed copper film, the designed MA-backed resistive film exhibits an absorption of 90% at a frequency region of 2 GHz–20 GHz. The power loss density distribution of the MA is further illustrated to explain the mechanism of the proposed MA. Simulated absorptions at different incidence cases indicate that this absorber is polarization-insensitive and wide-angled. Finally, further simulated results indicate that the surface resistance of the resistive film and the dielectric constant of the substrate can affect the absorbing property of the MA. This absorber may be used in many military fields

  2. A New Method to Calibrate Attachment Angles of Data Loggers in Swimming Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Kawatsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, animal-borne accelerometers have been used to record the pitch angle of aquatic animals during swimming. When evaluating pitch angle, it is necessary to consider a discrepancy between the angle of an accelerometer and the long axis of an animal. In this study, we attached accelerometers to 17 free-ranging scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini pups from Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although there are methods to calibrate attachment angles of accelerometers, we confirmed that previous methods were not applicable for hammerhead pups. According to raw data, some sharks ascended with a negative angle, which differs from tank observations of captive sharks. In turn, we developed a new method to account for this discrepancy in swimming sharks by estimating the attachment angle from the relationship between vertical speed (m/s and pitch angle obtained by each accelerometer. The new method can be utilized for field observation of a wide range of species.

  3. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  4. System for the Automatic Estimation of the Tilt Angle of a Flat Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fonseca-Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a compact system for the automatic estimation of the tilt angle at any location of the world is presented. The system components are one computer, one GPS receiver and one Python program. The tilt angle is calculated through the maximization of the flux of direct radiation incident upon a flat solar collector. An estimation of the adjustments of this angle at different time periods are obtained. This angle is calculated in steps of six minutes during a whole year. Daily, monthly, biannually and yearly averages of this value are obtained. A comparison of the energetic gain when the tilt angle changes at the different time periods is made as well. Because, the algorithm doesn’t receive as an input the solar radiation incident upon a surface at the location of the calculation, a comparison was made between the results obtained and the results reported for the monthly tilt angle of 22 different places. The root mean square error obtained with this comparison was between 1.5 and 9.5 degrees. The monthly tilt angle estimated deviated in average for less than 6.3° with respect to the values reported for the different locations. Finally, the application of a correction factor in the monthly estimated angles is proposed, which might increase the collected energy.

  5. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  6. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  7. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  9. Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying...... a smooth interface, the normalized spectrum of the received signals for a planar transducer exhibits an increasing number of nulls with increased angle of insonification, as predicted from numerical modeling while the dependence on insonification angle for the focused transducer was smaller and the null...... pattern was much less distinct. For the planar transducer and for the focused transducer with the interface located at the geometrical point of focus, the energy of the received signal as a function of incident angle was approximately Gaussian with maximum at 0°. For the smooth interface, the -3 dB width...

  10. Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...

  11. Bayesian Estimator for Angle Recovery: Event Classification and Reconstruction in Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foudray, Angela M K; Levin, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    PET at the highest level is an inverse problem: reconstruct the location of the emission (which localize biological function) from detected photons. Ideally, one would like to directly measure an annihilation photon's incident direction on the detector. In the developed algorithm, Bayesian Estimation for Angle Recovery (BEAR), we utilized the increased information gathered from localizing photon interactions in the detector and developed a Bayesian estimator for a photon's incident direction. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) were filled using an interaction energy weighted mean or center of mass (COM) reference space, which had the following computational advantages: (1) a significant reduction in the size of the data in measurement space, making further manipulation and searches faster (2) the construction of COM space does not depend on measurement location, it takes advantage of measurement symmetries, and data can be added to the training set without knowledge and recalculation of prior training data, (3) calculation of posterior probability map is fully parallelizable, it can scale to any number of processors. These PDFs were used to estimate the point spread function (PSF) in incident angle space for (i) algorithm assessment and (ii) to provide probability selection criteria for classification. The algorithm calculates both the incident θ and φ angle, with ∼16 degrees RMS in both angles, limiting the incoming direction to a narrow cone. Feature size did not improve using the BEAR algorithm as an angle filter, but the contrast ratio improved 40% on average

  12. Survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovic, N.; Ciric, D.; Perovic, B.

    1982-01-01

    The survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces is considered. The model is based on the momentum approximation. The projectiles are K + ions and the target is the (001)Ni+K surface. The incident energy is 100 eV and the incident angle 5 0 . The interaction potential of the projectile and the target consists of the Born-Mayer, the dipole and the image charge potentials. The transition probability function corresponds to the resonant electron transition to the 4s projectile energy level. (orig.)

