Sample records for incidence varies considerably

  1. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College. Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. Results: During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were available for analysis.

  2. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R. Ali


    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  3. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. R.; Lear, J. T.


    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group

  4. Varied-space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.


    We discuss the dominant geometrical aberrations of a grazing incidence reflection grating and new techniques which can be used to reduce or eliminate them. Convergent beam geometries and the aberration correction possible with varied groove spacings are each found to improve the spectral resolution and speed of grazing incidence gratings. In combination, these two techniques can result in a high resolution (λ/Δλ > 10 4 ) monochromator or scanning spectrometer with a simple rotational motion for scanning wavelength or selecting the spectral band. 21 refs., 4 figs

  5. Errors in 'BED'-derived estimates of HIV incidence will vary by place, time and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Hallett


    Full Text Available The BED Capture Enzyme Immunoassay, believed to distinguish recent HIV infections, is being used to estimate HIV incidence, although an important property of the test--how specificity changes with time since infection--has not been not measured.We construct hypothetical scenarios for the performance of BED test, consistent with current knowledge, and explore how this could influence errors in BED estimates of incidence using a mathematical model of six African countries. The model is also used to determine the conditions and the sample sizes required for the BED test to reliably detect trends in HIV incidence.If the chance of misclassification by BED increases with time since infection, the overall proportion of individuals misclassified could vary widely between countries, over time, and across age-groups, in a manner determined by the historic course of the epidemic and the age-pattern of incidence. Under some circumstances, changes in BED estimates over time can approximately track actual changes in incidence, but large sample sizes (50,000+ will be required for recorded changes to be statistically significant.The relationship between BED test specificity and time since infection has not been fully measured, but, if it decreases, errors in estimates of incidence could vary by place, time and age-group. This means that post-assay adjustment procedures using parameters from different populations or at different times may not be valid. Further research is urgently needed into the properties of the BED test, and the rate of misclassification in a wide range of populations.

  6. Modeling Radar Scattering by Planetary Regoliths for Varying Angles of Incidence (United States)

    Prem, P.; Patterson, G. W.; Zimmerman, M. I.


    readily accommodate varying incidence angles, as well as heterogeneities in regolith composition and properties - factors that may be of interest in both lunar and other contexts. We will report on the development and validation of the coupled MSTM-Monte Carlo model, and discuss its application to problems of interest.

  7. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish


    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  8. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  9. Stagewise pseudo-value regression for time-varying effects on the cumulative incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöller, Daniela; Schmidtmann, Irene; Weinmann, Arndt


    using a pseudo-value approach. For a grid of time points, the possibly unobserved binary event status is replaced by a jackknife pseudo-value based on the Aalen-Johansen method. We combine a stagewise regression technique with the pseudo-value approach to provide variable selection while allowing......In a competing risks setting, the cumulative incidence of an event of interest describes the absolute risk for this event as a function of time. For regression analysis, one can either choose to model all competing events by separate cause-specific hazard models or directly model the association...... between covariates and the cumulative incidence of one of the events. With a suitable link function, direct regression models allow for a straightforward interpretation of covariate effects on the cumulative incidence. In practice, where data can be right-censored, these regression models are implemented...

  10. Difference image analysis: extension to a spatially varying photometric scale factor and other considerations (United States)

    Bramich, D. M.; Horne, Keith; Albrow, M. D.; Tsapras, Y.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, Noé; Arellano Ferro, A.; Figuera, Jaimes R.; Giridhar, Sunetra


    We present a general framework for matching the point-spread function (PSF), photometric scaling and sky background between two images, a subject which is commonly referred to as difference image analysis (DIA). We introduce the new concept of a spatially varying photometric scale factor which will be important for DIA applied to wide-field imaging data in order to adapt to transparency and airmass variations across the field-of-view. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to separately control the degree of spatial variation of each kernel basis function, the photometric scale factor and the differential sky background. We discuss the common choices for kernel basis functions within our framework, and we introduce the mixed-resolution delta basis functions to address the problem of the size of the least-squares problem to be solved when using delta basis functions. We validate and demonstrate our algorithm on simulated and real data. We also describe a number of useful optimizations that may be capitalized on during the construction of the least-squares matrix and which have not been reported previously. We pay special attention to presenting a clear notation for the DIA equations which are set out in a way that will hopefully encourage developers to tackle the implementation of DIA software.

  11. Incidence of herpes zoster amongst adults varies by severity of immunosuppression. (United States)

    Schröder, Carsten; Enders, Dirk; Schink, Tania; Riedel, Oliver


    We examined the incidence of herpes zoster in immunocompromised adults (≥18 years) with different severities of immunosuppression and assessed the prevalence of complications and of various kinds of healthcare resource utilisation. German claims data from more than ten million adults were used to calculate annual incidence rates of herpes zoster for the years 2006-2012 and to analyse the prevalence of complications, physician visits, hospitalisations, and antiviral and analgesic treatments using a cohort design. The analyses were stratified by age, sex, and severity of immunosuppression, defined by immunocompromising conditions and drug therapies. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of herpes zoster was almost twice as high in immunocompromised patients (11.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4-11.6)) compared to immunocompetent subjects (5.9 (95% CI: 5.8-5.9)). The incidence rate was higher in highly immunocompromised patients (13.4 (95% CI: 13.2-13.6)) than in patients with a low severity of immunosuppression (10.0 (95% CI: 9.8-10.1)). These differences were observed for both sexes and in all age groups. Complications, outpatient physician visits, hospitalisations, and analgesic treatments occurred more frequently in immunocompromised patients as well. Our results show that immunocompromised individuals are affected by the disease in particular and that the burden of herpes zoster is highest in severely immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Histologic Lung Cancer Incidence Rates and Trends vary by Race/Ethnicity and Residential County. (United States)

    Houston, Keisha A; Mitchell, Khadijah A; King, Jessica; White, Arica; Ryan, Bríd M


    Lung cancer incidence is higher among NH blacks compared with NH white and Hispanic populations in the U.S. However, national cancer estimates may not always reflect the cancer burden in terms of disparities and incidence in small geographic areas, especially urban-rural disparities. Moreover, there is a gap in the literature regarding rural-urban disparities in terms of cancer histology. Using population-based cancer registry data-Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)-we present age-adjusted histologic rates and trends by race/ethnicity, and residential county location at the time of first cancer diagnosis. Rate ratios were calculated to examine racial/ethnic differences in rates. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to measure changes in rates over time. We find that declines in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are occurring fastest in metropolitan counties, while rates of adenocarcinoma increased fastest in counties non-adjacent to metropolitan areas. Further, while NH black men have increased lung cancer incidence compared with NH white and Hispanic men in all geographic locations, we find that the degree of the disparity increases with increasing rurality of residence. Finally, we report that among women diagnosed at less than 55 years of age, the incidence of SCC and adenocarcinoma was higher for NH blacks compared with NH whites. Our results highlight disparities among NH blacks in non-adjacent rural areas. These findings may have significant impact for the implementation of smoking cessation and lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The SSRL ultrahigh vacuum grazing incidence monochromator: design considerations and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.C.; Bachrach, R.Z.; Lien, N.


    Considerable experience has now accumulated with the 'grasshopper' monochromator installed on the four degree line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. This is one of the first bakeable high vacuum instruments for use with a storage ring source in the photon energy range 25 to 1000 eV. The unique features of this instrument will be discussed from a general point of view, including the source emittance and the transforming properties of the beam line plus monochromator. Actual performance figures will be given in order to better appraise the limits of focusing optics and gratings at two degree grazing incidence. Improvements such as post-monochromator optics, isolation valves and provisions for adjustment will be briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Namioka, Takeshi


    Comparative studies have been made on the holographic plane grating and the ruled varied-line-spacing (VLS) plane grating designed for two kinds of objective Monk - Gillieson type high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator, I and II. The ray-traced performance of monochromator types I and II on a synchrotron radiation beam line was evaluated in terms of resolving power and spectral purity by the introduction of new concepts of effective Gaussian line and purity profiles. The resolving power defined on the basis of the effective Gaussian profile is consistent with the spectral purity of the beam emerging from the exit slit and is more realistic as compared with those defined in the conventional manner, especially when spectral images have asymmetric profiles. It is concluded that holographic plane gratings recorded with a spherical and an aspheric wave front are capable of providing high resolution with high spectral purity and are fully interchangeable with the corresponding ruled VLS plane gratings. This interchangeability provides more flexibility for users in choosing a proper grating for a high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator of the Monk - Gillieson type. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  15. Symmetry consideration in zero loop-area Sagnac interferometry at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects. (United States)

    Zhu, X D


    I present a detailed account of a zero loop-area Sagnac interferometer operated at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects arising from a magnetized sample. In particular, I describe the symmetry consideration and various optical arrangements available to such an interferometer that enables measurements of magneto-optic effects due to both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization of the sample with optimizable signal-to-noise ratios.

  16. Research on the FDTD method of scattering effects of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves in time-varying plasma sheath on collision and plasma frequencies (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting


    This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.

  17. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism. (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter


    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  18. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave


    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.


    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  19. The association of antidepressant and statin use with death and incident cardiovascular disease varies by depression severity. (United States)

    May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Knight, Stacey; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Horne, Benjamin D; Brunisholz, Kimberly D; Muhlestein, Joseph B


    Depression has been reported to be associated with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the impact of antidepressants (ADM) on CVD risk remains controversial. Statin use is known to decrease CVD risk. Whether the use of these medications together affects CVD risk has not been studied. Patients (N = 26,828) completing the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), ≥40 years of age, without prior CVD, and no prior ADM use were studied. Depressive severity was categorized as none-mild (PHQ-9 score ≤14, n = 21,517) and moderate-severe (PHQ-9 score ≥15, n = 5311). Cox hazard regression was used to evaluate the association of no ADM/no statin use (n = 23,104 [86.1%]), ADM/no statin use (n = 877 [3.3%]), no ADM/statin use (n = 2627 [9.8%]), and ADM/statin use (n = 220 [.8%]) with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, CAD, stroke). Patients averaged 56 ± 12 years; 61% female. There were 1182 (4.4%) 3 year MACE events. The association of ADM and statin use with MACE varied by depressive symptom severity, with statin therapy associated with a decreased risk in the none-mild group (HR = .78, p = .007) and ADM in the moderate-high group (HR = 0.58, p = 0.02). Concomitant use of ADMs and statins did not appear to provide additive benefit.

  20. Change in anatomic distribution and incidence of colorectal carcinoma over a period of 15 years - Clinical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, PBF; Kolkman, JJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH


    PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the Netherlands. Its incidence rates are among the highest in Europe. In the past decades, a right-sided shift of the subsite location of colorectal cancer has been reported. These changes in anatomic distribution might have clinical

  1. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports. (United States)

    Persinger, M A


    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within "flap" areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders.

  2. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinger, M.A.


    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references

  3. Considerations Regarding Age at Surgery and Fistula Incidence Using One- and Two-stage Closure for Cleft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Stoicescu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Although cleft lip and palate (CLP is one of the most common congenital malformations, occurring in 1 in 700 live births, there is still no generally accepted treatment protocol. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for cleft palate repair; these techniques can be divided into one-stage (one operation cleft palate repair and two-stage cleft palate closure. The aim of this study is to present our cleft palate team experience in using the two-stage cleft palate closure and the clinical outcomes in terms of oronasal fistula rate. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 80 patients who underwent palate repair over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. All cleft palate patients were incorporated. Information on patient’s gender, cleft type, age at repair, one- or two-stage cleft palate repair were collected and analyzed. Results: Fifty-three (66% and twenty-seven (34% patients underwent two-stage and one-stage repair, respectively. According to Veau classification, more than 60% of them were Veau III and IV, associating cleft lip to cleft palate. Fistula occurred in 34% of the two-stage repairs versus 7% of one-stage repairs, with an overall incidence of 24%. Conclusions: Our study has shown that a two-stage cleft palate closure has a higher rate of fistula formation when compared with the one-stage repair. Two-stage repair is the protocol of choice in wide complete cleft lip and palate cases, while one-stage procedure is a good option for cleft palate alone, or some specific cleft lip and palate cases (narrow cleft palate, older age at surgery

  4. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai


    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil...... xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater...

  5. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie


    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  6. Design considerations of a randomized controlled trial of sedation level during hip fracture repair surgery: a strategy to reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients. (United States)

    Li, Tianjing; Wieland, L Susan; Oh, Esther; Neufeld, Karin J; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dickersin, Kay; Sieber, Frederick E


    Background Delirium is an acute change in mental status characterized by sudden onset, fluctuating course, inattention, disorganized thinking, and abnormal level of consciousness. The objective of the randomized controlled trial "A STrategy to Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients" (STRIDE) is to assess the effectiveness of light versus heavy sedation on delirium and other outcomes in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture repair surgery. Our goal is to describe the design considerations and lessons learned in planning and implementing the STRIDE trial. Methods Discussed are challenges encountered including (1) how to ensure that we quickly identify, assess the eligibility of, and randomize traumatic hip fracture patients; (2) how to implement interventions that involve continuous monitoring and adjustment during the surgery; and (3) how to measure and ascertain the primary outcome, delirium. Results To address the first challenge, we monitored the operating room schedule more actively than anticipated. We constructed and organized eligibility assessment data collection forms by purpose and by source of information needed to complete them. We decided that randomization needs to take place in the operating room. To address the second challenge, we designed and implemented a treatment protocol and covered the bispectral index monitor to prevent the Anesthesiologist/Anesthetist from being influenced by the bispectral index reading while administering the intervention. Finally, clinical assessment of delirium consisted of standardized interviews of the patient using validated instruments, interviews of those caring for the patient, and review of the medical record. A consensus panel made the final determination of a delirium diagnosis. We note that STRIDE is a single-center trial. The decisions we took may have different implications for multi-center trials. Conclusions Lessons learned are likely to provide useful information to others

  7. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative. (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J


    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Nuclear donor cell lines considerably influence cloning efficiency and the incidence of large offspring syndrome in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Su, J; Luo, Y; Quan, F; Zhang, Y


    Total five ear skin fibroblast lines (named F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) from different newborn Holstein cows have been used as nuclear donor cells for producing cloned cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The effects of these cell lines on both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates of cloned embryos, post-natal survivability and incidence of large offspring syndrome (LOS) were examined in this study. We found that the different cell lines possessed the same capacity to support pre-implantation development of cloned embryos, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates ranged from 80.2 ± 0.9 to 84.5 ± 2.5% and 28.5 ± 0.9 to 33.3 ± 1.4%, respectively. However, their capacities to support the in vivo development of SCNT embryos showed significant differences (p cloning efficiency was significantly higher in group F5 than those in group F1, F2, F3 and F4 (9.3% vs 4.1%, 1.2%, 2.0% and 5.0%, respectively, p cloned offspring from cell line F1, F2, F3 and F4 showed LOS and gestation length delay, while all cloned offspring from F5 showed normal birthweight and gestation length. We concluded that the nuclear donor cell lines have significant impact on the in vivo development of cloned embryos and the incidence of LOS in cloned calves. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Influência de variáveis climáticas sobre a incidência de meningite e sua distribuição espacial no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, 2001-2005 Influence of climatic variables on the incidence of meningitis and its space distribution in the city of Ponta Grossa-PR, 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroliny Stocco


    Full Text Available Os elementos climáticos têm destacada influência sobre a manifestação de muitas doenças nos seres humanos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de variáveis climáticas locais sobre a incidência mensal de meningite no Município de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, no período de 2001 a 2005, assim como distribuir espacialmente sua ocorrência na área urbana. A amostra inicial foi composta de 401 casos notificados e confirmados de indivíduos residentes nesse município. Verificou-se forte correlação entre a incidência média mensal de meningite e as variáveis climáticas temperatura média do ar, precipitação pluviométrica e umidade relativa do ar na maioria dos meses. A distribuição espacial dos casos em estudo revelou maior concentração nas porções centro-oeste e centro-norte da cidade.Climatic elements have an important influence on the manifestation of many human diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of local climate variables on the monthly incidence of meningitis in the city of Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, in the period from 2001 to 2005, and to spatially distribute its occurrence in the urban area. The initial sample was composed of 401 notified cases which were confirmed as being of resident citizens in this city. Strong correlation was verified between the average monthly incidence of meningitis and the following climate variables: mean air temperature, precipitation and relative humidity in most months. The spatial distribution of the cases under study showed higher concentration in the central-west and north-central portions of the city.

