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Sample records for incidence varying widely

  1. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  2. Plant Mating Systems Often Vary Widely Among Populations

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    Michael R. Whitehead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most flowering plants are hermaphroditic, yet the proportion of seeds fertilized by self and outcross pollen varies widely among species, ranging from predominant self-fertilization to exclusive outcrossing. A population's rate of outcrossing has important evolutionary outcomes as it influences genetic structure, effective population size, and offspring fitness. Because most mating system studies have quantified outcrossing rates for just one or two populations, past reviews of mating system diversity have not been able to characterize the extent of variation among populations. Here we present a new database of more than 30 years of mating system studies that report outcrossing rates for three or more populations per species. This survey, which includes 741 populations from 105 species, illustrates substantial and prevalent among-population variation in the mating system. Intermediate outcrossing rates (mixed mating are common; 63% of species had at least one mixed mating population. The variance among populations and within species was not significantly correlated with pollination mode or phylogeny. Our review underscores the need for studies exploring variation in the relative influence of ecological and genetic factors on the mating system, and how this varies among populations. We conclude that estimates of outcrossing rates from single populations are often highly unreliable indicators of the mating system of an entire species.

  3. Finite element form of FDV for widely varying flowfields

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    Richardson, G. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Chung, T. J.; Wu, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) method for physical applications that have widely varying spatial and temporal scales. Our motivation is to develop a versatile numerical method that is accurate and stable in simulations with complex geometries and with wide variations in space and time scales. The use of a finite element formulation adds capabilities such as flexible grid geometries and exact enforcement of Neumann boundary conditions. While finite element schemes are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in many engineering fields, their use in space physics, astrophysical fluids and laboratory magnetohydrodynamic simulations with shocks has been predominantly overlooked. The FDV method is unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in these regimes. The first part of this paper concentrates on the presentation of our numerical method formulation for Newtonian and relativistic hydrodynamics. In the second part we present several standard simulation examples that test the method's limitations and verify the FDV method. We show that our finite element formulation is stable and accurate for a range of both Mach numbers and Lorentz factors in one-dimensional test problems. We also present the converging/diverging nozzle which contains both incompressible and compressible flow in the flowfield over a range of subsonic and supersonic regions. We demonstrate the stability of our method and the accuracy by comparison with the results of other methods including the finite difference Total Variation Diminishing method. We explore the use of FDV for both non-relativistic and relativistic fluids (hydrodynamics) with strong shocks in order to establish the effectiveness in future applications of this method in astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments.

  4. Frontal Neurons Modulate Memory Retrieval across Widely Varying Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    Once a memory has formed, it is thought to undergo a gradual transition within the brain from short- to long-term storage. This putative process, however, also poses a unique problem to the memory system in that the same learned items must also be retrieved across broadly varying time scales. Here, we find that neurons in the ventrolateral…

  5. Errors in 'BED'-derived estimates of HIV incidence will vary by place, time and age.

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    Timothy B Hallett

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The BED Capture Enzyme Immunoassay, believed to distinguish recent HIV infections, is being used to estimate HIV incidence, although an important property of the test--how specificity changes with time since infection--has not been not measured.We construct hypothetical scenarios for the performance of BED test, consistent with current knowledge, and explore how this could influence errors in BED estimates of incidence using a mathematical model of six African countries. The model is also used to determine the conditions and the sample sizes required for the BED test to reliably detect trends in HIV incidence.If the chance of misclassification by BED increases with time since infection, the overall proportion of individuals misclassified could vary widely between countries, over time, and across age-groups, in a manner determined by the historic course of the epidemic and the age-pattern of incidence. Under some circumstances, changes in BED estimates over time can approximately track actual changes in incidence, but large sample sizes (50,000+ will be required for recorded changes to be statistically significant.The relationship between BED test specificity and time since infection has not been fully measured, but, if it decreases, errors in estimates of incidence could vary by place, time and age-group. This means that post-assay adjustment procedures using parameters from different populations or at different times may not be valid. Further research is urgently needed into the properties of the BED test, and the rate of misclassification in a wide range of populations.

  6. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College. Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. Results: During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were available for analysis.

  7. Varied-space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    We discuss the dominant geometrical aberrations of a grazing incidence reflection grating and new techniques which can be used to reduce or eliminate them. Convergent beam geometries and the aberration correction possible with varied groove spacings are each found to improve the spectral resolution and speed of grazing incidence gratings. In combination, these two techniques can result in a high resolution (λ/Δλ > 10 4 ) monochromator or scanning spectrometer with a simple rotational motion for scanning wavelength or selecting the spectral band. 21 refs., 4 figs

  8. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.

  9. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K.; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental ...

  10. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

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    Lisa A. Houghton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.

  11. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  12. Modeling Radar Scattering by Planetary Regoliths for Varying Angles of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Patterson, G. W.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    readily accommodate varying incidence angles, as well as heterogeneities in regolith composition and properties - factors that may be of interest in both lunar and other contexts. We will report on the development and validation of the coupled MSTM-Monte Carlo model, and discuss its application to problems of interest.

  13. Chloroplast movement behavior varies widely among species and does not correlate with high light stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königer, Martina; Bollinger, Nicole

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that chloroplasts move in response to changes in blue light intensity in order to optimize light interception, however, little is known about interspecific variation and the relative importance of this mechanism for the high light stress tolerance of plants. We characterized chloroplast movement behavior as changes in light transmission through a leaf in a variety of species ranging from ferns to monocots and eudicots and found a wide spectrum of responses. Most species exhibited a distinct accumulation response compared to the dark positioning, and all species showed a distinct avoidance response. The speed with which transmission values changed during the avoidance response was consistently faster than that during the accumulation response and speeds varied greatly between species. Plants thriving in higher growth light intensities showed greater degrees of accumulation responses and faster changes in transmission than those that prefer lower light intensities. In some species, the chloroplasts on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces changed their positioning in response to light, while in other species only the chloroplasts on one leaf side responded. No correlation was found between high light stress tolerance and the speed or degree of transmission changes, indicating that plants can compensate for slow and limited transmission changes using other photoprotective mechanisms.

  14. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education

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    Vivian Wai-Mei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD affects patients in their young reproductive years. Women with IBD require maintenance therapies during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been well characterized. Objective. To characterize physician perceptions and management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians who are involved in the care of women with IBD was conducted. The survey included multiple-choice and Likert scale questions about perceptions and practice patterns regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Results. 183 practicing physicians completed the questionnaire: 97/183 (53.0% gastroenterologists; 75/183 (41.0% general practitioners; and 11/183 (6.0% other physicians. Almost half (87/183, 47.5% of the physicians felt comfortable managing pregnant IBD patients. For specified IBD medications, proportions of physicians who indicated they would continue them during pregnancy were as follows: sulfasalazine, 47.4%; oral mesalamine, 67.0%; topical mesalamine, 70.3%; oral prednisone, 68.0%; topical prednisone, 78.0%; oral budesonide, 61.6%; topical budesonide, 75.0%; ciprofloxacin, 15.3%; metronidazole, 31.4%; azathioprine, 57.1%; methotrexate, 2.8%; infliximab, 55.6%; adalimumab, 78.1%. Similar proportions of physicians would continue these medications during breastfeeding. A higher proportion of gastroenterologists than nongastroenterologists indicated appropriate use of these IBD medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Conclusions. Physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding varies widely. Relative to other physicians, responses of gastroenterologists more frequently reflected best practices pertaining to medications for control of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is a need for further education regarding the management of IBD during

  15. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian Wai-Mei; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Kroeker, Karen Ivy; Goodman, Karen Jean; Hegadoren, Kathleen M; Dieleman, Levinus Albert; Fedorak, Richard Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects patients in their young reproductive years. Women with IBD require maintenance therapies during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been well characterized. Objective. To characterize physician perceptions and management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians who are involved in the care of women with IBD was conducted. The survey included multiple-choice and Likert scale questions about perceptions and practice patterns regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Results. 183 practicing physicians completed the questionnaire: 97/183 (53.0%) gastroenterologists; 75/183 (41.0%) general practitioners; and 11/183 (6.0%) other physicians. Almost half (87/183, 47.5%) of the physicians felt comfortable managing pregnant IBD patients. For specified IBD medications, proportions of physicians who indicated they would continue them during pregnancy were as follows: sulfasalazine, 47.4%; oral mesalamine, 67.0%; topical mesalamine, 70.3%; oral prednisone, 68.0%; topical prednisone, 78.0%; oral budesonide, 61.6%; topical budesonide, 75.0%; ciprofloxacin, 15.3%; metronidazole, 31.4%; azathioprine, 57.1%; methotrexate, 2.8%; infliximab, 55.6%; adalimumab, 78.1%. Similar proportions of physicians would continue these medications during breastfeeding. A higher proportion of gastroenterologists than nongastroenterologists indicated appropriate use of these IBD medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Conclusions. Physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding varies widely. Relative to other physicians, responses of gastroenterologists more frequently reflected best practices pertaining to medications for control of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is a need for further education regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and

  16. Surface and canopy fuels vary widely in 24-yr old postfire lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K. N.; Turner, M.; Romme, W. H.; Tinker, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme fire seasons have become common in western North America, and the extent of young postfire forests has grown as fire frequency and annual area burned have increased. These young forests will set the stage for future fires, but an assessment of fuel loads in young forests is lacking. The rate of fuel re-accumulation and fuels variability in postfire forest landscapes is needed to anticipate future fire occurrence and behavior in the American West. We studied fuel characteristics in young lodgepole pine forests that regenerated after the 1988 fires in Yellowstone National Park to address two questions: (1) How do surface fuel characteristics change with time-since-fire? (2) How do canopy and surface fuels vary across the Yellowstone landscape 24 years postfire? During summer 2012, we re-measured surface fuels in 11 plots that were established in 1996 (8 yrs post fire), and we measured surface and canopy fuels in 82 stands (each 0.25 ha) distributed across the Yellowstone post-1988 fire landscape. In the remeasured plots, surface fuel loads generally increased over the last 16 years. One-hr fuels did not change between sample dates, but all other fuel classes (i.e., 10-hr, 100-hr, and 1000-hr) increased by a factor of two or three. Within the sample timeframe, variability of fuel loads within stands decreased significantly. The coefficients of variation decreased for all fuel classes by 23% to 67%. Data from the 82 plots revealed that canopy and surface fuels in 24-year-old stands varied tremendously across the Yellowstone landscape. Live tree densities spanned 0 to 344,067 trees ha-1, producing a mean available canopy fuel load of 7.7 Mg ha-1 and a wide range from 0 to 47 Mg ha-1. Total surface fuel loads averaged 130 Mg ha-1 and ranged from 49 to 229 Mg ha-1, of which 90% was in the 1000-hr fuel class. The mass of fine surface fuels (i.e., litter/duff, 1-hr, 10-hr, and herbaceous fuels) and canopy fuels (i.e., foliage and 1-hr branches) were strongly and

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of soybean primary root under varying water-deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Prince, Silvas; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Maldonado dos Santos, Joao V; Wang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Li; Wan, Jinrong; Wang, Yongqin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-15

    Soybean is a major crop that provides an important source of protein and oil to humans and animals, but its production can be dramatically decreased by the occurrence of drought stress. Soybeans can survive drought stress if there is a robust and deep root system at the early vegetative growth stage. However, little is known about the genome-wide molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root system architecture. This study was performed to gain knowledge on transcriptome changes and related molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root development under water limited conditions. The soybean Williams 82 genotype was subjected to very mild stress (VMS), mild stress (MS) and severe stress (SS) conditions, as well as recovery from the severe stress after re-watering (SR). In total, 6,609 genes in the roots showed differential expression patterns in response to different water-deficit stress levels. Genes involved in hormone (Auxin/Ethylene), carbohydrate, and cell wall-related metabolism (XTH/lipid/flavonoids/lignin) pathways were differentially regulated in the soybean root system. Several transcription factors (TFs) regulating root growth and responses under varying water-deficit conditions were identified and the expression patterns of six TFs were found to be common across the stress levels. Further analysis on the whole plant level led to the finding of tissue-specific or water-deficit levels specific regulation of transcription factors. Analysis of the over-represented motif of different gene groups revealed several new cis-elements associated with different levels of water deficit. The expression patterns of 18 genes were confirmed byquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of RNA-Seq. The primary root specific transcriptome in soybean can enable a better understanding of the root response to water deficit conditions. The genes detected in root tissues that were associated with

  18. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  19. Stagewise pseudo-value regression for time-varying effects on the cumulative incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöller, Daniela; Schmidtmann, Irene; Weinmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    using a pseudo-value approach. For a grid of time points, the possibly unobserved binary event status is replaced by a jackknife pseudo-value based on the Aalen-Johansen method. We combine a stagewise regression technique with the pseudo-value approach to provide variable selection while allowing......In a competing risks setting, the cumulative incidence of an event of interest describes the absolute risk for this event as a function of time. For regression analysis, one can either choose to model all competing events by separate cause-specific hazard models or directly model the association...... between covariates and the cumulative incidence of one of the events. With a suitable link function, direct regression models allow for a straightforward interpretation of covariate effects on the cumulative incidence. In practice, where data can be right-censored, these regression models are implemented...

  20. Incidence of herpes zoster amongst adults varies by severity of immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Carsten; Enders, Dirk; Schink, Tania; Riedel, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    We examined the incidence of herpes zoster in immunocompromised adults (≥18 years) with different severities of immunosuppression and assessed the prevalence of complications and of various kinds of healthcare resource utilisation. German claims data from more than ten million adults were used to calculate annual incidence rates of herpes zoster for the years 2006-2012 and to analyse the prevalence of complications, physician visits, hospitalisations, and antiviral and analgesic treatments using a cohort design. The analyses were stratified by age, sex, and severity of immunosuppression, defined by immunocompromising conditions and drug therapies. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of herpes zoster was almost twice as high in immunocompromised patients (11.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4-11.6)) compared to immunocompetent subjects (5.9 (95% CI: 5.8-5.9)). The incidence rate was higher in highly immunocompromised patients (13.4 (95% CI: 13.2-13.6)) than in patients with a low severity of immunosuppression (10.0 (95% CI: 9.8-10.1)). These differences were observed for both sexes and in all age groups. Complications, outpatient physician visits, hospitalisations, and analgesic treatments occurred more frequently in immunocompromised patients as well. Our results show that immunocompromised individuals are affected by the disease in particular and that the burden of herpes zoster is highest in severely immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Histologic Lung Cancer Incidence Rates and Trends vary by Race/Ethnicity and Residential County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Keisha A; Mitchell, Khadijah A; King, Jessica; White, Arica; Ryan, Bríd M

    2018-01-19

    Lung cancer incidence is higher among NH blacks compared with NH white and Hispanic populations in the U.S. However, national cancer estimates may not always reflect the cancer burden in terms of disparities and incidence in small geographic areas, especially urban-rural disparities. Moreover, there is a gap in the literature regarding rural-urban disparities in terms of cancer histology. Using population-based cancer registry data-Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)-we present age-adjusted histologic rates and trends by race/ethnicity, and residential county location at the time of first cancer diagnosis. Rate ratios were calculated to examine racial/ethnic differences in rates. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to measure changes in rates over time. We find that declines in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are occurring fastest in metropolitan counties, while rates of adenocarcinoma increased fastest in counties non-adjacent to metropolitan areas. Further, while NH black men have increased lung cancer incidence compared with NH white and Hispanic men in all geographic locations, we find that the degree of the disparity increases with increasing rurality of residence. Finally, we report that among women diagnosed at less than 55 years of age, the incidence of SCC and adenocarcinoma was higher for NH blacks compared with NH whites. Our results highlight disparities among NH blacks in non-adjacent rural areas. These findings may have significant impact for the implementation of smoking cessation and lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The deforestation debate; estimates vary widely over the extent of forest loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-01-01

    While tropical forests are vanishing at a disturbing rate, the wide-spread disagreement over deforestation estimates makes it difficult for government officials and scientists to assess the problem. In turn this hampers efforts to gauge the threat of related issues such as habitat destruction and global warming. Creating more confusion is the realization that partly deforested, but not stripped, lands have not been completely taken into account. In addition lands in tropical regions but outside the tropical rain forest are poorly represented. This article uses Brazil as an example of the conflicting estimates. The efforts of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to improve its estimates are described. An on-going NASA project to help is also described

  3. The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Brown

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian circadian behavior is governed by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus, and its intrinsic period length is believed to affect the phase of daily activities. Measurement of this period length, normally accomplished by prolonged subject observation, is difficult and costly in humans. Because a circadian clock similar to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is present in most cell types, we were able to engineer a lentiviral circadian reporter that permits characterization of circadian rhythms in single skin biopsies. Using it, we have determined the period lengths of 19 human individuals. The average value from all subjects, 24.5 h, closely matches average values for human circadian physiology obtained in studies in which circadian period was assessed in the absence of the confounding effects of light input and sleep-wake cycle feedback. Nevertheless, the distribution of period lengths measured from biopsies from different individuals was wider than those reported for circadian physiology. A similar trend was observed when comparing wheel-running behavior with fibroblast period length in mouse strains containing circadian gene disruptions. In mice, inter-individual differences in fibroblast period length correlated with the period of running-wheel activity; in humans, fibroblasts from different individuals showed widely variant circadian periods. Given its robustness, the presented procedure should permit quantitative trait mapping of human period length.

  4. Prediction and dissection of widely-varying association rate constants of actin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kenneth H; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Actin is an abundant protein that constitutes a main component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Its polymerization and depolymerization are regulated by a variety of actin-binding proteins. Their functions range from nucleation of actin polymerization to sequestering G-actin in 1∶1 complexes. The kinetics of forming these complexes, with rate constants varying at least three orders of magnitude, is critical to the distinct regulatory functions. Previously we have developed a transient-complex theory for computing protein association mechanisms and association rate constants. The transient complex refers to an intermediate in which the two associating proteins have near-native separation and relative orientation but have yet to form short-range specific interactions of the native complex. The association rate constant is predicted as k(a) = k(a0) e(-ΔG(el*)/k(B)T), where k(a0) is the basal rate constant for reaching the transient complex by free diffusion, and the Boltzmann factor captures the bias of long-range electrostatic interactions. Here we applied the transient-complex theory to study the association kinetics of seven actin-binding proteins with G-actin. These proteins exhibit three classes of association mechanisms, due to their different molecular shapes and flexibility. The 1000-fold k(a) variations among them can mostly be attributed to disparate electrostatic contributions. The basal rate constants also showed variations, resulting from the different shapes and sizes of the interfaces formed by the seven actin-binding proteins with G-actin. This study demonstrates the various ways that actin-binding proteins use physical properties to tune their association mechanisms and rate constants to suit distinct regulatory functions.

  5. Protein Interaction-Based Genome-Wide Analysis of Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Karoline; Pers, Tune Hannes; Dworzynski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    in genes associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results-Genome-wide association analyses of approximately approximate to 700 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 899 incident CHD cases and 1823 age-and sex-matched controls within the Nurses' Health and the Health Professionals...... for the number of complexes tested, 1 gene set was overrepresented in CHD-associated genes (P = 0.002). Centered on the beta 1-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1), this complex included 18 protein interaction partners that have not been identified as candidate loci for CHD. Of the 19 genes in the top complex, 5...... complex. Conclusions-The integration of a GWA study with PPI data successfully identifies a set of candidate susceptibility genes for incident CHD that would have been missed in single-marker GWA analysis. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011; 4:549-556.)...

  6. Note: Grazing incidence small and wide angle x-ray scattering combined with imaging ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerstgens, V.; Meier, R.; Ruderer, M. A.; Guo, S.; Chiang, H.-Y.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.; Gehrke, R. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The combination of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) with optical imaging ellipsometry is presented as an upgrade of the available measurement techniques at the wiggler beamline BW4 of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor. The instrument is introduced with the description of the alignment procedure to assure the measurement of imaging ellipsometry and GISAXS/GIWAXS on the same sample spot. To demonstrate the possibilities of the new instrument examples of morphological investigation on films made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester as well as textured poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzo-thia-diazole) are shown.

  7. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  8. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  9. Optimization of Grazing Incidence Optics for Wide-Field X-Ray Survey Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Roush, W. B.

    1999-12-01

    Optimization of wide-field X-ray optics could greatly enhance X-ray surveys. Discussions of optimizing wide-field X-ray optics, with field-of-views less-than 1.1 degree-squared, have been made previously in the literature. However, very little has been published about the optimizing of wide-field X-ray optics with larger fields-of-view. We have been working on the design of a wide-field (3.1 degree-squared field-of-view), short focal length (190.5 cm), grazing incidence mirror shell set, with a desired rms image spot size of 15 arcsec. The baseline design incorporates Wolter I type mirror shells with polynomial perturbations applied to the grazing incidence surface. By optimizing the polynomial, the rms image spot size can be minimized for a large range of grazing angles. The overall minimization technique is to efficiently optimize the polynomial coefficients that directly influence the angular resolution, without stepping through the entire multidimensional coefficient space. The multidimensional minimization techniques that have been investigated include: the downhill simplex method; the coupling of genetic algorithms with full and fractional, including Plackett-Burman, factorial designs; and the coupling of genetic algorithms with Box-Behnken and central composite response surface designs. We have also examined the use of neural networks, coupled with genetic algorithms, as a method of multidimensional minimization. Investigations of backpropagation, probabilistic (PNN), general regression (GRNN), and group method of data handling (GMDH) neural networks have been made. We report our findings to date. This research is funded by NASA grant #NAG5-5093.

  10. An R package "VariABEL" for genome-wide searching of potentially interacting loci by testing genotypic variance heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struchalin Maksim V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of new loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies of human traits. These studies mostly focused on associations between single locus and a trait. Interactions between genes and between genes and environmental factors are of interest as they can improve our understanding of the genetic background underlying complex traits. Genome-wide testing of complex genetic models is a computationally demanding task. Moreover, testing of such models leads to multiple comparison problems that reduce the probability of new findings. Assuming that the genetic model underlying a complex trait can include hundreds of genes and environmental factors, testing of these models in genome-wide association studies represent substantial difficulties. We and Pare with colleagues (2010 developed a method allowing to overcome such difficulties. The method is based on the fact that loci which are involved in interactions can show genotypic variance heterogeneity of a trait. Genome-wide testing of such heterogeneity can be a fast scanning approach which can point to the interacting genetic variants. Results In this work we present a new method, SVLM, allowing for variance heterogeneity analysis of imputed genetic variation. Type I error and power of this test are investigated and contracted with these of the Levene's test. We also present an R package, VariABEL, implementing existing and newly developed tests. Conclusions Variance heterogeneity analysis is a promising method for detection of potentially interacting loci. New method and software package developed in this work will facilitate such analysis in genome-wide context.

  11. The effect of a workflow-based response system on hospital-wide voluntary incident reporting rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Chang; Li, Ying-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chi

    2013-02-01

    Hospital incident reporting systems are usually evaluated on their theoretical benefit to the hospital or increase in reporting rates alone. To evaluate a workflow-based response system on staff incident reporting rates. A prospective cohort study of incident reports made by staff members before (2006-2007) and after (2008-2009) the system was implemented on 1 January 2008 at a medical center in southern Taiwan. Pre-system and post-system data were based on 713 129 and 730 176 inpatient days and 160 692 and 168 850 emergency department visits. The addition of a workflow-based response system to a reporting system processing incident reports and intra-hospital responses. Voluntary incident reporting rates and distribution of incident severities. Inpatient reports [9.9 vs. 28.8 per 10 000 patient days; rate ratio (RR): 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.2, P reports (5.9 vs. 19.2 per 10 000 visits, RR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.6-4.1, P system reported incidents were more evenly distributed over five severity levels than pre-sytem incidents, moving more toward the very severe level (RR: 17.6, 95% CI: 8.4-37.0, P system to the hospital incident reporting system significantly increased hospital-wide voluntary incident report rates at all incident injury levels.