  13. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  14. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  15. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  16. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  17. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  18. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  19. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Gaggero-Sager, L. M. [CIICAp, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Naumis, G. G. [Instituto Física, Depto. de Física-Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, México D.F., México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Vargas, I., E-mail: isaac@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac., México (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  20. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Gaggero-Sager, L. M.; Naumis, G. G.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  1. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  2. Estimated Incident Cost Savings in Shipping Due to Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effectiveness of safety inspections has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper quantifies estimated cost savings based on port state control inspections and

  3. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Heij, C.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port

  4. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    several materials as a function of angle of incidence, αi with X-rays of wavelength ..... are several advantages of using this formulation for the description of surface ..... print of the surface (as shown at the botton of Figure. 5). A Soller collimator ...

  5. Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Y C

    2006-12-01

    Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia is an important tool for quality improvement and maintenance of high safety standards in anaesthetic services. It is now widely accepted as a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia and has become part of the many quality assurance programmes of many general hospitals under the Ministry of Health. Despite wide-spread reservations about its value, critical incident monitoring is a classical qualitative research technique which is particularly useful where problems are complex, contextual and influenced by the interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. Thus, it is well suited to be used in probing the complex factors behind human error and system failure. Human error has significant contributions to morbidities and mortalities in anaesthesia. Understanding the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents is important for prevention and risk management to reduce harm to patients. Cardiac arrests in the operating theatre (OT) and prolonged stay in recovery, constituted the bulk of reported incidents. Cardiac arrests in OT resulted in significant mortality and involved mostly de-compensated patients and those with unstable cardiovascular functions, presenting for emergency operations. Prolonged-stay in the recovery extended period of observation for ill patients. Prolonged stay in recovery was justifiable in some cases, as these patients needed a longer period of post-operative observation until they were stable enough to return to the ward. The advantages of the relatively low cost, and the ability to provide a comprehensive body of detailed qualitative information, which can be used to develop strategies to prevent and manage existing problems and to plan further initiatives for patient safety makes critical incident monitoring a valuable tool in ensuring patient safety. The contribution of critical incident reporting to the issue of patient safety is

  6. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  7. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  8. Small Angle Neutron Scattering From Iron. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M; Abdel-Kawy, A; Naguib, K; Habib, N; Kilany, M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Cairo, (Egypt); Wahba, M [Faculty of Engineering, ain Shams University, Cairo, (Egypt); Ashry, A [Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for iron in both metallic and powder forms in the wavelengths band 0.35 nm to 0.52 nm. The measurements were performed using the TOF spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The observed behavior for the small-angle neutron scattering cross-section of iron powder was analyzed in terms of its particle diameter, incident neutron wavelength and beam divergence. It was found that for iron particles of diameter 25 {mu}m the small-angle neutron scattering is only due to refraction of neutron wave traversing the particles. A method was established to determine the particle size of iron powders within an accuracy of 8% which is higher than that obtained by mesh analysis. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  10. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Proper surface channelling of low energy argon ions incident on a nickel (110) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, I.N.; Berg, J.A. van den; Armour, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    The scattering behaviour of 6 keV argon ions from a nickel (110) surface has been investigated for specular reflection under grazing incidence conditions. The occurrence of an anomalously high energy loss has been confirmed and the transition from chain scattering at large scattering angles to a distinctly different type of scattering at small angles has been investigated. The characteristics of the low angle scattering phenomena, which dominate the observed spectra at scattering angles below about 18 0 , may be explained in terms of a surface hyperchannelling model in which the incident ions are confined to move within the shallow 'potential valleys' between two atomic rows in the surface. The critical angle for occurrence of this phenomena which is distinctly different from surface semichannelling has been evaluated with Lindhard's standard string potential. The experimentally measured critical angles are in good agreement with the calculated ones. (author)

  12. Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kwon, Yong-Hoan; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2007-03-01

    The authors propose a method to control the viewing angle of a liquid crystal (LC) panel using dual-mode switching. To realize both wide viewing angle (WVA) characteristics and narrow viewing angle (NVA) characteristics with a single LC panel, the authors use two different dark states. The LC layer can be aligned homogeneously parallel to the transmission axis of the bottom polarizer for WVA dark state operation, while it can be aligned vertically for NVA dark state operation. The authors demonstrated that viewing angle control can be achieved with a single panel without any loss of contrast at the front.