  10. Incidence and etiology of lumbar spondylolysis: review of the literature. (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Suzue, Naoto; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Yasui, Natsuo


    Lumbar spondylolysis is a defect of the pars interarticularis known to occur as a stress fracture. Its incidence varies considerably depending on ethnicity, sex, and sports activity. However, there are few literature reviews describing its incidence in different ethnic groups or in people who engage in different sports. We reviewed the most relevant articles on spondylolysis published in scientific journals. First, we focused on its incidence in various ethnic groups distributed by sex, the familial occurrence, and in patients with relevant diseases. Second, we focused on the incidence of spondylolysis in relation to the sports practiced by the patients. Although placing special emphasis on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan, we also reviewed the Japanese and English literature to investigate its incidence among those who engage in different sports. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general Japanese population was 5.9%. Most studies report that the incidence in higher in male subjects than in female subjects. We found that Japanese rugby and judo players were prone to suffer lumbar spondylolysis, at an incidence of about 20%. However, the incidence for Japanese professional soccer and baseball players was much higher, at 30%, which was more than five times the incidence in the general Japanese population. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies depending on ethnicity, sex, family history, relevant disease, and sports activity.

  11. Time-varying BRDFs. (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K


    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  12. Hernia of canal of nuck: Some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirat Dholakia


    Full Text Available Hernia of canal of Nuck is an extension of peritoneal fold through the inguinal canal up to the labia majora. Defective obliteration of this peritoneal fold leads to herniation of abdominal content into the inguinal canal. Incidence of ovary and fallopian tube as contents of henia is rare overall and very rare in middle age women. This hernia would require surgical intervention once diagnosed, but type of intervention may vary. Although mesh repair is acceptable worldwide with low recurrence rate, nonmesh repair still has a place specifically in developing countries wherein cost consideration without significantly affecting outcome will be an important factor. Two cases treated with nonmesh repair are reported.

  13. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM


    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  14. Teores de Ca e variáveis meteorológicas: relações com a incidência da mancha fisiológica do mamão no Norte Fluminense Ca concetration and meteorological variables: relationships with skin freckles in papaya (Carica papaya L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliemar Campostrini


    Full Text Available No Brasil e no mundo, o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. tem apresentado um distúrbio fisiológico no fruto denominado de Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM. Na literatura, pouco se conhece sobre as causas desta anomalia que afeta sensivelmente a comercialização dos frutos da espécie. Com o objetivo de se buscar informações relacionadas às causas da MFM, foi realizado um estudo, durante um ano, em um plantio comercial localizado em São Franscisco do Itabapoana (RJ, no norte fluminense. Foram feitas relações entre algumas variáveis do clima (temperatura, déficit de pressão de vapor, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global e os teores de Ca na planta [limbo, pecíolo, pedúnculo, epicarpo não-exposto (face do fruto próxima ao tronco e epicarpo exposto (face do fruto oposta ao tronco] com a incidência da MFM. Observou-se que a maior incidência de MFM foi durante setembro/2000. Em janeiro/2001, a incidência da MFM foi praticamente nula. A amplitude térmica, nos três meses que antecederam a setembro/2000, foi a variável do clima que mais se relacionou com a incidência da MFM. Em setembro, os teores de Ca em todas as partes do fruto (pedúnculo, epicarpo exposto e não-exposto estudadas foram maiores. Na época que antecedeu o mês de setembro, as relações Ca/K e Ca/Mg foram estatisticamente maiores no epicarpo exposto e não-exposto e, nesta época, a relação Ca/P foi estatisticamente maior no pedúnculo e no epicarpo não-exposto. Os efeitos da amplitude térmica sobre a incidência da MFM são discutidos e a hipótese de que os teores baixos de Ca no fruto poderiam causar desestabilização na parede celular, o que facilitaria o extravasamento do látex e provocaria a MFM, deve ser reavaliada.In Brazil and other parts of the world, papaya fruit suffer with a physiological disruption, known as skin freckles (SF. There is very little information available concerning the causes of this disruption that seriously affects the

  15. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.


    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  16. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.


    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  17. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb


    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  18. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A


    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali


    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  20. Safety considerations in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanal, E.; Shellock, F.G.; Talagala, L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    The authors identify eight areas of potential safety concern during clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These include (a) biologic effects of the static magnetic field; (b) ferromagnetic attractive projectile effects of the static magnetic field; (c) potential effects of the relatively slowly time-varying magnetic field gradients; (d) effects of the rapidly varying radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields, including RF power deposition concerns; (e) auditory considerations from noise caused by the rapidly pulsed magnetic field gradients; (f) safety considerations concerning superconductive systems, including quenches, use of cryogens, and cryogen storage and handling; (g) psychological effects, such as claustrophobia and anxiety induced because of the examination; and (h) possible effects of the intravenous use of the MR contrast agent gadopentetate dimeglumine. The concerns in each of these categories are elaborated upon, and the available data are presented to clarify their status.155 references.

  1. Tattoos: forensic considerations. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W


    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  2. Ethical considerations on novel neuronal interfaces. (United States)

    Keskinbora, Kadircan H; Keskinbora, Kader


    Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals. It is possible to transmit such stimulation using remote control principles. Perhaps, the most important concern regarding the use of these devices termed as "neural dust" is represented by the possibility of controlling affection and other mental functions via waves reaching the brain using more advanced versions of such devices. This will not only violate the respect for authority principle of ethics, but also medical ethics, and may potentially lead to certain incidents of varying vehemence that may be considered illegal. Therefore, a sound knowledge and implementation of ethical principles is becoming a more important issue on the part of healthcare professionals. In both the ethical decision-making process and in ethical conflicts, it may be useful to re-appraise the principles of medical ethics. In this article, the ethical considerations of these devices are discussed.

  3. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe


    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  4. Data on incident solar energy (United States)

    Thekaekara, M. P.


    Instrumentation for solar irradiance monitoring, and radiation scales are discussed in a survey of incident solar energy data. The absolute accuracy and intrinsic reliability of the values of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectrum proposed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences as an ASTM standard are evaluated. Extraterrestrial observations are used for deriving solar irradiance data at ground level for widely varying atmospheric parameters, with special reference to air pollution. The effects of diffuse sky radiance and those of varying slopes of the solar energy collecting surface are examined. Average values of solar energy available at different locations in the United States are included.

  5. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia


    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  6. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej


    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  7. Impact of changes in welfare legislation on the incidence of disability pension. A cohort study of construction workers. (United States)

    Söderberg, Mia; Mannelqvist, Ruth; Järvholm, Bengt; Schiöler, Linus; Stattin, Mikael


    Study objectives were to investigate how changes in social insurance legislation influenced the incidence of disability pension. The study included 295,636 male construction workers who attended health examinations between 1971 and 1993, aged 20-60 years and without previous disability pension. Via the Swedish National Insurance Agency national register we identified 66,046 subjects who were granted disability pension up until 2010. The incidence rates were calculated and stratified according to age and diagnosis. The incidence rate of disability pension was fairly stable until the 1990s when large variations occurred, followed by a strong decreasing trend from the early 2000s to 2010. Trends in incidence rates, stratified by age and diagnosis, showed a consistent decrease in cardiovascular disease for all age groups. In subjects aged 30-49 years there was a high peak around 2003 for musculoskeletal diseases and psychiatric diseases. For the age group 50-59 years, musculoskeletal diagnosis, the most common cause of disability pension, had a sharp peak around 1993 and then a decreasing trend. In the 60-64 age group, the incidence rate for psychiatric diagnosis was stable, while incidence rates for musculoskeletal diagnosis varied during the 1990s. There are considerable variations in the incidence rate of disability pension over time, with different patterns depending on age and diagnosis. Changes in social insurance legislation, as well as in administration processes, seem to influence the variation.

  8. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Goto

    Full Text Available The definition of incident type 2 diabetes varies across studies; hence, the actual incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan is unclear. Here, we reviewed the various definitions of incident type 2 diabetes used in previous epidemiologic studies and estimated the diabetes incidence rate in Japan.We searched for related literature in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ichushi databases through September 2012. Two reviewers selected studies that evaluated incident type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.From 1824 relevant articles, we included 33 studies with 386,803 participants. The follow-up period ranged from 2.3 to 14 years and the studies were initiated between 1980 and 2003. The random-effects model indicated that the pooled incidence rate of diabetes was 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 7.4-10.4 per 1000 person-years. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity in the results (I(2 = 99.2%; p < 0.001, with incidence rates ranging from 2.3 to 52.6 per 1000 person-years. Three studies based their definition of incident type 2 diabetes on self-reports only, 10 on laboratory data only, and 20 on self-reports and laboratory data. Compared with studies defining diabetes using laboratory data (n = 30; pooled incidence rate = 9.6; 95% confidence interval = 8.3-11.1, studies based on self-reports alone tended to show a lower incidence rate (n = 3; pooled incidence rate = 4.0; 95% confidence interval = 3.2-5.0; p for interaction < 0.001. However, stratified analyses could not entirely explain the heterogeneity in the results.Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicated the presence of a high degree of heterogeneity, which suggests that there is a considerable amount of uncertainty regarding the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan. They also suggested that laboratory data may be important for the accurate estimation of the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  10. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017


    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  11. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus


    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  12. Grazing-angle incidence X-ray diffraction by Si sub 1 sub - subalpha sub ( sub x sub ) Ge subalpha sub ( sub x sub ) thin layer if the composition coefficient alpha(x) is varying harmonically along the flat entrance surface

    CERN Document Server

    Bezirganyan, P A; Bezirganyan, S E; Bezirganyan, H A; Hovnanyan, K O


    Presented theoretical paper concerns the investigation of a principal possibility of the Grazing-angle incidence hard and soft X-ray diffraction (GIXD) owing to long-period harmonic variations of the composition coefficient of the strained or relaxed crystalline, as well as amorphous SiGe layer grown on a thick silicon perfect-crystal substrate. The evaluation of the coherent part of X-radiation scattered by mentioned SiGe layer is pointed out the possibility of the direct GIXD experimental investigations of the long-period structured intermediate transformation states of SiGe layer, which are emerging due to periodicity of the strain field along the substrate-layer boundary.

  13. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Frederick


    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs 137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m 2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  14. MCFRS Incidents by Station (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  15. Police Incident Reports Written (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  16. Cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour and health promotion activities: a critical incident analysis. (United States)

    Björklund, M; Fridlund, B


    Patients with head and neck cancer report several disease- and health-related problems before, during and a long time after completed treatment. Nurses have an important role in educating/supporting these patients about/through the disease and treatment so that they can attain well-being. This study describes the cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour in terms of critical incidents after nurses had given them care to promote health. The study had a qualitative, descriptive design and the method used was the critical incident technique. Twenty-one informants from the Nordic countries diagnosed with head and neck cancer were strategically selected. It was explained to the informants what a critical incident implies before the interviews took place; this was defined as a major event of great importance, an incident, which the informants still remember, due to its great importance for the outcome of their health and well-being. The nurses' behaviour was examined, and critical incidents were involved in 208 cases-150 positive and 58 negative ones-the number of incidents varying between three and 20 per informant. The nurses' health promotion activities or lack of such activities based on the patients' disease, treatment and symptoms, consisted of informing and instructing the patients as well as enabling their participation. Personal consideration and the nurses' cognisance, knowledge, competence, solicitude, demeanour and statements of understanding were found to be important. Continuous health promotion nursing interventions were of considerable value for the majority of this group of cancer patients. Oncology nurses could reconfirm and update the care of head and neck cancer patients by including health promotion activities in individual care plans. By more frequent use of health promotion models, such as the empowerment model, the nurses could identify and focus on those individuals who needed to alter their life-style as well as tailor their approach

  17. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  18. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  19. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir


    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  20. Winter weather demand considerations. (United States)


    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  1. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations. (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina


    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  2. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.


    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  3. Prerequisites for building a computer security incident response capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mooi, M


    Full Text Available There are a number of considerations before one can commence with establishing a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT). This paper presents the results of a structured literature review investigating the business requirements...

  4. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok


    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  5. Differences in reported sepsis incidence according to study design: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saga Elise Mariansdatter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis and severe sepsis are common conditions in hospital settings, and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, but reported incidences vary considerably. In this literature review, we describe the variation in reported population-based incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. We also examine methodological and demographic differences between studies that may explain this variation. Methods We carried out a literature review searching three major databases and reference lists of relevant articles, to identify all original studies reporting the incidence of sepsis or severe sepsis in the general population. Two authors independently assessed all articles, and the final decision to exclude an article was reached by consensus. We extracted data according to predetermined variables, including study country, sepsis definition, and data source. We then calculated descriptive statistics for the reported incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. The studies were classified according to the method used to identify cases of sepsis or severe sepsis: chart-based (i.e. review of patient charts or code-based (i.e. predetermined International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes. Results Among 482 articles initially screened, we identified 23 primary publications reporting incidence of sepsis and/or severe sepsis in the general population. The reported incidences ranged from 74 to 1180 per 100,000 person-years and 3 to 1074 per 100,000 person-years for sepsis and severe sepsis, respectively. Most chart-based studies used the Bone criteria (or a modification hereof and Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS study criteria to identify cases of sepsis and severe sepsis. Most code-based studies used ICD-9 codes, but the number of codes used ranged from 1 to more than 1200. We found that the incidence varied according to how sepsis was identified (chart-based vs. code-based, calendar year, data source, and

  6. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology. (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe


    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  7. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan


    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  8. Considerations for Visualizing Comparison. (United States)

    Gleicher, Michael


    Supporting comparison is a common and diverse challenge in visualization. Such support is difficult to design because solutions must address both the specifics of their scenario as well as the general issues of comparison. This paper aids designers by providing a strategy for considering those general issues. It presents four considerations that abstract comparison. These considerations identify issues and categorize solutions in a domain independent manner. The first considers how the common elements of comparison-a target set of items that are related and an action the user wants to perform on that relationship-are present in an analysis problem. The second considers why these elements lead to challenges because of their scale, in number of items, complexity of items, or complexity of relationship. The third considers what strategies address the identified scaling challenges, grouping solutions into three broad categories. The fourth considers which visual designs map to these strategies to provide solutions for a comparison analysis problem. In sequence, these considerations provide a process for developers to consider support for comparison in the design of visualization tools. Case studies show how these considerations can help in the design and evaluation of visualization solutions for comparison problems.

  9. Tuberous sclerosis Anaesthetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    SYNDROMIC VIGNETTES IN ANAESTHESIA. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - May 2003. 4. Tuberous sclerosis. Anaesthetic considerations. Tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis(TS) was first described by Bourneville in. 1880.1 TS is said to be one of the commonest autosomal domi- nant diseases.

  10. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly


    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  11. A Consideration of Criticism. (United States)

    Barrett, Terry


    Explores critical activities in the visual arts and how they can enhance art appreciation. Outlines sources of criticism, different types of criticism, the varied backgrounds of art critics, and the artist-critic relationship. Maintains that, by emphasizing interpretive aspects, school art criticism can come closer to professional art criticism.…

  12. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe. (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.


    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  14. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.


    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  15. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  16. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.


    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  17. Oral human papillomavirus infection incidence and clearance: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Wood, Zoe C; Bain, Christopher J; Smith, David D; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika


    Subclinical oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that persists for decades is likely to precede an HPV-driven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, but little is known about the natural history of oral HPV. We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from nine manuscripts that examined human immunodeficiency virus-negative and cancer-free subjects for oral HPV DNA to determine the pooled baseline prevalence and incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections, and specifically for HPV-16. We also documented the clearance rate and the median time to clearance, where data existed. Of 3762 individuals, 7.5 % had an oral infection with any HPV type (1.6 % for HPV-16). Meta-regression analysis estimated the 12-month cumulative incidence to be 4.8 % (95 % confidence interval 3.2-7.3 %). The overall oral HPV clearance was reported to be 0-80 % between studies, and the median time to clearance from 6.5 to 18 months. Oral HPV-16 clearance was 43-83 %, and median time to clearance for HPV-16 was 7-22 months. Oral HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance vary considerably between published studies from different geographical regions. Further research is required to identify predictors of persistent oral HPV infection. Measurable baseline prevalence was observed in all studies, as well as non-trivial incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections and incomplete clearance.

  18. Ciliary Locomotion in Varying Viscosity Flow (United States)

    Eastham, Patrick; Shoele, Kourosh


    Ciliary locomotion is a common method of transportation employed by bacteria. They must be able to move through their environment at will to seek nutrients as well as avoid dangers. While research into bacteria motility has received considerable attention, very little has been done to consider the effects of a spatially-varying viscosity environment on swimming. This presentation will discuss recent research into how bacteria can take advantage of nutrient-dependent viscosity to generate an asymmetric stress field around their body, potentially increasing free-swimming velocity. First, we analytically show that asymptotically small variations in viscosity due to nutrient concentrations can affect the free-swimming velocity of a bacteria. Then we extend our study to fully nonlinear coupling between nutrient concentration and viscosity and employ the Finite Element method to solve a system containing a convection-diffusion equation for nutrient concentration as well as Stokes flow for stress distribution on the swimmer. We will discuss how the free-swimming velocity profile changes for various nutrient Pecletnumbers and ciliary locomotion modes.