  12. Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Namioka, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    Comparative studies have been made on the holographic plane grating and the ruled varied-line-spacing (VLS) plane grating designed for two kinds of objective Monk - Gillieson type high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator, I and II. The ray-traced performance of monochromator types I and II on a synchrotron radiation beam line was evaluated in terms of resolving power and spectral purity by the introduction of new concepts of effective Gaussian line and purity profiles. The resolving power defined on the basis of the effective Gaussian profile is consistent with the spectral purity of the beam emerging from the exit slit and is more realistic as compared with those defined in the conventional manner, especially when spectral images have asymmetric profiles. It is concluded that holographic plane gratings recorded with a spherical and an aspheric wave front are capable of providing high resolution with high spectral purity and are fully interchangeable with the corresponding ruled VLS plane gratings. This interchangeability provides more flexibility for users in choosing a proper grating for a high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator of the Monk - Gillieson type. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  13. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6.......6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk...... of PCE (RR 2.2) and MCE (RR up to 2.7 depending on experience) among surgeons and an increased risk of PCE in anaesthetists (RR 1.7). In contrast, senior physicians in Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a several fold lower risk of PCE (RR 0.6) and MCE (RR 0.6 in males, 0.3 in females...

  14. Research on the FDTD method of scattering effects of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves in time-varying plasma sheath on collision and plasma frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.

  15. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Russier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.

  16. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-01-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  17. Guaranteed Student Loans: Profits of Secondary Market Lenders Vary Widely. United States General Accounting Office Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was prepared to determine lenders' rates of return or profitability on Stafford loans in their portfolios, reasons for varying levels of profitability among institutions that hold such loans, and the effect of 1986 subsidy reductions on these lenders' profitability. The study focused on the activities of lenders that purchase Stafford…

  18. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  19. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-11-01

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. INCIDENCE OF TUMOR CELLS PRESENCE ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL SPECIMENTS MARGINS IN RELATION TO WIDENESS OF INTRAORAL CARCINOMAS EXCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mihailović

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Correct surgical therapy considers radical excision of tumor formation, what can be certificated by absence of tumor cells on histopathological specimen margins.The aim of this investigation is to estimate incidence of presence of tumor cells on histopathological specimen margins in cases of intraoral carcinomas, surgically excised in macroscopically normal tissue with different wideness of normal tissue zone and relation to postoperative survival of this patients with intraoral carcinomas.Fifty seven patients with intraoral carcinomas were divided in three groups according to wideness of zone of excision in macroscopically normal tissue. Lowest percent of presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens were in group of patients with zone of excision behind zone of indurations of soft tissue, but patients from this group had shortest postoperative survival period. Presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens of excided intraoral carcinomas was found in high number of 81,07%.It can be said that presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens of exceeded intraoral carcinomas was found in extremely high number of 81,07%, but direct statistical significant relation in-between wideness of surgical excision and postoperative survival period was not found what show that another factors connected with postoperative survival of this patients must be examine.

  1. The association of antidepressant and statin use with death and incident cardiovascular disease varies by depression severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Knight, Stacey; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Horne, Benjamin D; Brunisholz, Kimberly D; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2017-09-01

    Depression has been reported to be associated with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the impact of antidepressants (ADM) on CVD risk remains controversial. Statin use is known to decrease CVD risk. Whether the use of these medications together affects CVD risk has not been studied. Patients (N = 26,828) completing the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), ≥40 years of age, without prior CVD, and no prior ADM use were studied. Depressive severity was categorized as none-mild (PHQ-9 score ≤14, n = 21,517) and moderate-severe (PHQ-9 score ≥15, n = 5311). Cox hazard regression was used to evaluate the association of no ADM/no statin use (n = 23,104 [86.1%]), ADM/no statin use (n = 877 [3.3%]), no ADM/statin use (n = 2627 [9.8%]), and ADM/statin use (n = 220 [.8%]) with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, CAD, stroke). Patients averaged 56 ± 12 years; 61% female. There were 1182 (4.4%) 3 year MACE events. The association of ADM and statin use with MACE varied by depressive symptom severity, with statin therapy associated with a decreased risk in the none-mild group (HR = .78, p = .007) and ADM in the moderate-high group (HR = 0.58, p = 0.02). Concomitant use of ADMs and statins did not appear to provide additive benefit.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehghan

    Full Text Available Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS for incident coronary heart disease (CHD. Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting.We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases. SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10-6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up.In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10-6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10-3 and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10-9. Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049 was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02 and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08. Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10-3.QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders.

  3. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  4. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral.

  5. Power System Event Ranking Using a New Linear Parameter-Varying Modeling with a Wide Area Measurement System-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Abolhasani Jabali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Detecting critical power system events for Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA is required for reliability improvement. The approach proposed in this paper investigates the effects of events on dynamic behavior during nonlinear system response while common approaches use steady-state conditions after events. This paper presents some new and enhanced indices for event ranking based on time-domain simulation and polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV modeling of a power system. In the proposed approach, a polytopic LPV representation is generated via linearization about some points of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power system using wide-area measurement system (WAMS concepts and then event ranking is done based on the frequency response of the system models on the vertices. Therefore, the nonlinear behaviors of the system in the time of fault occurrence are considered for events ranking. The proposed algorithm is applied to a power system using nonlinear simulation. The comparison of the results especially in different fault conditions shows the advantages of the proposed approach and indices.

  6. Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP). Appendix F, remediation analysis with Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for wide-area chemical hazards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassig, Nancy L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Pulsipher, Brent A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2011-07-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) commissioned an assessment of the Consequence Management (CM) plans in place on military bases for response to a chemical attack. The effectiveness of the CM plans for recovering from chemical incidents was modeled using a multiple Decision Support Tools (DSTs). First, a scenario was developed based on an aerial dispersion of a chemical agent over a wide-area of land. The extent of contamination was modeled with the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. Subsequently, the Analyzer for Wide Area Restoration Effectiveness (AWARE) tool was used to estimate the cost and time demands for remediation based on input of contamination maps, sampling and decontamination resources, strategies, rates and costs. The sampling strategies incorporated in the calculation were designed using the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) tool. Based on a gaps assessment and the DST remediation analysis, an Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP) was developed.

  7. Wide Angle of Incidence-Insensitive Polarization-Independent THz Metamaterial Absorber for Both TE and TM Mode Based on Plasmon Hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Tao Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wide-angle THz metamaterial absorber (MA utilizing sixteen-circular-sector (SCR resonator for both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode is designed and investigated numerically. At normal incidence, the absorptivity of the proposed MA is higher than 93.7% at 9.05 THz for different polarization angles, due to the rotational symmetry structure of the unit cell. Under oblique incidence, the absorptivity can still exceed 90%, even when the incident angle is up to 70° for both TE and TM mode. Especially, the frequency variation in TE mode is less than 0.25% for different incident angles from 0° to 70°. The electric field (Ez distributions are used to explain the absorption mechanism. Numerical simulation results show that the high absorption with wide-angle independence stems from fundamental dipole resonance and gap surface plasmons. The broadband deep-infrared MA is also obtained by stacking three metal-dielectric layers. The designed MA has great potential in bolometric pixel elements, biomedical sensors, THz imaging, and solar cells.

  8. The Incidence of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Pegylated Asparaginase in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A City-wide Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazzak, Muaz; Beaupin, Lynda K; Kinyoun, Peter; Barth, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginase (ASNase) is an imperative component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. Pegylating the ASNase extends its biological half-life in vivo and has become the only ASNase available in the United States for frontline therapy of ALL and lymphoblastic lymphoma. It is either infused intravenously (IV) or injected intramuscularly (IM), administrations of which are associated with hypersensitivity reaction ranging from localized skin reaction to severe anaphylaxis. A retrospective review of 96 medical records of pediatric ALL patients was performed. We compared the incidence of hypersensitivity reaction associated with IV versus IM administration of pegylated ASNase. Ninety-one patients were included in the final analysis; 31 having received pegylated ASNase IV and 60 receiving it IM. The incidence of any grade ≥ 2 hypersensitivity reaction in patients who received IV ASNase was 32.2% compared with 13.3% in the IM group (P=0.032). There was no difference in higher grade hypersensitivity reactions (19.4% vs. 11.7%). Most reactions tended to occur during periods of leukemia therapy that did not include concomitant steroid therapy. Our retrospective analysis indicates that IV administration of pegylated ASNase increases the incidence of low-grade, but not grade 3-4, hypersensitivity reactions compared with IM administration.

  9. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  10. Increasing incidence of statin prescribing for the elderly without previous cardiovascular conditions:  A nation wide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    Supported by the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of statins in a range of conditions, statin utilization has increased considerably in most Western countries over the last decade. Objectives To estimate to what extent a widening of indication scope for statins accounts for the increasi...... for initiating statin treatment, including the "abolition of ageism". The fact that treatment incidence grew most among elderly without disease markers reflects a changing prescribing behaviours among general practitioners, presumably related to an increased use of risk scoring....

  11. On the role of alkylating mechanisms, O-alkylation and DNA-repair in genotoxicity and mutagenicity of alkylating methanesulfonates of widely varying structures in bacterial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, E; Kütt, W; Deininger, C

    2001-07-31

    The Ames test and the SOS-chromotest are widely used bacterial mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays to test potential carcinogens. Though the molecular mechanisms leading to backmutations and to the induction of SOS-repair are in principle known the role of alkylation mechanisms, of different DNA-lesions and of DNA-repair is in parts still unknown. In this study we investigated 14 monofunctional methanesulfonates of widely varying structures for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 1535 sensitive for O(6)-guanine alkylation for comparison with strain TA 100 in order to obtain additional information on the role of alkylation mechanisms, formation of the procarcinogenic DNA-lesion O(6)-alkylguanine and the role of DNA-repair in induction of backmutation. The substances were also tested in the SOS-chromotest with Escherichia coli strain PQ 37 and strain PQ 243 lacking alkyl base glycosylases important for base excision repair in order to examine the role of alkylation mechanisms, of base excision repair and the role of O-alkyl and N-alkyl DNA-lesions on the induction of SOS-repair. The secondary methanesulfonates with very high S(N)1-reactivity isopropyl methanesulfonate and 2-butyl methanesulfonate showed highest mutagenicities in both strains. The higher substituted methanesulfonates with very high S(N)1-reactivity had lower mutagenic activities because of reduced half lives due to their high hydrolysis rates. A clear increase in mutagenicities in strain TA 100 was observed for the primary compounds methyl methanesulfonate and allyl methanesulfonate with very high S(N)2-reactivity. The primary compound phenylethyl methanesulfonate has a relatively high mutagenicity in both Salmonella strains which can be explained by an increased S(N)1-reactivity and by low repair of the O(6)-phenylethylguanine. Highest SOSIPs (SOS inducing potency) in strains PQ 37 and PQ 243 were found for methyl methanesulfonate and for the secondary compounds with high S(N)1-reactivity

  12. Detection of short range order in SiO{sub 2} thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kohki, E-mail: nagata.koki@iri-tokyo.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Hirosawa, Ichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-04-21

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO{sub 2} thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  13. A large-area, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent plasmonic color filter for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    We develop an effective method for glucose sensing by using a plasmonic color filter (PCF) integrated with a microfluidic chip. The morphology of PCF is composed of hybrid nanopillars fabricated with SiO2 and Au thin-films on silicon substrate. It exhibits angle-independence, polarization-independence and wafer-level fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. The shift of resonant wavelength is 56 nm with a stable bandwidth (∼30 nm) by varying concentration of glucose solution. The sensitivity is 157.61 nm/RIU and the corresponding figure-of-merit is 5.25. Such strategy can be exploited to further increase the detection and potentially enter the ultra-strong coupling regime in chemical solution sensors.

  14. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil...... xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater...

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors for Deliberate Self-harm, Mental Illness, and Suicide Following Bariatric Surgery: A State-wide Population-based Linked-data Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M

    2017-02-01

    Assess the incidence and determinants of hospitalization for deliberate self-harm and mental health disorders, and suicide after bariatric surgery. Limited recent literature suggests an increase in deliberate self-harm following bariatric surgery. A state-wide, population-based, self-matched, longitudinal cohort study over a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011. Utilizing the Western Australian Department of Health Data Linkage Unit records, all patients undergoing bariatric surgery (n = 12062) in Western Australia were followed for an average 30.4 months preoperatively and 40.6 months postoperatively. There were 110 patients (0.9%) hospitalized for deliberate self-harm, which was higher than the general population [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94, P = 0.005]. Compared with before surgery, there was no significant increase in deliberate self-harm hospitalizations (IRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.54-1.16; P = 0.206) and a reduction in overall mental illness related hospitalizations (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.91; P = 0.002) after surgery. Younger age, no private-health insurance cover, a history of hospitalizations due to depression before surgery, and gastrointestinal complications after surgery were predictors for deliberate self-harm hospitalizations after bariatric surgery. Three suicides occurred during the follow-up period, a rate comparable to the general population during the same time period (IRR 0.61, 95% CI 0.11-2.27, P = 0.444). Hospitalization for deliberate self-harm in bariatric patients was more common than the general population, but an increased incidence of deliberate self-harm after bariatric surgery was not observed. Hospitalization for depression before surgery and major postoperative gastrointestinal complications after bariatric surgery are potentially modifiable risk factors for deliberate self-harm after bariatric surgery.

  16. Genetic contributors to variation in alcohol consumption vary by race/ethnicity in a large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, E; Thai, K K; Hoffmann, T J; Sakoda, L C; Kvale, M N; Banda, Y; Schaefer, C; Risch, N; Mertens, J; Weisner, C; Choquet, H

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and is correlated with the risk of alcohol use disorders. Although a small number of genetic loci have been reported to be associated with variation in alcohol consumption, genetic factors are estimated to explain about half of the variance in alcohol consumption, suggesting that additional loci remain to be discovered. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol consumption in the large Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort, in four race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic/Latinos, East Asians and African Americans. We examined two statistically independent phenotypes reflecting subjects' alcohol consumption during the past year, based on self-reported information: any alcohol intake (drinker/non-drinker status) and the regular quantity of drinks consumed per week (drinks/week) among drinkers. We assessed these two alcohol consumption phenotypes in each race/ethnicity group, and in a combined trans-ethnic meta-analysis comprising a total of 86 627 individuals. We observed the strongest association between the previously reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs671 in ALDH2 and alcohol drinker status (odd ratio (OR)=0.40, P=2.28 × 10 -72 ) in East Asians, and also an effect on drinks/week (beta=-0.17, P=5.42 × 10 -4 ) in the same group. We also observed a genome-wide significant association in non-Hispanic whites between the previously reported SNP rs1229984 in ADH1B and both alcohol consumption phenotypes (OR=0.79, P=2.47 × 10 -20 for drinker status and beta=-0.19, P=1.91 × 10 -35 for drinks/week), which replicated in Hispanic/Latinos (OR=0.72, P=4.35 × 10 -7 and beta=-0.21, P=2.58 × 10 -6 , respectively). Although prior studies reported effects of ADH1B and ALDH2 on lifetime measures, such as risk of alcohol dependence, our study adds further evidence of the effect of the same genes on a cross

  17. The utility of protein structure as a predictor of site-wise dN/dS varies widely among HIV-1 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Austin G; Wilke, Claus O

    2015-10-06

    Protein structure acts as a general constraint on the evolution of viral proteins. One widely recognized structural constraint explaining evolutionary variation among sites is the relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of residues in the folded protein. In influenza virus, the distance from functional sites has been found to explain an additional portion of the evolutionary variation in the external antigenic proteins. However, to what extent RSA and distance from a reference site in the protein can be used more generally to explain protein adaptation in other viruses and in the different proteins of any given virus remains an open question. To address this question, we have carried out an analysis of the distribution and structural predictors of site-wise dN/dS in HIV-1. Our results indicate that the distribution of dN/dS in HIV follows a smooth gamma distribution, with no special enrichment or depletion of sites with dN/dS at or above one. The variation in dN/dS can be partially explained by RSA and distance from a reference site in the protein, but these structural constraints do not act uniformly among the different HIV-1 proteins. Structural constraints are highly predictive in just one of the three enzymes and one of three structural proteins in HIV-1. For these two proteins, the protease enzyme and the gp120 structural protein, structure explains between 30 and 40% of the variation in dN/dS. Finally, for the gp120 protein of the receptor-binding complex, we also find that glycosylation sites explain just 2% of the variation in dN/dS and do not explain gp120 evolution independently of either RSA or distance from the apical surface. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  19. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Levi M. J. [School of Polymers; Bhattacharya, Mithun [School of Polymers; Wu, Qi [School of Polymers; Youm, Sang Gil [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Nesterov, Evgueni E. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Morgan, Sarah E. [School of Polymers

    2017-06-28

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  20. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Levi M J; Bhattacharya, Mithun; Wu, Qi; Youm, Sang Gil; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Morgan, Sarah E

    2017-07-12

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  1. The effect of a hospital-wide urine culture screening intervention on the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H; Bilker, Warren B; Nachamkin, Irving; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Coffin, Susan E; Linkin, Darren R; Hu, Baofeng; Tolomeo, Pam; Fishman, Neil O; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2013-11-01

    Optimal strategies for limiting the transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp (ESBL-EK) in the hospital setting remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a urine culture screening strategy on the incidence of ESBL-EK. Prospective quasi-experimental study. Two intervention hospitals and one control hospital within a university health system from 2005 to 2009. All clinical urine cultures with E. coli or Klebsiella spp were screened for ESBL-EK. Patients determined to be colonized or infected with ESBL-EK were placed in a private room with contact precautions. The primary outcome of interest was nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence in nonurinary clinical cultures (cases occurring more than 48 hours after admission). Changes in monthly ESBL-EK incidence rates were evaluated with mixed-effects Poisson regression models, with adjustment for institution-level characteristics (eg, total admissions). The overall incidence of ESBL-EK increased from 1.42/10,000 patient-days to 2.16/10,000 patient-days during the study period. The incidence of community-acquired ESBL-EK increased nearly 3-fold, from 0.33/10,000 patient-days to 0.92/10,000 patient-days (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the intervention was not significantly associated with a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence (incidence rate ratio, 1.38 [95% confidence interval, 0.83-2.31]; P - .21). Universal screening of clinical urine cultures for ESBL-EK did not result in a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence rates, most likely because of increases in importation of ESBL-EK cases from the community. Further studies are needed on elucidating optimal infection control interventions to limit spread of ESBL-producing organisms in the hospital setting.

  2. The impact of HIV infection and socioeconomic factors on the incidence of gonorrhea: A county-level, US-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatos, Nikolaos; Grigoras, Christos; Shehadeh, Fadi; Pliakos, Elina Eleftheria; Stoukides, Georgianna; Port, Jenna; Flokas, Myrto Eleni; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported identifiable disease in the United States (U.S.). Importantly, more than 25% of gonorrheal infections demonstrate antibiotic resistance, leading the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify gonorrhea as an "urgent threat". We examined the association of gonorrhea infection rates with the incidence of HIV and socioeconomic factors. A county-level multivariable model was then constructed. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that HIV incidence [Coefficient (Coeff): 1.26, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.86, 1.66, Pgonorrhea and predicted 40% of the observed variation in gonorrhea infection rates. Sociodemographic factors like county urban ranking (Coeff: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.20, P = 0.005), percentage of women (Coeff: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.53, Pgonorrhea incidence (PmodelGonorrhea and HIV infection exhibited a powerful correlation thus emphasizing the benefits of comprehensive screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the value of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV among patients visiting an STI clinic. Furthermore, sociodemographic factors also impacted gonorrhea incidence, thus suggesting another possible focus for public health initiatives.

  3. Data on incident solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumentation for solar irradiance monitoring, and radiation scales are discussed in a survey of incident solar energy data. The absolute accuracy and intrinsic reliability of the values of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectrum proposed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences as an ASTM standard are evaluated. Extraterrestrial observations are used for deriving solar irradiance data at ground level for widely varying atmospheric parameters, with special reference to air pollution. The effects of diffuse sky radiance and those of varying slopes of the solar energy collecting surface are examined. Average values of solar energy available at different locations in the United States are included.

  4. Influência de variáveis climáticas sobre a incidência de meningite e sua distribuição espacial no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, 2001-2005 Influence of climatic variables on the incidence of meningitis and its space distribution in the city of Ponta Grossa-PR, 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroliny Stocco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os elementos climáticos têm destacada influência sobre a manifestação de muitas doenças nos seres humanos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de variáveis climáticas locais sobre a incidência mensal de meningite no Município de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, no período de 2001 a 2005, assim como distribuir espacialmente sua ocorrência na área urbana. A amostra inicial foi composta de 401 casos notificados e confirmados de indivíduos residentes nesse município. Verificou-se forte correlação entre a incidência média mensal de meningite e as variáveis climáticas temperatura média do ar, precipitação pluviométrica e umidade relativa do ar na maioria dos meses. A distribuição espacial dos casos em estudo revelou maior concentração nas porções centro-oeste e centro-norte da cidade.Climatic elements have an important influence on the manifestation of many human diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of local climate variables on the monthly incidence of meningitis in the city of Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, in the period from 2001 to 2005, and to spatially distribute its occurrence in the urban area. The initial sample was composed of 401 notified cases which were confirmed as being of resident citizens in this city. Strong correlation was verified between the average monthly incidence of meningitis and the following climate variables: mean air temperature, precipitation and relative humidity in most months. The spatial distribution of the cases under study showed higher concentration in the central-west and north-central portions of the city.

  5. Epigenetic Patterns in Blood Associated With Lipid Traits Predict Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events and Are Enriched for Results From Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Åsa K; Mendelson, Michael M; Marioni, Riccardo E; Gustafsson, Stefan; Joehanes, Roby; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Sandling, Johanna K; Yao, Chen; Liu, Chunyu; Liang, Liming; Huan, Tianxiao; McRae, Allan F; Demissie, Serkalem; Shah, Sonia; Starr, John M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deloukas, Panos; Spector, Timothy D; Sundström, Johan; Krauss, Ronald M; Arnett, Donna K; Deary, Ian J; Lind, Lars; Levy, Daniel; Ingelsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified loci influencing circulating lipid concentrations in humans; further information on novel contributing genes, pathways, and biology may be gained through studies of epigenetic modifications. To identify epigenetic changes associated with lipid concentrations, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood from 2306 individuals from 2 population-based cohorts, with replication of findings in 2025 additional individuals. We identified 193 CpGs associated with lipid levels in the discovery stage ( P epigenetic mechanisms related to previous genome-wide association studies discoveries, and provide evidence implicating epigenetic regulation of reverse cholesterol transport in blood in relation to occurrence of cardiovascular disease events. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. The impact of hospital-wide use of a tapered-cuff endotracheal tube on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowton, David L; Hite, R Duncan; Martin, R Shayn; Sherertz, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal secretions is a major factor in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A tapered-cuff endotracheal tube (ETT) has been demonstrated to reduce aspiration around the cuff. Whether these properties are efficacious in reducing VAP is not known. This 2-period, investigator-initiated observational study was designed to assess the efficacy of a tapered-cuff ETT to reduce the VAP rate. All intubated, mechanically ventilated patients over the age of 18 were included. During the baseline period a standard, barrel-shaped-cuff ETT (Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo) was used. All ETTs throughout the hospital were then replaced with a tapered-cuff ETT (TaperGuard). The primary outcome variable was the incidence of VAP per 1,000 ventilator days. We included 2,849 subjects, encompassing 15,250 ventilator days. The mean ± SD monthly VAP rate was 3.29 ± 1.79/1,000 ventilator days in the standard-cuff group and 2.77 ± 2.00/1,000 ventilator days in the tapered-cuff group (P = .65). While adherence to the VAP prevention bundle was high throughout the study, bundle adherence was significantly higher during the standard-cuff period (96.5 ± 2.7%) than in the tapered-cuff period (90.3 ± 3.5%, P = .01). In the setting of a VAP rate very near the average of ICUs in the United States, and where there was high adherence to a VAP prevention bundle, the use of a tapered-cuff ETT was not associated with a reduction in the VAP rate.