  13. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  14. Determination of angle of light deflection in higher-derivative gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenmei; Yang, Yisong

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational light deflection is known as one of three classical tests of general relativity and the angle of deflection may be computed explicitly using approximate or exact solutions describing the gravitational force generated from a point mass. In various generalized gravity theories, however, such explicit determination is often impossible due to the difficulty in obtaining an exact expression for the deflection angle. In this work, we present some highly effective globally convergent iterative methods to determine the angle of semiclassical gravitational deflection in higher- and infinite-derivative formalisms of quantum gravity theories. We also establish the universal properties that the deflection angle always stays below the classical Einstein angle and is a strictly decreasing function of the incident photon energy, in these formalisms.

  15. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering. History, developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), which is a scattering method observing in a q-region of q=10 -3 nm -1 , was initiated by double crystal (Bonse-Hart) method. Recently, a focusing USANS method was developed by combining a pin-hole type spectrometer and focusing lenses. These two methods, which are complementary to each other, were employed to achieve wide q-observations on microbial cellulose, actin cytoskeleton, tire, and membrane-electrolyte assembly of fuel cell. (author)

  16. GALAXI: Gallium anode low-angle x-ray instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kentzinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The high brilliance laboratory small angle X-ray scattering instrument GALAXI, which is operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, permits the investigation of chemical correlations in bulk materials or of structures deposited on a surface at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales. The instrument is capable to perform GISAXS experiments in reflection at grazing incidence as well as SAXS experiments in transmission geometry. The X-ray flux on sample is comparable or higher than the one obtained at a comparable beamline at a second generation synchrotron radiation source.

  17. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  18. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  19. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  20. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  1. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  2. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  3. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  4. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  5. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  6. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Mungale, Sachin C; Kumbar, Tukaram; Parikh, Rajul S; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC) angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC). But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects), above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3) and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16%) and superior quadrants (15%) of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%). Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1). Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments. PMID:23202393

  7. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  8. Design considerations for a backlight with switchable viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Takagi, Yoshihiko; Rahadian, Fanny

    2006-08-01

    Small-sized liquid crystal displays are widely used for mobile applications such as cell phones. Electronic control of a viewing angle range is desired in order to maintain privacy for viewing in public as well as to provide wide viewing angles for solitary viewing. Conventionally, a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) panel is inserted between a backlight and a liquid crystal panel. The PDLC layer either transmits or scatters the light from the backlight, thus providing an electronic control of viewing angles. However, such a display system is obviously thick and expensive. Here, we propose to place an electronically-controlled, light-deflecting device between an LED and a light-guide of a backlight. For example, a liquid crystal lens is investigated for other applications and its focal length is controlled electronically. A liquid crystal phase grating either transmits or diffracts an incoming light depending on whether or not a periodic phase distribution is formed inside its liquid crystal layer. A bias applied to such a device will control the angular distribution of the light propagating inside a light-guide. Output couplers built in the light-guide extract the propagating light to outside. They can be V-shaped grooves, pyramids, or any other structures that can refract, reflect or diffract light. When any of such interactions occur, the output couplers translate the changes in the propagation angles into the angular distribution of the output light. Hence the viewing-angle characteristic can be switched. The designs of the output couplers and the LC devices are important for such a backlight system.

  9. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  10. Study of the state of the plasma produced by oblique-incident laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiatian; Zhang Guoping; Liu Wei; Ye Chunfu; Hu Shengyong

    1997-01-01

    The plasma state and the gain region produced by the oblique-incidence laser on Ge target are studied and are compared with that produced by the vertical one. As a result of study, the absorption efficiency of the pumping energy turns far smaller, the plasma state changes remarkable and the gain region becomes much narrower when incident angle is greater than 30 degree

  11. Secondary electron emission of sapphire tungsten molybdenum and titanium for Maxwellian incident electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussez-Hublet, M.-C.; Harbour, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    The second electron emission coefficient of various materials, namely titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and sapphire, has been calculated for a Maxwellian energy distribution from data for a normally incident monoenergetic beam of primary electrons. The most significant difference from the monoenergetic case occurs at low energies. In addition the influence of the incident angle of the electrons is discussed. (author)

  12. A method of directly extracting multiwave angle-domain common-image gathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianguang; Wang, Yun

    2017-10-01

    Angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) can provide an effective way for migration velocity analysis and amplitude versus angle analysis in oil-gas seismic exploration. On the basis of multi-component Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM), an alternative method of directly extracting multiwave ADCIGs is presented in this paper. We first introduce multi-component GB-PSDM, where a wavefield separation is proceeded to obtain the separated PP- and PS-wave seismic records before migration imaging for multiwave seismic data. Then, the principle of extracting PP- and PS-ADCIGs using GB-PSDM is presented. The propagation angle can be obtained using the real-value travel time of Gaussian beam in the course of GB-PSDM, which can be used to calculate the incidence and reflection angles. Two kinds of ADCIGs can be extracted for the PS-wave, one of which is P-wave incidence ADCIGs and the other one is S-wave reflection ADCIGs. In this paper, we use the incident angle to plot the ADCIGs for both PP- and PS-waves. Finally, tests of synthetic examples show that the method introduced here is accurate and effective.