  19. Room considerations with TAVR. (United States)

    Kleiman, Neal


    While transcatheter aortic valve replacement is considered a viable alternative to traditional surgery for patients with critical aortic stenosis, it is still a cardiac surgical procedure with a steep learning curve. Space consideration is a key aspect of the procedure's success. A TAVR program requires the commitment from and investment of institutional resources, the outfitting of an appropriate procedure room, and meticulous training of a multidisciplinary TAVR team. Careful integration of the various imaging modalities, medical specialties, and equipment is necessary to ensure the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to treat complications that may arise.

  20. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.


    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ''life-cycle'' cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots

  1. Spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among males, and the incidence in Pennsylvania, USA is considerably higher than nationally. Knowledge of regional differences and time trends in prostate cancer incidence may contribute to a better understanding of aetiologic factors and racial disparities in outcomes, and to improvements in preventive intervention and screening efforts. We used Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data on reported prostate cancer diagnoses between 2000 and 2011 to study the regional distribution and temporal trends of prostate cancer incidence in both Pennsylvania White males and Philadelphia metropolitan area Black males. For White males, we generated and mapped county-specific age-adjusted incidence and standardised incidence ratios by period cohort, and identified spatial autocorrelation and local clusters. In addition, we fitted Bayesian hierarchical generalised linear Poisson models to describe the temporal and aging effects separately in Whites state-wide and metropolitan Philadelphia blacks. Incidences of prostate cancer among white males declined from 2000-2002 to 2009-2011 with an increasing trend to some extent in the period 2006-2008 and significant variation across geographic regions, but less variation exists for metropolitan Philadelphia including majority of Black patients. No significant aging effect was detected for White and Black men, and the peak age group for prostate cancer risk varied by race. Future research should seek to identify potential social and environmental risk factors associated with geographical/racial disparities in prostate cancer. As such, there is a need for more effective surveillance so as to detect, reduce and control the cancer burden associated with prostate cancer.

  2. Consideration of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, I.


    Mr. Smart notes that the optimistic promise of nuclear energy for developing countries has not been met, but feels that nuclear power can still provide a growing share of energy during the transition from oil dependence. He observes that cost-benefit analyses vary for each country, but good planning and management can give nuclear power a positive future for those developing countries which can establish a need for it; have access to the economic, technological, and human resources necessary to develop and operate it; and can make nuclear power compatible with the social, economic, and cultural structure. 11 references

  3. Critical incident stress management. (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K


    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  4. Marine Animal Incident Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  5. Police Incident Blotter (Archive) (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  6. Prediction of Safety Incidents (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  7. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  8. Dosimetric considerations in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatziioannou, K.A.; Psarrakos, K.; Molyvda-Athanasopoulou, E.; Papanastassiou, E.; Kitis, G.; Sofroniadis, I.; Kimoundri, O.


    The aim of this study was to measure the absorbed dose to seven organs other than the breast in mammography in order to calculate their contribution to the effective dose. The absorbed dose to these organs was measured using a lucite upper body anthropomorphic phantom containing thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at appropriate locations, exposed as in a mammographic examination. In addition, the dependence of the absorbed dose on kVp, mAs and breast thickness was examined. The absorbed dose due to scattered radiation was found to be negligible to all organs except to the sternum red bone marrow (SRBM) and the thyroid. The mean doses to the SRBM and the thyroid, for a set of four exposures, one craniocaudal and one 90 mediolateral per breast, simulating a complete breast screening examination, varied between 0.40 and 1.27 and 0.05-0.17 μGy mAs -1 , respectively, depending on the breast thickness and the kVp selection. Effective dose from mammography was also calculated based on the absorbed dose to the breast, the SRBM and the thyroid and tissue-weighting factors. The effective dose was found to vary between 0.66 and 0.85 μSv mAs -1 depending on the breast thickness and the kVp value selected. The radiation dose to the breast contributes over 98% to the effective dose. (orig.)

  9. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov


    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  10. Radiological considerations for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.J.


    It has been said, by those uninitiated to decommissioning work, that radiological considerations required for decommissioning are the same as those for an operating facility. In reality, nothing could be further from the truth. The act of decommissioning can be likened to cutting off a tree limb while sitting on it. This paper discusses some of the unique radiological aspects that are associated with implementing a decommissioning health physics program. There are physical constraints that may cause major differences between a normal operational and a decommissioning health physics program. Throughout the decommissioning process, the installed equipment and services that were needed to support an operational program are constantly being removed or may already be disabled due to the age of the facility. Those affecting radiological protection programs typically would include radiation shielding, ventilation systems, breathing air supply for respiratory protection, and radiological monitoring systems

  11. Can we learn from SCADA security Incidents?


    Tryfonas, Theo; May, John H R


    Security experts across the world continue to sound the alarm bells about the security of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Industrial Control Systems look more and more like consumer PCs. They are used everywhere and involve a considerable amount of software, often outdated and unpatched. Recent security incidents in the context of SCADA and Industrial Control Systems emphasise greatly the importance of good governance and control of SCADA infrastructures. In particular the ability to respon...

  12. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G


    PURPOSE: To estimate the occurrence of epilepsy in Denmark between 1977 and 2002, taking gender, age, and secular trends into consideration. METHODS: We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify all persons born in Denmark and the Danish National Hospital Register to identify persons...... registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  13. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery


    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  14. Specific Considerations for LGBT Eldercare


    Claassen, Ashley


    The LGBT community has changed considerably in numbers, awareness, and acceptance in the past few decades. Due to the growing number of LGBT elderly, special considera-tions must be taken into account in planning their care. This study aimed at showcasing considerations that should be taken into account when planning elderly care and future elderly living arrangements. The research questions used were (a) are there special considerations for LGBT seniors? and (b), if so, what are the cons...

  15. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.


    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  16. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei


    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  17. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore


    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  18. Optimal routing of hazardous substances in time-varying, stochastic transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Miller-Hooks, E.; Mahmassani, H.S.


    This report is concerned with the selection of routes in a network along which to transport hazardous substances, taking into consideration several key factors pertaining to the cost of transport and the risk of population exposure in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the fact that travel time and the risk measures are not constant over time is explicitly recognized in the routing decisions. Existing approaches typically assume static conditions, possibly resulting in inefficient route selection and unnecessary risk exposure. The report described the application of recent advances in network analysis methodologies to the problem of routing hazardous substances. Several specific problem formulations are presented, reflecting different degrees of risk aversion on the part of the decision-maker, as well as different possible operational scenarios. All procedures explicitly consider travel times and travel costs (including risk measures) to be stochastic time-varying quantities. The procedures include both exact algorithms, which may require extensive computational effort in some situations, as well as more efficient heuristics that may not guarantee a Pareto-optimal solution. All procedures are systematically illustrated for an example application using the Texas highway network, for both normal and incident condition scenarios. The application illustrates the trade-offs between the information obtained in the solution and computational efficiency, and highlights the benefits of incorporating these procedures in a decision-support system for hazardous substance shipment routing decisions

  19. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.


    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  20. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren


    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  1. Fire Incident Reporting Manual (United States)


    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  2. Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, Robert D.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Johnson, Lee K.


    In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe + bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar + and Xe + bombardment at normal incidence displayed satisfactory agreement with previously published data over an energy range of 200 eV-1 keV. For Xe + ions, the dependence of the yields on angle of incidence θ was determined for 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 80 deg. Over this range, an increase in C sputtering yield by a factor of 4.8 was observed, with the peak in yield occurring at 70 o . This is a much higher variation compared to Xe + → Mo yields under similar conditions, a difference that may be attributed to higher scattering of the incident particles transverse to the beam direction than in the case of Xe + → C. In addition, the variation of the yields with θ was not strongly energy dependent. Trapping of Xe in the surface was observed, in contrast to observations using the QCM technique with metallic target materials. Finally, target surface roughness was characterized using atomic force microscope measurements to distinguish between the effects of local and overall angle of incidence of the target

  3. Moving and handling and patient safety: analysis of clinical incidents. (United States)

    Cornish, Jocelyn; Jones, Anne

    The aim of this study is to identify the potential contribution of moving and handling practice to clinical incidents through an analysis of incident data. Previous studies focusing on moving and handling have highlighted potential harm to patients through poor practice, and have suggested that this might be an issue for patient safety. However, this has not been identified in studies analysing clinical incident reports, where the potential contribution of moving and handling has not been recognized. This study reports an analysis of clinical incident data from the specific perspective of moving and handling. Survey of clinical incident reports in hospital in-patient care settings Method: A random sample of 500 incident reports was analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of qualitative data. There is an indication that some staff are not following recommended moving and handling policy through a lack of risk assessment; for example, in the selection of appropriate actions to assist patients, and in the prevention of further occurrences of incidents where patients had fallen. The limited detail within the reports affected consideration of the causes of the incidents and actions that could be taken to prevent a further occurrence. Some of the reported staff actions may contravene policy guidelines. Missing detail in the incident reports inhibited investigation of incidents that could lead to appropriate and safe systems of work being identified.

  4. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  5. Constipation and Incident CKD. (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P


    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete


    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  7. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth


    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  8. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  9. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain). (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador


    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  10. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.


    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  11. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  12. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer. (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.


    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  13. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.


    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  14. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.


    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  15. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, E.


    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  16. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel


    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  17. Fractal analysis of time varying data (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit


    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  18. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors


    Hasan, M.R; Ahmad, M.; Rahman, M.H; Haque, M.A


    The aphid incidence and its correlation with environmental factors were studied. Mustard variety “Sampad” was used as test crop. Aphid incidence varied significantly at various parts of mustard plant and time of the day. The highest number of aphid was observed in the vegetative parts of the mustard plant in the morning. High cloudiness, relative humidity and dew point favoured the aphid population and slight rain fall quickly declined the aphid population. Among the different environmental f...

  19. Incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan based on multidetector computed tomography scans from two thousand subjects. (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Takao, Shoichiro; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yasui, Natsuo


    Epidemiological analysis using CTs. To investigate the true incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan. Although there have been several reports on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis, they had some weakness. One of them concerns the subjects investigated, because the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies considerably, and some patients are asymptomatic. In addition, most of the past studies used plain radiograph films or skeletal investigation. Therefore, the past reported incidence may not correspond to that of the general population. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) scans of 2000 subjects (age: 20-92 years) who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT on a single multidetector CT scanner for reasons unrelated to low back pain. We reviewed them for spondylolysis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, and spina bifida occulta (SBO) in the lumbosacral region. The grade (I-IV) of spondylolisthesis was measured using midsagittal reconstructions. Lumbar spondylolysis was found in 117 subjects (5.9%). Their male-female ratio was 2:1. Multiple-level spondylolysis was found in 5 subjects (0.3%). Among these 117 subjects, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. Of them, 112 (90.3%) corresponded to L5, and 26 (21.0%) had unilateral spondylolysis.SBO was found in 154 subjects. Of them, 25 had spondylolysis (16.2%), whereas, in 1846 subjects without SBO, 92 had spondylolysis (5.0%). The incidence of spondylolysis among the patients with SBO was significantly higher than that in subjects without SBO (Odd ratio was 3.7-fold).Of 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis, 75 (60.5%) showed low-grade (Meyerding grade I or II) spondylolisthesis, and no subject presented high-grade spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis was found in 74.5% of the subjects with bilateral spondylolysis, and in 7.7% of those with unilateral spondylolysis. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the Japanese general population was 5.9% (males: 7.9%, females: 3.9%).

  20. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie


    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  1. Improving freight crash incident management. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  2. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  3. Incidence of anemia in patients diagnosed with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy, 2010–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H


    Full Text Available Hairong Xu,1 Lanfang Xu,2 John H Page,1 Kim Cannavale,2 Olivia Sattayapiwat,2 Roberto Rodriguez,3 Chun Chao2 1Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA; 3Department of Hematology Oncology, Los Angeles Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Psadena, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the risk of anemia during the course of chemotherapy among patients with five common types of solid tumors. Patients and methods: Patients diagnosed with incident cancers of breast, lung, colon/rectum, stomach, and ovary who received chemotherapy were identified from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan (2010–2012. All clinical data were collected from the health plan’s electronic medical records. Incidence proportions of patients developing anemia and 95% confidence intervals were calculated overall and by anemia severity and type, as well as by stage at cancer diagnosis, and by chemotherapy regimen and cycle. Results: A total of 4,426 patients who received chemotherapy were included. Across cancers, 3,962 (89.5% patients developed anemia during the course of chemotherapy (normocytic 85%, macrocytic 10%, microcytic 5%; normochromic 47%, hyperchromic 44%, hypochromic 9%. The anemia grades were distributed as follows: 58% were grade 1, 34% grade 2, 8% grade 3, and <1% grade 4. The incidence of grade 2+ anemia ranged from 26.3% in colorectal cancer patients to 59.2% in ovarian cancer patients. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia increased from 29% in stage I to 49% in stage IV. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia varied from 18.2% in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide + docetaxel regimen to 59.7% in patients with ovarian cancer receiving carboplatin + paclitaxel regimen. Conclusion: The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dL remained considerably

  4. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G


    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  5. Incident Management: Process into Practice (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian


    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  6. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care. (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A


    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  7. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000-2010. (United States)

    Hussain, Fazal; Iqbal, Samra; Mehmood, Asif; Bazarbashi, Shouki; ElHassan, Tusneem; Chaudhri, Naeem


    rates from 2000 to 2010 varied three-fold more for females than for males. Considerable geographical variations were present in thyroid cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased exponentially between 2000 and 2010 and there is significant geographical variation in the incidence of thyroid cancer throughout the Kingdom. Thyroid cancer has become the second most common cancer among young Saudi women with a male to female ratio at 0.3:1. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia may be due to the increased detection and diagnosis of the thyroid cancers and not only an increase in the true occurrence of thyroid cancer. More studies are required to determine this significant difference at the molecular level. Copyright © 2013 King Faisal Specialist Centre & Research Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana


    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  9. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus


    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  10. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  11. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  12. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  13. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  14. Intensity of Therapy Services: What Are the Considerations? (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Murr, Susan


    Research on intensity of therapy services is limited and perspectives often vary considerably among families, therapists, administrators, policy makers, and health insurers. In this commentary, the authors share their perspectives on intensity of physical therapy and/or occupational therapy services for children with developmental conditions. Five…

  15. Considerations on the sustainability and environmental impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive pastures form an important component of livestock production systems in South Africa. The sustainability and environmental impact of intensive pastures via their effects on soil properties and nutrient fluxes vary considerably depending on the systems adopted. Soil organic C and N data from various pasture ...

  16. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  17. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles


    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  18. VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Timothy D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.

  19. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome. (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.


    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  20. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa. (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W


    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  1. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M


    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  2. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.


    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  3. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.


    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  4. Antibody Drug Conjugates: Preclinical Considerations. (United States)

    Bornstein, Gadi G


    The development path for antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) is more complex and challenging than for unmodified antibodies. While many of the preclinical considerations for both unmodified and antibody drug conjugates are shared, special considerations must be taken into account when developing an ADC. Unlike unmodified antibodies, an ADC must preferentially bind to tumor cells, internalize, and traffic to the appropriate intracellular compartment to release the payload. Parameters that can impact the pharmacological properties of this class of therapeutics include the selection of the payload, the type of linker, and the methodology for payload drug conjugation. Despite a plethora of in vitro assays and in vivo models to screen and evaluate ADCs, the challenge remains to develop improved preclinical tools that will be more predictive of clinical outcome. This review will focus on preclinical considerations for clinically validated small molecule ADCs. In addition, the lessons learned from Mylotarg®, the first in class FDA-approved ADC, are highlighted.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  6. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan. (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L


    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  7. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents. (United States)

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide


    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  8. Analysis of incidents notified in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Lopes de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the incidents spontaneously notified in a general hospital in Minas Gerais. Method: Retrospective, descriptive, quantitative study performed at a general hospital in Montes Claros - Minas Gerais State. The sample comprised 1,316 incidents reported from 2011 to 2014. The data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18.0. Results: The prevalence of incidents was 33.8 per 1,000 hospitalizations, with an increase during the investigation period and higher frequency in hospitalization units, emergency room and surgical center. These occurred mostly with adult clients and relative to the medication supply chain. The main causes were noncompliance with routines/protocols, necessitating changes in routines and training. Conclusion: There was a considerable prevalence of incidents and increase in notifications during the period investigated, which requires the attention of managers and hospital staff. Nevertheless, we observed development of the patient safety culture.

  9. Quantum Yield of Reflection Mode Varied Doping GaN Photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jianliang


    Full Text Available Using the NEA photocathode activation and evaluation experiment system, the varied doping GaN photocathode has been activated and evaluated. According to the diffusion and orientation drifting equation, the quantum yield formula of reflection mode varied doping NEA GaN photocathode was gotten. The factors affecting the quantum efficiency of varied doping GaN photocathode were studied. For the varied doping GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency is mainly decided by the escape probability of electron P, he absorption coefficient α, the electron diffuse length LD, the reflectance of cathode materials for incident light R, emission layer thickness Te and the inside electric field E. The experiment and analysis results show: With the directional inside electric field in the bulk, the varied doping NEA GaN photocathode has better photoemission performance than uniform doping photocathode.