  7. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  8. Crystal structure analysis in solution-processed uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin film of non-peripheral octahexyl phthalocyanine by grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Uno, Takashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Chika; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Uniaxially oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which exhibits high carrier mobility, have been fabricated by the bar-coating technique, which is a simple solution process. The molecular orientation and molecular steps in the thin film were observed by the polarized spectroscopy and the atomic force microscopy, respectively. The three-dimensional molecular packing structure in the thin film was investigated by the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering technique with an in-plane sample rotation. The crystal orientation was clarified, and the three-dimensional molecular packing structure of the thin film was found to match the single crystal structure. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the oriented thin films were simulated by using the lattice parameters of C6PcH2 single crystal to reproduce the observed X-ray diffraction patterns.

  9. Viminaria juncea does not vary its shoot phosphorus concentration and only marginally decreases its mycorrhizal colonization and cluster-root dry weight under a wide range of phosphorus supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Mariana C R; Pearse, Stuart J; Oliveira, Rafael S; Lambers, Hans

    2013-05-01

    The Australian legume species Viminaria juncea forms both cluster roots and mycorrhizal associations. The aim of this study was to identify if these root specializations are expressed at differential supplies of phosphorus (P) and at different shoot P concentrations [P]. Seedlings were planted in sand and provided with a mycorrhizal inoculum and basal nutrients plus one of 21 P treatments, ranging from 0 to 50 mg P kg(-1) dry soil. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks, and roots, shoots and cluster roots were measured for length and fresh and dry weight. The number of cluster roots, the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and shoot [P] were determined. Shoot biomass accumulation increased with increasing P supply until a shoot dry weight of 3 g was reached at a P supply of approx. 27·5 mg P kg(-1) dry soil. Neither cluster-root formation nor mycorrhizal colonization was fully suppressed at the highest P supply. Most intriguingly, shoot [P] did not differ across treatments, with an average of 1·4 mg P kg(-1) shoot dry weight. The almost constant shoot [P] in V. juncea over the very wide range of P supplies is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. To maintain these stable values, this species down-regulates its growth rate when no P is supplied; conversely, it down-regulates its P-uptake capacity very tightly at the highest P supplies, when its maximum growth rate has been reached. It is proposed that the persistence of cluster roots and mycorrhizal colonization up to the highest P treatments is a consequence of its tightly controlled shoot [P]. This unusual P physiology of V. juncea is surmised to be related to the habitat of this N2-fixing species. Water and nutrients are available at a low but steady supply for most of the year, negating the need for storage of P which would be metabolically costly and be at the expense of metabolic energy and P available for symbiotic N2 fixation.

  10. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  11. Teores de Ca e variáveis meteorológicas: relações com a incidência da mancha fisiológica do mamão no Norte Fluminense Ca concetration and meteorological variables: relationships with skin freckles in papaya (Carica papaya L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliemar Campostrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil e no mundo, o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. tem apresentado um distúrbio fisiológico no fruto denominado de Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM. Na literatura, pouco se conhece sobre as causas desta anomalia que afeta sensivelmente a comercialização dos frutos da espécie. Com o objetivo de se buscar informações relacionadas às causas da MFM, foi realizado um estudo, durante um ano, em um plantio comercial localizado em São Franscisco do Itabapoana (RJ, no norte fluminense. Foram feitas relações entre algumas variáveis do clima (temperatura, déficit de pressão de vapor, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global e os teores de Ca na planta [limbo, pecíolo, pedúnculo, epicarpo não-exposto (face do fruto próxima ao tronco e epicarpo exposto (face do fruto oposta ao tronco] com a incidência da MFM. Observou-se que a maior incidência de MFM foi durante setembro/2000. Em janeiro/2001, a incidência da MFM foi praticamente nula. A amplitude térmica, nos três meses que antecederam a setembro/2000, foi a variável do clima que mais se relacionou com a incidência da MFM. Em setembro, os teores de Ca em todas as partes do fruto (pedúnculo, epicarpo exposto e não-exposto estudadas foram maiores. Na época que antecedeu o mês de setembro, as relações Ca/K e Ca/Mg foram estatisticamente maiores no epicarpo exposto e não-exposto e, nesta época, a relação Ca/P foi estatisticamente maior no pedúnculo e no epicarpo não-exposto. Os efeitos da amplitude térmica sobre a incidência da MFM são discutidos e a hipótese de que os teores baixos de Ca no fruto poderiam causar desestabilização na parede celular, o que facilitaria o extravasamento do látex e provocaria a MFM, deve ser reavaliada.In Brazil and other parts of the world, papaya fruit suffer with a physiological disruption, known as skin freckles (SF. There is very little information available concerning the causes of this disruption that seriously affects the

  12. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  13. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  14. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  15. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  16. Trend in the Age-Adjusted Incidence of Hip Fractures in South Korea: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Moon, Kyung Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of hip fractures has been reported to vary geographically, and its trend has also varied widely. However, the trend in the age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures has not been well studied in Korea. After we identified eligible studies presenting multiple age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures in the Korean population in PubMed, we evaluated changes in the absolute number of occurrence and calculated the annual percentage change (APC) of age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures. We have searched PubMed for the original and English-language literature on the incidence of hip fractures in the Korean population published since 2000. The studies presenting multiple age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures were selected. We evaluated the change in the absolute number of hip fractures and calculated the APC of age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures for each study. Three eligible articles were identified. The absolute number of hip fractures for both genders increased over time in all three studies although the operational definition of hip fracture differed from one another. The APC of the age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures was positive for women and negative for men. However, the change was not statistically significant in both genders during each study period (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2006-2010, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures was stable among men and women, while the absolute number of hip fractures increased for both genders in Korea. Further studies with longer study periods on age-adjusted incidences are required to better determine the trend in the incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

  17. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Incidence After Craniofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omesiete, Wilson I; Walker, James A; Yu, Jack C

    2018-05-01

    Current protocols for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after craniofacial surgery (CFS) vary widely with substantial disagreements in both indications and managements. An evidence-based approach to this issue requires the following: the incidence of postoperative VTE, comorbidities associated with coagulopathy, risk reduction after VTE prophylaxis, and complications attributable to prophylaxis. This study addresses the first two. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Discharge data from 64,170 patients undergoing CFS between 2008 and 2013 extracted from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. The outcome measures extracted were: deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, demographic data, common comorbidities, length of stay, total cost, and discharge outcome. Diagnoses of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, collectively classified as VTE, were observed in 355 (0.55%) of 64,170 patients discharged after CFS. Other surgeries exhibited a VTE rate of 1.17%. Men exhibited nearly double the incidence of VTE relative to women (0.69% compared with 0.37% respectively, P use did not exhibit any significant association (odds ratio, 0.94; P = 0.679). Afflicted patients experienced 4.60 times longer hospital stays averaging 23.8 days (95% confidence interval, 21.4-26.2; P use of VTE chemoprophylaxis is appropriate.

  19. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  20. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  1. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  2. HIV incidence in Asia: a review of available data and assessment of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Kim, Andrea A; Le, Linh-Vi; Nadol, Patrick J; Prybylski, Dimitri; Wolfe, Mitchell I

    2013-01-01

    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.

  3. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  4. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  5. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  6. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soto-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1 a tumor develops from a single cell, (2 many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3 cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon. Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  7. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  8. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  9. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  10. Grazing-angle incidence X-ray diffraction by Si sub 1 sub - subalpha sub ( sub x sub ) Ge subalpha sub ( sub x sub ) thin layer if the composition coefficient alpha(x) is varying harmonically along the flat entrance surface

    CERN Document Server

    Bezirganyan, P A; Bezirganyan, S E; Bezirganyan, H A; Hovnanyan, K O

    2003-01-01

    Presented theoretical paper concerns the investigation of a principal possibility of the Grazing-angle incidence hard and soft X-ray diffraction (GIXD) owing to long-period harmonic variations of the composition coefficient of the strained or relaxed crystalline, as well as amorphous SiGe layer grown on a thick silicon perfect-crystal substrate. The evaluation of the coherent part of X-radiation scattered by mentioned SiGe layer is pointed out the possibility of the direct GIXD experimental investigations of the long-period structured intermediate transformation states of SiGe layer, which are emerging due to periodicity of the strain field along the substrate-layer boundary.

  11. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngjo; Tang, Choon Siang; McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Chan, Vibol; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra Romauld; Iddings, Steven; Huy, Rekol

    2016-03-08

    Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control measures to be better targeted, timed and implemented.

  12. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. Methods We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Results Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. Conclusions The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control

  13. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  14. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  15. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  16. The association of the human development index with global kidney cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Prasad, Sandip M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Eggener, Scott E

    2012-06-01

    We describe contemporary worldwide age standardized incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, and their association with social and economic development metrics. We obtained gender specific, age standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratio on the national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with the development level of each country using the United Nations Human Development Index. The age standardized incidence rate varied twentyfold worldwide with the highest rate in North America, and the lowest in Africa and South Central Asia (11.8 vs 1.2 and 1.0/100,000 individuals, respectively). The geographic distribution of the age standardized mortality rate was similar to that of the age standardized incidence rate with the highest rates in Europe and North America (3.1 and 2.6/100,000 individuals, respectively) and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions (0.6 to 1.5). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates were 4.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, in more developed countries than in developing countries. However, the mortality-to-incidence ratio was highest in Africa and Asia, and lowest in North America (0.6 to 0.8 vs 0.2/100,000 individuals). There was a strong inverse relationship between the Human Development Index and the mortality-to-incidence ratio (regression coefficient -0.79, p<0.0001). Kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates vary widely throughout the world while the mortality-to-incidence ratio is highest in less developed nations. These observations suggest significant health care disparities and may reflect differences in risk factors, health care access, quality of care, diagnostic modalities and treatment options available. Future research should assess whether the mortality-to-incidence ratio decreases with increasing development. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  17. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  18. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  19. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  20. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  1. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  2. Incidence and etiology of lumbar spondylolysis: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Suzue, Naoto; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Yasui, Natsuo

    2010-05-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a defect of the pars interarticularis known to occur as a stress fracture. Its incidence varies considerably depending on ethnicity, sex, and sports activity. However, there are few literature reviews describing its incidence in different ethnic groups or in people who engage in different sports. We reviewed the most relevant articles on spondylolysis published in scientific journals. First, we focused on its incidence in various ethnic groups distributed by sex, the familial occurrence, and in patients with relevant diseases. Second, we focused on the incidence of spondylolysis in relation to the sports practiced by the patients. Although placing special emphasis on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan, we also reviewed the Japanese and English literature to investigate its incidence among those who engage in different sports. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general Japanese population was 5.9%. Most studies report that the incidence in higher in male subjects than in female subjects. We found that Japanese rugby and judo players were prone to suffer lumbar spondylolysis, at an incidence of about 20%. However, the incidence for Japanese professional soccer and baseball players was much higher, at 30%, which was more than five times the incidence in the general Japanese population. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies depending on ethnicity, sex, family history, relevant disease, and sports activity.

  3. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  5. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  6. Identification of widely varying levels of resistance to meloidogyne incognita in sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a potential bioenergy crop that could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US, where it would likely be rotated with cotton. The desirability of including sweet sorghum in a cotton cropping system will be influenced by sweet sorghum’s host ...

  7. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Going Wide, Not Wild: Varying Conceptualizations of Internationalization at a University of Technology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Lawrence; Monnapula-Mapesela, Mabokang

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization has become a buzzword in universities today. As a result of the breadth of the term the concept lends itself to many interpretations. There is a view that South African higher education does not have a customized national framework of internationalization, which raises questions about whether the intended outcomes are…

  9. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  10. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  12. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  13. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  14. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  15. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  16. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  17. Monitoring city wide patterns of cycling safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Darren; Nelson, Trisalyn; Winters, Meghan

    2018-02-01

    Many cities are making significant financial investments in cycling infrastructure with the aim of making cycling safer for riders of all ages and abilities. Methods for evaluating cycling safety tend to summarize average change for a city or emphasize change on a single road segment. Few spatially explicit approaches are available to evaluate how patterns of safety change throughout a city due to cycling infrastructure investments or other changes. Our goal is to demonstrate a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. Using cycling incident data provided by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, we first compare planar versus network constrained kernel density estimation for visualizing incident intensity across the street network of Vancouver, Canada. Second, we apply a change detection algorithm explicitly designed for detecting statistically significant change in kernel density estimates. The utility of network kernel density change detection is demonstrated through the comparison of cycling incident densities following the construction of two cycle tracks in the downtown core of Vancouver. The methods developed and demonstrated for this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  19. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  20. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Looker

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.

  1. Incident spectral irradiance in the Arctic Basin during the summer and fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Thomas C.; Perovich, Donald K.

    2008-06-01

    Calibrated values of incident spectral irradiance are reported from the Healy Oden Transarctic Experiment during August and September 2005. Spectra were obtained for a wide range of solar zenith angles, cloud conditions, and surface types to provide basic data for regional shortwave radiative energy balance calculations as well as climate model parameterization and validation. Supervised principal component analysis on the spectral continuum showed that three principal components explain over 99% of the variance resulting from darkening across the solar spectrum with increasing cloud cover by volume scattering, from stronger attenuation in the solar infrared relative to visible wavelengths by H2O, and from Rayleigh scattering. Comparison of the observations with the atmospheric radiation model SBDART showed that good agreement was obtained varying only the cloud optical depth. Applying the model, we showed how the surface albedo affects incident spectral irradiance under clear as well as cloudy skies, and we obtained a quantitative estimate of the visual effects of "water sky" and "ice blink." We also determined the spectral albedo of the atmosphere for a dense arctic stratus cloud deck decoupled from the influence of the underlying surface. Incident spectral irradiances were integrated numerically and compared with calibrated pyranometer observations. Agreement was within 5% for cases where the cloud transparency and incident irradiance did not fluctuate strongly over the 10-min pyranometer recording intervals. A new set of values for total albedo for clear versus cloudy conditions at high and low Sun angles is presented for six prominent arctic surface types.

  2. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  3. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  4. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  5. Importance of Various Training-Load Measures in Injury Incidence of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.

  6. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  7. Spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among males, and the incidence in Pennsylvania, USA is considerably higher than nationally. Knowledge of regional differences and time trends in prostate cancer incidence may contribute to a better understanding of aetiologic factors and racial disparities in outcomes, and to improvements in preventive intervention and screening efforts. We used Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data on reported prostate cancer diagnoses between 2000 and 2011 to study the regional distribution and temporal trends of prostate cancer incidence in both Pennsylvania White males and Philadelphia metropolitan area Black males. For White males, we generated and mapped county-specific age-adjusted incidence and standardised incidence ratios by period cohort, and identified spatial autocorrelation and local clusters. In addition, we fitted Bayesian hierarchical generalised linear Poisson models to describe the temporal and aging effects separately in Whites state-wide and metropolitan Philadelphia blacks. Incidences of prostate cancer among white males declined from 2000-2002 to 2009-2011 with an increasing trend to some extent in the period 2006-2008 and significant variation across geographic regions, but less variation exists for metropolitan Philadelphia including majority of Black patients. No significant aging effect was detected for White and Black men, and the peak age group for prostate cancer risk varied by race. Future research should seek to identify potential social and environmental risk factors associated with geographical/racial disparities in prostate cancer. As such, there is a need for more effective surveillance so as to detect, reduce and control the cancer burden associated with prostate cancer.

  8. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  9. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health

  10. Heterogeneity revealed through meta-analysis might link geographical differences with nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in Han Chinese populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Chi-Cking; Yao Shugart, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy highly prevalent in southern China, and incidence rates among Han Chinese people vary according to geographic region. Recently, three independent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) confirmed that HLA-A is the main risk gene for NPC. However, the results of studies conducted in regions with dissimilar incidence rates contradicted the claims that HLA-A is the sole risk gene and that the association of rs29232 is independent of the HLA-A effect in the chromosome 6p21.3 region. We performed a meta-analysis, selecting five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 6p21.3 mapped in three published GWASs and four case–control studies. The studies involved 8994 patients with NPC and 11,157 healthy controls, all of whom were Han Chinese. The rs2517713 SNP located downstream of HLA-A was significantly associated with NPC (P = 1.08 × 10 −91 , odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.55–0.61). The rs29232 SNP exhibited a moderate level of heterogeneity (I 2 = 47 %) that disappeared (I 2 = 0 %) after stratification by moderate- and high-incidence NPC regions. Our results suggested that the HLA-A gene is strongly associated with NPC risk. In addition, the heterogeneity revealed by the meta-analysis of rs29232 might be associated with regional differences in NPC incidence among Han Chinese people. The higher OR of rs29232 and the fact that rs29232 was independent of the HLA-A effect in the moderate-incidence population suggested that rs29232 might have greater relevance to NPC incidence in a moderate-incidence population than in a high-incidence population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1607-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.

    1976-09-01

    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  12. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  13. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  14. Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, Robert D.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Johnson, Lee K.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe + bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar + and Xe + bombardment at normal incidence displayed satisfactory agreement with previously published data over an energy range of 200 eV-1 keV. For Xe + ions, the dependence of the yields on angle of incidence θ was determined for 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 80 deg. Over this range, an increase in C sputtering yield by a factor of 4.8 was observed, with the peak in yield occurring at 70 o . This is a much higher variation compared to Xe + → Mo yields under similar conditions, a difference that may be attributed to higher scattering of the incident particles transverse to the beam direction than in the case of Xe + → C. In addition, the variation of the yields with θ was not strongly energy dependent. Trapping of Xe in the surface was observed, in contrast to observations using the QCM technique with metallic target materials. Finally, target surface roughness was characterized using atomic force microscope measurements to distinguish between the effects of local and overall angle of incidence of the target

  15. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  16. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  17. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  18. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  19. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  20. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  2. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  3. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  4. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  5. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  6. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  7. Responding to a biological incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, P.R. [U.S. Environmental Response Team, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team (ERT) was established in October 1978 to provide technical assistance to a variety of governmental agencies in the area of environmental emergency issues such as chemical spills, uncontrolled hazardous waste site and terrorist incidents. This paper describes responses to a biological incident that occurred on July 29 2004, when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received an anonymous e-mail identifying 3 containers on board the M/V Rio Puelo, one of which was said to contain a harmful biological substance. The containers were part of a 5 container shipment of Argentinian lemons bound for Canada. The vessel had a total of 2204 containers, of which 260 were loaded at the same port as the lemons. The containers were to be off-loaded at the Port of Newark and transported via truck to Canada. The federal On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) was responsible for managing this incident, as well as assessing the creditability of the threat. In accordance with federal authorities under the Public Water Safety Act, the Captain of the Port of New York ordered the vessel to anchor off shore. A tactical security operations team was dispatched to assess vessel security. It was determined that none of the crew, who had been exposed to the potential agent 10 days earlier, had shown any symptoms of biological warfare agents. A multi-agency unified command was set up, consisting of state, federal and local agencies. Various options were evaluated, including treatment of the containers on board due to the possibility of a dispersal device which could cause wide-spread contamination; the off loading and disposal of the cargo into the sea; and off loading of containers on shore with subsequent treatment. The following safety precautions were taken: cooling units were shut off 48 hours before sailing; the vents were sealed and closed; and the drains were plugged. At the port, trained dogs were used, and

  8. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  9. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M.R; Ahmad, M.; Rahman, M.H; Haque, M.A

    2009-01-01

    The aphid incidence and its correlation with environmental factors were studied. Mustard variety “Sampad” was used as test crop. Aphid incidence varied significantly at various parts of mustard plant and time of the day. The highest number of aphid was observed in the vegetative parts of the mustard plant in the morning. High cloudiness, relative humidity and dew point favoured the aphid population and slight rain fall quickly declined the aphid population. Among the different environmental f...

  11. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  12. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  13. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  14. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  15. Modelling malaria incidence by an autoregressive distributed lag model with spatial component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Francisco; Grillet, María Eugenia; León, José R; Ludeña, Carenne

    2017-08-01

    The influence of climatic variables on the dynamics of human malaria has been widely highlighted. Also, it is known that this mosquito-borne infection varies in space and time. However, when the data is spatially incomplete most popular spatio-temporal methods of analysis cannot be applied directly. In this paper, we develop a two step methodology to model the spatio-temporal dependence of malaria incidence on local rainfall, temperature, and humidity as well as the regional sea surface temperatures (SST) in the northern coast of Venezuela. First, we fit an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) to the weekly data, and then, we adjust a linear separable spacial vectorial autoregressive model (VAR) to the residuals of the ARDL. Finally, the model parameters are tuned using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure derived from the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Our results show that the best model to account for the variations of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2008 in 10 endemic Municipalities in North-Eastern Venezuela is a logit model that included the accumulated local precipitation in combination with the local maximum temperature of the preceding month as positive regressors. Additionally, we show that although malaria dynamics is highly heterogeneous in space, a detailed analysis of the estimated spatial parameters in our model yield important insights regarding the joint behavior of the disease incidence across the different counties in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smothering in UK free-range flocks. Part 1: incidence, location, timing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J; Rayner, A C; Gill, R; Willings, T H; Bright, A

    2014-07-05

    Smothering in poultry is an economic and welfare-related concern. This study presents the first results from a questionnaire addressing the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering of free-range farm managers from two commercial egg companies (representing 35 per cent of the UK free-range egg supply). Overall, nearly 60 per cent of farm mangers experienced smothering in their last flock, with an average of 25.5 birds lost per incidence, although per cent mortality due to smothering was low (x̄=1.6 per cent). The majority of farm managers also reported that over 50 per cent of all their flocks placed had been affected by smothering. The location and timing of smothering (excluding smothering in nest boxes) tended to be unpredictable and varied between farms. Blocking off corners/nest boxes and walking birds more frequently were identified as popular smothering reduction measures, although there was a wide variety of reduction measures reported overall. The motivation to implement reduction measures was related to a farm manager's previous experience of smothering. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a representative industry estimate on the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering. The results suggest that smothering is a common problem, unpredictable between flocks with no clear, effective reduction strategies. A follow-up study will investigate the correlations among smothering, disease and other welfare problems and may shed further light on management solutions. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  18. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  19. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-04-19

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Incidence and factors associated with sensorineural and conductive hearing loss among survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A; Bridge, Christina; Donaher, Joseph G; Herkert, Lisa M; Grill, Elena; Danzer, Enrico; Gerdes, Marsha; Hoffman, Casey H; D'Agostino, Jo Ann; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rintoul, Natalie E; Peranteau, William H; Flake, Alan W; Adzick, N Scott; Hedrick, Holly L

    2014-06-01

    The reported incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in long-term survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia varies widely in the literature. Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is also known to occur in CDH patients, but has been less widely studied. We sought to characterize the incidence and risk factors associated with SNHL and CHL in a large cohort of CDH patients who underwent standardized treatment and follow-up at a single institution. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all CDH patients in our pulmonary hypoplasia program from January 2004 through December 2012. Categorical variables were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney t-test (p≤0.05). A total of 112 patients met study inclusion criteria, with 3 (2.7%) patients diagnosed with SNHL and 38 (34.0%) diagnosed with CHL. SNHL was significantly associated with requirement for ECMO (p=0.0130), prolonged course of hospitalization (p=0.0011), duration of mechanical ventilation (p=0.0046), requirement for tracheostomy (p=0.0013), and duration of loop diuretic (p=0.0005) and aminoglycoside therapy (p=0.0003). We have identified hearing anomalies in over 30% of long-term CDH survivors. These findings illustrate the need for routine serial audiologic evaluations throughout childhood for all survivors of CDH and stress the importance of targeted interventions to optimize long-term developmental outcomes pertaining to speech and language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  2. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  3. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  4. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  5. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  6. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  7. [Design of a miniaturized blood temperature-varying system based on computer distributed control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Zhaoying; Peng, Jiegang; Zhu, Junhua

    2007-10-01

    Blood temperature-varying has been widely applied in clinical practice such as extracorporeal circulation for whole-body perfusion hyperthermia (WBPH), body rewarming and blood temperature-varying in organ transplantation. This paper reports a novel DCS (Computer distributed control)-based blood temperature-varying system which includes therapy management function and whose hardware and software can be extended easily. Simulation results illustrate that this system provides precise temperature control with good performance in various operation conditions.