  13. Effect of finite sample dimensions and total scatter acceptance angle on the gamma ray buildup factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Charanjeet; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous variation of gamma ray buildup factors with absorber thickness (up to 6.5 mfp) and total scatter acceptance angle (which is the sum of incidence and exit beam divergence) in the media of high volume flyash concrete and water was studied experimentally using a point isotropic 137 Cs source

  14. Light refraction in sapphire plates with a variable angle of crystal optical axis to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V. N.; Ignatenkov, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    The modification of sapphire by inhomogeneous plastic deformation makes it possible to obtain plates with a variable angle of inclination of the crystal optical axis to the plate surface. The refraction of light in this plate at perpendicular and oblique incidence of a parallel beam of rays is considered. The algorithm of calculating the refractive index of extraordinary ray and the birefringence is proposed.

  15. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  16. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  17. Palladium(II) and copper(I) complexes of wide angle bisphosphine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAURABH KUMAR

    ... version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12039-017-1334-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. 2. Experimental. All experimental manipulations were performed under an inert atmosphere of dry nitrogen or argon, using standard. Schlenk techniques. All the solvents were purified by con-.

  18. The Sunda-Banda Arc Transition: New Insights From Marine Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, L.; Shulgin, A.; Kopp, H.; Mueller, C.; Flueh, E.; Lueschen, E.; Engels, M.; Dayuf Jusuf, M.

    2007-12-01

    End of 2006, RV SONNE cruise SO190 SINDBAD (Seismic and Geoacoustic Investigations along the Sunda- Banda Arc Transition) went south of the Indonesian archipelago to acquire various geophysical datasets between 112 °E and 122 °E. The main goal of the project is to investigate the modifications of the lower plate (variability in the plate roughness, transition from oceanic to continental lower plate) and their effects on the tectonics of the upper plate (development of an outer high and forearc basin, accretionary and erosive processes). The tectonic style changes in neighboring margin segments from an oceanic plate-island arc subduction along the eastern Sunda margin to a continental plate-island arc collision along the Banda margin. Moreover, the character of the incoming oceanic plate varies from the rough topography in the area where the Roo Rise is subducting off eastern Java, to the smooth oceanic seafloor of the Argo- Abyssal Plain subducting off Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa. In order to cover the entire variations of the lower plate, seven seismic refraction profiles were conducted along four major north-south oriented corridors of the margin, at 113 °E, 116 °E, 119 °E, and 121 °E, as well as three profiles running perpendicular to the major corridors. A total of 239 ocean bottom hydrophone and seismometer deployments were successfully recovered. Shooting was conducted along 1020 nm of seismic profiles using a G-gun cluster of 64 l. Here, we present velocity models obtained by applying a tomographic approach which jointly inverts for refracted and reflected phases. Additional geometry and velocity information for the uppermost layers, obtained by prestack depth migration of multichannel seismic reflection data (see poster of Mueller et al. in this session), is incorporated into our models and held fixed during the iterations. geomar.de/index.php?id=sindbad

  19. First wide-angle view of channelized turbidity currents links migrating cyclic steps to flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Clarke, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Field observations of turbidity currents remain scarce, and thus there is continued debate about their internal structure and how they modify underlying bedforms. Here, I present the results of a new imaging method that examines multiple surge-like turbidity currents within a delta front channel, as they pass over crescent-shaped bedforms. Seven discrete flows over a 2-h period vary in speed from 0.5 to 3.0 ms−1. Only flows that exhibit a distinct acoustically attenuating layer at the base, appear to cause bedform migration. That layer thickens abruptly downstream of the bottom of the lee slope of the bedform, and the upper surface of the layer fluctuates rapidly at that point. The basal layer is inferred to reflect a strong near-bed gradient in density and the thickening is interpreted as a hydraulic jump. These results represent field-scale flow observations in support of a cyclic step origin of crescent-shaped bedforms. PMID:27283503

  20. Broadband, wide-angle and tunable terahertz absorber based on cross-shaped graphene arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Gu, Mingyue; Xiao, Sanshui

    2017-01-01

    Tunable terahertz absorbers composed of periodically cross-shaped graphene arrays with the ability to achieve nearunity absorbance are proposed and studied. Our results demonstrate that the bandwidth of absorption rate above 90% can reach up to 1.13 terahertz by use of a single layer of cross-sha...