  10. Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986 (United States)

    Osantowski, John F. (Editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (Editor)


    Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

  11. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars


    Thirty two males and 39 females aged 31-50 were exposed for 7 h to one of the three following conditions: (1) Clean air, (2) constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene, or (3) a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. During exposure the subjects ex...

  12. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,


    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  13. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  14. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not ...

  15. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-


    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  16. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  17. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halos Lénaïg


    Full Text Available The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.

  18. Components in time-varying graphs. (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito


    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  19. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.


    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  20. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.


    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  1. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.


    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  2. Coupling Considerations in Assembly Language (United States)


    number of global variables used as control = number of modules called ( fan -out) = number of modules calling the module under consideration... fan -in) NAWCWD TP 8823 6 Distribution Statement A. These definitions are easy to understand in the environment of a HOL but need

  3. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff


    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  4. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.


    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, 'SAC-5, CSPC', (''3/4'') large, and (''3/8'') small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study

  5. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia


    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  6. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution. (United States)

    DeFraia, G S


    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  7. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review. (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree


    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  8. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung


    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.

  9. Real time freeway incident detection. (United States)


    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  10. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to unbalanced trade offs. In Denmark the strong decentralisation combined with a lacking demand on +/- hours limits for time banks without reference periods seems to impose risks for certain groups of employees who, regardless of company size, can have extraordinary long working hours violating the 48-hour rule...

  11. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.


    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  12. Risk adjusted receding horizon control of constrained linear parameter varying systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznaier, M.; Lagoa, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Li, X.


    In the past few years, control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems (LPV) has been the object of considerable attention, as a way of formalizing the intuitively appealing idea of gain scheduling control for nonlinear systems. However, currently available LPV techniques are both computationally

  13. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  14. Incidence and survival of gynecologic sarcomas in England. (United States)

    Francis, Matthew; Dennis, Nicola L; Hirschowitz, Lynn; Grimer, Robert; Poole, Jason; Lawrence, Gill; Nordin, Andy


    Gynecologic sarcomas account for approximately 3% to 4% of all gynecologic malignancies and are associated with poor outcomes compared with gynecologic carcinomas. The aim of this study is to report the incidence and survival rates of the main gynecologic sarcomas using national English cancer registration data. Records of gynecologic sarcomas diagnosed between 1985 and 2008 were extracted from the English National Cancer Data Repository. ICD-O3 morphology codes were used to assign tumor records to specific histologic subgroups. Incidence and 5-year relative survival rates were calculated. There were 5316 new cases of gynecologic sarcoma diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2008. Incidence rates increased significantly in the early 1990s, probably due to coding changes. Age-specific incidence rates were highest in women aged between 45 and 64 years. In the most recent period studied (2001-2008), incidence rates fluctuated between 8 and 9.6 per million. The most common anatomical site was the uterus (83% of all diagnoses), and the most common histologic diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (52% of all diagnoses). Overall 5-year relative survival increased significantly between 1985-1989 and 2000-2004, from 34% to 48%. Gynecologic sarcoma incidence rates have varied little since 1993, whereas survival has improved significantly. These results are consistent with previously published small series and case studies, and provide a more complete picture of gynecologic sarcoma incidence and survival patterns in England.

  15. Synchronization in an homogeneous, time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Zhang, Meirong


    This paper studies synchronization among identical agents that are coupled through a time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delay. Given an arbitrary upper bound for the delays, a controller design methodology without exact knowledge of the network topology is proposed so

  16. Considerations relating to the operation of PWRs after an incident or accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porecki, D.; Griffon, M.; Capel, R.


    All safety analysts are agreed that the main cause of the escalation of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident was that the operator failed to diagnose the situation correctly in the first hours of the accident. Human error contributed a great deal to the accident and the underlying reasons for this should be examined. Lack of understanding of the physical phenomena involved was clearly much to blame, but the operator's environment also played a substantial role. The TMI-2 accident serves as a reminder both to designers and operators of the importance of the ''man-machine interface''. Safety analysis should in future pay greater heed to problems arising during operation and to the prevention of human error. This paper summarizes the short- and medium-term steps taken by Electricite de France (EDF) in this direction with regard to the improvement of data processing and presentation, increased reliability of operator action, the training of operating personnel, operating experience feedback and current thinking on the man-machine interface. The company Framatome, the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and agencies which specialize in psychology and ergonomics are participating with EDF in this in-depth study. Increasing the reliability of operator action will be the subject of a special exposition dealing with diagnosis of accidents and post-accident behaviour. With regard to the latter, it is planned to update existing procedures and carry out a comprehensive review of their technical and formal presentation. (author)

  17. [The incidence of Frey syndrome following parotidectomy: results of a survey and follow-up]. (United States)

    Neumann, A; Rosenberger, D; Vorsprach, O; Dazert, S


    Frey's syndrome (FS) is defined as facial sweating due to gustatory stimuli following surgery or trauma of the parotid gland. Concomitant symptoms may occur in the area of the auriculotemporal nerve: swelling, facial flushing, and paresthesia. A misguided re-innervation of perspiratory glands by secretory parasympathetic fibres is likely responsible in the pathogenesis. The reported incidence in the literature varies considerably from 1.7% to 97.6%. The present study aims to clarify the incidence of FS. A questionnaire was sent to 221 consecutive patients who underwent parotidectomy between 07/2005 and 07/2008. No selection for type of parotidectomy or histological result was made. Patients were invited to undergo a follow-up examination including Minor's iodine starch test. A total of 135 of 221 (61%) questionnaires were available for evaluation. In all, 82 patients took part in the follow-up, with a follow-up period of 2.8 years (15-51 months). According to the questionnaire, 54% of patients claimed to be free of symptoms. Sweating following gustatory stimuli was reported by 23% of patients. Of the 82 Minor's tests performed, 62.2% were positive. All patients with subjective presence of FS had a positive Minor's test. In 27%, Minor's test was positive although patients did not suffer from facial sweating subjectively ("subclinical FS"). In all, 39% had no subjective complaints and Minor's test was also negative. Cases with a positive Minor's test showed no statistically significant relation to the patients' age, gender or to the histological diagnosis or type of parotidectomy. The clinical incidence of FS in our study is 23%, although a positive Minor's iodine starch test was observed in 62% of cases. Therefore, it seems justifiable to differentiate between a symptomatic or clinical FS and a merely asymptomatic or subclinical FS. No correlation was observed between epidemiological factors and the occurrence of FS. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  18. Ecoepidemiological and Social Factors Related to Rabies Incidence in Venezuela during 2002-2004 (United States)

    Rifakis, Pedro M.; Benitez, Jesus A.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Dickson, Sonia M.; De-La-Paz-Pineda, Jose


    Rabies in Venezuela has been important in last years, affecting dogs, cats, and human, among other animals, being a reportable disease. In Zulia state, it is considered a major public health concern. Recently, a considerable increase in the incidence of rabies has been occurring, involving many epidemiological but also ecoepidemiological and social factors. These factors are analyzed in this report. During 2002-2004, 416 rabies cases were recorded. Incidence has been increasingly significantly, affecting mainly dogs (88.94%). Given this epidemiology we associated ecoepidemiological and social factors with rabies incidence in the most affected state, Zulia. In this period 411 rabies cases were recorded. Zulia has varied environmental conditions. It is composed mostly of lowlands bordered in the west by mountain system and in the south by the Andes. The mean is temperature 27.8°C, and mean yearly rainfall is 750 mm. Climatologically, 2002 corresponded with El Niño (drought), middle 2003 evolved to a Neutral period, and 2004 corresponded to La Niña (rainy); this change may have affected many diseases, including rabies. Ecological analysis showed that most cases occurred in lowland area of the state and during rainy season (p<0.05). Additionally, there is an important social problem due to educational deficiencies in the native population. Many ethnic groups live un Zulia, many myths about rabies are in circulation, and the importance of the disease is not widely realized. The full scale of the rabies burden is unknown, owing to inadequate disease surveillance. Although there have been important advances in our knowledge and ability to diagnose and prevent it, enormous challenges remain in animal rabies control and provision of accessible-appropriate human prophylaxis worldwide. Human and animal surveillance including ecological and social factors is needed. PMID:23674960

  19. Periodontal considerations in older individuals. (United States)

    Darby, I


    In the next few years there will be a great increase in the percentage of the population aged over 65. Not only will they have more teeth than previous generations, but also a large number of implants. The increase in age is accompanied by an increase in the prevalence and incidence of periodontal diseases. In addition, there is a decrease in manual dexterity and an increase in co-morbidity and medications affecting the oral cavity. Dental care in aged care facilities can be poor and access to dental professionals difficult. This article discusses these issues. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.


    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  1. The Incidence Rate of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Urban Area of Iran: A Developing Country


    Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Dehghani, Masood; Shafiei pour, Sara; Zydabady nejad, Hamideh; Broumand, Kiekam


    BACKGROUND The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies among different societies. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of IBD in Kerman, a city in Southeast Iran. METHODS All medical records that indicated a new diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) were retrieved from the gastrointestinal endoscopy and pathology departments of 12 centers from October 2011 to September 2012. RESULTS The incidence rate of UC in Kerman was estimated at 4.9...

  2. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: A rapidly increasing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.


    Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The

  3. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero


    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  4. Association of Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) With Incident Clinical and Radiographic Vertebral Fractures Adjusted for Lumbar Spine BMD in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Taylor, Brent C; Cawthon, Peggy M; Schwartz, Ann V; Bauer, Douglas C; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E


    The association of trabecular bone score (TBS) with incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in older men is uncertain. TBS was estimated from baseline spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans for 5831 older men (mean age 73.7 years) enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association of TBS (per 1 SD decrease) with incident clinical vertebral fractures. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between TBS (per 1 SD decrease) and incident radiographic vertebral fracture among the subset of 4309 men with baseline and follow-up lateral spine radiographs (mean 4.6 years later). We also examined whether any associations varied by body mass index (BMI) category. TBS was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23 to 1.63) higher aged-adjusted odds of incident radiographic fracture, and this relationship did not vary by BMI (p value = 0.22 for interaction term). This association was no longer significant with further adjustment for lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD; odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.30). In contrast, the age-adjusted association of TBS with incident clinical vertebral fracture was stronger in men with lower BMI (≤ median value of 26.8 kg/m 2 ; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.28, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.87) than in men with higher BMI (> median; HR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p value = 0.0002 for interaction term). With further adjustment for lumbar spine BMD, the association of TBS with incident clinical vertebral fracture was substantially attenuated in both groups (HR = 1.30 [95% CI 0.99 to 1.72] among men with lower BMI and 1.11 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.41] among men with higher BMI). In conclusion, TBS is not associated with incident clinical or radiographic vertebral fracture after consideration of age and lumbar spine BMD, with the possible exception of incident clinical vertebral fracture among

  5. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G


    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  6. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  7. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  8. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why? (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott


    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  9. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011. (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe


    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  10. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan


    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  11. Traffic incident management resource management. (United States)


    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  12. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day) (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  13. Electrothermally Actuated Microbeams With Varying Stiffness

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle


    We present axially loaded clamped-guided microbeams that can be used as resonators and actuators of variable stiffness, actuation, and anchor conditions. The applied axial load is implemented by U-shaped electrothermal actuators stacked at one of the beams edges. These can be configured and wired in various ways, which serve as mechanical stiffness elements that control the operating resonance frequency of the structures and their static displacement. The experimental results have shown considerable increase in the resonance frequency and mid-point deflection of the microbeam upon changing the end conditions of the beam. These results can be promising for applications requiring large deflection and high frequency tunability, such as filters, memory devices, and switches. The experimental results are compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  14. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar


    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  15. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.


    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  16. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.


    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  17. Syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men in China: results from a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Guohong; Cao, Ya; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ming; Tang, Weiming; Li, Jianjun; Babu, Giridhara R; Jia, Yue; Huan, Xiping; Xu, Genxing; Yang, Haitao; Fu, Gengfeng; Li, Lei


    The recent upsurge of syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is one of the major challenges facing China. However, the overall burden is still not clear. This study aims to summarize the incidence of syphilis among MSM in China by using meta-analysis. We comprehensively searched PubMed-MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang databases. Articles published between December 2009 and March 2015 that met the inclusion criteria were considerably involved in this meta-analysis. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating the overall syphilis incidence. STATA 12.0 was used to summarize the overall incidence of syphilis. In all, 14 studies from 13 papers were included in this study. Follow-up duration of these studies ranged from six to 36 months, while drop-out rates ranged from 11.9% to 83.6%. The individual incidence rates of the included studies varied from 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) to 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), with a pooled incidence of 9.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-12.2/100 person-years). The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that incidence estimates were 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), 12.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-17.2/100 person-years), 11.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.7-23.1/100 person-years), 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI, 6.5-11.2/100 person-years), 5.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 3.4-8.0/100 person-years) and 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) in Northeast, North, Southwest, East, South and Northwest China, respectively. Syphilis incidence among Chinese MSM is high, and this may increase the spread of other sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. It is essential to integrate syphilis control programs with HIV control programs. This can be achieved by establishing public health response systems to monitor and control

  18. Asymptotics for incidence matrix classes


    Cameron, Peter; Prellberg, Thomas; Stark, Dudley


    We define {\\em incidence matrices} to be zero-one matrices with no zero rows or columns. A classification of incidence matrices is considered for which conditions of symmetry by transposition, having no repeated rows/columns, or identification by permutation of rows/columns are imposed. We find asymptotics and relationships for the number of matrices with $n$ ones in these classes as $n\\to\\infty$.

  19. Incidence Handling and Response System


    Kalbande, Prof. Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr. G. T.; Singh, Mr. Manish


    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. I...

  20. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015. (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris


    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  1. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  2. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  3. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, John


    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  4. Methodological Considerations in Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asghari


    Full Text Available What differentiates a scientific research study from a non-scientific one and makes it valid or non-valid is the research methodology. Methodological considerations, especially in studies such as gender studies, which are not generally covered in the framework of a special discipline, call for more precision and sensitivity due to their complicated nature and dimensions. Therefore, the present article, by examining the methodological aspects of the research carried out on the effect of the variable of gender on job satisfaction of faculty members and using qualitative approach and systematic review technique, tries to draw researchers’ attention to the necessity, importance and role of methodological considerations in making a deeper understanding and explanation of research possible, and providing a clear and precise answer in conformity with reality for problem-solving and fulfilling research objective. The findings of this study show that there are two main problems in the works of research studied here. One is ambiguity and lack of transparency in problem statement and research objective, and the other is tendency toward using a single (quantitative research method without paying attention to differences in the nature and dimensions of fields of research. It seems that in fields such as gender studies, in order to gain a deeper understanding and a more valid and clear answer, adopting a combined approach will be a more reliable choice.

  5. Considerations for climate intervention research (United States)

    Duren, R. M.


    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  6. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk


    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  7. Predicting the incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Finland with time series analysis. (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Hemilä, Harri; Mise, Keiji; Kobayashi, Nobumichi


    Human campylobacteriosis is a common bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we tested whether spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) is useful in predicting the incidence of campylobacteriosis in five provinces in Finland, which has been accumulating good quality incidence data under the surveillance program for water- and food-borne infections. On the basis of the spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data in the years 2000-2005. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated by using the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. We extrapolated the LSF curve to the years 2006 and 2007 and predicted the incidence of campylobacteriosis. Our study suggests that MEM spectral analysis allows us to model temporal variations of the disease incidence with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than using the Fourier model, which has been previously used for modeling seasonally varying incidence data.

  8. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  9. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO


    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  10. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.


    A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth, but oth......A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth...... is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...

  11. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  12. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS


    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  13. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis G. Gerwing


    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females suffered from self-reported TA at some point over the course of their university career. The prevalence of TA varied by faculty, with the highest incidence among those students enrolled concurrently in Arts and Science, and Nursing students. While student perceptions varied by age, sex, and experience with TA, one third of students expressed negative and inaccurate views about TA. These negative perceptions may explain why 11.3% of surveyed students indicated they would not seek help for their TA as, for many, to do so would make them seem weak in the eyes of their colleagues. Further, 20.5% of students surveyed reported that they believe professors would be unable or unwilling to help. It may be the case that this negative perception towards TA makes it difficult for faculty and helping professionals to identify and intervene effectively. Faculty specific educational campaigns designed to educate students about TA, in particular about its prevalence and severity, are suggested as a method to circumvent the negative stigma surrounding this condition. Implementation of such educational policies will likely improve the educational experience and performance of students with TA, as well as improve student retention.

  14. Incidence of Aflatoxin in California Almonds (United States)

    Schade, J. E.; McGreevy, K.; King, A. D.; Mackey, B.; Fuller, G.