  8. Incidence of episiotomy in Slovenia: The story behind the numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug Došler, Anita; Mivšek, Ana Polona; Verdenik, Ivan; Škodič Zakšek, Teja; Levec, Tina; Petročnik, Petra

    2017-09-01

    Episiotomy is a surgical cut of the perineum performed in the second stage of labor in order to widen the vaginal opening and thus facilitate the birth of an infant. Despite current recommendations against the routine use of episiotomy, it is one of the most commonly performed surgical interventions during childbirth. This retrospective study explores the number of episiotomies performed in Slovenian maternity hospitals and the differences in episiotomy rates in relation to parity. Data were obtained from the Slovenian National Perinatal Information System and pooled for 2013. A causal and non-experimental method of empirical research was used. The results of the study show that episiotomy rates vary widely across Slovenian maternity hospitals, ranging from 2.5% to 51.7%. Moreover, the majority of Slovenian maternity hospitals exceed the recommended rate, with an overall incidence of episiotomy as high as 31.3%. Further research is recommended to obtain relevant information from women as well as from midwives and to draw new, evidence-based conclusions related to the maternal benefits and adverse effects of episiotomy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Hemolymph drop impact outcomes on surfaces with varying wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milionis, Athanasios; Ghokulla Krishnan, K.; Loth, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Insect fouling from coagulated hemolymph and exoskeleton parts is a major challenge in the aerospace industry for the next generation of aerodynamic surfaces, which will employ laminar flow that requires extremely smooth surfaces. However, the wetting physics and dynamics of hemolymph (insect blood) on surfaces are not well understood. The present study seeks to gain a fundamental insight on the effect of surface wetting characteristics and dynamics resulting from a hemolymph drop impact, the first such study. In particular, hemolymph drops extracted from Acheta domesticus were dispensed from a range of heights to vary the kinetic impact on surfaces, which had widely varying water wetting behavior (from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic). The impact dynamics were investigated with high-speed imaging while the dried residues were studied with optical microscopy. It was found that a superhydrophobic surface (based on thermoplastic with silica nano-particles) was able to significantly reduce hemolymph drop spreading, and even provide complete rebound when impacting on inclined surfaces.

  10. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  11. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, O.; Frew, D. J.; Chen, W.

    2011-04-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained.

  12. A Kolsky tension bar technique using a hollow incident tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, O; Frew, D J; Chen, W

    2011-01-01

    Load control of the incident pulse profiles in compression Kolsky bar experiments has been widely used to subject the specimen to optimal testing conditions. Tension Kolsky bars have been used to determine dynamic material behavior since the 1960s with limited capability to shape the loading pulses due to the pulse-generating mechanisms. We developed a modified Kolsky tension bar where a hollow incident tube is used to carry the incident stress waves. The incident tube also acts as a gas gun barrel that houses the striker for impact. The main advantage of this new design is that the striker impacts on an impact cap of the incident tube. Compression pulse shapers can be attached to the impact cap, thus fully utilizing the predictive compression pulse-shaping capability in tension experiments. Using this new testing technique, the dynamic tensile material behavior for Al 6061-T6511 and TRIP 800 (transformation-induced plasticity) steel has been obtained

  13. Prevalence, birth incidence, and penetrance of von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Galanakis, Michael Carter Bisgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is a rare hereditary tumour predisposition with multiorgan involvement that is not always easily recognized. The disease is reported to be almost fully penetrant at age 60 years. Previous estimates of vHL prevalence and incidence are all regional and vary widely....... Most are >20 years old and prone to selection bias because of inclusion of only clinically affected vHL patients who were diagnosed before genetic testing was available. In an unselected cohort of all known Danish carriers of a disease-causing VHL variant, we assessed vHL penetrance on a national basis....... We further used national health registers to identify individuals who fulfilled the clinical diagnostic vHL criteria based on their registered diagnostic codes, but had not been diagnosed with vHL. We also assessed the medical histories of first-degree relatives to identify familial cases. This study...

  14. Track etching model for normal incident heavy ion recording in isotropic dielectric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrey, F.; Chambaudet, A.; Fromm, M.; Saouli, R.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy ion recording in dielectric isotropic detectors has a wide range of applications in such areas as uranium cartography, neutron activation and fission track dating using the external detector method (EDM). It is important to have a good understanding of etch pit evolution during chemical etching. The conical model, which is very often used, is based on a constant track etching velocity (VT). Numerous experiments have shown, however, that VT varies along the damage trail. In this paper, we propose a computer-generated model which simulates the etching process for normal incident ions. The analytical form of VT must be chosen in order to describe as precisely as possible the relationship between etching time (residual range) and the VT value. The conical model only provides a primary approximation which is generally insufficient, especially when performing cartography. (author)

  15. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  16. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  17. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  18. Quantum Yield of Reflection Mode Varied Doping GaN Photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the NEA photocathode activation and evaluation experiment system, the varied doping GaN photocathode has been activated and evaluated. According to the diffusion and orientation drifting equation, the quantum yield formula of reflection mode varied doping NEA GaN photocathode was gotten. The factors affecting the quantum efficiency of varied doping GaN photocathode were studied. For the varied doping GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency is mainly decided by the escape probability of electron P, he absorption coefficient α, the electron diffuse length LD, the reflectance of cathode materials for incident light R, emission layer thickness Te and the inside electric field E. The experiment and analysis results show: With the directional inside electric field in the bulk, the varied doping NEA GaN photocathode has better photoemission performance than uniform doping photocathode.

  19. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. © 2015 UICC.

  20. WideCells Group PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Peter

    2017-07-01

    WideCells Group PLC (Manchester, UK) is a global stem cell services company with the aim of leading a transformation in cord blood banking and stem cell treatment. There are three key divisions: WideCells, WideAcademy and CellPlan. WideCells provides contract, collaborative and in-house research, and stem cell processing and storage facilities for a wide range of human tissues. WideAcademy, the education and training branch of the WideCells Group, aims to become the thought leader in stem cell technology, influencing and informing the next generation of healthcare professionals working in stem cell technology. CellPlan is a first-of-its-kind medical insurance plan to make stem cell treatment accessible and affordable by providing access to renowned specialists and hospitals globally with financial cover for cord blood transplantation and for participation in clinical trials using cord blood.

  1. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars

    1990-01-01

    Thirty two males and 39 females aged 31-50 were exposed for 7 h to one of the three following conditions: (1) Clean air, (2) constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene, or (3) a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. During exposure the subjects ex...

  2. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  3. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  4. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not ...

  5. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  6. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  7. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10(exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  8. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10 (exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  9. The incidence of pregnancy-related stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Foley, Norine; Ladhani, Noor Niyar N; Leffert, Lisa; Bushnell, Cheryl; McClure, J A; Lindsay, M Patrice

    2017-10-01

    Background Stroke risk is increased during pregnancy, but estimates of pregnancy-related stroke incidence vary widely. Aims A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the incidence of stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science were searched for studies published between 1990 and January 2017 reporting stroke incidence during pregnancy and postpartum, from defined pregnancy populations. Pooled analyses were conducted using a random effects approach and expressed as an incidence rate per 100,000 pregnancies, with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses of stroke type and timing were conducted. Summary of review Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. Variation in estimated rates was noted based on geography and study methodology. The pooled crude rate of pregnancy-related stroke was 30.0 per 100,000 pregnancies (95% confidence interval 18.8-47.9). The pooled crude rates from nonhemorrhagic stroke (arterial and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) were 19.9 (95% confidence interval 10.7-36.9) and from hemorrhage 12.2 (95% confidence interval 6.4-23.2) per 100,000 pregnancies. For studies separately reporting cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the rates were roughly equal between ischemic stroke (12.2, 95% confidence interval 6.7-22.2), cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (9.1, 95% confidence interval 4.3-18.9), and hemorrhage (12.2, 95% confidence interval 6.4-23.2). The crude stroke rate for antenatal/perinatal stroke was 18.3 (95% confidence interval 11.9-28.2), and for postpartum stroke was 14.7 (95% confidence interval 8.3-26.1). Conclusions Stroke affects 30.0 per 100,000 pregnancies, with ischemia, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and hemorrhage causing roughly equal numbers and with highest risk peripartum and postpartum. Organized approaches to the management of this high-risk population, informed by existing evidence from stroke and obstetrical care are needed.

  10. Components in time-varying graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  11. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  12. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  13. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  14. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2016-04-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  15. Shape and Spatially-Varying Reflectance Estimation from Virtual Exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhuo; Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the shape of objects that exhibit spatially-varying reflectance. We assume that multiple images of the object are obtained under a fixed view-point and varying illumination, i.e., the setting of photometric stereo. At the core of our techniques is the assumption that the BRDF at each pixel lies in the non-negative span of a known BRDF dictionary. This assumption enables a per-pixel surface normal and BRDF estimation framework that is computationally tractable and requires no initialization in spite of the underlying problem being non-convex. Our estimation framework first solves for the surface normal at each pixel using a variant of example-based photometric stereo. We design an efficient multi-scale search strategy for estimating the surface normal and subsequently, refine this estimate using a gradient descent procedure. Given the surface normal estimate, we solve for the spatially-varying BRDF by constraining the BRDF at each pixel to be in the span of the BRDF dictionary; here, we use additional priors to further regularize the solution. A hallmark of our approach is that it does not require iterative optimization techniques nor the need for careful initialization, both of which are endemic to most state-of-the-art techniques. We showcase the performance of our technique on a wide range of simulated and real scenes where we outperform competing methods.

  16. Social contagions on time-varying community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian-Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Tang, Ming; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-05-01

    Time-varying community structures exist widely in real-world networks. However, previous studies on the dynamics of spreading seldom took this characteristic into account, especially those on social contagions. To study the effects of time-varying community structures on social contagions, we propose a non-Markovian social contagion model on time-varying community networks based on the activity-driven network model. A mean-field theory is developed to analyze the proposed model. Through theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, two hierarchical features of the behavior adoption processes are found. That is, when community strength is relatively large, the behavior can easily spread in one of the communities, while in the other community the spreading only occurs at higher behavioral information transmission rates. Meanwhile, in spatial-temporal evolution processes, hierarchical orders are observed for the behavior adoption. Moreover, under different information transmission rates, three distinctive patterns are demonstrated in the change of the whole network's final adoption proportion along with the growing community strength. Within a suitable range of transmission rate, an optimal community strength can be found that can maximize the final adoption proportion. Finally, compared with the average activity potential, the promoting or inhibiting of social contagions is much more influenced by the number of edges generated by active nodes.

  17. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  18. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to unbalanced trade offs. In Denmark the strong decentralisation combined with a lacking demand on +/- hours limits for time banks without reference periods seems to impose risks for certain groups of employees who, regardless of company size, can have extraordinary long working hours violating the 48-hour rule...

  19. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  20. A common language for computer security incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  1. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  2. Incidence and survival of gynecologic sarcomas in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Matthew; Dennis, Nicola L; Hirschowitz, Lynn; Grimer, Robert; Poole, Jason; Lawrence, Gill; Nordin, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Gynecologic sarcomas account for approximately 3% to 4% of all gynecologic malignancies and are associated with poor outcomes compared with gynecologic carcinomas. The aim of this study is to report the incidence and survival rates of the main gynecologic sarcomas using national English cancer registration data. Records of gynecologic sarcomas diagnosed between 1985 and 2008 were extracted from the English National Cancer Data Repository. ICD-O3 morphology codes were used to assign tumor records to specific histologic subgroups. Incidence and 5-year relative survival rates were calculated. There were 5316 new cases of gynecologic sarcoma diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2008. Incidence rates increased significantly in the early 1990s, probably due to coding changes. Age-specific incidence rates were highest in women aged between 45 and 64 years. In the most recent period studied (2001-2008), incidence rates fluctuated between 8 and 9.6 per million. The most common anatomical site was the uterus (83% of all diagnoses), and the most common histologic diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (52% of all diagnoses). Overall 5-year relative survival increased significantly between 1985-1989 and 2000-2004, from 34% to 48%. Gynecologic sarcoma incidence rates have varied little since 1993, whereas survival has improved significantly. These results are consistent with previously published small series and case studies, and provide a more complete picture of gynecologic sarcoma incidence and survival patterns in England.

  3. Synchronization in an homogeneous, time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Zhang, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies synchronization among identical agents that are coupled through a time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delay. Given an arbitrary upper bound for the delays, a controller design methodology without exact knowledge of the network topology is proposed so

  4. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  5. Summary of the 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Waste Management Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshop advanced the planning of federal, state and local officials in the area of waste management following a chemical, biological or radiological wide-area incident in the Denver, Colorado urban area.

  6. Incident Heart Failure in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Egeberg, Alexander; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a wide range of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, but its association with heart failure (HF) is not fully clear. We investigated the risk of incident HF in a nationwide cohort of patients with RA...

  7. Incidence Of Poverty In Nigeria: Causes And Consequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of 21st century, after nearly forty eight years of Independence, Nigeria is by all standard of measurement, a very poor country. Poverty is wide and deep in Nigeria. This paper therefore, examines the incidence of poverty in Nigeria, causes and consequences. Much of the problems which created poverty is ...

  8. Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...

  9. The Incidence Rate of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Urban Area of Iran: A Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Dehghani, Masood; Shafiei pour, Sara; Zydabady nejad, Hamideh; Broumand, Kiekam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies among different societies. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of IBD in Kerman, a city in Southeast Iran. METHODS All medical records that indicated a new diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) were retrieved from the gastrointestinal endoscopy and pathology departments of 12 centers from October 2011 to September 2012. RESULTS The incidence rate of UC in Kerman was estimated at 4.9...

  10. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: A rapidly increasing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The

  11. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  12. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  13. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  14. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  15. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  16. Crucible Grows Wide Silicon Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, R.

    1982-01-01

    Inexpensive manufacture of solar cells may require quality silicon ribbon crystals. One way to produce them is by growing wide dendritic webs, which can be very long and have high structural perfection. Dendrites grow from supercooled melt, so width of ribbon depends on how wide a region of supercooled molten silicon can be maintained in crucible. Elongated geometry of suscepter/crucible/lid assembly allows molten silicon to supercool over a wider region -- a necessary condition for the growth of wide dendritic crystal ribbon.

  17. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  18. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  19. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  20. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  1. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  2. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  3. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  4. Numerical Study of an Ultrabroadband, Wide-Angle, Polarization-Insensitivity Metamaterial Absorber in the Visible Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tung, Phan Duy; Lam, Phan Huu; Dung, Nguyen Duc; Quang, Nguyen Hong

    2018-02-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an ultrabroadband metamaterial absorber (MA) formed of a periodic array of metallic-dielectric multilayered conical frustums for use in the visible regime. The bandwidth and absorption performance of the proposed absorber can be controlled by varying structural parameters such as the tilt angle and lattice constant. The absorption efficiency of the proposed MA exceeds 80% in a wide bandwidth from 474.4 nm to 784.4 nm and is retained at large angles of incidence up to 65°. Furthermore, perfect polarization insensitivity is also obtained due to its rotationally symmetric structure. This excellent absorber performance makes the proposed MA a promising candidate for applications in the visible region.

  5. Asymptotics for incidence matrix classes

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Peter; Prellberg, Thomas; Stark, Dudley

    2005-01-01

    We define {\\em incidence matrices} to be zero-one matrices with no zero rows or columns. A classification of incidence matrices is considered for which conditions of symmetry by transposition, having no repeated rows/columns, or identification by permutation of rows/columns are imposed. We find asymptotics and relationships for the number of matrices with $n$ ones in these classes as $n\\to\\infty$.

  6. Incidence Handling and Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbande, Prof. Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr. G. T.; Singh, Mr. Manish

    2009-01-01

    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. I...

  7. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  8. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  9. Adapting Cognitive Task Analysis to Investigate Clinical Decision Making and Medication Safety Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Militello, Laura G; Glassman, Peter A; Arthur, Karen J; Zillich, Alan J; Weiner, Michael

    2017-05-03

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) can yield valuable insights into healthcare professionals' cognition and inform system design to promote safe, quality care. Our objective was to adapt CTA-the critical decision method, specifically-to investigate patient safety incidents, overcome barriers to implementing this method, and facilitate more widespread use of cognitive task analysis in healthcare. We adapted CTA to facilitate recruitment of healthcare professionals and developed a data collection tool to capture incidents as they occurred. We also leveraged the electronic health record (EHR) to expand data capture and used EHR-stimulated recall to aid reconstruction of safety incidents. We investigated 3 categories of medication-related incidents: adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions. Healthcare professionals submitted incidents, and a subset of incidents was selected for CTA. We analyzed several outcomes to characterize incident capture and completed CTA interviews. We captured 101 incidents. Eighty incidents (79%) met eligibility criteria. We completed 60 CTA interviews, 20 for each incident category. Capturing incidents before interviews allowed us to shorten the interview duration and reduced reliance on healthcare professionals' recall. Incorporating the EHR into CTA enriched data collection. The adapted CTA technique was successful in capturing specific categories of safety incidents. Our approach may be especially useful for investigating safety incidents that healthcare professionals "fix and forget." Our innovations to CTA are expected to expand the application of this method in healthcare and inform a wide range of studies on clinical decision making and patient safety.

  10. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  11. Predicting the incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Finland with time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Hemilä, Harri; Mise, Keiji; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2009-08-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a common bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we tested whether spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) is useful in predicting the incidence of campylobacteriosis in five provinces in Finland, which has been accumulating good quality incidence data under the surveillance program for water- and food-borne infections. On the basis of the spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data in the years 2000-2005. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated by using the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. We extrapolated the LSF curve to the years 2006 and 2007 and predicted the incidence of campylobacteriosis. Our study suggests that MEM spectral analysis allows us to model temporal variations of the disease incidence with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than using the Fourier model, which has been previously used for modeling seasonally varying incidence data.

  12. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  13. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  14. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth, but oth......A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth...... is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...

  15. A Self-Teaching Scheme in Applied Science (Physics and Chemistry) for Students of Widely Varying Background Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsey, Joan; Milson, A.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of an investigation of a self-teaching scheme of selected topics in physics and chemistry used with students taking courses in catering, hotel/catering, and institutional management and diploma in home economics. Two complementary experimental approaches are used: statistical analysis of the data and semistructured…

  16. Conditional firing probabilities in cultured neuronal networks: a stable underlying structure in widely varying spontaneous activity patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim; Stegenga, J.; Wolters, P.S.; Ramakers, G.J.A.; van Pelt, J.

    2007-01-01

    To properly observe induced connectivity changes after training sessions, one needs a network model that describes individual relationships in sufficient detail to enable observation of induced changes and yet reveals some kind of stability in these relationships. We analyzed spontaneous firing

  17. Twenty years of research shows UK child development team provision still varies widely for children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, J R; Jolleff, N; Gray, L; Gibbs, J; Williams, J; McConachie, H

    2013-11-01

    To identify how services provided by child development teams (CDTs) have changed over 20 years. To what extent have major government initiatives aiming to improve the lives of children with disability and their families been implemented by teams? Survey sent to every UK CDT in 2009/2010; comparison with data gathered in 1988 and 1999. Ninety-four per cent (225/240) of CDTs responded; data on 242 teams were available from 1999 and 125 teams from 1988. Despite policy recommendations advocating the value of interdisciplinary team working, there was a decline in numbers of professionals working within the CDT multidisciplinary team. One-third of all teams reported a reduction in their funding over the last 5 years. However, specialist clinics provided increased. Teams reported patchy adoption of national initiatives designed to improve provision. Transition services were underdeveloped. This comprehensive survey of UK CDT service provision, as well as national studies of the healthcare experience of families with a disabled child, shows that improvements in provision are required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  19. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  20. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis G. Gerwing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females suffered from self-reported TA at some point over the course of their university career. The prevalence of TA varied by faculty, with the highest incidence among those students enrolled concurrently in Arts and Science, and Nursing students. While student perceptions varied by age, sex, and experience with TA, one third of students expressed negative and inaccurate views about TA. These negative perceptions may explain why 11.3% of surveyed students indicated they would not seek help for their TA as, for many, to do so would make them seem weak in the eyes of their colleagues. Further, 20.5% of students surveyed reported that they believe professors would be unable or unwilling to help. It may be the case that this negative perception towards TA makes it difficult for faculty and helping professionals to identify and intervene effectively. Faculty specific educational campaigns designed to educate students about TA, in particular about its prevalence and severity, are suggested as a method to circumvent the negative stigma surrounding this condition. Implementation of such educational policies will likely improve the educational experience and performance of students with TA, as well as improve student retention.

  1. Incidence of Aflatoxin in California Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, J. E.; McGreevy, K.; King, A. D.; Mackey, B.; Fuller, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of California almonds, aflatoxin was found in 14% of 74 samples of unsorted, in-shell almonds as received by the processor in 1972, but it occurred at very low levels (below 20 parts per billion [ppb]) in 90% of the contaminated samples. The overall proportion of individual nuts contaminated was especially low and is estimated with 95% probability to have been in the range of 1 nut/55,300 nuts to 1 nut/14,700 nuts. Aflatoxin contamination is not restricted to any particular section of the almond-growing region of California. Commercial sorting procedures are effective in removing most aflatoxin-contaminated nutmeats, since none of 26 samples of processed, whole nutmeats contained aflatoxin. In contrast, 13 of 27 samples of diced almonds were contaminated, but nine of these 13 samples contained less than 20 ppb. Only one of 25 samples of sliced nutmeats contained aflatoxin (4 ppb). Thus, aflatoxin incidence in almonds varies greatly with the category of finished product. The apparent high incidence in diced nutmeats is probably due mostly to the more uniform distribution of aflatoxin occurring in this product (because of its small particle size) than that occurring in the other products. Sample size requirements for monitoring aflatoxin in almonds are discussed. PMID:1110492

  2. Wide Tuning Range Voltage-Controlled Ring Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    NICODIMUS, RETDIAN AGUNG WAHYU WIJAYA; NICODIMUS, Retdian Agung Wahyu Wijaya; 高木, 茂孝; Takagi, Shigetaka; 藤井, 信生; FUJII, NOBUO

    2003-01-01

    A voltage-controlled ring oscillator with an RC delay as an additional delay to vary the oscillation frequency is proposed. The use of MOS resistors provides a wide range tuning ability from 40Hz to 366MHz. The proposed circuit also enables implementation of a low frequency voltage-controlled ring oscillator with relatively smaller devices than the conventional one.

  3. A worrying increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariad, S; Barchana, M; Yukelson, A; Geffen, D B

    2000-11-01

    Exposure to asbestos is the main established cause of mesothelioma; the incidence of this tumor is thus often interpreted as an index of past exposure. Asbestos has been widely used in Israel in industry and building, exposing certain population groups to the risk of developing mesothelioma. To analyze the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel during the years 1960-96, and to project its trend for the following years. We conducted a population-based study of the incidence of mesothelioma reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during 1960-96. Time trends were analyzed from data on the annual import of asbestos to Israel, which may indicate the magnitude of past exposure. Based on these findings, trends in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel were projected for the subsequent years. A total of 327 cases of mesothelioma were reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during the study period. The incidence in Jews was higher than in Arabs (age-standardized incidence rate 2.64 vs. 1.35 per million/year, respectively). Among the Jewish population, Israeli-born males and males born in Europe and America showed the highest incidence (ASR 4.23 and 4.15 per million/year, respectively). Israeli-born males were 20 years younger than Jewish males born elsewhere. The incidence was twice as high among males than females and increased sevenfold from its nadir (1.17 per million/year) in 1978-80 to its peak (8.5 per million/year) in 1993-96. During a similar period the incidence among females increased from 0.33 to 2.56 per million/year. The incidence in both sexes does not appear to level off. The large wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union that began in 1989 only partly accounts for the increased incidence in 1993-96. The time trend in the incidence of mesothelioma in both sexes parallels the use of asbestos in Israel, which peaked in the years 1976-78. The incidence of mesothelioma in Israel has increased sharply in recent years, unrelated to a wave of immigration from

  4. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  5. Ecoepidemiological and Social Factors Related to Rabies Incidence in Venezuela during 2002-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifakis, Pedro M.; Benitez, Jesus A.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Dickson, Sonia M.; De-La-Paz-Pineda, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Rabies in Venezuela has been important in last years, affecting dogs, cats, and human, among other animals, being a reportable disease. In Zulia state, it is considered a major public health concern. Recently, a considerable increase in the incidence of rabies has been occurring, involving many epidemiological but also ecoepidemiological and social factors. These factors are analyzed in this report. During 2002-2004, 416 rabies cases were recorded. Incidence has been increasingly significantly, affecting mainly dogs (88.94%). Given this epidemiology we associated ecoepidemiological and social factors with rabies incidence in the most affected state, Zulia. In this period 411 rabies cases were recorded. Zulia has varied environmental conditions. It is composed mostly of lowlands bordered in the west by mountain system and in the south by the Andes. The mean is temperature 27.8°C, and mean yearly rainfall is 750 mm. Climatologically, 2002 corresponded with El Niño (drought), middle 2003 evolved to a Neutral period, and 2004 corresponded to La Niña (rainy); this change may have affected many diseases, including rabies. Ecological analysis showed that most cases occurred in lowland area of the state and during rainy season (p<0.05). Additionally, there is an important social problem due to educational deficiencies in the native population. Many ethnic groups live un Zulia, many myths about rabies are in circulation, and the importance of the disease is not widely realized. The full scale of the rabies burden is unknown, owing to inadequate disease surveillance. Although there have been important advances in our knowledge and ability to diagnose and prevent it, enormous challenges remain in animal rabies control and provision of accessible-appropriate human prophylaxis worldwide. Human and animal surveillance including ecological and social factors is needed. PMID:23674960

  6. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  7. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  8. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  9. Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism in Asia: A Critical Appraisal of its Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoh Chin Liew

    2003-07-01

    Conclusion: While there is a wide variation in the incidence of DVT and VTE as reported in the Asian population, these diseases are by no means rare. The wide variation could be due to the study designs, heterogeneity of the procedures performed and the application of different diagnostic criteria. Results based on prospective studies with objective diagnostic criteria confirm the incidence of VTE as common. Routine chemoprophylaxis must be seriously considered in high-risk patients.