    In a survey of California almonds, aflatoxin was found in 14% of 74 samples of unsorted, in-shell almonds as received by the processor in 1972, but it occurred at very low levels (below 20 parts per billion [ppb]) in 90% of the contaminated samples. The overall proportion of individual nuts contaminated was especially low and is estimated with 95% probability to have been in the range of 1 nut/55,300 nuts to 1 nut/14,700 nuts. Aflatoxin contamination is not restricted to any particular section of the almond-growing region of California. Commercial sorting procedures are effective in removing most aflatoxin-contaminated nutmeats, since none of 26 samples of processed, whole nutmeats contained aflatoxin. In contrast, 13 of 27 samples of diced almonds were contaminated, but nine of these 13 samples contained less than 20 ppb. Only one of 25 samples of sliced nutmeats contained aflatoxin (4 ppb). Thus, aflatoxin incidence in almonds varies greatly with the category of finished product. The apparent high incidence in diced nutmeats is probably due mostly to the more uniform distribution of aflatoxin occurring in this product (because of its small particle size) than that occurring in the other products. Sample size requirements for monitoring aflatoxin in almonds are discussed. PMID:1110492

  15. Venous Thromboembolism Incidence After Craniofacial Surgery. (United States)

    Omesiete, Wilson I; Walker, James A; Yu, Jack C


    Current protocols for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after craniofacial surgery (CFS) vary widely with substantial disagreements in both indications and managements. An evidence-based approach to this issue requires the following: the incidence of postoperative VTE, comorbidities associated with coagulopathy, risk reduction after VTE prophylaxis, and complications attributable to prophylaxis. This study addresses the first two. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Discharge data from 64,170 patients undergoing CFS between 2008 and 2013 extracted from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. The outcome measures extracted were: deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, demographic data, common comorbidities, length of stay, total cost, and discharge outcome. Diagnoses of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, collectively classified as VTE, were observed in 355 (0.55%) of 64,170 patients discharged after CFS. Other surgeries exhibited a VTE rate of 1.17%. Men exhibited nearly double the incidence of VTE relative to women (0.69% compared with 0.37% respectively, P use did not exhibit any significant association (odds ratio, 0.94; P = 0.679). Afflicted patients experienced 4.60 times longer hospital stays averaging 23.8 days (95% confidence interval, 21.4-26.2; P use of VTE chemoprophylaxis is appropriate.

  16. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: intensity considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, E.F.; Elam, W.T.; Qadri, S.B.; Webb, A.W.; Schiferl, D.


    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity. 13 refs., 7 figs

  17. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay


    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  18. Anesthetic considerations for interventional pulmonary procedures. (United States)

    Pawlowski, John


    To discuss the anesthetic considerations of various procedures now performed by the interventional pulmonologist. With recent technological advances, many of these procedures represent acceptable alternatives to the invasive surgical procedures. For example, the placement of endobronchial valves can substitute for lung reduction surgery and can greatly reduce the postoperative recovery period. However, many of these complex procedures require anesthesia services. The nature and indication for the procedure as well as the patient's overall health will have an impact on the anesthetic choice. New studies have documented common complications from interventional pulmonology procedures and recent ways to avoid these complications have been suggested. Strategies to avoid obstruction, bleeding, pneumothorax and air embolism are discussed in this article. Potential benefits of high frequency jet ventilation in reducing airway pressures and, perhaps, barotraumas are cited. Novel interventional pulmonary procedures are described. As the array of diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary interventions is expanding, the types of anesthetic techniques and ventilatory modes are varying to fit the procedural requirements. Some pulmonary procedures are best accomplished in the lightly sedated patient, who is breathing spontaneously, whereas procedures that use the working channel of a rigid bronchoscope are better performed in the patient under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation that often use jet ventilation to minimize respiratory movements.

  19. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations. (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana


    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
. (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira


    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  1. Nutritional considerations after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Elliot, Kelly


    Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.

  2. Information sharing for traffic incident management. (United States)


    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  3. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population (United States)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K.; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.


    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1–5 was defined as eGFR30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3–5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1–5 and CKD stages 3–5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1–5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3–5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  4. Literature review on medical incident command. (United States)

    Rimstad, Rune; Braut, Geir Sverre


    It is not known what constitutes the optimal emergency management system, nor is there a consensus on how effectiveness and efficiency in emergency response should be measured or evaluated. Literature on the role and tasks of commanders in the prehospital emergency services in the setting of mass-casualty incidents has not been summarized and published. This comprehensive literature review addresses some of the needs for future research in emergency management through three research questions: (1) What are the basic assumptions underlying incident command systems (ICSs)? (2) What are the tasks of ambulance and medical commanders in the field? And (3) How can field commanders' performances be measured and assessed? A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center, Current Controlled Trials, and PROSPERO covering January 1, 1990 through March 1, 2014 was conducted. Reference lists of included literature were hand searched. Included papers were analyzed using Framework synthesis. The literature search identified 6,049 unique records, of which, 76 articles and books where included in qualitative synthesis. Most ICSs are described commonly as hierarchical, bureaucratic, and based on military principles. These assumptions are contested strongly, as is the applicability of such systems. Linking of the chains of command in cooperating agencies is a basic difficulty. Incident command systems are flexible in the sense that the organization may be expanded as needed. Commanders may command by direction, by planning, or by influence. Commanders' tasks may be summarized as: conducting scene assessment, developing an action plan, distributing resources, monitoring operations, and making decisions. There is considerable variation between authors in nomenclature and what tasks are included or highlighted

  5. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran


    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  6. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma. (United States)

    DeFraia, Gary S


    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  7. Honeybee odometry: performance in varying natural terrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Tautz


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that, when bees fly to a food source through a varying outdoor landscape, their waggle dances would depend upon the nature of the terrain experienced en route. We trained honeybees to visit feeders positioned along two routes, each 580 m long. One route was exclusively over land. The other was initially over land, then over water and, finally, again over land. Flight over water resulted in a significantly flatter slope of the waggle-duration versus distance regression, compared to flight over land. The mean visual contrast of the scenes was significantly greater over land than over water. The results reveal that, in outdoor flight, the honeybee's odometer does not run at a constant rate; rather, the rate depends upon the properties of the terrain. The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably.

  8. Varying coefficients model with measurement error. (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom


    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  9. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya


    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  10. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows. (United States)

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin


    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  11. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.


    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  12. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles. (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk


    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ... (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  14. Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotheraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Andre, L.; Georg, D.; Hodapp, N.


    Aims and purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Results: Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course. (orig.)

  15. Incidence of scabies in Belgium (United States)



    SUMMARY A prospective survey on scabies in Ghent, Belgium was performed in 2004. Sixty-four individual cases were reported, corresponding to a crude incidence rate of 28/100 000 inhabitants. The incidence was higher in the elderly (51/100 000 in persons aged >75 years) and a higher incidence was also found in immigrants (88/100 000). More than 40% of the registered scabies patients had symptoms for more than 4 weeks at the time of presentation. In 54% of the consultations, the patient had already consulted a physician for his/her skin problem. Of this group, 44% had not yet received any scabicidal treatment, indicating that scabies was not yet diagnosed or that an inappropriate treatment was prescribed. The observations suggest that the diagnosis and/or treatment of scabies in this region can still be improved. PMID:17506916

  16. Lead poisoning--Part I. Incidence, etiology, and toxicokinetics. (United States)

    Philip, A T; Gerson, B


    In summary, we review the recent and not so recent but lesser known information on lead poisoning. We review the incidence of lead poisoning and find that no one is really safe from its effects. We have also examined the many and varied sources of lead poisoning, and critically review the ubiquitous ways in which lead enters the body and is eventually dealt with in the body.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Diabetes


    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Sattar, Naveed


    OBJECTIVE?Our objective was to perform a quantitative review of prospective studies examining the association between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Using the title terms ?diabetes? and ?metabolic syndrome? in PubMed, we searched for articles published since 1998. RESULTS?Based on the results from 16 cohorts, we performed a meta-analysis of estimates of relative risk (RR) and incident diabetes. The random-effects summary RRs were 5.17 (95% CI 3.99?6....

  18. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.


    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  20. Stability of stationary and time-varying nongyrotropic particle distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Brinca

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of nongyrotropic particle populations in space plasmas warrants the study of their characteristics, in particular their stability. The unperturbed nongyrotropic distribution functions in homogeneous media without sources and sinks (closed phase space must be rotating and time-varying (TNG, whereas consideration of open phase spaces allows for the occurrence of homogeneous and stationary distributions (SNG. The free energy brought about by the introduction of gyrophase organization in a particle population can destabilize otherwise thoroughly stable magnetoplasmas (or, a fortiori, enhance pre-existing gyrotropic instabilities and feed intense wave growth both in TNG and SNG environments: The nongyrotropic (electron or ion species can originate unstable coupling among the gyrotropic characteristic waves. The stability properties of these two types of homogeneous nongyrotropy shall be contrasted for parallel (with respect to the ambient magnetic field and perpendicular propagation, and their potential role as wave activity sources shall be illustrated resorting to solutions of the appropriate dispersion equations and numerical simulations.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities · Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities · Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence

  1. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.


    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac


    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  3. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir


    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  4. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian


    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  5. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California


    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surfaces top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  6. [Incidence of melanoma and changes in stage-specific incidence after implementation of skin cancer screening in Schleswig-Holstein]. (United States)

    Eisemann, N; Waldmann, A; Katalinic, A


    A pilot project in skin cancer screening (SCREEN) was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein from July 2003 to June 2004. Although the impact of this screening on the stage-specific incidence of melanoma is of great importance for screening evaluation, it remains unknown. In theory, an effective skin cancer screening program should result in a medium-term incidence decrease of melanomas with a prognostically unfavorable stage. This is studied on a population-based level by using cancer registry data. Based on data from the Cancer Registry of Schleswig-Holstein for 1999-2009, stage-specific (T-category of the TNM-classification system) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. After implementation of the SCREEN project, the incidence of prognostically favorable melanomas (in situ and T1) was higher than before, while the incidence of advanced melanomas (T2, T3, and for women also T4) decreased considerably. The classification of tumor stages changed during the project period, which may have contributed to an artificial decrease of the stages with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement with the observed decrease of melanoma mortality in the screening region.

  7. Structure of phase matrices of light scattering particles derived from symmetry considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Hovenier


    Full Text Available Symmetry considerations are used to deduce equations from which the main structure of the phase matrix of one or more light scattering particles is derived for special directions of incident and scattered light. For this purpose we use symmetry relations with a wide range of validity, as well as rotational symmetry about a vertical axis in a three dimensional coordinate system.

  8. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of an...

  9. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area for...

  10. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However...

  11. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  12. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  13. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 331.4... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.4 Special consideration. When an entire industry that... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the entire...

  14. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following order...

  15. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  16. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.


    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  17. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.


    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  18. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah


    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  19. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review. (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen


    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Incidência do carcinoma de células escamosas da pele na cidade de Tubarão (SC - Brasil nos anos de 2000, 2003 e 2006 Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in the city of Tubarao (SC - Brazil in the years 2000, 2003, and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Holthausen Nunes


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Observa-se tendência mundial de aumento na incidência do carcinoma de células escamosas da pele, porém na região sul do estado de Santa Catarina (SC não há dados sobre a incidência desse tipo de câncer. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer dados epidemiológicos do carcinoma de células escamosas da pele em Tubarão (Santa Catarina. MÉTODOS: Laudos anatomopatológicos positivos para o carcinoma de células escamosas da pele dos laboratórios de Tubarão foram revisados quanto às variáveis: ano, idade, gênero, localização, subtipo histológico, maior diâmetro da lesão e comprometimento das margens. A incidência anual foi calculada utilizando o número de neoplasias encontradas e a população anual estimada para os anos de 2000, 2003 e 2006. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada uma incidência de carcinoma de células escamosas da pele por 100.000 habitantes de 50,86 para o ano de 2000, de 71,16 para 2003 e de 94,39 para 2006. Não houve predomínio de gênero, a face foi o local de acometimento mais frequente em ambos os gêneros e o subtipo histológico mais comum foi o bem diferenciado. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência do carcinoma de células escamosas da pele encontrada superou a estimativa da literatura consultada. Houve aumento na sua incidência; as variáveis idade, localização e tipo histológico foram concordantes com a literatura, porém a distribuição quanto ao gênero se mostrou diferente.BACKGROUND: A worldwide increasing trend in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin has been observed but there are no studies regarding the incidence of this cancer in the Southern region of the State of Santa Catarina. OBJECTIVES: To establish epidemiological data regarding squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Tubarao (state of Santa Catarina. METHODS: Anatomopathological reports, positive for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, found in laboratories of the city of Tubarao, were analyzed regarding year, age, gender, site

  1. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study. (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P


    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.


    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  3. [Methodological considerations concerning peripheral nerve morphometry]. (United States)

    Cuadras, J; Butí, M; Calvet, S; Verdú, E; Navarro, X


    Morphometric studies of the peripheral nerve often present widely varying results which, in part at least, may be attributed to the different methodologies used. Two questions may be of importance with regard to the reliability of such results: the preselection of fibres according to their morphology and the method used in quantifying observations. In this work a morphological study was carried out on the myelinated fibres of the sciatic nerve of a rat in order to evaluate fibre selection criteria. A morphometric analysis was also performed using manual measurements, image digitalisation and surveying, and automatic image analysis. It was shown that morphological variability of transverse section fibres is considerable and that, really, the proportion of circular fibres with homogeneous compact myelin is only 50 to 70%, from which we can conclude that the selection of fibres carried out in some studies wishing to eliminate abnormal fibres is somewhat exaggerated. By analysing the fibres using various methods significant differences appear, some due to the fact that distinct methods may be used to calculate the same parameters in a different way. The most reliable parameters would appear to be those which do not depend on the shape of the fibres and those which automatic or semiautomatic methods can calculate directly such as areas and perimeters. In any case quantifying methods seem hardly discriminatory and the differences between methods disappear if analyses are carried out using random samples. Preselection of fibres appears unnecessary in this context as in no case are the results altered. Finally we suggest finishing quantitative analyses with qualitative studies which would permit getting more information especially useful in cases of ageing, regeneration or pathological studies.

  4. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations. (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H


    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  5. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children. (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies


    Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human-mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  6. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad


    Full Text Available Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human–mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. Principal findings: The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Conclusions: Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  7. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  8. Employer Requirements to Work during Emergency Responses: Key Ethics Considerations. (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Taylor, Holly A; Powell, Tia


    Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work. After describing different approaches taken by local health departments throughout the United States, we briefly identify and explore key ethics considerations that arise for local health departments when employees are required to report to work for emergency responses. We then discuss how these ethics considerations may inform local health department practices intended to promote a robust emergency response.

  9. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.


    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  10. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  11. Incidents malignant neoplasias maxillofacial area. (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Haddad, Marcela Filié; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéres Alves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza


    Cancer is regarded as abnormal cellular multiplication; it is not controlled by the organism, and its cells present a differentiated DNA. Initially, the disease does not show clinical signs, but it can be diagnosed by laboratory examinations. When tumors are present in the maxillofacial area, the carrier can lose structures in this area, resulting to the carrier's social environment exclusion. This article aims to show incidences and causes of malignant neoplasias in the maxillofacial area.

  12. [Familial incidence of Crohn disease]. (United States)

    Bürger, L; Karoff, C; Wagner, H


    This study reports about the frequent incidence of Crohn's disease in four families. This evidence in confirmed by literature. Relatives of patients with Crohn's disease are ten times more likely to suffer from that disease than those of healthy families. Familial accumulation of Crohn's disease can possibly be explained by genetic factors. Other factors like autoimmunological processes, infections, overnutrition and deficient composition of alimentation with refined carbohydrates might start Crohn's diseases in these families.

  13. Statistical considerations on safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, L.; Makai, M.


    The authors have investigated the statistical methods applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors and arrived at alarming conclusions: a series of calculations with the generally appreciated safety code ATHLET were carried out to ascertain the stability of the results against input uncertainties in a simple experimental situation. Scrutinizing those calculations, we came to the conclusion that the ATHLET results may exhibit chaotic behavior. A further conclusion is that the technological limits are incorrectly set when the output variables are correlated. Another formerly unnoticed conclusion of the previous ATHLET calculations that certain innocent looking parameters (like wall roughness factor, the number of bubbles per unit volume, the number of droplets per unit volume) can influence considerably such output parameters as water levels. The authors are concerned with the statistical foundation of present day safety analysis practices and can only hope that their own misjudgment will be dispelled. Until then, the authors suggest applying correct statistical methods in safety analysis even if it makes the analysis more expensive. It would be desirable to continue exploring the role of internal parameters (wall roughness factor, steam-water surface in thermal hydraulics codes, homogenization methods in neutronics codes) in system safety codes and to study their effects on the analysis. In the validation and verification process of a code one carries out a series of computations. The input data are not precisely determined because measured data have an error, calculated data are often obtained from a more or less accurate model. Some users of large codes are content with comparing the nominal output obtained from the nominal input, whereas all the possible inputs should be taken into account when judging safety. At the same time, any statement concerning safety must be aleatory, and its merit can be judged only when the probability is known with which the

  14. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations. (United States)

    Welshman, A


    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  15. Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Mahmud, S.; Ali, S.; Dogar, S.A.


    Objective: To determine the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in hospital born babies. Subjects and Methods: All live born infants delivered at the hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were included in the study. Results: Ninety-four neonates developed RDS. Out of these, 88 (93.61%) were preterm and 06 (6.38%) were term infants. There was a male preponderance (65.95%). RDS was documented in 1.72% of total live births. 37.28% of preterm and 0.11% of term neonates born at the hospital. The incidence of RDS was 100% at 26 or less weeks of gestation, 57.14% at 32 weeks, and 3.70% at 36 weeks. The mortality with RDS was 41 (43.61%). Conclusion: RDS is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants. It carries a high mortality rate and the incidence is more than that documented in the Western world. (author)

  16. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas]. (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián


    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  17. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in Germany: results from an emergency medical service registry in Lower Saxony (United States)

    Martens, Eimo; Sinner, Moritz F.; Siebermair, Johannes; Raufhake, Carsten; Beckmann, Britt M.; Veith, Stefan; Düvel, Dieter; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Kääb, Stefan


    Aims Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the most common causes of death in western countries including Germany. Whereas risk stratification and primary prevention is still insufficient, we also lack accurate incidence estimates. Current estimates vary widely (18.6–128/100 000/year), but data on SCD incidence in Germany are missing. Depending on SCD definitions, death needs to occur between 1 and 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Methods and results In the district of Aurich (190 000 inhabitants, Lower Saxony, Germany), emergency medical service (EMS) is provided by a district government operated single carrier and two hospitals. To evaluate all EMS calls in this district from 2002 to 2009, we obtained EMS protocols, medical records, and death certificates for data analysis and adjudication of SCD. We defined SCD according to the definition of the World Health Organization, considering patients with cardiac arrest within ≤1 h after the onset of symptoms. We also required cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed by EMS personnel. The overall mortality rate in the district of Aurich (1060/100 000/year) corresponded well with the average mortality rate in Germany (1030/100 000/year). During the observation period, we adjudicated 1212 SCD cases, equivalent to an annual rate of 151 SCD cases (81 cases/100 000/year). Rates remained remarkably stable over time, and affected a considerable number of individuals of working age (32/100 000/year). Conclusion Consistent with prior reports, the SCD incidence in a district of Germany is substantial. Despite an elaborate EMS system and advanced medical care, SCD rates remain stable and necessitate improved, individualized risk stratification. PMID:25061228

  18. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in Germany: results from an emergency medical service registry in Lower Saxony. (United States)

    Martens, Eimo; Sinner, Moritz F; Siebermair, Johannes; Raufhake, Carsten; Beckmann, Britt M; Veith, Stefan; Düvel, Dieter; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Kääb, Stefan


    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the most common causes of death in western countries including Germany. Whereas risk stratification and primary prevention is still insufficient, we also lack accurate incidence estimates. Current estimates vary widely (18.6-128/100,000/year), but data on SCD incidence in Germany are missing. Depending on SCD definitions, death needs to occur between 1 and 24 h after the onset of symptoms. In the district of Aurich (190,000 inhabitants, Lower Saxony, Germany), emergency medical service (EMS) is provided by a district government operated single carrier and two hospitals. To evaluate all EMS calls in this district from 2002 to 2009, we obtained EMS protocols, medical records, and death certificates for data analysis and adjudication of SCD. We defined SCD according to the definition of the World Health Organization, considering patients with cardiac arrest within ≤1 h after the onset of symptoms. We also required cardiopulmonary resuscitation being performed by EMS personnel. The overall mortality rate in the district of Aurich (1060/100,000/year) corresponded well with the average mortality rate in Germany (1030/100,000/year). During the observation period, we adjudicated 1212 SCD cases, equivalent to an annual rate of 151 SCD cases (81 cases/100,000/year). Rates remained remarkably stable over time, and affected a considerable number of individuals of working age (32/100,000/year). Consistent with prior reports, the SCD incidence in a district of Germany is substantial. Despite an elaborate EMS system and advanced medical care, SCD rates remain stable and necessitate improved, individualized risk stratification. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in Denmark: a nationwide register-based study of mortality, prevalence and incidence (United States)

    Vaeth, Signe; Vaeth, Michael; Andersen, Henning; Christensen, Rikke; Jensen, Uffe Birk


    Objectives Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system, yet no studies have compared the mortality in patients with CMT with that of the general population, and prevalence estimates vary considerably. We performed a nationwide register-based study to investigate the prevalence, incidence and mortality of CMT in Denmark. Design We used the Danish National Patient Registry to select all records with primary diagnostic codes for CMT between 1977 and 2012 given at a neurological, neurophysiological, paediatric or clinical genetic clinic. The prevalence was estimated by 31 December 2012, and the incidence rate was calculated based on data from 1988 to 2012. We calculated a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and an absolute excess mortality rate (AER) stratified according to age categories and disease duration. Results A total of 1534 patients (652 women) were identified. The prevalence proportion was 22.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 21.2 to 23.7) and the incidence rate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.04) per 100 000 person-years. The SMR was 1.36 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.53), and the AER was 4.87 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 2.77 to 6.96). We found a significantly higher SMR in cases below 50 years of age, and in cases with disease duration of more than 10 years. Conclusions We found a reduced life expectancy among patients diagnosed with CMT. To our knowledge, this is the first study of CMT to use nationwide register-based data, and the first to report an SMR and an AER. PMID:29101144

  20. Development of Incident Report Database for Organizational Learning (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Abe, Tomotaka; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Makinouchi, Akifumi

    The necessity of an incident reporting system has recently been increasing for hospitals. Japan Council for Quality Health Care (JCQHC) started operating a national incident reporting system to which domestic hospitals would report their incidents. However, the reporting system obtained an additional problem for the hospitals. They managed their own systems which collected reports by papers. The purposes of the reporting systems was to analyze considerable causes involved in incidents to improve the quality of patient safety management. On the contrary, the national reporting system aimed at collecting a statistical tendency of normal incidents. Simultaneously operating the two systems would be too much workload for safety managers. The load may have the managers rest only a short time for summarizing occurrences, not enough for analyzing their causes. However, to the authors' knowledge, there has not been an integrating policy of the two forms to adapt them to practical situations in patient safety management. The scope of this paper is to establish the integrated form in order to use in analyzing the causes of incidents as well as reporting for the national system. We have developed new data base system using XML + XSLT and Java Servlet. The developed system is composed of three computers; DB server , DB client and Data sending server. To investigate usability of the developed system, we conducted a monitoring test by real workers in reporting workplaces. The result of subjective evaluations by examinees was so preferable for the developed system. The results of usability test and the achievement of increasing the number of reports after the introduction can demonstrate the enough effectiveness of the developed system for supporting the activity of patient safety management.

  1. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar


    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  2. Attributing varying ENSO amplitudes in climate model ensembles (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Kug, J.-S.; Jin, F.-F.; Collins, M.; Ohba, M.; Wittenberg, A.


    Realistic simulation of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which has a great impact on the global weather and climate, is of primary importance in the coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. Nevertheless, the ENSO amplitude is known to vary considerably in a multi-model ensemble (MME) archived in the coupled model inter-comparison project phase 3 (CMIP3). Given a large uncertainty in the atmospheric processes having a substantial influence to the models' ENSO intensity, we constructed physics parameter ensembles (PPEs) based on four climate models (two of them are included in the CMIP5 archive) in which parameters in the atmospheric parameterization schemes have been perturbed. Analysis to the 33-member PPEs reveals a positive relationship between the ENSO amplitude and the mean precipitation over the eastern equatorial Pacific in each model. This relationship is explained by the mean state difference controling the ENSO activity but not by the ENSO rectification of the mean state. The wetter mean state in the eastern equatorial Pacific favors an eastward shift in the equatorial zonal wind stress response to El Niño/La Niña, which acts to increase the ENSO amplitude due to enhanced coupled instability. Such a relationship, however, cannot be seen in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 MMEs, indicating that the above mechanism does not explain the diversity in ENSO amplitude across the models. Yet, ensemble historical runs available for some of the CMIP5 models show the positive relationship between the ENSO amplitude and the mean precipitation, providing a useful insight into the ENSO changes under the global warming in individual models.

  3. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome. (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H


    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  4. Estimating the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, A. H.; Ivarsson, S.; Lofdahl, M.


    of gastroenteritis. For the 27 EU member states the incidence of campylobacteriosis was about 9.2 (95 % CI 2.8-23) million cases, while the incidence of salmonellosis was 6.2 (95 % CI 1.0-19) million cases. Only 1/47 (95 % CI 14-117) cases of campylobacteriosis and one 1/58 (95 % CI 9-172) cases of salmonellosis...... were reported in the EU. The incidence rate of campylobacteriosis in EU member states varied between 30 and 13 500/100 000 population and was significantly correlated with the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens. The incidence rate of salmonellosis in EU member states varied between 16...

  5. Incidence and short-term consequences of delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective observational cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, M.W. van den; Schoonhoven, L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Pickkers, P.


    BACKGROUND: Delirium is a serious and frequent psycho-organic disorder in critically ill patients. Reported incidence rates vary to a large extent and there is a paucity of data concerning delirium incidence rates for the different subgroups of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their short-term

  6. Incidence and short-term consequences of delirium in critically ill patients : A prospective observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Schoonhoven; Hans van der Hoeven; Theo van Achterberg; Peter Pickkers; Mark van den Boogaard


    Delirium is a serious and frequent psycho-organic disorder in critically ill patients. Reported incidence rates vary to a large extent and there is a paucity of data concerning delirium incidence rates for the different subgroups of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and their short-term health

  7. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper


    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  8. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: Lessons from Incident Reports (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Null, Cynthia


    An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies.

  9. Trend in the Age-Adjusted Incidence of Hip Fractures in South Korea: Systematic Review. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Moon, Kyung Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi


    The incidence of hip fractures has been reported to vary geographically, and its trend has also varied widely. However, the trend in the age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures has not been well studied in Korea. After we identified eligible studies presenting multiple age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures in the Korean population in PubMed, we evaluated changes in the absolute number of occurrence and calculated the annual percentage change (APC) of age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures. We have searched PubMed for the original and English-language literature on the incidence of hip fractures in the Korean population published since 2000. The studies presenting multiple age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures were selected. We evaluated the change in the absolute number of hip fractures and calculated the APC of age-adjusted incidences of hip fractures for each study. Three eligible articles were identified. The absolute number of hip fractures for both genders increased over time in all three studies although the operational definition of hip fracture differed from one another. The APC of the age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures was positive for women and negative for men. However, the change was not statistically significant in both genders during each study period (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2006-2010, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures was stable among men and women, while the absolute number of hip fractures increased for both genders in Korea. Further studies with longer study periods on age-adjusted incidences are required to better determine the trend in the incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

  10. Dynamic prediction of cumulative incidence functions by direct binomial regression. (United States)

    Grand, Mia K; de Witte, Theo J M; Putter, Hein


    In recent years there have been a series of advances in the field of dynamic prediction. Among those is the development of methods for dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function in a competing risk setting. These models enable the predictions to be updated as time progresses and more information becomes available, for example when a patient comes back for a follow-up visit after completing a year of treatment, the risk of death, and adverse events may have changed since treatment initiation. One approach to model the cumulative incidence function in competing risks is by direct binomial regression, where right censoring of the event times is handled by inverse probability of censoring weights. We extend the approach by combining it with landmarking to enable dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function. The proposed models are very flexible, as they allow the covariates to have complex time-varying effects, and we illustrate how to investigate possible time-varying structures using Wald tests. The models are fitted using generalized estimating equations. The method is applied to bone marrow transplant data and the performance is investigated in a simulation study. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  12. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases. (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia


    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease. (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M


    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

  15. The incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods and its effect in political legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby CORDOVA


    Full Text Available This article explores how the incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods erodes trust in the national government. The results show that the levels of trust in the national government vary from one neighborhood to another, depending on their vulnerability to gang generated insecurity. In addition, this article demonstrates that, in neighborhoods with high gang incidence, crime victims and non-victims show similar and low levels of trust in the national government.

  16. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.


    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  17. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B. [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d`Heres. (France)


    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  18. Management of Gynecomastia in Patients With Different Body Types: Considerations on 312 Consecutive Treated Cases. (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; Melita, Dario; Mori, Francesco; Ciancio, Francesco; Innocenti, Marco


    Gynecomastia is a common finding in male subjects which incidence varies widely in the world population. In adolescents, it is frequently temporary but, if it becomes persistent, it generates considerable embarrassment, inducing the patients to seek surgical consultation. Even in patients with good body contour, gynecomastia creates even greater distress considering the special attention given by these subjects to their physical appearance. The authors present their experience in the treatment of gynecomastia comparing different body types of patients with the aim to investigate dissimilar expectations, needs and surgical outcomes thus optimizing the management of the pathological condition, achieving high levels of agreement and reducing unsatisfied patients arising from cosmetic surgery. Between January 2007 and January 2015, 312 selected patients have been treated surgically for gynecomastia. Patients were grouped according to their physical aspect: 97 were classified as high muscle mass body type (group A), 106 as normal (group B) and 109 as overweight patients (group C). All of them were adults ranging in age between 18 and 52 years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 60 months. In all cases, an excision of the gland in the form of a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed; the most common surgical access was in the inferior part of the areola. No breast cancers were found at the histological examinations. Also, no skin or areola necrosis have been referred, and no recurrence of gynecomastia disorder has been reported. Six cases of seroma (limited to the fatty gynecomastia) and 3 cases of hematomas (requiring immediate surgical revision) were found. Although the patients in group B resulted more distressed by the disorder, higher levels of postoperative satisfaction were recorded in this group. The study demonstrates the importance of the different management of the same disorder according to the different patients' expectations, related to the different body type. Our

  19. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.


    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  20. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  1. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller


    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  2. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  3. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality. (United States)

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang


    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  4. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller


    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  5. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations. (United States)


    ... research activities would violate any of the antitrust laws. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4... Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of...

  6. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN


    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  8. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  9. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.


    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  10. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is...

  11. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.


    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  12. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  13. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations. (United States)


    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations. (United States)


    ... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703...

  15. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008 (United States)

    Chen, Wan-qing; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; Li, Ni; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guang-lin; Wu, Liang-you


    cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreas cancer, which accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum varied by areas and sex in rural areas, cancers from digestive system were more common, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, while incidence rates of lung cancer and colorectal cancer were much higher in urban areas. In addition, breast cancer was the most common cancer in urban women followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Conclusion Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and female breast cancer contributed to the increased incidence of cancer, which should be paid more attention to in further national cancer prevention and control program. Different cancer control strategies should be carried out due to the varied cancer spectrum in different groups. PMID:23359321

  16. Parkinson's disease incidence: magnitude, comparability, time trends. (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Stawiarz, L


    In this study, we reviewed incidence surveys of Parkinson's Disease (PD) from all over the world, published during the period 1945-1989, using reported quality criteria. In addition, we compared age-specific PD incidences from selected observations by stratified analysis. Crude incidences were described for 11 populations, and age-specific incidences for three of them: Iceland, Rochester (Minn, USA), and Turku (Finland). Effect modification by age was detected: a) by comparing incidences by age at diagnosis with incidence by age at clinical disease onset; and b) when only data on onset of disease was computed. For disease onsets, the incidences in Rochester for the period 1955-1966, and in Turku (Finland) during the interval 1968-1970, were lower than that in Iceland for the period 1958-1960: RR = 0.58 95% CI (0.41, 0.83), and RR = 0.67 95% CI (0.51, 0.87), respectively. For the Rochester population aged 40-69 years, a statistically significant 56% decrease in the incidences of Parkinsonism onsets during the period 1945-1966 was found. Validity problems in comparing PD incidences and the role of PD underdiagnosis were emphasized. We concluded that: a) stratified analysis is more suitable than standardization when comparing incidences for etiological purposes; b) the incidence of PD was highest in Iceland; and c) in Rochester, PD incidence under the age of 70 decreased with time.

  17. Dependance of sputtering yield on incident angle for ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Hironori; Ooba, Hikaru; Masuhara, Kenichi


    The relationship between sputtering yeild (S/sub theta/) and the incident angle (theta) of an ion beam to some metals such as Fe, Ni, Zn and SUS304, was studied by Ion Micro Analyzer (IMA). It was confirmed that S/sub theta/ varied as a function of (costheta)/sup -f/. The value of f was differed with each sample, and ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 in this study. As theta increased, the surface roughness of the sputtered samples became greater, and the depth resolution of the depth profile became worse. It is necessary to pay attention to depth resolution, when various data concerning different incident angles are compared.