  10. Honeybee odometry: performance in varying natural terrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Tautz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that, when bees fly to a food source through a varying outdoor landscape, their waggle dances would depend upon the nature of the terrain experienced en route. We trained honeybees to visit feeders positioned along two routes, each 580 m long. One route was exclusively over land. The other was initially over land, then over water and, finally, again over land. Flight over water resulted in a significantly flatter slope of the waggle-duration versus distance regression, compared to flight over land. The mean visual contrast of the scenes was significantly greater over land than over water. The results reveal that, in outdoor flight, the honeybee's odometer does not run at a constant rate; rather, the rate depends upon the properties of the terrain. The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably.

  11. Ciliary Locomotion in Varying Viscosity Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Patrick; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Ciliary locomotion is a common method of transportation employed by bacteria. They must be able to move through their environment at will to seek nutrients as well as avoid dangers. While research into bacteria motility has received considerable attention, very little has been done to consider the effects of a spatially-varying viscosity environment on swimming. This presentation will discuss recent research into how bacteria can take advantage of nutrient-dependent viscosity to generate an asymmetric stress field around their body, potentially increasing free-swimming velocity. First, we analytically show that asymptotically small variations in viscosity due to nutrient concentrations can affect the free-swimming velocity of a bacteria. Then we extend our study to fully nonlinear coupling between nutrient concentration and viscosity and employ the Finite Element method to solve a system containing a convection-diffusion equation for nutrient concentration as well as Stokes flow for stress distribution on the swimmer. We will discuss how the free-swimming velocity profile changes for various nutrient Pecletnumbers and ciliary locomotion modes.

  12. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  13. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  14. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  15. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  17. Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotheraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Andre, L.; Georg, D.; Hodapp, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Results: Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course. (orig.)

  18. Incidence of scabies in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAPEERE, H.; NAEYAERT, J.-M.; De WEERT, J.; De MAESENEER, J.; BROCHEZ, L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A prospective survey on scabies in Ghent, Belgium was performed in 2004. Sixty-four individual cases were reported, corresponding to a crude incidence rate of 28/100 000 inhabitants. The incidence was higher in the elderly (51/100 000 in persons aged >75 years) and a higher incidence was also found in immigrants (88/100 000). More than 40% of the registered scabies patients had symptoms for more than 4 weeks at the time of presentation. In 54% of the consultations, the patient had already consulted a physician for his/her skin problem. Of this group, 44% had not yet received any scabicidal treatment, indicating that scabies was not yet diagnosed or that an inappropriate treatment was prescribed. The observations suggest that the diagnosis and/or treatment of scabies in this region can still be improved. PMID:17506916

  19. Pediatric melanoma: incidence, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyed FK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Faiez K Saiyed,1 Emma C Hamilton,1 Mary T Austin,1,2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGovern Medical School, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to outline recent advancements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric melanoma. Despite the recent decline in incidence, it continues to be the deadliest form of skin cancer in children and adolescents. Pediatric melanoma presents differently from adult melanoma; thus, the traditional asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, diameter >6 mm, and evolution (ABCDE criteria have been modified to include features unique to pediatric melanoma (amelanotic, bleeding/bump, color uniformity, de novo/any diameter, evolution of mole. Surgical and medical management of pediatric melanoma continues to derive guidelines from adult melanoma treatment. However, more drug trials are being conducted to determine the specific impact of drug combinations on pediatric patients. Alongside medical and surgical treatment, prevention is a central component of battling the incidence, as ultraviolet (UV-related mutations play a central role in the vast majority of pediatric melanoma cases. Aggressive prevention measures targeting sun safety and tanning bed usage have shown positive sun-safety behavior trends, as well as the potential to decrease melanomas that manifest later in life. As research into the field of pediatric melanoma continues to expand, a prevention paradigm needs to continue on a community-wide level. Keywords: melanoma, pediatric, adolescent, childhood

  20. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O

    2015-12-01

    Because of Nigeria's low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country's restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  1. Lead poisoning--Part I. Incidence, etiology, and toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A T; Gerson, B

    1994-06-01

    In summary, we review the recent and not so recent but lesser known information on lead poisoning. We review the incidence of lead poisoning and find that no one is really safe from its effects. We have also examined the many and varied sources of lead poisoning, and critically review the ubiquitous ways in which lead enters the body and is eventually dealt with in the body.

  2. The World Wide Web Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Sattar, Naveed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Our objective was to perform a quantitative review of prospective studies examining the association between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Using the title terms ?diabetes? and ?metabolic syndrome? in PubMed, we searched for articles published since 1998. RESULTS?Based on the results from 16 cohorts, we performed a meta-analysis of estimates of relative risk (RR) and incident diabetes. The random-effects summary RRs were 5.17 (95% CI 3.99?6....

  4. Operator strategies under varying conditions of workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnegard, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to operationally define and measure strategic behavior in a complex multiple task environment. The Multi-Attribute Task battery was developed to simulate various aspects of flight and consisted of an auditory communication task, monitoring tasks, a tracking tasks, a resource management task which allowed a wide range of responding patterns, and a scheduling window which allowed operators to predict changes in workload. This battery was validated for its sensitivity to strategic behavior, and baseline measures for each individual task were collected. Twenty-four undergraduate and graduate students then performed the battery for four 64 minute sessions which took place over a period of 2 days. Each subject performed the task battery under four levels of workload, which were presented for equal lengths of time during all four sessions. Results indicated that in general, performance improves as a function of experience with the battery, but that performance decreased as workload level increased. The data also showed that subjects developed strategies for responding to the resource management task which allowed them to manage the high workload levels more efficiently. This particular strategy developed over time but was also associated with errors of complacency. These results are presented along with implications for the aviation field and areas of future research.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  6. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  7. Debating Life on Mars: The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) in Varied School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda

    Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…

  8. [Course of congenital malformation incidences and their changes over time in children born in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sípek, A; Gregor, V; Horáček, J; Sípek, A; Langhammer, P

    2012-10-01

    An analysis of incidences of selected birth defects in the Czech Republic in 2000 - 2008 period. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of birth defects incidences in births and total birth defects incidences (including prenatally diagnosed cases) from the Czech National Birth Defects Register database. Data from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics) in the Czech Republic in the 2000 - 2008 period were used along with data on prenatally diagnosed defects from particular departments of medical genetics. Sixteen selected defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, congenital hydrocephalus, coarctation of aorta, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Fallot tetralogy, omphalocele, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal malformations, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome) were analyzed in detail. There were 119 570 live births (61 326 boys and 58 244 girls) in 2008. In the same period, 4664 live births with a birth defect (under the age of one year) were reported, out of which 2754 boys and 1910 girls. Mean incidence was 390.06 (449.08 in boys and 327.93 in girls) per 10 000 live births. In 1994 - 2006, totally 1 238 398 children were born, out of which more than 42 000 with a birth defect. In the 2000 - 2006 period, absolute numbers of diagnosed live births with birth defect varied between 3600 - 3800 cases per year while in 2007 and 2008 years absolute numbers raised over 4600 cases per year. During 2000 - 2008 period following mean incidences (per 10 000 live births) of selected defects were ascertained (total incidences including prenatal diagnostics in brackets): anencephaly 0 - 0.3 (1.9 - 3.7), spina bifida 0.7 - 2.3 (3.2 - 5.2), encephalocele 0.1 - 0.4 (0.9 - 2.4), congenital hydrocephalus 1.6 - 3.5 (5.3 - 7.0), coarctation of aorta 3.9 - 5.2 (4.8 - 6.1), transposition of great vessels 2.9 - 4.5 (3.2 - 5.0), hypoplastic left

  9. Survival of slash pine having fusiform rust disease varies with year of first stem infection and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Froelich; Ronald C. Schmidtling

    1998-01-01

    Probabilities of death of young slash pine infected by fusiform rust pathogen varied with timing and severity of infection. Trees in nine slash pine plantations varying widely in site quality and initial number of trees per acre had similar probabilities of death from rust. About 90 percent of trees with stem infections in the first three growing seasons died by age 15...

  10. Profiling genome-wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wai-Shin; Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in regulating gene expression and therefore a broad range of biological processes and diseases. DNA methylation is tissue-specific, dynamic, sequence-context-dependent and trans-generationally heritable, and these complex patterns of methylation highlight the significance of profiling DNA methylation to answer biological questions. In this review, we surveyed major methylation assays, along with comparisons and biological examples, to provide an overview of DNA methylation profiling techniques. The advances in microarray and sequencing technologies make genome-wide profiling possible at a single-nucleotide or even a single-cell resolution. These profiling approaches vary in many aspects, such as DNA input, resolution, genomic region coverage, and bioinformatics analysis, and selecting a feasible method requires knowledge of these methods. We first introduce the biological background of DNA methylation and its pattern in plants, animals and fungi. We present an overview of major experimental approaches to profiling genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and then extend to the single-cell methylome. To evaluate these methods, we outline their strengths and weaknesses and perform comparisons across the different platforms. Due to the increasing need to compute high-throughput epigenomic data, we interrogate the computational pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data and also discuss the concept of identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs). This review summarizes the experimental and computational concepts for profiling genome-wide DNA methylation, followed by biological examples. Overall, this review provides researchers useful guidance for the selection of a profiling method suited to specific research questions.

  11. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surfaces top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  12. Literature review on medical incident command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Rune; Braut, Geir Sverre

    2015-04-01

    . There are no widely acknowledged measurement tools of commanders' performances, though several performance indicators have been suggested. The competence and experience of the commanders, upon which an efficient ICS has to rely, cannot be compensated significantly by plans and procedures, or even by guidance from superior organizational elements such as coordination centers. This study finds that neither a certain system or structure, or a specific set of plans, are better than others, nor can it conclude what system prerequisites are necessary or sufficient for efficient incident management. Commanders need to be sure about their authority, responsibility, and the functional demands posed upon them.

  13. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  14. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  15. Early identification and management of critical incident stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Randy M; Ter-Bagdasarian, Levon

    2003-02-01

    Everyone experiences stress. That stress may be related to work (internal), community (external), or family; it may be cumulative or related to a particular critical incident. The cost related to treating acute stress is staggering, both to individuals and to organizations. Critical care nurses are well educated in the physiological responses to the stress of acute illness. Recognizing the emotional impact of stress and the techniques to manage it in themselves and in those with whom they work is equally as important. CISD is widely advocated as an intervention after critical incidents. Although debriefing in and of itself is effective, a single-session semistructured crisis intervention will not prevent posttraumatic stress; thus, the use of CISD as part of a comprehensive multifaceted approach to the management of acute stress related to a critical incident is recommended.

  16. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...

  17. Incidence of tuberculosis among a cohort of tuberculin-positive refugees in Australia: reappraising the estimates of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, G B; Bai, J; Simpson, S E; Sullivan, E A; Stewart, G J

    2000-11-01

    Estimates of the lifetime risk of tuberculosis have varied widely and may not be applicable in all current settings. The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of reactivation of latent tuberculosis in a cohort of 15,489 predominantly Southeast Asian refugees aged 12 yr and over who arrived in Sydney, Australia during the period 1984 to 1994 and who had a clear chest X-ray on arrival. Tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction size and the presence of a BCG scar were recorded at entry. Incident cases of tuberculosis, occurring before June 1998, were identified by record linkage analysis with confirmatory review of case notes. There were 122 cases of tuberculosis over an average 10.3 yr of follow-up (crude annual incidence, 76.2/100,000). There was a linear increase in risk with increasing TST reaction size above 10 mm. The risk, and the relation of risk to TST reaction size, were unrelated to BCG scar status. Among those whose initial TST reaction was >/= 15 mm, the annual incidence rate in the first 3 yr was 213 (95% CI, 150 to 300) per 100,000 person-years and in the subsequent 10 yr the rate averaged 122 (95% CI, 90 to 165) per 100,000 person-years. The observed rates are similar to those estimated in the general population of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. Further data on the prognosis of tuberculosis and the effects of isoniazid preventive therapy in Southeast Asian migrants to Western countries are required to inform policy and practice for the prevention of tuberculosis in this population.

  18. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  19. NCenter wide band neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutte, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    This memo describes the physical properties of the currently operating N-Center wide band neutrino beam---commonly called the triplet train, following a past tradition of a triplet lens configuration. In reality, in order to gain a larger momentum acceptance and to minimize the angular divergence of the beam, a quadruplet beam (4 lenses) employing point-to-parallel optics at a central momentum of 300 GeV was built. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  20. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  1. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  2. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.

  5. INCIDENCE AND CAUSES OF FRACTURE OF ACRYLIC RESIN COMPLETE DENTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Sampa; Pradip Kumar; Manabendra; Saibal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND): Replacement of missing teeth and the associated structures are done with the help of artificial prosthesis. Acrylic resin, by virtue of its excellent properties is widely used as a material of choice for fabrication of denture base. In spite of its higher esthetic quality, tissue compatibility and ease of manipulation, it has an inherent deficiency of proneness to fracture. AIMS: The present study was being undertaken to find out the incidence of frac...

  6. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  7. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  8. Incidents malignant neoplasias maxillofacial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Haddad, Marcela Filié; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéres Alves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-07-01

    Cancer is regarded as abnormal cellular multiplication; it is not controlled by the organism, and its cells present a differentiated DNA. Initially, the disease does not show clinical signs, but it can be diagnosed by laboratory examinations. When tumors are present in the maxillofacial area, the carrier can lose structures in this area, resulting to the carrier's social environment exclusion. This article aims to show incidences and causes of malignant neoplasias in the maxillofacial area.

  9. [Familial incidence of Crohn disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, L; Karoff, C; Wagner, H

    1981-03-12

    This study reports about the frequent incidence of Crohn's disease in four families. This evidence in confirmed by literature. Relatives of patients with Crohn's disease are ten times more likely to suffer from that disease than those of healthy families. Familial accumulation of Crohn's disease can possibly be explained by genetic factors. Other factors like autoimmunological processes, infections, overnutrition and deficient composition of alimentation with refined carbohydrates might start Crohn's diseases in these families.

  10. NARAC SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE: ADAPTING FORMALISM TO MEET VARYING NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Nasstrom, J S; Homann, S G

    2007-11-20

    The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides tools and services that predict and map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC is a full function system that can meet a wide range of needs with a particular focus on emergency response. The NARAC system relies on computer software in the form of models of the atmosphere and related physical processes supported by a framework for data acquisition and management, user interface, visualization, communications and security. All aspects of the program's operations and research efforts are predicated to varying degrees on the reliable and correct performance of this software. Consequently, software quality assurance (SQA) is an essential component of the NARAC program. The NARAC models and system span different levels of sophistication, fidelity and complexity. These different levels require related but different approaches to SQA. To illustrate this, two different levels of software complexity are considered in this paper. As a relatively simple example, the SQA procedures that are being used for HotSpot, a straight-line Gaussian model focused on radiological releases, are described. At the other extreme, the SQA issues that must be considered and balanced for the more complex NARAC system are reviewed.

  11. Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Mahmud, S.; Ali, S.; Dogar, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in hospital born babies. Subjects and Methods: All live born infants delivered at the hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were included in the study. Results: Ninety-four neonates developed RDS. Out of these, 88 (93.61%) were preterm and 06 (6.38%) were term infants. There was a male preponderance (65.95%). RDS was documented in 1.72% of total live births. 37.28% of preterm and 0.11% of term neonates born at the hospital. The incidence of RDS was 100% at 26 or less weeks of gestation, 57.14% at 32 weeks, and 3.70% at 36 weeks. The mortality with RDS was 41 (43.61%). Conclusion: RDS is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants. It carries a high mortality rate and the incidence is more than that documented in the Western world. (author)

  12. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  13. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  14. Lessons Learnt from the Improvement of Customer Support Processes: A Case Study on Incident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Marko

    IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is the most widely used IT service management framework that provides guidelines how to create, manage and support IT services. Service support processes, such as incident management and problem management, are among the first ITIL processes that organizations start to implement. However, several challenges may exist in the process implementation. The research question of this study is: which issues are important in establishing an ITIL-based incident management process? The main contribution of this paper is to present lessons learnt from an ITIL-based process improvement project that focused on establishing an incident management process in an IS department of a university hospital. Our results show that key issues in implementing incident management are to 1) define the basic concepts of incident management with concrete examples and 2) define process interfaces between incident management and other support processes.

  15. Estimating the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, A. H.; Ivarsson, S.; Lofdahl, M.

    2013-01-01

    of gastroenteritis. For the 27 EU member states the incidence of campylobacteriosis was about 9.2 (95 % CI 2.8-23) million cases, while the incidence of salmonellosis was 6.2 (95 % CI 1.0-19) million cases. Only 1/47 (95 % CI 14-117) cases of campylobacteriosis and one 1/58 (95 % CI 9-172) cases of salmonellosis...... were reported in the EU. The incidence rate of campylobacteriosis in EU member states varied between 30 and 13 500/100 000 population and was significantly correlated with the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens. The incidence rate of salmonellosis in EU member states varied between 16...

  16. Incidence and short-term consequences of delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective observational cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, M.W. van den; Schoonhoven, L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is a serious and frequent psycho-organic disorder in critically ill patients. Reported incidence rates vary to a large extent and there is a paucity of data concerning delirium incidence rates for the different subgroups of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their short-term

  17. Incidence and short-term consequences of delirium in critically ill patients : A prospective observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Schoonhoven; Hans van der Hoeven; Theo van Achterberg; Peter Pickkers; Mark van den Boogaard

    2011-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and frequent psycho-organic disorder in critically ill patients. Reported incidence rates vary to a large extent and there is a paucity of data concerning delirium incidence rates for the different subgroups of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their short-term health

  18. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  19. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  20. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of the four missions selected in 2011 for assessment study for the ESA M3 mission in the Cosmic Vision program, expected to be launched in 2024. The LOFT mission will carry two instruments with their prime sensitivity in the 2-30 keV range: a 10 m2...... class large area detector (LAD) with a effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... be able to address fundamental questions about strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes and the equation of state of nuclear matter in neutron stars. The prime goal of the WFM will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, with its wide field of view and good energy...

  1. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-α A )/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when α A →1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit

  2. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S

    1999-03-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-{alpha}{sub A})/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when {alpha}{sub A}{yields}1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit.

  3. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  4. Dynamic prediction of cumulative incidence functions by direct binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Mia K; de Witte, Theo J M; Putter, Hein

    2018-03-25

    In recent years there have been a series of advances in the field of dynamic prediction. Among those is the development of methods for dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function in a competing risk setting. These models enable the predictions to be updated as time progresses and more information becomes available, for example when a patient comes back for a follow-up visit after completing a year of treatment, the risk of death, and adverse events may have changed since treatment initiation. One approach to model the cumulative incidence function in competing risks is by direct binomial regression, where right censoring of the event times is handled by inverse probability of censoring weights. We extend the approach by combining it with landmarking to enable dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function. The proposed models are very flexible, as they allow the covariates to have complex time-varying effects, and we illustrate how to investigate possible time-varying structures using Wald tests. The models are fitted using generalized estimating equations. The method is applied to bone marrow transplant data and the performance is investigated in a simulation study. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  6. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

  9. The incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods and its effect in political legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby CORDOVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods erodes trust in the national government. The results show that the levels of trust in the national government vary from one neighborhood to another, depending on their vulnerability to gang generated insecurity. In addition, this article demonstrates that, in neighborhoods with high gang incidence, crime victims and non-victims show similar and low levels of trust in the national government.

  10. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  11. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B. [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d`Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  12. Time-varying trends of global vegetation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, N.; Feng, X.; Fu, B.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the energy change, water cycle and biochemical cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Monitoring the dynamics of vegetation activity and understanding their driving factors have been an important issue in global change research. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of vegetation activity, has been widely used in investigating vegetation changes at regional and global scales. Most studies utilized linear regression or piecewise linear regression approaches to obtain an averaged changing rate over a certain time span, with an implicit assumption that the trend didn't change over time during that period. However, no evidence shows that this assumption is right for the non-linear and non-stationary NDVI time series. In this study, we adopted the multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) method to extract the time-varying trends of NDVI from original signals without any a priori assumption of their functional form. Our results show that vegetation trends are spatially and temporally non-uniform during 1982-2013. Most vegetated area exhibited greening trends in the 1980s. Nevertheless, the area with greening trends decreased over time since the early 1990s, and the greening trends have stalled or even reversed in many places. Regions with browning trends were mainly located in southern low latitudes in the 1980s, whose area decreased before the middle 1990s and then increased at an accelerated rate. The greening-to-browning reversals were widespread across all continents except Oceania (43% of the vegetated areas), most of which happened after the middle 1990s. In contrast, the browning-to-greening reversals occurred in smaller area and earlier time. The area with monotonic greening and browning trends accounted for 33% and 5% of the vegetated area, respectively. By performing partial correlation analyses between NDVI and climatic elements (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover

  13. A safety incident reporting system for primary care. A systematic literature review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemp, Kerstin; Zwart, Dorien; Hansen, Jørgen; Hellebek, Torben; Luettel, Dagmar; Verstappen, Wim; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdin M.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Esmail, Aneez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incident reporting is widely used in both patient safety improvement programmes, and in research on patient safety.Objective: To identify the key requirements for incident reporting systems in primary care; to develop an Internet-based incident reporting and learning system for primary

  14. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  15. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  16. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  17. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  18. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  19. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-qing; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; Li, Ni; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guang-lin; Wu, Liang-you

    2012-01-01

    cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreas cancer, which accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum varied by areas and sex in rural areas, cancers from digestive system were more common, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, while incidence rates of lung cancer and colorectal cancer were much higher in urban areas. In addition, breast cancer was the most common cancer in urban women followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Conclusion Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and female breast cancer contributed to the increased incidence of cancer, which should be paid more attention to in further national cancer prevention and control program. Different cancer control strategies should be carried out due to the varied cancer spectrum in different groups. PMID:23359321

  20. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  1. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  2. Parkinson's disease incidence: magnitude, comparability, time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Stawiarz, L

    1991-11-01

    In this study, we reviewed incidence surveys of Parkinson's Disease (PD) from all over the world, published during the period 1945-1989, using reported quality criteria. In addition, we compared age-specific PD incidences from selected observations by stratified analysis. Crude incidences were described for 11 populations, and age-specific incidences for three of them: Iceland, Rochester (Minn, USA), and Turku (Finland). Effect modification by age was detected: a) by comparing incidences by age at diagnosis with incidence by age at clinical disease onset; and b) when only data on onset of disease was computed. For disease onsets, the incidences in Rochester for the period 1955-1966, and in Turku (Finland) during the interval 1968-1970, were lower than that in Iceland for the period 1958-1960: RR = 0.58 95% CI (0.41, 0.83), and RR = 0.67 95% CI (0.51, 0.87), respectively. For the Rochester population aged 40-69 years, a statistically significant 56% decrease in the incidences of Parkinsonism onsets during the period 1945-1966 was found. Validity problems in comparing PD incidences and the role of PD underdiagnosis were emphasized. We concluded that: a) stratified analysis is more suitable than standardization when comparing incidences for etiological purposes; b) the incidence of PD was highest in Iceland; and c) in Rochester, PD incidence under the age of 70 decreased with time.