  18. The incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK: a general population-based study


    Bhayat, Fatima; Das-Gupta, Emma; Smith, Chris; McKeever, Tricia; Hubbard, Richard


    Abstract Background The acute and chronic leukaemias constitute about 2.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies and kill over 4000 people/year in the UK, yet there is little accurate up-to-date data on how the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias vary with socio-economic status in the UK. We aimed to quantify the incidence of and mortality from leukaemias in the UK and their variation with gender, age, year of diagnosis as well as socio-economic status. Methods All incident cases of leuk...

  19. A nationwide registry-based cohort study of incidence of tonsillectomy in Denmark, 1991-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Rasmussen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye


    , and by the age of 20, 7.7% of the Danish people has had a tonsillectomy. There were significant regional differences in the number of tonsillectomies. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of tonsillectomies in Denmark decreased significantly in the study period, but with great regional variance.......OBJECTIVE: To update tonsillectomy incidence rates in Denmark and identify whether the incidence rates vary between geographical areas in the country during the period 1991-2012. DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from the comprehensive Danish patient registries...... tonsillectomies were conducted, and the overall incidence of tonsillectomy decreased significantly over time. The overall annual incidence of tonsillectomies decreased from 155.7 per 100 000 inhabitants in 1991 to 129.4 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2012. In 1991, 5.5% of tonsillectomies were performed in office...

  20. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Decker, A. J.


    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  1. Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Veling (Wim); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); E. Susser (Ezra); W. Laan (Winfried); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H.W. Hoek (Hans)


    textabstractBackground: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to

  2. Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Susser, Ezra; Laan, Winfried; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hoek, Hans W.

    BACKGROUND: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to which they


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha


    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  4. Responding to a biological incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, P.R. [U.S. Environmental Response Team, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Edison, NJ (United States)


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team (ERT) was established in October 1978 to provide technical assistance to a variety of governmental agencies in the area of environmental emergency issues such as chemical spills, uncontrolled hazardous waste site and terrorist incidents. This paper describes responses to a biological incident that occurred on July 29 2004, when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received an anonymous e-mail identifying 3 containers on board the M/V Rio Puelo, one of which was said to contain a harmful biological substance. The containers were part of a 5 container shipment of Argentinian lemons bound for Canada. The vessel had a total of 2204 containers, of which 260 were loaded at the same port as the lemons. The containers were to be off-loaded at the Port of Newark and transported via truck to Canada. The federal On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) was responsible for managing this incident, as well as assessing the creditability of the threat. In accordance with federal authorities under the Public Water Safety Act, the Captain of the Port of New York ordered the vessel to anchor off shore. A tactical security operations team was dispatched to assess vessel security. It was determined that none of the crew, who had been exposed to the potential agent 10 days earlier, had shown any symptoms of biological warfare agents. A multi-agency unified command was set up, consisting of state, federal and local agencies. Various options were evaluated, including treatment of the containers on board due to the possibility of a dispersal device which could cause wide-spread contamination; the off loading and disposal of the cargo into the sea; and off loading of containers on shore with subsequent treatment. The following safety precautions were taken: cooling units were shut off 48 hours before sailing; the vents were sealed and closed; and the drains were plugged. At the port, trained dogs were used, and

  5. Behaviour of radionuclides in sedimentation processes under varying redox conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)


    Determination of sedimentation rates plays an important role in material balance and model calculations of seas and other bodies of water. The Baltic Sea offers an exceptionally good opportunity to study processes in sediments and sedimentation rates with radioecological methods, because the concentration peaks of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu are easily detectable in its sediments. In 1995-1996 sediment profiles were taken at 51 sampling stations situated in the Baltic Proper, Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland. The aim was to estimate sedimentation rates in different parts of the Baltic Sea by using alternative methods and to consider reasons for eventual differences in results. The {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and th sediment trap methods were used in estimations. The results show that the accumulation rates of dry matter may vary between 0.006 and 0.90 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} at different sampling stations of the Baltic Sea and the sedimentation rates between 0.2 and 29 mm y{sup -1} depending on the sedimentation itself and the method used in calculation. This is a considerable range in results, considering that all of the sampling stations were located in areas of soft sediment bottoms. In general, the sedimentation rates were highest at the Bothnian Sea sampling stations. In the Gulf of Finland the sedimentation rates were highest in the eastern part, while in the Bothnian Bay and in the Baltic Proper the rates were in general lower than in the 2 areas first mentioned. The differences among the results obtained with various methods varied unsystematically; thus it was not possible to predict that anyone of the methods would always give higher results than any of the others or vice versa. The results show that in the Baltic Sea the use of more than 1 parallel methods in estimation of sedimentation rate is highly recommended. None of the methods is necessarily suitable for routine use in the Baltic Sea. In those cases where the {sup 137

  6. Radial stability of density profiles for obliquely incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Montry, G.R.; Tanner, D.J.; Berger, R.L.


    Self-consistent steady-state plasma density profiles including the effects of the ponderomotive force for obliquely incident light have been obtained for the case of supersonic upstream flow velocity. The radial stability of these density profiles is studied in one-dimensional spherical geometry. Above a modest threshold laser field, these density profiles are found to be unstable and exhibit unsteady flow. The absorption for unstable profiles is found to vary markedly in time. Radiation and plasma waves can be trapped in density troughs which may be unstable to kink or sausage instabilities in two dimensions. (author)

  7. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan


    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...... of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100...

  8. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart


    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...


    CERN Multimedia


    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  10. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.


    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  11. Scrutinizing incident reporting in anaesthesia: why is an incident perceived as critical?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, R; la Cour, M; Hansen, A


    The purpose of the present study was to measure the incidence and type of incidents that occurred in relation to anaesthesia and surgery during a 1-year period in six Danish hospitals. Furthermore, we wanted to identify risk factors for incidents, as well as risk factors for incidents being deemed...

  12. International Cyber Incident Repository System: Information Sharing on a Global Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Amanda L.; Evans, PhD, Nathaniel; Tanzman, Edward A.; Israeli, Daniel


    According to the 2016 Internet Security Threat Report, the largest number of cyber attacks were recorded last year (2015), reaching a total of 430 million incidents throughout the world. As the number of cyber incidents increases, the need for information and intelligence sharing increases, as well. This fairly large increase in cyber incidents is driving the need for an international cyber incident data reporting system. The goal of the cyber incident reporting system is to make available shared and collected information about cyber events among participating international parties. In its 2014 report, Insurance Industry Working Session Readout Report-Insurance for CyberRelated Critical Infrastructure Loss: Key Issues, on the outcomes of a working session on cyber insurance, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security observed that “many participants cited the need for a secure method through which organizations could pool and share cyber incident information” and noted that one underwriter emphasized the importance of internationally harmonized data taxonomies. This cyber incident data reporting system could benefit all nations that take part in reporting incidents to provide a more common operating picture. In addition, this reporting system could allow for trending and anticipated attacks and could potentially benefit participating members by enabling them to get in front of potential attacks. The purpose of this paper is to identify options for consideration for such a system in fostering cooperative cyber defense.

  13. Incidence of blindness in southern Germany between 1990 and 1998. (United States)

    Trautner, C; Haastert, B; Giani, G; Berger, M


    A reduction of diabetes-related blindness by at least one third was declared a primary objective for Europe in 1989 (St. Vincent Declaration). To ascertain a potential change of incidence rates, we collected data on blindness in a German district (population: about 5 million) over 9 years. We obtained complete lists of newly registered blindness-allowance recipients between 1990 and 1998 and population data on Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Germany. We estimated incidence rates of blindness in the general population and the diabetic population. To ascertain any time trend, we applied Poisson regression models. There were 6371 newly registered blindness allowance recipients (1990-1998). Of these 67% were women and 27 % had diabetes. Mean age was 71.7 years. Standardised results in the diabetic population (incidence rates per 100,000 person-years; standard: diabetic population; 95 % CI): 1990: 72 (61;82); 1991: 88 (76;100); 1992: 77 (67;88); 1993: 82 (71;93); 1994: 62 (53;72); 1995: 82 (71;93); 1996: 70 (60;80); 1997: 69 (59;79); 1998: 59 (49;68). The Poisson model estimated a 3 % decrease of incident blindness in the diabetic population for each year (Relative risk per year 0.97; CI: 0.95; 0.99). No significant change could be observed in the non-diabetic population (Relative risk: 0.99; CI: 0.98; 1.00). Relative risks for each year varied between sub-groups according to sex, diabetic status and cause of blindness between 0.94 and 1.01. A slight reduction of incident blindness could be shown but a reduction by one third has not been reached. Several possible sources of bias in the data have to be considered.

  14. Interventions for Suicidal Youth: A Review of the Literature and Developmental Considerations


    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.


    Suicidal behavior is developmentally mediated, but the degree to which interventions for suicidal behaviors have been developmentally tailored has varied widely. Published controlled studies of psychosocial treatment interventions for reducing adolescent suicidal behavior are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the developmental nuances of these interventions. In addition, developmental considerations important in the treatment of suicidal adolescents are discussed. There are insufficient...

  15. A Whirlwind Tour of the Major Considerations for Developing Differentiation in the Classroom. (United States)

    Raffan, Johanna


    This article gives an overview of key factors which need to be born in mind when planning for effective classroom differentiation, namely, long term planning, an equitable definition of exceptionality, consideration of multiple intelligences together with varying learning styles, and classroom strategies for differentiation and higher order…

  16. Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical presentation of 3 cases. Mohamed Rami, Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Aziz El Madi, Khalid Khattala, Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi, Youssef Bouabdallah ...

  17. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.


    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  18. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  19. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations. (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.


    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  20. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration. (United States)


    ... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the public...

  1. Solar considerations in the development of cutaneous melanoma. (United States)

    Loggie, B W; Eddy, J A


    On the basis of these considerations, the possible action spectrum for melanoma can be narrowed considerably, but not confined to any one solar emission band. The physical factors discussed eliminate all but UV, visible, and NIR radiation as possible solar agents. Ionizing radiation fits neither the epidemiologic data nor first-order physical considerations. Wavelengths longer than the NIR wavelengths, although they could conceivably account for the occurrence of melanoma under clothed parts of the body, carry so little energy that they are probably unimportant. Epidemiologic evidence regarding the effects of skin pigment favors UV or visible radiation. A distinction between these two components is not obvious; UV-C and UV-B photons carry greater energy and are more likely to induce biochemical cutaneous effects, but the total flux in the UV-A and visible radiations is far greater. That UV-B radiation may play a role in melanoma is supported; at the same time, one cannot exclude the possibility that the action spectrum for melanoma is, instead, the UV-A, the visible, or even the NIR portion of the sunlight spectrum. The strong differential effect of altitude on the transmission of light of different wavelengths might serve as an important discriminating variable. If solar UV radiation is implicated in the development of melanoma, then altitude should emerge as a significant factor in epidemiologic studies. If visible or IR radiation is the active agent, then differences on the basis of altitude should be small or negligible. Intrinsic solar variations that follow the annual sunspot number appear inadequate in either the UV or the visible band to account directly for the apparent 11-year modulation of melanoma incidence found in some registries. Secondary atmospheric effects brought about by the action of solar UV changes on the ozone layer may be adequate to explain a weak 11-year modulation in melanoma incidence, although continuous measurements of UV-B flux made

  2. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de


    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  3. Oblique incidence type resistance wire proportional position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo


    A high resistance wire, proportional counter is being developed for the use as the position detector to be installed at the focal plane of the magnet of high resolution, reaction particle analyzer for SF cyclotron. One of the difficulties to attain the target performance is its low positional resolution in case of the oblique incidence of particles with small energy loss in the counter in case of so-called single wire proportional counter. Adopting one of the solutions, proposed by Markham et al. of Michigan State University, that processes signals by ingenious cathode read-out and makes the detector into an equivalent ''thin'' counter, a high resistance wire detector still having simple read-out has been devised. The oblique incidence effect seems to be caused by the fluctuation (Landau distribution) of particle energy loss in counter gas. As a result of some discussion on this matter, the detector having increased five resistance wires instead of single wire, and having guard wires so as to make the electric field intensity in the vicinity of the cathode weak, has been manufactured to obtain the ''thin'' counter without considerably changing the overall thickness of the counter. Signal read-out is carried out by charge division method. As a result of the test, the positional resolution of Δx=1.0 mm has been attained when incidence angle was 35 deg and the collimation of particles was about 0.5 mm diameter for protons of 50 meV. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Facteurs climatiques et productivité des variétés de canne à sucre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette étude est de démontrer les incidences des principaux facteurs climatiques sur la productivité des variétés de canne à sucre dans les plantations industrielles de la vallée du Niari. Les données proviennent des différentes campagnes agricoles de 2000-2001 à 2006-2007 de la Société agricole et de ...

  5. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  6. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015. (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert


    In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our

  7. Time-varying effect models for ordinal responses with applications in substance abuse research. (United States)

    Dziak, John J; Li, Runze; Zimmerman, Marc A; Buu, Anne


    Ordinal responses are very common in longitudinal data collected from substance abuse research or other behavioral research. This study develops a new statistical model with free SAS macros that can be applied to characterize time-varying effects on ordinal responses. Our simulation study shows that the ordinal-scale time-varying effects model has very low estimation bias and sometimes offers considerably better performance when fitting data with ordinal responses than a model that treats the response as continuous. Contrary to a common assumption that an ordinal scale with several levels can be treated as continuous, our results indicate that it is not so much the number of levels on the ordinal scale but rather the skewness of the distribution that makes a difference on relative performance of linear versus ordinal models. We use longitudinal data from a well-known study on youth at high risk for substance abuse as a motivating example to demonstrate that the proposed model can characterize the time-varying effect of negative peer influences on alcohol use in a way that is more consistent with the developmental theory and existing literature, in comparison with the linear time-varying effect model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Scattering and Doppler Spectral Analysis for a Fast-Moving Target above Time-Varying Lossy Dielectric Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li


    Full Text Available A numerical electromagnetic method based on the physical optics with physical optics method (PO-PO is employed to calculate backscattered returns from a missile-like target above sea surface. Surfaces are time-varying Monte Carlo simulations initialized as realizations of a Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum. The monostatic normalized radar cross section of composite model by the hybrid PO-PO method is calculated and compared with those by the conventional method of moments, as well as the runtime and memory requirements. The results are found to be in good agreement. The runtime shows that the hybrid PO-PO method enables large-scale time-varying Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical simulations of the Doppler spectrum from the fast-moving target above time-varying lossy dielectric sea surface are obtained, and the Doppler spectra of backscattered signals from this model are discussed for different incident angles, speed of flying target, wind speeds, incident frequencies, and target altitudes in detail. Finally, the coupling effects on Doppler spectra are analyzed. All the results are obtained at the incidence of horizontal polarization wave in this study.

  9. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  10. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  11. Dynamics of nonlinear oscillators with time-varying conjugate coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the dynamical consequences of time-varying conjugate coupling in a system of nonlinear oscillators. We analyze the behavior of coupled ... Conjugate coupling; time varying coupling. PACS Nos 05.45.Xt. 1. Introduction ..... MDS acknowledges the financial support from DST,. New Delhi. References. [1] L Glass ...

  12. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.


    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  13. Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Roy, Sandip; Malek, Babak


    In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a time-varying controller which can stabilize a decentralized discrete-time system. In continuous-time, it was already known that time-varying decentralized controllers can achieve stabilization in cases where time-invariant decentralized controllers

  14. Muscular load characterization during isometric shoulder abductions with varying force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iridiastadi, H.; Nussbaum, M.A.; van Dieen, J.H.


    This study sought to characterize muscle loading and fatigue during static shoulder abductions with varying force. In a supine posture, participants maintained fixed shoulder abductions against a time-varying external resistance, generated by a dynamometer-spring mechanism. Patterns (cumulative

  15. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families? (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe


    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  16. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  17. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted ...

  18. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans


    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  19. Bronchoaspiration: incidence, consequences and management. (United States)

    Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Bonvini, John M


    Aspiration is defined as the inhalation of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the lower respiratory tract. Upon injury, epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages secrete chemical mediators, attracting and activating neutrophils, which in turn release proteases and reactive oxygen species, degrading the alveolocapillary unit. Aspiration can lead to a range of diseases such as infectious pneumonia, chemical pneumonitis or respiratory distress syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. It occurs in approximately 3-10 per 10 000 operations with an increased incidence in obstetric and paediatric anaesthesia. Patients are most at risk during induction of anaesthesia and extubation, in particular in emergency situations. The likelihood of significant aspiration can be reduced by fasting, pharmacological intervention and correct anaesthetic management using a rapid sequence induction. Treatment of acid aspiration is by suctioning after witnessed aspiration; antibiotics are indicated in patients with aspiration pneumonia only. Steroids are not proven to improve outcome or reduce mortality. Patients with acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation should be ventilated using lung protective strategies with low tidal volumes and low plateau pressure values, attempting to limit peak lung distension and end-expiratory collapse.