  3. Dependance of sputtering yield on incident angle for ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Hironori; Ooba, Hikaru; Masuhara, Kenichi

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between sputtering yeild (S/sub theta/) and the incident angle (theta) of an ion beam to some metals such as Fe, Ni, Zn and SUS304, was studied by Ion Micro Analyzer (IMA). It was confirmed that S/sub theta/ varied as a function of (costheta)/sup -f/. The value of f was differed with each sample, and ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 in this study. As theta increased, the surface roughness of the sputtered samples became greater, and the depth resolution of the depth profile became worse. It is necessary to pay attention to depth resolution, when various data concerning different incident angles are compared.

  4. The incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK: a general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhayat, Fatima; Das-Gupta, Emma; Smith, Chris; McKeever, Tricia; Hubbard, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The acute and chronic leukaemias constitute about 2.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies and kill over 4000 people/year in the UK, yet there is little accurate up-to-date data on how the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias vary with socio-economic status in the UK. We aimed to quantify the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK and their variation with gender, age, year of diagnosis as well as socio-economic status. Methods All incident cases of leuk...

  5. A nationwide registry-based cohort study of incidence of tonsillectomy in Denmark, 1991-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Rasmussen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and by the age of 20, 7.7% of the Danish people has had a tonsillectomy. There were significant regional differences in the number of tonsillectomies. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of tonsillectomies in Denmark decreased significantly in the study period, but with great regional variance.......OBJECTIVE: To update tonsillectomy incidence rates in Denmark and identify whether the incidence rates vary between geographical areas in the country during the period 1991-2012. DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from the comprehensive Danish patient registries...... tonsillectomies were conducted, and the overall incidence of tonsillectomy decreased significantly over time. The overall annual incidence of tonsillectomies decreased from 155.7 per 100 000 inhabitants in 1991 to 129.4 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2012. In 1991, 5.5% of tonsillectomies were performed in office...

  6. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  7. following Wide Resection of Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Ulna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Mariappan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour of the bone (GCT is a rare locally aggressive primary bone tumour with an incidence of 3% to 5% of all primary bone tumours. The most common location for this tumour is the long bone metaepiphysis especially of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal radius, and the proximal humerus. Involvement of distal ulna is rare accounting for 0.45% to 3.2%. Considering local aggressive nature and high recurrence, wide resection is the treatment recommended. Instability of ulnar stump and ulnar translation of the carpals are known complications following resection of distal ulna. To overcome these problems, we attempted a newer technique of distal ulna reconstruction using proximal fibula and TFCC reconstruction using palmaris longus tendon following wide resection of giant cell tumour of distal ulna in a 44-year-old male. This technique of distal radioulnar joint reconstruction has excellent functional results with no evidence of recurrence after one-year followup.

  8. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  9. Further education of secondary-grammar-school geography teachers in Karlovy Vary region

    OpenAIRE

    Fenklová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The master thesis focuses on further education of secondary-grammar-school geography teachers in the Karlovy Vary region. The topic has been studied in detail using a qualitative research in the form of multiple case studies of semi-structured interviews of persons relevant to further education in the studied region. The qualitative research conducted brings a wide range of data relevant to the approaches taken by management of different schools and geography teachers to further education, op...

  10. UK Renal Registry 13th Annual Report (December 2010): Chapter 15: UK renal centre survey results 2010: RRT incidence and use of home dialysis modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Clare; Gilg, Julie; Rogers, Chris; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Caskey, Fergus

    2011-01-01

    RRT incidence rates and the proportion of patients using a home dialysis modality (peritoneal or home haemodialysis) varies widely between centres and persists even after area differences in age, ethnicity and social deprivation structure are taken into account. A nationwide survey was undertaken to identify possible drivers of this variation. A systematic literature review followed by a two-stage Delphi consensus technique was employed to identify renal centre characteristics and practice patterns that may be important in determining either RRT incidence or home modality usage. All 72 (100%) of UK adult renal centres responded. Questions about staffing numbers, interface with primary care, interface with other secondary care sites, capacity within the HD programme, constituents of pre-dialysis education programmes, conservative management programmes, range of treatments available, dialysis access and training and physician attitudes to home modalities were included. There was wide variation in practice patterns and centre characteristics across the UK. Overall, physician enthusiasm for home dialysis modalities was greater than the actual usage of home dialysis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de

    2011-01-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  12. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  13. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriya, S; Gupta, P C; Dimba, E; Chindia, M; Otoh, E C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Califano, J; Kowalski, L

    2011-05-01

    The mouth and oropharynx are among the ten most common sites affected by cancer worldwide, but global incidence varies widely. Five-year survival rates exceed 50% in only the best treatment centers. Causes are predominantly lifestyle-related: Tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, poor diet, viral infections, and pollution are all important etiological factors. Oral cancer is a disease of the poor and dispossessed, and reducing social inequalities requires national policies co-ordinated with wider health and social initiatives - the common risk factor approach: control of the environment; safe water; adequate food; public and professional education about early signs and symptoms; early diagnosis and intervention; evidence-based treatments appropriate to available resources; and thoughtful rehabilitation and palliative care. Reductions in inequalities, both within and between countries, are more likely to accrue from the application of existing knowledge in a whole-of-society approach. Basic research aimed at determining individual predisposition and acquired genetic determinants of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus allowing for targeted therapies, should be pursued opportunistically.

  14. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-12-02

    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  15. Radial stability of density profiles for obliquely incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Montry, G.R.; Tanner, D.J.; Berger, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Self-consistent steady-state plasma density profiles including the effects of the ponderomotive force for obliquely incident light have been obtained for the case of supersonic upstream flow velocity. The radial stability of these density profiles is studied in one-dimensional spherical geometry. Above a modest threshold laser field, these density profiles are found to be unstable and exhibit unsteady flow. The absorption for unstable profiles is found to vary markedly in time. Radiation and plasma waves can be trapped in density troughs which may be unstable to kink or sausage instabilities in two dimensions. (author)

  16. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...... of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100...

  17. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  18. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  19. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  20. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in Germany: results from an emergency medical service registry in Lower Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eimo; Sinner, Moritz F.; Siebermair, Johannes; Raufhake, Carsten; Beckmann, Britt M.; Veith, Stefan; Düvel, Dieter; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Kääb, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the most common causes of death in western countries including Germany. Whereas risk stratification and primary prevention is still insufficient, we also lack accurate incidence estimates. Current estimates vary widely (18.6–128/100 000/year), but data on SCD incidence in Germany are missing. Depending on SCD definitions, death needs to occur between 1 and 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Methods and results In the district of Aurich (190 000 inhabitants, Lower Saxony, Germany), emergency medical service (EMS) is provided by a district government operated single carrier and two hospitals. To evaluate all EMS calls in this district from 2002 to 2009, we obtained EMS protocols, medical records, and death certificates for data analysis and adjudication of SCD. We defined SCD according to the definition of the World Health Organization, considering patients with cardiac arrest within ≤1 h after the onset of symptoms. We also required cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed by EMS personnel. The overall mortality rate in the district of Aurich (1060/100 000/year) corresponded well with the average mortality rate in Germany (1030/100 000/year). During the observation period, we adjudicated 1212 SCD cases, equivalent to an annual rate of 151 SCD cases (81 cases/100 000/year). Rates remained remarkably stable over time, and affected a considerable number of individuals of working age (32/100 000/year). Conclusion Consistent with prior reports, the SCD incidence in a district of Germany is substantial. Despite an elaborate EMS system and advanced medical care, SCD rates remain stable and necessitate improved, individualized risk stratification. PMID:25061228

  1. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in Germany: results from an emergency medical service registry in Lower Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eimo; Sinner, Moritz F; Siebermair, Johannes; Raufhake, Carsten; Beckmann, Britt M; Veith, Stefan; Düvel, Dieter; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Kääb, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the most common causes of death in western countries including Germany. Whereas risk stratification and primary prevention is still insufficient, we also lack accurate incidence estimates. Current estimates vary widely (18.6-128/100,000/year), but data on SCD incidence in Germany are missing. Depending on SCD definitions, death needs to occur between 1 and 24 h after the onset of symptoms. In the district of Aurich (190,000 inhabitants, Lower Saxony, Germany), emergency medical service (EMS) is provided by a district government operated single carrier and two hospitals. To evaluate all EMS calls in this district from 2002 to 2009, we obtained EMS protocols, medical records, and death certificates for data analysis and adjudication of SCD. We defined SCD according to the definition of the World Health Organization, considering patients with cardiac arrest within ≤1 h after the onset of symptoms. We also required cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed by EMS personnel. The overall mortality rate in the district of Aurich (1060/100,000/year) corresponded well with the average mortality rate in Germany (1030/100,000/year). During the observation period, we adjudicated 1212 SCD cases, equivalent to an annual rate of 151 SCD cases (81 cases/100,000/year). Rates remained remarkably stable over time, and affected a considerable number of individuals of working age (32/100,000/year). Consistent with prior reports, the SCD incidence in a district of Germany is substantial. Despite an elaborate EMS system and advanced medical care, SCD rates remain stable and necessitate improved, individualized risk stratification. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Peripherally inserted central catheter thrombosis incidence and risk factors in cancer patients: a double-center prospective investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Gao, Yufang; Wei, Lili; Chen, Weifen; Ma, Xiaoyan; Song, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in chemotherapy, but the reported PICC thrombosis incidence varies greatly, and risks of PICC thrombosis are not well defined. This study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related upper extremity vein thrombosis in cancer patients. Methods This was a prospective study conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals from May 2010 to February 2013. Cancer patients who were subject to PICC placement were enrolled and checked by Doppler ultrasound weekly for at least 1 month. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied for identification of risk factors. Results Three hundred and eleven cancer patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred and sixty (51.4%) developed PICC thrombosis, of which 87 (54.4%) cases were symptomatic. The mean time interval from PICC insertion to thrombosis onset was 11.04±5.538 days. The univariable logistic regression analysis showed that complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.686, P=0.032), less activity (OR 1.476, P=0.006), obesity (OR 3.148, P=0.000), and chemotherapy history (OR 3.405, P=0.030) were associated with PICC thrombosis. Multivariate analysis showed that less activity (OR 9.583, P=0.000) and obesity (OR 3.466, P=0.014) were significantly associated with PICC thrombosis. Conclusions The incidence of PICC thrombosis is relatively high, and nearly half are asymptomatic. Less activity and obesity are risk factors of PICC-related thrombosis. PMID:25673995

  3. Safety in the operating room during orthopedic trauma surgery-incidence of adverse events related to technical equipment and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, E. A. K.; Schepers, T.; Bonjer, H. J.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N. W. L.

    2017-01-01

    Safety in the operating room is widely debated. Adverse events during surgery are potentially dangerous for the patient and staff. The incidence of adverse events during orthopedic trauma surgery is unknown. Therefore, we performed a study to quantify the incidence of these adverse events. Primary

  4. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    interventions were limited and varied. Although numerous studies have been undertaken, there is a noticeable inconsistency of the findings in the available studies and this is confounded by serious methodological issues within the included studies. The body of evidence in this review does not support the hypothesis that the multi-component community wide interventions studied effectively increased physical activity for the population, although some studies with environmental components observed more people walking.

  5. Scrutinizing incident reporting in anaesthesia: why is an incident perceived as critical?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, R; la Cour, M; Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the incidence and type of incidents that occurred in relation to anaesthesia and surgery during a 1-year period in six Danish hospitals. Furthermore, we wanted to identify risk factors for incidents, as well as risk factors for incidents being deemed...

  6. Incidence of blindness in southern Germany between 1990 and 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, C; Haastert, B; Giani, G; Berger, M

    2001-02-01

    A reduction of diabetes-related blindness by at least one third was declared a primary objective for Europe in 1989 (St. Vincent Declaration). To ascertain a potential change of incidence rates, we collected data on blindness in a German district (population: about 5 million) over 9 years. We obtained complete lists of newly registered blindness-allowance recipients between 1990 and 1998 and population data on Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Germany. We estimated incidence rates of blindness in the general population and the diabetic population. To ascertain any time trend, we applied Poisson regression models. There were 6371 newly registered blindness allowance recipients (1990-1998). Of these 67% were women and 27 % had diabetes. Mean age was 71.7 years. Standardised results in the diabetic population (incidence rates per 100,000 person-years; standard: diabetic population; 95 % CI): 1990: 72 (61;82); 1991: 88 (76;100); 1992: 77 (67;88); 1993: 82 (71;93); 1994: 62 (53;72); 1995: 82 (71;93); 1996: 70 (60;80); 1997: 69 (59;79); 1998: 59 (49;68). The Poisson model estimated a 3 % decrease of incident blindness in the diabetic population for each year (Relative risk per year 0.97; CI: 0.95; 0.99). No significant change could be observed in the non-diabetic population (Relative risk: 0.99; CI: 0.98; 1.00). Relative risks for each year varied between sub-groups according to sex, diabetic status and cause of blindness between 0.94 and 1.01. A slight reduction of incident blindness could be shown but a reduction by one third has not been reached. Several possible sources of bias in the data have to be considered.

  7. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Role of wide local excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Raashid; Hafeez, Aadil; Darzi, Ashraf M; Zaroo, Inam; Owais, Habib; Akhter, Afrozah

    2013-10-01

    The main objective of the present study was to study the outcome of surgical treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. This study included 45 patients both retrospective and prospective from December 1995 to December 2010. Out of 45 patients, 30 were males and 15 females with the male to female ratio of 2:1. Mean age of presentation was 38.4 + 13.2 years. Commonest mode of presentation was raised firm multinodular lesion with fixity to overlying skin. Site distribution was 42.22% trunk, 57.88% extremities and head and neck. None of the patients had lymph node involvement All patients underwent wide local excision. On histological examination, 8 patients had positive margins. Overall recurrence rate was 22.22%. (please clarify what is the difference between the rate of recurrence following surgery and the overall recurrence rate) Only 2 patients developed metastasis to lungs in the course of their follow-up. Out of 45 patients, 35 remained recurrence free over a varying period of 5 months to 13 years (mean 68 months). Ten patients developed one or more local recurrences. Average time from initial treatment to recurrence was 32 months. All patients with recurrent tumors were subjected to salvage treatment, i.e., re-excision. Average recurrence-free period was 36 + 44 months within a mean follow-up of 68 months. Because of the potential of local recurrence, therapy for DFSP should be directed toward adequate local excision of the primary lesion. Minimal resection should include a surrounding margin, comprising 3-cm margin of normal skin and removal of underlying deep fascia. Compromising on margins invites higher chances of local recurrence.

  8. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  9. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N

    2017-01-01

    of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. RESULTS: The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...

  10. Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical presentation of 3 cases. Mohamed Rami, Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Aziz El Madi, Khalid Khattala, Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi, Youssef Bouabdallah ...

  11. Cancer incidence in the Western Amazon: population-based estimates in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2009 Incidência de câncer na Amazônia ocidental: estimativa de base populacional em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Pádua Nakashima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence rates vary widely in Brazil. The literature on the subject for the western Amazon region is scarce. This study aimed to determine cancer incidence in the population of Rio Branco, Acre State. A total of 718 new cases were recorded during the study period. Among men, the five leading cancer sites were prostate (ASR 75.1, stomach (ASR 23.0, lung (ASR 19.1, colon and rectum (ASR 9.5, and leukemia (ASR 6.9. Among women, they were breast (ASR 41.5, cervix (ASR 41.3, lung (ASR 11.8, colon and rectum (ASR 11.0, and stomach (ASR 7.7. These indicators reveal that Rio Branco has a cancer incidence pattern that overlaps with epidemiological cancer patterns observed in developed and developing regions. The results of the study point to the importance of implementing a population-based cancer registry - currently nonexistent in Rio Branco - as a factor to promote analysis of incident cases of the disease and monitoring of its evolution.No Brasil, as taxas de incidência de câncer variam amplamente. A literatura sobre o tema na região da Amazônia Ocidental é escassa. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a incidência atual de câncer na população de Rio Branco, Acre. Registrou-se um total de 718 casos novos no período de estudo. As localizações tumorais de maior incidência em homens foram: próstata (75,1/100.000, estômago (23,0/100.000, pulmão (19.1/100.000, cólon-reto (9,5/100.000 e leucemias (6,9/100.000 e no sexo feminino: mama (41,5/100.000, colo uterino (41,3/100.000, pulmão (11,8/100.000, cólon-reto (11,0/100.000 e estômago (7,7/100.000. Esses indicadores revelam que Rio Branco apresenta um padrão de incidência por câncer que superpõe os padrões encontrados nas regiões desenvolvidas e em desenvolvimento. Os resultados do trabalho apontam para a importância da implementação de um registro de câncer de base populacional - atualmente inexistente em Rio Branco - como fator promotor da análise de casos

  12. Grazing incident small angle neutron scattering. Analysis of self-assembly of softmatters in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Grazing incident small angle scattering has been used for the analysis of surface and thin film structures. X-ray in particular is widely used for such analysis and called grazing incident small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). However, a very limited number of studied has been done using grazing incident small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) primarily due to low intensity of neutron beam. The arising JPARC neutron source will enable us to use GISANS to analyze thin film structures of softmatter. This report provides a basic concept of GISAS using an example of the analysis of nanocellular thin films fabricated by block copolymer template with supercritical carbon dioxide (BSTSC). (author)

  13. Measurable improvement in patient safety culture: A departmental experience with incident learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Aaron S; Nyflot, Matthew J; Zeng, Jing; Sponseller, Patricia A; Ermoian, Ralph; Jordan, Loucille; Carlson, Joshua; Novak, Avrey; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous use of departmental incident learning is integral to improving patient safety and quality of care. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of a high-volume, departmental incident learning system on patient safety culture. A prospective, voluntary, electronic incident learning system was implemented in February 2012 with the intent of tracking near-miss/no-harm incidents. All incident reports were reviewed weekly by a multiprofessional team with regular department-wide feedback. Patient safety culture was measured at baseline with validated patient safety culture survey questions. A repeat survey was conducted after 1 and 2 years of departmental incident learning. Proportional changes were compared by χ(2) or Fisher exact test, where appropriate. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 1897 error/near-miss incidents were reported, representing an average of 1 near-miss report per patient treated. Reports were filed by a cross section of staff, with the majority of incidents reported by therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. Survey response rates at baseline and 1 and 2 years were 78%, 80%, and 80%, respectively. Statistically significant and sustained improvements were noted in several safety metrics, including belief that the department was openly discussing ways to improve safety, the sense that reports were being used for safety improvement, and the sense that changes were being evaluated for effectiveness. None of the surveyed dimensions of patient safety culture worsened. Fewer punitive concerns were noted, with statistically significant decreases in the worry of embarrassment in front of colleagues and fear of getting colleagues in trouble. A comprehensive incident learning system can identify many areas for improvement and is associated with significant and sustained improvements in patient safety culture. These data provide valuable guidance as incident learning systems become more widely used in radiation oncology. Copyright © 2015

  14. Facteurs climatiques et productivité des variétés de canne à sucre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette étude est de démontrer les incidences des principaux facteurs climatiques sur la productivité des variétés de canne à sucre dans les plantations industrielles de la vallée du Niari. Les données proviennent des différentes campagnes agricoles de 2000-2001 à 2006-2007 de la Société agricole et de ...

  15. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  16. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our

  17. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A [Northwell Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Evans, S [Yale University New Haven, CT (United States); Brown, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Hoopes, D [The University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Dieterich, S [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  18. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A; Evans, S; Brown, D; Ezzell, G; Hoopes, D; Dieterich, S; Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  19. Evaluation of wide edgelines on two-lane rural roads : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 8-in. wide edgelines on the incidence of run-off-the road (ROR) and related accidents was evaluated. The treatment locations consisted of three two-lane rural road sections totaling 55.2 miles. A before-and-after design with a compariso...

  20. Professional Capacity Building for School Counselors through School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betters-Bubon, Jennifer; Donohue, Peg

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) has been shown to reduce behavioral incidents and lead to more positive school climates. Despite the growing popularity in schools, there lacks clear understanding of the school counselor role in this approach. We present the perspectives of an elementary…

  1. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  2. Scattering and Doppler Spectral Analysis for a Fast-Moving Target above Time-Varying Lossy Dielectric Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical electromagnetic method based on the physical optics with physical optics method (PO-PO is employed to calculate backscattered returns from a missile-like target above sea surface. Surfaces are time-varying Monte Carlo simulations initialized as realizations of a Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum. The monostatic normalized radar cross section of composite model by the hybrid PO-PO method is calculated and compared with those by the conventional method of moments, as well as the runtime and memory requirements. The results are found to be in good agreement. The runtime shows that the hybrid PO-PO method enables large-scale time-varying Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical simulations of the Doppler spectrum from the fast-moving target above time-varying lossy dielectric sea surface are obtained, and the Doppler spectra of backscattered signals from this model are discussed for different incident angles, speed of flying target, wind speeds, incident frequencies, and target altitudes in detail. Finally, the coupling effects on Doppler spectra are analyzed. All the results are obtained at the incidence of horizontal polarization wave in this study.

  3. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  4. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  5. Dynamics of nonlinear oscillators with time-varying conjugate coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the dynamical consequences of time-varying conjugate coupling in a system of nonlinear oscillators. We analyze the behavior of coupled ... Conjugate coupling; time varying coupling. PACS Nos 05.45.Xt. 1. Introduction ..... MDS acknowledges the financial support from DST,. New Delhi. References. [1] L Glass ...

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  7. Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Roy, Sandip; Malek, Babak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a time-varying controller which can stabilize a decentralized discrete-time system. In continuous-time, it was already known that time-varying decentralized controllers can achieve stabilization in cases where time-invariant decentralized controllers

  8. Muscular load characterization during isometric shoulder abductions with varying force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iridiastadi, H.; Nussbaum, M.A.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to characterize muscle loading and fatigue during static shoulder abductions with varying force. In a supine posture, participants maintained fixed shoulder abductions against a time-varying external resistance, generated by a dynamometer-spring mechanism. Patterns (cumulative

  9. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  10. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  11. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted ...

  12. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  13. Bronchoaspiration: incidence, consequences and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Bonvini, John M

    2011-02-01

    Aspiration is defined as the inhalation of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the lower respiratory tract. Upon injury, epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages secrete chemical mediators, attracting and activating neutrophils, which in turn release proteases and reactive oxygen species, degrading the alveolocapillary unit. Aspiration can lead to a range of diseases such as infectious pneumonia, chemical pneumonitis or respiratory distress syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. It occurs in approximately 3-10 per 10 000 operations with an increased incidence in obstetric and paediatric anaesthesia. Patients are most at risk during induction of anaesthesia and extubation, in particular in emergency situations. The likelihood of significant aspiration can be reduced by fasting, pharmacological intervention and correct anaesthetic management using a rapid sequence induction. Treatment of acid aspiration is by suctioning after witnessed aspiration; antibiotics are indicated in patients with aspiration pneumonia only. Steroids are not proven to improve outcome or reduce mortality. Patients with acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation should be ventilated using lung protective strategies with low tidal volumes and low plateau pressure values, attempting to limit peak lung distension and end-expiratory collapse.

  14. [Congenital syphilis: incidence among newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Moura, E F; Ramos, F L; Holanda, V G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of congenital syphilis among newborns at the maternity of a public hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at the maternity of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará, from May to September 1996; 361 mothers were interviewed, and physical examination was performed in their newborns. Serum samples from both, mothers and neonates, were tested using three methods: VDRL, FTA - Abs, ELISA IgM. The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was established according to the criteria defined by Ministério da Saúde in 1993. RESULTS: The rate of congenital syphilis was of 9.1% (33); in 14 cases, there were one or more signs of the disease: prematurity, hepatomegaly, stillbirth, splenomegaly, perinatal death, abdominal distention, nasal stuffiness, jaundice, newborn small for gestational age. The majority of the infected mothers belonged to the age group of 20-35 years (81.8%); 60.6% were married; 63.6% received prenatal care; 48.5% reported previous spontaneous abortion, and 12.1% previous stillbirth. The rate of bisexuality among fathers was of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The syphilis control measures and the prenatal care, have not been sufficient to prevent the high rate of the disease.

  15. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  16. Incidence of Candida Albicans in Pregnent Women: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the incidence of Candida albicans among pregnant women of varied age range/occupation, within any of the three trimesters, and attending antenatal clinic in Ekpoma and its environs. A total of 100 high vagina swab- samples were collected from women and then transported to the Medical Laboratory ...

  17. Incidence de la densité de plantation sur la croissance et le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence de la densité de plantation sur la croissance et le rendement du bananier plantain en Côte d'Ivoire : cas de deux hybrides (PITA 3 et FHIA 21) et deux variétés locales (Corne 1 et Orishele)

  18. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  19. The role of periodically varying discharge on river plume structure and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Avener, Margaret; Bevan, Shaun

    2018-04-01

    We present results from laboratory experiments that simulate the effects of periodically varying discharge on buoyant coastal plumes. Freshwater is discharged into a two meter diameter tank filled with saltwater on a rotating table. The mean inflow rate, tank rotation period and density of the ambient salt water are varied to simulate a range of inflow Froude and Rossby numbers. The amplitude and the period of the inflow modulation are varied across a range that simulates variability due to tides and storms. Using the optical thickness method, we measure the width and depth of the plume, plume volume and freshwater retention rate in the plume. With constant discharge, freshwater is retained in a growing anticyclonic bulge circulation near the river mouth, as observed in previous studies. When the discharge is varied, the bulge geometry oscillates between a circular plume structure that extends mainly in the offshore direction, and a compressed plume structure that extends mainly in the alongshore direction. The oscillations result in periodic variations in the width and depth of the bulge and the incidence angle formed where the bulge flow re-attaches with the coastal wall. The oscillations are more pronounced for longer modulation periods, but are relatively insensitive to the modulation amplitude. A phase difference between the time varying transport within the bulge and bulge geometry determines the fraction of the bulge flow discharged into the coastal current. As a result, the modulation period determines the variations in amount of freshwater that returns to the bulge. Freshwater retention in the bulge is increased in longer modulation periods and more pronounced for larger modulation amplitudes.

  20. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...

  1. Two /sup 238/Pu inhalation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of /sup 238/Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B (/sup 238/PuNO/sub 3/) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A (/sup 238/PuO/sub 2/) received no therapy.

  2. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  3. Celiac axis stenosis: incidence and etiologies in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition

  4. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    from BAS tests by optical particle counter (OPC) revealed lognormal distributions with the mean (range) of geometric mass mean diameter (GMMD) = 0.41 (0.39, 0.45) microm and geometric standard deviation (GSD), sigma g = 1.92 (1.87, 1.98). FESEM/EDS and NAA techniques found a wide range of elements on filters, and further investigations of used filters are recommended using these techniques. The protocols for air and filter sampling and GC/MS analysis used in this study will increase the options available for detecting jet engine oil on cabin air filters. Such criteria could support policy development for compliance with cabin air quality standards during incidents.

  5. Study on actions for social acceptance of a nuclear power plant incident/accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Fumio; Tsukada, Tetsuya; Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Naoyuki

    1998-01-01

    When an incident/accident has occurred, dealing technically with it in an appropriate way is essential for social acceptance. One of the most important actions that are expected from the plant representative is to provide, without delay, each of the concerned authorities and organizations with full information concerning the incident/accident, while necessary technical measures are being implemented. While the importance of socially dealing with the incident/accident is widely recognized, up to now there have been no attempts to study previous incidents/accidents cases from the social sciences viewpoint. Therefore, in the present study is a case study of the incident/accident that occurred in 1991 at the No.2 Unit of the Mihama Nuclear Plant of Kansai Power Co., Ltd.. The data used in the present study is based on intensive interview of the staff involved in this incident/accident. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the conditions necessary for maintaining and improving the skill of the plant representative when dealing with social response in case of an incident/accident. The results of the present study has led to a fuller recognition of the importance of the following factors: On the personal level: 1) recognition of personal accountability, 2) complete disclosure of information concerning the incident/accident. On the organizational level: 1) acceptance of different approaches and viewpoints, 2) promoting risk-taking behavior, 3) top management's vision and commitment to providing a social response. (author)

  6. Control of Cell Attachment and Spreading on Poly(acrylamide) Brushes with Varied Grafting Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-01-26

    To achieve spatial control of fibroblast cell attachment and spreading on a biocompatible polymer coating, the effect of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes with varied grafting density was investigated. The synthesis of the brushes was performed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Gold substrates were modified with binary self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of an initiator and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) as an "inert" thiol to initiate the ATRP of AAm. By using different mixtures for the binary SAMs, a series of polymer brushes with varied grafting densities were prepared. The fractional coverage of surface bound initiator was determined by grazing incidence Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and contact angle measurements. A linear relationship between the Br/S ratio determined by XPS and ToF-SIMS versus the fraction of initiator on the surface determined by water contact angle measurements was observed. The varied initiation concentration on the gold substrates yielded PAAm brushes with different thicknesses, indicating a transition from mushroom to brush regimes with increasing grafting density. Thereby we achieved exquisite control of the degree of cell adhesion. Cell attachment experiments with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells revealed cell spreading on PAAm brushes with low grafting densities (initiator fractional coverage <0.2) as well as a complete passivation by polymer brushes with higher grafting densities.

  7. Aural proxies and directionally-varying reverberation for interactive sound propagation in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Lakulish; Manocha, Dinesh

    2013-04-01

    We present an efficient algorithm to compute spatially-varying, direction-dependent artificial reverberation and reflection filters in large dynamic scenes for interactive sound propagation in virtual environments and video games. Our approach performs Monte Carlo integration of local visibility and depth functions to compute directionally-varying reverberation effects. The algorithm also uses a dynamically-generated rectangular aural proxy to efficiently model 2-4 orders of early reflections. These two techniques are combined to generate reflection and reverberation filters which vary with the direction of incidence at the listener. This combination leads to better sound source localization and immersion. The overall algorithm is efficient, easy to implement, and can handle moving sound sources, listeners, and dynamic scenes, with minimal storage overhead. We have integrated our approach with the audio rendering pipeline in Valve's Source game engine, and use it to generate realistic directional sound propagation effects in indoor and outdoor scenes in real-time. We demonstrate, through quantitative comparisons as well as evaluations, that our approach leads to enhanced, immersive multi-modal interaction.

  8. Predicting the Incidence of Human Cataract through Retinal Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Sun, Han-Ying; Liu, Hsiang-Jui; Lue, Jiann-Hwa; Yeh, Shang-Min

    2015-11-19

    With the progress of science, technology and medicine, the proportion of elderly people in society has gradually increased over the years. Thus, the medical care and health issues of this population have drawn increasing attention. In particular, among the common medical problems of the elderly, the occurrence of cataracts has been widely observed. In this study, we developed retinal imaging technology by establishing a human eye module with ray tracing. Periodic hole arrays with different degrees were constructed on the anterior surface of the lens to emulate the eyesight decline caused by cataracts. Then, we successfully predicted the incidence of cataracts among people with myopia ranging from -3.0 D to -9.0 D. Results show that periodic hole arrays cause severe eyesight decline when they are centralized in the visual center. However, the wide distribution of these arrays on the anterior surface of the lens would not significantly affect one's eyesight.

  9. Predicting the Incidence of Human Cataract through Retinal Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ting Horng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of science, technology and medicine, the proportion of elderly people in society has gradually increased over the years. Thus, the medical care and health issues of this population have drawn increasing attention. In particular, among the common medical problems of the elderly, the occurrence of cataracts has been widely observed. In this study, we developed retinal imaging technology by establishing a human eye module with ray tracing. Periodic hole arrays with different degrees were constructed on the anterior surface of the lens to emulate the eyesight decline caused by cataracts. Then, we successfully predicted the incidence of cataracts among people with myopia ranging from −3.0 D to −9.0 D. Results show that periodic hole arrays cause severe eyesight decline when they are centralized in the visual center. However, the wide distribution of these arrays on the anterior surface of the lens would not significantly affect one’s eyesight.

  10. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  11. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  12. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Fredric M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the

  13. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M

    2004-07-12

    Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate

  14. Shoulder dystocia: definitions and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alexandra; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2014-06-01

    Though subjective in nature, both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists green guideline are in agreement on the descriptor of shoulder dystocia: requirement of additional obstetric maneuvers when gentle downward traction has failed to affect the delivery of the shoulders. The rate of shoulder dystocia is about 1.4% of all deliveries and 0.7% for vaginal births. Compared to non-diabetics (0.6%), among diabetics, the rate of impacted shoulders is 201% higher (1.9%); newborns delivered by vacuum or forceps have 254% higher likelihood of shoulder dystocia than those born spontaneously (2.0% vs. 0.6%, respectively). When the birthweight is categorized as 4500 g, the likelihood of shoulder dystocia in the US vs. other countries varies significantly. Future studies should focus on lowering the rate of shoulder dystocia and its associated morbidities, without concomitantly increasing the rate of cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    liver cancer and leukemia in both sexes. In contrast, this region is projected to experience elevated incidence rates in males for about half the cancers studied. The incidence rates for all cancers combined are projected to continue to be highest for males in the Atlantic region and for females in Quebec in 15 years but in Ontario thereafter, and lowest in British Columbia. The inter-regional differences are larger in males than in females, possibly due to variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing (for prostate cancer and risk factors. In both males and females, colorectal cancer incidence rates will remain highest in the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia. Lung cancer incidence rates are projected to be highest in Quebec and lowest in Ontario and British Columbia for both sexes. The similar regional rates of breast cancer in females are expected to persist. The significantly lowest rates of prostate cancer in Quebec are projected to continue, as are the elevated rates in the Atlantic region. Incidence by sex and age: Cancer is more common in males than in females except in those aged under 55. The overall cancer incidence rate in men aged 65 or older has been falling and will continue to do so. The decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65 or older from decreased tobacco use and the decrease in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older have contributed to the overall decrease in this age range. In women aged 65 or older, the relatively stable rate is primarily the result of an increase in lung cancer incidence offset by decreases in incidence for the other cancer sites. This stable trend is projected to continue. Targeted cancer prevention efforts and specific needs for health care services can be expected to vary at different points in the age continuum for males and females. Smoking-related cancers: Between 2003-2007 and 2028-2032, substantial risk reductions are projected for major common tobacco-related cancers in Canada, even with

  16. Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...

  17. Differential cross sections of electron silver scattering at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differential scattering cross sections of electron - silver atom are calculated using the Eikonal approximation at incident energies of 50 eV, 60 eV and 70 eV, with the Lenz-Jensen potential. Results obtained are in good agreement with the NIST SRD 64 at scattering angles of about 80 to 180 degrees; and are in very ...

  18. Comfortably cosmopolitan? How patterns of 'social cohesion' vary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crime incidence. Further research should test whether, regardless of any impact on crime itself, greater social cohesion may reduce fear of crime even while raising a perception of crime rates. Policy and design that successfully promote social cohesion but fail to reduce crime may exacerbate a perception of victimisation.

  19. Computer incident response and forensics team management conducting a successful incident response

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Leighton

    2013-01-01

    Computer Incident Response and Forensics Team Management provides security professionals with a complete handbook of computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management. This unique approach teaches readers the concepts and principles they need to conduct a successful incident response investigation, ensuring that proven policies and procedures are established and followed by all team members. Leighton R. Johnson III describes the processes within an incident response event and shows the crucial importance of skillful forensics team management, including when and where the transition to forensics investigation should occur during an incident response event. The book also provides discussions of key incident response components. Provides readers with a complete handbook on computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management Identify the key steps to completing a successful computer incident response investigation Defines the qualities necessary to become a succ...

  20. Information Security Incident Management Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kostina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The information security incident management process model (ISIMP is developed; the role of this process in the information security management system is established. Input and output data of the process are determined. Key practical aspects of incident management are determined.

  1. Asphyxia Neonatorum-Incidence In Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    task of all concerned with the process of human repro- duction. In order to achieve this, a study of the incidence and risk factors of asphyxia neonatorum was undertaken in the Groote Schuur Maternity Hospital. TABLE I. INCIDENCE OF ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM. Source of. Hospital. Apgar score 0 - 3% information.

  2. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  3. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Incident management. (a) Each airport operator must establish procedures to evaluate bomb threats, threats...

  4. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...... thrombosis....

  5. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  6. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Toward a wide-field retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Hossein; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Ufer, Stefan; Eckhardt, Helmut; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a wide field electrode array that may increase the field of vision in patients implanted with a retinal prosthesis. Mobility is often impaired in patients with low vision, particularly in those with peripheral visual loss. Studies on low vision patients as well as simulation studies on normally sighted individuals have indicated a strong correlation between the visual field and mobility. In addition, it has been shown that an increased visual field is associated with a significant improvement in visual acuity and object discrimination. Current electrode arrays implanted in animals or human vary in size; however, the retinal area covered by the electrodes has a maximum projected visual field of about 10°. We have designed wide field electrode arrays that could potentially provide a visual field of 34°, which may significantly improve the mobility. Tests performed on a mechanical eye model showed that it was possible to fix 10 mm wide flexible polyimide dummy electrode arrays onto the retina using a single retinal tack. They also showed that the arrays could conform to the inner curvature of the eye. Surgeries on an enucleated porcine eye model demonstrated feasibility of implantation of 10 mm wide arrays through a 5 mm eye wall incision.

  8. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  9. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  10. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  11. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  12. The Investigation of EM Scattering from the Time-Varying Overturning Wave Crest Model by the IEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electromagnetic (EM scattering of time-varying overturning wave crests is a worthwhile endeavor. Overturning wave crest is one of the reasons of sea spike generation, which increases the probability of false radar alarms and reduces the performance of multitarget detection in the environment. A three-dimensional (3D time-varying overturning wave crest model is presented in this paper; this 3D model is an improvement of the traditional two-dimensional (2D time-varying overturning wave crest model. The integral equation method (IEM was employed to investigate backward scattering radar cross sections (RCS at various incident angles of the 3D overturning wave crest model. The super phenomenon, where the intensity of horizontal polarization scattering is greater than that of vertical polarization scattering, is an important feature of sea spikes. Simulation results demonstrate that super phenomena may occur in some time samples as variations in the overturning wave crest.

  13. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  14. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S

    2007-06-01

    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  15. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  16. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...

  17. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2005-01-01

    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  18. Sensor placement for calibration of spatially varying model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Paromita; Hu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a sensor placement optimization framework for the calibration of spatially varying model parameters. To account for the randomness of the calibration parameters over space and across specimens, the spatially varying parameter is represented as a random field. Based on this representation, Bayesian calibration of spatially varying parameter is investigated. To reduce the required computational effort during Bayesian calibration, the original computer simulation model is substituted with Kriging surrogate models based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the model response and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) of the spatially varying parameters. A sensor placement optimization problem is then formulated based on the Bayesian calibration to maximize the expected information gain measured by the expected Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. The optimization problem needs to evaluate the expected K-L divergence repeatedly which requires repeated calibration of the spatially varying parameter, and this significantly increases the computational effort of solving the optimization problem. To overcome this challenge, an approximation for the posterior distribution is employed within the optimization problem to facilitate the identification of the optimal sensor locations using the simulated annealing algorithm. A heat transfer problem with spatially varying thermal conductivity is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Incident command linkup: the vital key for CBRN response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most vital element for responding emergency personnel to a CBRN attack is the incident command linkup and dissemination of information. Incident Command, the basic foundation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS), is the first thing that must be effectively established when a response is required in any emergency. When initial evaluation of the scene determines that the incident involves CBRN, specialized resources from a wide array of assets must be activated quickly to mitigate the hazards. In this paper, we examine the information that the Incident Commander must be prepared to convey to those specialized assets responding. We will also look at what questions those specialized resources may ask while en route and upon arrival. Another key element that will be discussed is the placement of those resources in the hierarchy of the National Incident Management System. The information that the Incident Commander (IC) must be prepared to convey to those specialized assets responding is crucial for an efficient response and effective deployment. What questions might those specialized CBRN resources ask while en route and upon arrival? At a bare minimum, the four basic questions of who is in charge of the incident, where is the incident located, what transpired to trigger a response, and when did the incident occur must be answered. These questions should be answered while en route to the scene so that the Commander of the responding CBRN unit can formulate a plan on the move and prepare his response accordingly. While in transit, the CBRN responders should maintain contact with a representative of the Incident Command at the scene so that the latest information is available. Discussions should include anticipated logistical requirements such as personal protective equipment (PPE), decon requirements, communications protocols, and medical care issues. The CBRN Commander will need to know if the site is secure, has it been cleared of explosive hazards

  20. Specialty-based, voluntary incident reporting in neonatal intensive care: description of 4846 incident reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.; van Lingen, R. A.; Klip, H.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van der Schaaf, T. W.; Molendijk, H. A.; Kok, J. H.; te Pas, E.; Pas, H.; van der Starre, C.; Bloemendaal, E.; Lopes Cardozo, R. H.; Molenaar, A. M.; Giezen, A.; Maat, H. E.; Molendijk, A.; Lavrijssen, S.; Mulder, A. L. M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Koolen, A. M. P.; Schellekens, M.; Verlaan, W.; Vrancken, S.; Schotman, L.; van der Zwaan, A.; van der Tuijn, Y.; Tibboel, D.; Kollen, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of incidents reported after introduction of a voluntary, non-punitive incident reporting system for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Netherlands; and to investigate which types of reported incident pose the highest risk to patients in the NICU.

  1. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  3. Interactions Between Race/Ethnicity and Anthropometry in Risk of Incident Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Pereira, Mark A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how adiposity influences racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence by exploring whether relations between anthropometric measures and incident diabetes vary by race/ethnicity. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis initiated in 2000 (n = 5,446 US men and women aged 45–84 years) were analyzed by using proportional hazards and Poisson regression. The diabetes incidence rate was 2/100 person-years (n = 479 cases). Interactions were present between race and anthropometry (P-interaction(race × body mass index) = 0.002). The slope of incident diabetes per anthropometric unit was greatest for Chinese, less for whites and Hispanics, and still less for blacks. For small waist, risk of incident diabetes was <1/100 person-years for all racial/ethnic groups. At intermediate waist levels, Chinese had the highest and whites the lowest rates of incident diabetes. At the respective 95th percentiles of waist circumference, risk of incident diabetes per 100 person-years was 3.9 for Chinese (104 cm), 3.5 for whites (121 cm), 5.0 for blacks (125 cm), and 5.3 for Hispanics (121 cm). Adiposity influenced relative diabetes occurrence across racial/ethnic groups, in that Chinese had a steeper diabetes risk per unit of adiposity. However, the generally low level of adiposity in Chinese led to a relatively low diabetes occurrence. PMID:20570825

  4. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  5. Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J; Baughman, Andrew L; Wise, Matthew; Morgan, Oliver W

    2011-01-01

    Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is required to assess changes in GBS epidemiology, but published estimates of GBS incidence vary greatly depending on case ascertainment, definitions, and sample size. We performed a meta-analysis of articles on GBS incidence by searching Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1988-2009), Cinahl (1981-2009) and CABI (1973-2009) as well as article bibliographies. We included studies from North America and Europe with at least 20 cases, and used population-based data, subject matter experts to confirm GBS diagnosis, and an accepted GBS case definition. With these data, we fitted a random-effects negative binomial regression model to estimate age-specific GBS incidence. Of 1,683 nonduplicate citations, 16 met the inclusion criteria, which produced 1,643 cases and 152.7 million person-years of follow-up. GBS incidence increased by 20% for every 10-year increase in age; the risk of GBS was higher for males than females. The regression equation for calculating the average GBS rate per 100,000 person-years as a function of age in years was exp[-12.0771 + 0.01813(age in years)] × 100,000. Our findings provide a robust estimate of background GBS incidence in Western countries. Our regression model may be used in comparable populations to estimate the background age-specific rate of GBS incidence for future studies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Introduction to the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-12

    The World Wide Web used to be nicknamed the 'World Wide Wait'. Now, thanks to high speed broadband connections, browsing the web has become a much more enjoyable and productive activity. Computers need to know where web pages are stored on the Internet, in just the same way as we need to know where someone lives in order to post them a letter. This section explains how the World Wide Web works and how web pages can be viewed using a web browser.

  7. Eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a beam with periodically continuously varying spatial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    of eigenfrequencies. For analyzing the problem considered, the method of varying amplitudes is employed. A connection of this method with the classical Hill's infinite determinant method and the method of space-harmonics is noted.A dispersion relation of the considered non-uniform periodic structure is obtained......A beam with periodically continuously varying spatial properties is analyzed. This structure is a generic model for various systems widely used in industry, e.g. risers, rotor blades, and similar. The aim is to reveal effects of periodic spatial modulation both on the beam eigenfrequencies...... and eigenmodes. Special attention is given to "mid-frequency" eigenmodes having period of the same order as the period of modulation, which cannot be captured by the conventional analytical methods. In particular, the paper addresses prediction of bandgaps and their influence on the distribution...

  8. An analysis of patient safety incidents associated with medications reported from critical care units in the North West of England between 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A N; Taylor, R J

    2014-07-01

    Incident reporting is promoted as a key tool for improving patient safety in healthcare. We analysed 2238 patient safety incidents involving medications submitted from up to 29 critical care units each year in the North West of England between 2009 and 2012; 452 (20%) of these incidents led to harm to patients. Although 1461 (65%) incidents were judged to have been preventable, there was no reduction in the rate of incidents per 1000 days between 2009 and 2012 (5.9 in 2009, 6.6 in 2012). Furthermore, in the 2012 data, there were wide variations in the incident rates between units, the median (IQR [range]) rate per 1000 patient days for individual units being 6.8 (3.8-11.0 [1.3-37.1]). The variation in the percentage that could have been avoided was narrower, with a median (IQR [range]) of 70% (61-80% [38-100%]). The most commonly reported drugs were noradrenaline (161 incidents, 92 with harm), heparins (153 incidents, 29 with harm), morphine (131 incidents, 14 with harm) and insulin (111 incidents, 54 with harm). The administration of drugs was the stage in the process where incidents were most commonly reported; it was also the stage most likely to harm patients. We conclude that the wide range in reported rates between units, and the scope for preventing many incidents, suggest that quality improvement initiatives could improve medication safety in the units studied. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Broadband Wide Angle Lens Implemented with Dielectric Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Starr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Luneburg lens is a powerful imaging device, exhibiting aberration free focusing for parallel rays incident from any direction. However, its advantages are offset by a focal surface that is spherical and thus difficult to integrate with standard planar detector and emitter arrays. Using the recently developed technique of transformation optics, it is possible to transform the curved focal surface to a flat plane while maintaining the perfect focusing behavior of the Luneburg over a wide field of view. Here we apply these techniques to a lesser-known refractive Luneburg lens and implement the design with a metamaterial composed of a semi-crystalline distribution of holes drilled in a dielectric. In addition, we investigate the aberrations introduced by various approximations made in the implementation of the lens. The resulting design approach has improved mechanical strength with small aberrations and is ideally suited to implementation at infrared and visible wavelengths.

  10. Record world-wide oil spills in 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Record world-wide oil spills in 1979 were reported by the U.K. Advisory Committee on Oil Pollution of the Sea (ACOPS), largely due to the 140 million gal Ixtoc I spill. Loss of life associated with oil production and transportation in 1979 was over 300, double the 1978 casualties. The French tanker Betelgeuse which exploded in Bantry Bay claimed 51 lives; the Independent collision in the Bosphorus claimed 40. In 1980, 100 lives were lost in the Ekofisk field in March. About 568 minor spillages were reported to the ACOPS, with on incident, the wreck of the Skopelas Sky off Cornwall involving 1000 tons of oil. Oil pollution has also increased in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Seabird losses have caused considerable concern. ACOPS chairman Lord Ritchie-Calder has called for the European Community to strengthen its control over substandard vessels and to enforce more effectively existing international agreements, a move supported by IMCO.

  11. Wide-Angle-Scanning Reflectarray Antennas Actuated by MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Huang, John; Thomson, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    An effort to develop large-aperture, wide-angle-scanning reflectarray antennas for microwave radar and communication systems is underway. In an antenna of this type as envisioned, scanning of the radiated or incident microwave beam would be effected through mechanical rotation of the passive (reflective) patch antenna elements, using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) stepping rotary actuators typified by piezoelectric micromotors. It is anticipated that the cost, mass, and complexity of such an antenna would be less than, and the reliability greater than, those of an electronically scanned phased-array antenna of comparable beam-scanning capability and angular resolution. In the design and operation of a reflectarray, one seeks to position and orient an array of passive patch elements in a geometric pattern such that, through constructive interference of the reflections from them, they collectively act as an efficient single reflector of radio waves within a desired frequency band. Typically, the patches lie in a common plane and radiation is incident upon them from a feed horn.

  12. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    Background In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. Conclusions The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over

  13. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Slovenia: results of a one-year (2001) nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnir-Dovc, Manca; Poljak, Mario; Erzen, Damijan; Sorli, Jurij

    2003-01-01

    Slovenia is a small Central European country with a population of 1.99 million and an incidence of tuberculosis (TB) of 18.6 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001. In a prospective nation-wide, 1-y DNA fingerprinting study, the genetic diversity of 99.7% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from Slovenian patients with culture-verified TB in 2001 were assessed using a standardized IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Among 306 M. tuberculosis isolates, 228 different IS6110 RFLP patterns were found. The number of IS6110 copies varied from 2 to 16 (9.2 copies per isolate on average). Only 2 isolates (0.7%) with less than 5 IS6110 copies were identified. Clustered M. tuberculosis isolates were detected in 116 (37.9%) patients. The degree of recent transmission in the 1-y period was 25%. The clustering rate decreased with age from 46.4% (age group under 35 y) to 19.5% (age group above 65 y). A history of alcohol abuse and homelessness was found to be associated with clustering of TB cases. In conclusion, a high clustering frequency was identified among Slovenian TB patients. The study increased our understanding of important risk factors and routes of TB transmission in Slovenia.

  14. Guideline implementation results in a decrease of pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, E.H. de; Pickkers, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Feuth, T.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the short-term and long-term effects of a hospital-wide pressure ulcer prevention and treatment guideline on both the incidence and the time to the onset of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Adult intensive care department

  15. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  16. Incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is widely recognized that rabies is grossly under-reported even though it is a notifiable disease and a lack of accurate figures has rendered rabies a low public health and veterinary priority. This study aimed at determining the incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health care centre.

  17. Lidocaine-Associated Cardiac Events in Newborns with Seizures : Incidence, Symptoms and Contributing Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986446; Schalkwijk, Stein; Toet, Mona C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/28827024X; Van Rooij, Linda G M; De Vries, Linda S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408; van den Broek, Marcel P H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lidocaine is an effective therapy for neonatal seizures; however, it is not widely used, presumably due to the risk of cardiac events. Objective: To investigate the incidence of cardiac events in full-term and preterm infants receiving lidocaine for seizures. Methods: Full-term (n = 368)

  18. Lidocaine-Associated Cardiac Events in Newborns with Seizures: Incidence, Symptoms and Contributing Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, L.C.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Toet, M.C.; Rooij, LG van; Vries, L.S. de; Broek, M.P. van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an effective therapy for neonatal seizures; however, it is not widely used, presumably due to the risk of cardiac events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of cardiac events in full-term and preterm infants receiving lidocaine for seizures. METHODS: Full-term (n = 368)

  19. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources

  20. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  1. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages

  2. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  3. Volcanic disasters and incidents: A new database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    A new database on human mortality and morbidity, and civil evacuations arising from volcanic activity is presented. The aim is to quantify the human impacts of volcanic phenomena during the 20th Century. Data include numbers of deaths, injuries, evacuees and people made homeless, and the nature of the associated volcanic phenomena. The database has been compiled from a wide range of sources, and discrepancies between these are indicated where they arise. The quality of the data varies according to the source and the impacts reported. Data for homelessness are particularly poor and effects from ashfall and injuries appear to be under-reported. Of the 491 events included in the database, ˜53% resulted in deaths, although the total death toll of 91,724 is dominated by the disasters at Mt Pelée and Nevado del Ruiz. Pyroclastic density currents account for the largest proportion of deaths, and lahars for the most injuries incurred. The Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia, as a region, were the worst affected, and middle-income countries experienced greater human impacts than low or high-income countries. Compilation of the database has highlighted a number of problems with the completeness and accuracy of the existing CRED EM-DAT disaster database that includes volcanic events. This database is used by a range of organisations involved with risk management. The new database is intended as a resource for future analysis and will be made available via the Internet. It is hoped that it will be maintained and expanded.

  4. Violent incidents on a regional secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rïx, G; Seymour, D

    1988-11-01

    This 1-year retrospective study was conducted on a regional secure unit at the Bethlem Royal Hospital, London, using the hospital's data collection sheet for violent incidents. The majority of incidents were minor in nature but there were a few assaults that involved pain, lacerations or bruising. Although violence was common to the majority of patients, two contributed a large number. Those staff at the bottom of the nursing hierachy who spent most time with patients were most at risk. Likewise fellow patients were also often involved in incidents. Violence did not tail off after the breakfast period, as reported in previous studies, but continued to rise until bedtime.

  5. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility...... without knowing whether an incident has occurred. The resulting departure time pattern may be compressed or dispersed according to whether or not the bottleneck is fully utilized throughout the departure period on days without incidents. For both the user equilibrium (UE) and the social optimum (SO...

  6. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  7. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  8. Management van World-Wide Web Servers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, F.P.H.; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    Het World Wide Web is een populaire Internet toepassing waarmee het mogelijk is documenten aan willekeurige Internet gebruikers aan te bieden. Omdat hiervoor nog geen voorzieningen zijn getroffen, was het tot voor kort niet goed mogelijk het World Wide Web op afstand te beheren. De Universiteit

  9. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  10. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  11. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and…

  12. Weighted south-wide average pulpwood prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther

    1991-01-01

    Weighted average prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide average delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to average annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted average prices...

  13. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montilla, I.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to develop a system to permit wide field operation of Michelson Interferometers. A wide field of view is very important in applications such as the observation of extended or multiple objects, the fringe acquisition and/ or tracking on a nearby unresolved object, and

  14. Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.

  15. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  16. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  17. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  18. Population-based incidence trends of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancers by sex among the poorest and underprivileged populations

    OpenAIRE

    Auluck, Ajit; Walker, Blake Byron; Hislop, Greg; Lear, Scott A; Schuurman, Nadine; Rosin, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is an important health issue, with changing incidence in many countries. Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC, in tonsil and oropharygeal areas) is increasing, while oral cavity cancer (OCC, other sites in the mouth) is decreasing. There is the need to identify high risk groups and communities for further study and intervention. The objective of this study was to determine how the incidence of OPC and OCC varied by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) in British Columbia (B...

  19. Importance-driven time-varying data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoli; Yu, Hongfeng; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    The ability to identify and present the most essential aspects of time-varying data is critically important in many areas of science and engineering. This paper introduces an importance-driven approach to time-varying volume data visualization for enhancing that ability. By conducting a block-wise analysis of the data in the joint feature-temporal space, we derive an importance curve for each data block based on the formulation of conditional entropy from information theory. Each curve characterizes the local temporal behavior of the respective block, and clustering the importance curves of all the volume blocks effectively classifies the underlying data. Based on different temporal trends exhibited by importance curves and their clustering results, we suggest several interesting and effective visualization techniques to reveal the important aspects of time-varying data.

  20. Robust linear parameter varying induction motor control with polytopic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Khamari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a robust controller for an induction motor which is represented as a linear parameter varying systems. To do so linear matrix inequality (LMI based approach and robust Lyapunov feedback controller are associated. This new approach is related to the fact that the synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV feedback controller for the inner loop take into account rotor resistance and mechanical speed as varying parameter. An LPV flux observer is also synthesized to estimate rotor flux providing reference to cited above regulator. The induction motor is described as a polytopic model because of speed and rotor resistance affine dependence their values can be estimated on line during systems operations. The simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach where robustness stability and high performances have been achieved over the entire operating range of the induction motor.

  1. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  2. Costs and effects of a state-wide health promotion program in primary schools in Germany - the Baden-Württemberg Study: A cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools in Germany.Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables. Incidence of abdominal obesity, defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5, was determined. Generalized linear models were applied to account for the clustering of data within schools, and to adjust for baseline-values. Losses to follow-up and missing data were analysed. From a societal perspective, the overall costs, costs per pupil, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER to identify the costs per case of averted abdominal obesity were calculated.The final regression model for the incidence of abdominal obesity shows lower odds for the intervention group after an adjustment for grade, gender, baseline WHtR, and breakfast habits (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25; 0.94]. The intervention costs per child/year were €25.04. The costs per incidental case of averted abdominal obesity varied between €1515 and €1993, depending on the different dimensions of the target group.This study demonstrates the positive effects of state-wide, school-based health promotion on incidental abdominal obesity, at affordable costs and with proven cost-effectiveness. These results should support allocative decisions of policymakers. An early start to the prevention of abdominal obesity is of particular importance because of its close relationship to non-communicable diseases.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494.

  3. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended......This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately...... to accommodate linear parameter varying systems as well....

  4. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  5. Varied appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, L.; Weiss, A.

    1988-01-01

    Lymphoma is frequently present in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). But unlike in the general population, the appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS is extremely varied. The computed tomographic scans, chest radiographs, and subsequent hospital courses of 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma are presented. The patients presented with isolated pleural effusion (six patients), pleural and pericardial effusion (one patient), pulmonary infiltrates (five patients), and mediastinal adenopathy (three patients). This varied manner of presentation of lymphoma in AIDS patients should be recognized if diagnosis is to be made in the earlier stages of presentation

  6. Failure Modes in Capacitors When Tested Under a Time-Varying Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David (Donhang)

    2011-01-01

    Steady step surge testing (SSST) is widely applied to screen out potential power-on failures in solid tantalum capacitors. The test simulates the power supply's on and off characteristics. Power-on failure has been the prevalent failure mechanism for solid tantalum capacitors for decoupling applications. On the other hand, the SSST can also be reviewed as an electrically destructive test under a time-varying stress. It consists of rapidly charging the capacitor with incremental voltage increases, through a low resistance in series, until the capacitor under test is electrically shorted. Highly accelerated life testing (HALT) is usually a time-efficient method for determining the failure mechanism in capacitors; however, a destructive test under a time-varying stress like SSST is even more effective. It normally takes days to complete a HALT test, but it only takes minutes for a time-varying stress test to produce failures. The advantage of incorporating specific time-varying stress into a statistical model is significant in providing an alternative life test method for quickly revealing the failure modes in capacitors. In this paper, a time-varying stress has been incorporated into the Weibull model to characterize the failure modes. The SSST circuit and transient conditions to correctly test the capacitors is discussed. Finally, the SSST was applied for testing polymer aluminum capacitors (PA capacitors), Ta capacitors, and multi-layer ceramic capacitors with both precious metal electrode (PME) and base-metal-electrodes (BME). It appears that testing results are directly associated to the dielectric layer breakdown in PA and Ta capacitors and are independent on the capacitor values, the way the capacitors being built, and the manufactures. The testing results also reveal that ceramic capacitors exhibit breakdown voltages more than 20 times the rated voltage, and the breakdown voltages are inverse proportional to the dielectric layer thickness. The possibility of

  7. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  8. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  9. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  10. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  11. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  12. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  13. National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) is a reporting standard that fire departments use to uniformly report on the full range of their activities, from...

  14. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  15. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  16. Modelling and Simulation for Major Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pacciani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in Major Incidents with big impact on the citizens health and the society. Without the possibility of conducting live experiments when it comes to physical and/or toxic trauma, only an accurate in silico reconstruction allows us to identify organizational solutions with the best possible chance of success, in correlation with the limitations on available resources (e.g. medical team, first responders, treatments, transports, and hospitals availability and with the variability of the characteristic of event (e.g. type of incident, severity of the event and type of lesions. Utilizing modelling and simulation techniques, a simplified mathematical model of physiological evolution for patients involved in physical and toxic trauma incident scenarios has been developed and implemented. The model formalizes the dynamics, operating standards and practices of medical response and the main emergency service in the chain of emergency management during a Major Incident.

  17. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  18. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  19. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. Testing the performance of beta diversity measures based on incidence data: the robustness to undersampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Veech, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    regarding the behaviour of most beta diversity indices when applied to incomplete samples, a situation which is more common than usually recognized. Our objective was to assess the behaviour and robustness of a number of beta diversity measures for incidence data from undersampled communities. Location...... Mainland Portugal and the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic). Methods Data from intensive sampling of spiders in mainland Portugal and arthropods in Azores were collected. We examined the properties of 15 beta diversity measures developed for incidence data. We simulated varying degrees of completeness, whereas...

  1. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Goto

    Full Text Available The definition of incident type 2 diabetes varies across studies; hence, the actual incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan is unclear. Here, we reviewed the various definitions of incident type 2 diabetes used in previous epidemiologic studies and estimated the diabetes incidence rate in Japan.We searched for related literature in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ichushi databases through September 2012. Two reviewers selected studies that evaluated incident type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.From 1824 relevant articles, we included 33 studies with 386,803 participants. The follow-up period ranged from 2.3 to 14 years and the studies were initiated between 1980 and 2003. The random-effects model indicated that the pooled incidence rate of diabetes was 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 7.4-10.4 per 1000 person-years. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity in the results (I(2 = 99.2%; p < 0.001, with incidence rates ranging from 2.3 to 52.6 per 1000 person-years. Three studies based their definition of incident type 2 diabetes on self-reports only, 10 on laboratory data only, and 20 on self-reports and laboratory data. Compared with studies defining diabetes using laboratory data (n = 30; pooled incidence rate = 9.6; 95% confidence interval = 8.3-11.1, studies based on self-reports alone tended to show a lower incidence rate (n = 3; pooled incidence rate = 4.0; 95% confidence interval = 3.2-5.0; p for interaction < 0.001. However, stratified analyses could not entirely explain the heterogeneity in the results.Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicated the presence of a high degree of heterogeneity, which suggests that there is a considerable amount of uncertainty regarding the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan. They also suggested that laboratory data may be important for the accurate estimation of the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Incident analysis for the large reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Nagel, K.

    1979-01-01

    In the report period the analysis of important incidents in the extraction area has been started in caloboration with WAK (= Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant) representatives. Ignition sources, ignitable substances, possible fires and the possible propagation of these fires within and beyond the cells were reviewed. The detailed analysis for a special incident was started. A fault tree was constructed for the conditions leading to an oxyhydrogen explosion in the 2 BX battery. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Wrong-patient incidents during medication administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Tiainen, Maijaterttu; Haatainen, Kaisa

    2018-02-01

    To describe the factors pertaining to medication being administered to the wrong patient and to describe how patient identification is mentioned in wrong-patient incident reports. Although patient identification has been given high priority to improve patient safety, patient misidentifications occur, and wrong-patient incidents are common. A descriptive content analysis. Incident reports related to medication administration (n = 1,012) were collected from two hospitals in Finland between 1 January 2013-31 December 2014. Of those, only incidents involving wrong-patient medication administration (n = 103) were included in this study. Wrong-patient incidents occurred due for many reasons, including nurse-related factors (such as tiredness, a lack of skills or negligence) but also system-related factors (such as rushing or heavy workloads). In 77% (n = 79) of wrong-patient incident reports, the process of identifying of the patient was not described at all. There is need to pay more attention to and increase training in correct identification processes to prevent wrong-patient incidents, and it is important to adjust system factors to support nurses. Active patient identification procedures, double-checking and verification at each stage of the medication process should be implemented. More attention should also be paid to organisational factors, such as division of work, rushing and workload, as well as to correct communication. The active participation of nurses in handling incidents could increase risk awareness and facilitate useful protection actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Factors associated with the incidence of pressure ulcer during hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Tiensoli, Sabrina Daros; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Gomes, Flávia Sampaio Latini

    2017-05-25

    Estimating the incidence rate of pressure ulcers and verifying factors associated with this occurrence in a cohort of hospitalized patients. This is a cohort study in which the considered outcome was the time until pressure ulcer occurrence. Estimated effect of the variables on the cumulative incidence ratio of the outcome was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Variable selection occurred via the Logrank hypothesis test. The sample consisted of 442 adults, with 25 incidents of pressure ulcers. Patients with high scores on the Braden scale presented a higher risk of pressure ulcer incidence when compared to those classified into the low score category. These results reinforce the importance of using the Braden Scale to assist in identifying patients more likely to develop pressure ulcers. Estimar a taxa de incidência de úlcera por pressão e verificar fatores associados a essa ocorrência em uma coorte de pacientes hospitalizados. Trata-se de estudo de coorte no qual o desfecho foi a ocorrência da úlcera por pressão. A estimativa do efeito das variáveis para a proporção de incidência acumulada do desfecho foi realizada utilizando o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. A seleção das variáveis ocorreu por meio do teste de hipóteses Logrank. A amostra foi composta de 442 adultos, com 25 casos incidentes de úlcera por pressão. Pacientes com altos escores na escala de Braden apresentaram maior risco de incidência de úlcera por pressão quando comparados com aqueles classificados na categoria de baixo escore. Os resultados reforçam a importância do uso da Escala de Braden para auxiliar na identificação dos pacientes com maior probabilidade de desenvolver úlcera por pressão.

  5. Bandgap engineering in semiconductor alloy nanomaterials with widely tunable compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of nanoscale semiconductor materials with a wide range of bandgaps by alloying different individual semiconductors. These materials include traditional II-VI and III-V semiconductors and their alloys, inorganic and hybrid perovskites, and the newly emerging 2D materials. One important common feature of these materials is that their nanoscale dimensions result in a large tolerance to lattice mismatches within a monolithic structure of varying composition or between the substrate and target material, which enables us to achieve almost arbitrary control of the variation of the alloy composition. As a result, the bandgaps of these alloys can be widely tuned without the detrimental defects that are often unavoidable in bulk materials, which have a much more limited tolerance to lattice mismatches. This class of nanomaterials could have a far-reaching impact on a wide range of photonic applications, including tunable lasers, solid-state lighting, artificial photosynthesis and new solar cells.

  6. NEA incident reporting system: Three years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Y.; Haeussermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) which was set up to collect, assess and disseminate on safety-related incidents in nuclear power plants. The IRS information exchange is significant in two senses. First, it enables regulatory authorities and utilities in participating countries to take appropriate action to prevent the reported mishaps occurring again elsewhere. Secondly, the continuous collection and systematic analysis of such information allows identification of areas of concern where safety research should be strengthened. There are two stages in the IRS information exchange. First, the national IRS Co-ordinator selects information on significant incidents, in accordance with a common reporting threshold, from the abnormal occurrences reported to the regulatory body, to be distributed through the NEA Secretariat. This screening is intended to exclude minor events, so that only significant information is sent to participating countries. Secondly, a group of experts periodically reviews the incidents reported during the preceding twelve months to identify major areas of concern. To assist this process, a computer-based data retrieval system is being developed for IRS incident reports. The paper gives some details of the IRS mechanism and discusses reporting criteria and the information included in a report. Areas of concern derived from reported incidents, an outline of the data retrieval system, and examples of feedback of lessons learned and possibilities for international co-operation are also discussed. (author)

  7. Serious incidents after death: content analysis of incidents reported to a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Donaldson, Liam J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives To describe serious incidents occurring in the management of patient remains after their death. Design Incidents occurring after patient deaths were analysed using content analysis to determine what happened, why it happened and the outcome. Setting The Strategic Executive Information System database of serious incidents requiring investigation occurring in the National Health Service in England. Participants All cases describing an incident that occurred following death, regardless of the age of the patient. Main outcome measures The nature of the incident, the underlying cause or causes of the incident and the outcome of the incident. Results One hundred and thirty-two incidents were analysed; these related to the storage, management or disposal of deceased patient remains. Fifty-four incidents concerned problems with the storage of bodies or body parts. Forty-three incidents concerned problems with the management of bodies, including 25 errors in postmortem examination, or postmortems on the wrong body. Thirty-one incidents related to the disposal of bodies, 25 bodies were released from the mortuary to undertakers in error; of these, nine were buried or cremated by the wrong family. The reported underlying causes were similar to those known to be associated with safety incidents occurring before death and included weaknesses in or failures to follow protocol and procedure, poor communication and informal working practices. Conclusions Serious incidents in the management of deceased patient remains have significant implications for families, hospitals and the health service more broadly. Safe mortuary care may be improved by applying lessons learned from existing patient safety work.

  8. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  9. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papori Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  10. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg

    2015-01-01

    were cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with population controls, bacteremia patients were at the highest risk of death from genitourinary diseases and infectious diseases within 1 year of bacteremia. Among 1-year survivors of bacteremia, the risk of death was increased for all major causes....... The most common causes of death after bacteremia are cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Among hospitalized patients, the incidence of bacteremia is highest within days of admission and varies with patient and clinical characteristics.......Bacteremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and ranks among the top seven causes of death in Europe and North America. The occurrence of bacteremia has increased for decades while short-term prognosis has remained unchanged or improved only slightly. Consequently, we are facing...

  11. The overall motion sickness incidence applied to catamarans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Vincenzo; Scamardella, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The Overall Motion Sickness Incidence is applied to the hull form optimization of a wave piercing high-speed catamaran vessel. Parametric hull modelling is applied to generate two families of derived hull forms, the former varying the prismatic coefficient and the position of longitudinal centre of buoyancy, the latter instead the demi-hull separation. Several heading angles are analysed in a seaway, considering all combinations of significant wave height and zero-crossing period under two operating scenarios. The optimum hull is generated and vertical accelerations at some critical points on main deck are compared with the parent ones. Finally a comparative analysis with the results obtained for a similarly sized monohull passenger ship is carried out, in order to quantify, by the OMSI, the relative goodness in terms of wellness onboard of monohulls and catamarans, as a function of sea states and operating scenarios.

  12. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  13. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  14. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually varied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric ...

  15. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  16. Iterative solution of field problems with a varying physical parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, A.G.; Beurden, M.C. van; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, linear field problems with a varying physical parameter are solved with the conjugate-gradient FFT method and a dedicated extrapolation procedure for generating the initial estimate. The scheme is formulated and illustrated for two simple example problems. The importance of the choice

  17. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... cannulation points in newborns. Methods: Fifty‑eight healthy ... Ince A, Aslan NA, et al. Effects of varying entry points and trendelenburg positioning degrees in internal jugular vein area measurements of newborns. Niger J Clin Pract 2018 .... arrhythmias, hypoxia, mitral valve insufficiency, and decreased ...

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of varying concentrations of permethrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the effectiveness of varying concentrations of permethrin on ticks of genus Aponoma on Royal Pythons ( Python Regius ) ... The toxic effects of most available acaricides are grievous as snakes find it difficult to metabolize those drugs readily. The present study therefore focused on identifying these tick vectors ...

  19. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined in a time-frequency space and represents the evolution of signal power as a function of both time and ... the physical meaning of the intrinsic mode function (IMF) resulting from the EMD sifting process and the ... In the case of the basis function approach, each of its time-varying coefficients is expressed as a weighted ...

  20. Bayesian classification in a time-varying environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of classifying a pattern based on multiple observation made in a time-varying environment is analyzed. The identity of the pattern may itself change. A Bayesian solution is derived, after which the conditions of the physical situation are invoked to produce a cascade classifier model. Experimental results based on remote sensing data demonstrate the effectiveness of the classifier.