  20. [Congenital syphilis: incidence among newborns (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Moura, E F; Ramos, F L; Holanda, V G


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of congenital syphilis among newborns at the maternity of a public hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at the maternity of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará, from May to September 1996; 361 mothers were interviewed, and physical examination was performed in their newborns. Serum samples from both, mothers and neonates, were tested using three methods: VDRL, FTA - Abs, ELISA IgM. The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was established according to the criteria defined by Ministério da Saúde in 1993. RESULTS: The rate of congenital syphilis was of 9.1% (33); in 14 cases, there were one or more signs of the disease: prematurity, hepatomegaly, stillbirth, splenomegaly, perinatal death, abdominal distention, nasal stuffiness, jaundice, newborn small for gestational age. The majority of the infected mothers belonged to the age group of 20-35 years (81.8%); 60.6% were married; 63.6% received prenatal care; 48.5% reported previous spontaneous abortion, and 12.1% previous stillbirth. The rate of bisexuality among fathers was of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The syphilis control measures and the prenatal care, have not been sufficient to prevent the high rate of the disease.

  1. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry (United States)


    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  2. Incidence of Candida Albicans in Pregnent Women: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the incidence of Candida albicans among pregnant women of varied age range/occupation, within any of the three trimesters, and attending antenatal clinic in Ekpoma and its environs. A total of 100 high vagina swab- samples were collected from women and then transported to the Medical Laboratory ...

  3. Incidence de la densité de plantation sur la croissance et le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence de la densité de plantation sur la croissance et le rendement du bananier plantain en Côte d'Ivoire : cas de deux hybrides (PITA 3 et FHIA 21) et deux variétés locales (Corne 1 et Orishele)

  4. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV


    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  5. The role of periodically varying discharge on river plume structure and transport (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Avener, Margaret; Bevan, Shaun


    We present results from laboratory experiments that simulate the effects of periodically varying discharge on buoyant coastal plumes. Freshwater is discharged into a two meter diameter tank filled with saltwater on a rotating table. The mean inflow rate, tank rotation period and density of the ambient salt water are varied to simulate a range of inflow Froude and Rossby numbers. The amplitude and the period of the inflow modulation are varied across a range that simulates variability due to tides and storms. Using the optical thickness method, we measure the width and depth of the plume, plume volume and freshwater retention rate in the plume. With constant discharge, freshwater is retained in a growing anticyclonic bulge circulation near the river mouth, as observed in previous studies. When the discharge is varied, the bulge geometry oscillates between a circular plume structure that extends mainly in the offshore direction, and a compressed plume structure that extends mainly in the alongshore direction. The oscillations result in periodic variations in the width and depth of the bulge and the incidence angle formed where the bulge flow re-attaches with the coastal wall. The oscillations are more pronounced for longer modulation periods, but are relatively insensitive to the modulation amplitude. A phase difference between the time varying transport within the bulge and bulge geometry determines the fraction of the bulge flow discharged into the coastal current. As a result, the modulation period determines the variations in amount of freshwater that returns to the bulge. Freshwater retention in the bulge is increased in longer modulation periods and more pronounced for larger modulation amplitudes.

  6. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India


    Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant


    Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...

  7. Two /sup 238/Pu inhalation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.


    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of /sup 238/Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B (/sup 238/PuNO/sub 3/) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A (/sup 238/PuO/sub 2/) received no therapy.

  8. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia


    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  9. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger


    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  10. Celiac axis stenosis: incidence and etiologies in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung


    To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition

  11. Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Stufflebeam, J. H.


    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has matured considerably over recent years and is experiencing widespread application in fundamental and practical combustion situations. Its utilization in turbulent reacting flows is far from routine, however, and several problem areas need to be addressed and refined. This paper reviews these problems and assesses the status of current and proposed solution approaches. Due to its highly nonlinear dependence on temperature and species concentration, CARS measurements in time-varying environments necessitate assembly of “instantaneous” single-pulse measurement histograms, even to extract time-averaged properties. A number of factors contribute to distortion of single pulse CARS spectra and, thus, measurement inaccuracy; various improvement strategies will be evaluated. The problem of absolute concentration measurements at low and high Mach numbers in refracting and attenuating media will be discussed. The paper concludes with a description of an approach to permit CARS measurements of several species simultaneously in a single laser pulse.

  12. Design consideration on severe accident for future LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.


    Utilities' Severe Accident Management strategies, selected based on Individual Plant Examination, are in the process of implementation for each operating plant. Activities for the next generation LWR design are going on by Utilities, NSSS vendors and Research Institutes. The proposed new designs vary from evolutionary design to revolutionary design such as the supercritical LWR. Discussion on the consideration of Severe Accident in the design of next generation LWR is being held to establish the industry's self-regulatory document on containment design and its performance, which ABWR-IER (Improved Evolutionary Reactor) on the part of BWR and Evolutionary APWR and New PWR21 on the part of PWR are expected to comply. Conceptual design study for ABWR-IER will illustrate an example of design approach for the prevention and mitigation of Severe Accident and its impact on capital cost

  13. Focusing the Sun: State Considerations for Designing Community Solar Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes outcomes from the National Community Solar Partnership State Best Practices working group by identifying key differences in state policies that enable community solar and illustrating how various policy design approaches may impact the market. For the latter question, it is too early to quantify a relationship between policy design and market impacts, because most state programs have not been fully implemented. So, the authors conducted interviews with 19 subject matter experts, including project developers, regulators, and utilities to better understand how various policy design approaches may impact community solar markets. These perspectives, along with those gleaned from the working group and relevant literature were synthesized to identify key considerations for policymakers designing community solar programs. Though state community solar policies vary in numerous ways, the report focuses on the following critical elements: program cap, project size cap, subscriber location requirements, subscriber eligibility requirements, low- and moderate-income stipulations, and subscriber compensation.

  14. Control of Cell Attachment and Spreading on Poly(acrylamide) Brushes with Varied Grafting Density. (United States)

    Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger


    To achieve spatial control of fibroblast cell attachment and spreading on a biocompatible polymer coating, the effect of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes with varied grafting density was investigated. The synthesis of the brushes was performed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Gold substrates were modified with binary self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of an initiator and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) as an "inert" thiol to initiate the ATRP of AAm. By using different mixtures for the binary SAMs, a series of polymer brushes with varied grafting densities were prepared. The fractional coverage of surface bound initiator was determined by grazing incidence Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and contact angle measurements. A linear relationship between the Br/S ratio determined by XPS and ToF-SIMS versus the fraction of initiator on the surface determined by water contact angle measurements was observed. The varied initiation concentration on the gold substrates yielded PAAm brushes with different thicknesses, indicating a transition from mushroom to brush regimes with increasing grafting density. Thereby we achieved exquisite control of the degree of cell adhesion. Cell attachment experiments with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells revealed cell spreading on PAAm brushes with low grafting densities (initiator fractional coverage <0.2) as well as a complete passivation by polymer brushes with higher grafting densities.

  15. Aural proxies and directionally-varying reverberation for interactive sound propagation in virtual environments. (United States)

    Antani, Lakulish; Manocha, Dinesh


    We present an efficient algorithm to compute spatially-varying, direction-dependent artificial reverberation and reflection filters in large dynamic scenes for interactive sound propagation in virtual environments and video games. Our approach performs Monte Carlo integration of local visibility and depth functions to compute directionally-varying reverberation effects. The algorithm also uses a dynamically-generated rectangular aural proxy to efficiently model 2-4 orders of early reflections. These two techniques are combined to generate reflection and reverberation filters which vary with the direction of incidence at the listener. This combination leads to better sound source localization and immersion. The overall algorithm is efficient, easy to implement, and can handle moving sound sources, listeners, and dynamic scenes, with minimal storage overhead. We have integrated our approach with the audio rendering pipeline in Valve's Source game engine, and use it to generate realistic directional sound propagation effects in indoor and outdoor scenes in real-time. We demonstrate, through quantitative comparisons as well as evaluations, that our approach leads to enhanced, immersive multi-modal interaction.

  16. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups. (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J


    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  17. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.


    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  18. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children. (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M


    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  19. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  20. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014]. (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J


    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  1. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Fredric M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the

  2. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study. (United States)

    Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M


    Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate

  3. Vessel Strike of Whales in Australia: The Challenges of Analysis of Historical Incident Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peel


    Full Text Available Death or injury to whales from vessel strike is one of the primary threats to whale populations worldwide. However, quantifying the rate of occurrence of these collisions is difficult because many incidents are not detected (particularly from large vessels and therefore go unreported. Furthermore, varying reporting biases occur related to species identification, spatial coverage of reports and type of vessels involved. The International Whaling Commission (IWC has compiled a database of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes to cetaceans, within which Australia constitutes ~7% (35 reports of the reported worldwide (~471 reports vessel strike records involving large whales. Worldwide records consist largely of modern reports within the last two decades and historical evaluation of ship strike reports has mainly focused on the Northern Hemisphere. To address this we conducted a search of historical national and international print media archive databases to discover reports of vessel strikes globally, although with a focus on Australian waters. A significant number of previously unrecorded reports of vessel strikes were found for both Australia (76 and worldwide (140, resulting in a revised estimate of ~15% of global vessel strikes occurring in Australian waters. This detailed collation and analysis of vessel strike data in an Australian context has contributed to our knowledge of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes and challenges the notion that vessel strikes were historically rare in Australia relative to the rest of the world. The work highlights the need to examine historical records to provide context around current anthropogenic threats to marine fauna and demonstrates the importance of formalized reporting structures for effective collation of vessel strike reports. This paper examines the issues and biases in analysis of vessel strike data in general that would apply to any jurisdiction. Using the Australian data as an example

  4. Insulin, hospitals and harm: a review of patient safety incidents reported to the National Patient Safety Agency. (United States)

    Cousins, David; Rosario, Catherine; Scarpello, John


    Patient safety incidents involving insulin are frequent and cause considerable distress to people with diabetes and anxieties to their families and carers. This article describes an analysis of the National Reporting and Learning System database of patient safety incidents concerning insulin reported from NHS providers in England and Wales over six years. The main causes are discussed and the ongoing developments by the National Patient Safety Agency and partner organisations to reduce insulin errors are described.

  5. Shoulder dystocia: definitions and incidence. (United States)

    Hansen, Alexandra; Chauhan, Suneet P


    Though subjective in nature, both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists green guideline are in agreement on the descriptor of shoulder dystocia: requirement of additional obstetric maneuvers when gentle downward traction has failed to affect the delivery of the shoulders. The rate of shoulder dystocia is about 1.4% of all deliveries and 0.7% for vaginal births. Compared to non-diabetics (0.6%), among diabetics, the rate of impacted shoulders is 201% higher (1.9%); newborns delivered by vacuum or forceps have 254% higher likelihood of shoulder dystocia than those born spontaneously (2.0% vs. 0.6%, respectively). When the birthweight is categorized as 4500 g, the likelihood of shoulder dystocia in the US vs. other countries varies significantly. Future studies should focus on lowering the rate of shoulder dystocia and its associated morbidities, without concomitantly increasing the rate of cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie


    liver cancer and leukemia in both sexes. In contrast, this region is projected to experience elevated incidence rates in males for about half the cancers studied. The incidence rates for all cancers combined are projected to continue to be highest for males in the Atlantic region and for females in Quebec in 15 years but in Ontario thereafter, and lowest in British Columbia. The inter-regional differences are larger in males than in females, possibly due to variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing (for prostate cancer and risk factors. In both males and females, colorectal cancer incidence rates will remain highest in the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia. Lung cancer incidence rates are projected to be highest in Quebec and lowest in Ontario and British Columbia for both sexes. The similar regional rates of breast cancer in females are expected to persist. The significantly lowest rates of prostate cancer in Quebec are projected to continue, as are the elevated rates in the Atlantic region. Incidence by sex and age: Cancer is more common in males than in females except in those aged under 55. The overall cancer incidence rate in men aged 65 or older has been falling and will continue to do so. The decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65 or older from decreased tobacco use and the decrease in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older have contributed to the overall decrease in this age range. In women aged 65 or older, the relatively stable rate is primarily the result of an increase in lung cancer incidence offset by decreases in incidence for the other cancer sites. This stable trend is projected to continue. Targeted cancer prevention efforts and specific needs for health care services can be expected to vary at different points in the age continuum for males and females. Smoking-related cancers: Between 2003-2007 and 2028-2032, substantial risk reductions are projected for major common tobacco-related cancers in Canada, even with

  7. Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...

  8. Differential cross sections of electron silver scattering at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differential scattering cross sections of electron - silver atom are calculated using the Eikonal approximation at incident energies of 50 eV, 60 eV and 70 eV, with the Lenz-Jensen potential. Results obtained are in good agreement with the NIST SRD 64 at scattering angles of about 80 to 180 degrees; and are in very ...

  9. Comfortably cosmopolitan? How patterns of 'social cohesion' vary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crime incidence. Further research should test whether, regardless of any impact on crime itself, greater social cohesion may reduce fear of crime even while raising a perception of crime rates. Policy and design that successfully promote social cohesion but fail to reduce crime may exacerbate a perception of victimisation.

  10. Computer incident response and forensics team management conducting a successful incident response

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Leighton


    Computer Incident Response and Forensics Team Management provides security professionals with a complete handbook of computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management. This unique approach teaches readers the concepts and principles they need to conduct a successful incident response investigation, ensuring that proven policies and procedures are established and followed by all team members. Leighton R. Johnson III describes the processes within an incident response event and shows the crucial importance of skillful forensics team management, including when and where the transition to forensics investigation should occur during an incident response event. The book also provides discussions of key incident response components. Provides readers with a complete handbook on computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management Identify the key steps to completing a successful computer incident response investigation Defines the qualities necessary to become a succ...

  11. Information Security Incident Management Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kostina


    Full Text Available The information security incident management process model (ISIMP is developed; the role of this process in the information security management system is established. Input and output data of the process are determined. Key practical aspects of incident management are determined.

  12. Asphyxia Neonatorum-Incidence In Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    task of all concerned with the process of human repro- duction. In order to achieve this, a study of the incidence and risk factors of asphyxia neonatorum was undertaken in the Groote Schuur Maternity Hospital. TABLE I. INCIDENCE OF ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM. Source of. Hospital. Apgar score 0 - 3% information.

  13. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others


    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  14. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Incident management. (a) Each airport operator must establish procedures to evaluate bomb threats, threats...

  15. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio


    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...... thrombosis....

  16. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  17. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew


    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  18. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng


    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  19. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  20. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  1. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  2. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-


    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  3. HIV incidence in Asia: a review of available data and assessment of the epidemic. (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Kim, Andrea A; Le, Linh-Vi; Nadol, Patrick J; Prybylski, Dimitri; Wolfe, Mitchell I


    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.

  4. The Investigation of EM Scattering from the Time-Varying Overturning Wave Crest Model by the IEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Meng


    Full Text Available Investigation of the electromagnetic (EM scattering of time-varying overturning wave crests is a worthwhile endeavor. Overturning wave crest is one of the reasons of sea spike generation, which increases the probability of false radar alarms and reduces the performance of multitarget detection in the environment. A three-dimensional (3D time-varying overturning wave crest model is presented in this paper; this 3D model is an improvement of the traditional two-dimensional (2D time-varying overturning wave crest model. The integral equation method (IEM was employed to investigate backward scattering radar cross sections (RCS at various incident angles of the 3D overturning wave crest model. The super phenomenon, where the intensity of horizontal polarization scattering is greater than that of vertical polarization scattering, is an important feature of sea spikes. Simulation results demonstrate that super phenomena may occur in some time samples as variations in the overturning wave crest.

  5. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.


    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  6. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia. (United States)

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S


    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  7. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha


    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  8. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals


    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur


    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...

  9. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli


    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  10. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning


    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  11. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?


    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan


    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  12. Special Considerations in Children with Vitiligo. (United States)

    Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette


    Childhood vitiligo differs from adult-onset vitiligo for several features including increased incidence of the segmental variant, higher prevalence of halo nevi, and more common family history for autoimmune diseases and atopic diathesis. The major differential diagnoses are the postinflammatory hypomelanoses for nonsegmental vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus for segmental vitiligo. From a therapeutic standpoint, early awareness of the diagnosis seems to correlate with a good treatment outcome in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consideration of the Harrisburg accident has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbmann, R.


    At the 'Kerntechnik '80' annual conference in Berlin, current problems of nuclear power were discussed. The determining factor of the accident in the U.S. nuclear power plant Three Mile Island, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was faulty interaction between man and plant. Since 1975, 789 safety-related incidents have been reported from West German nuclear power plants. For the present, West Germany is keeping all its options open with regard to radwaste disposal. (orig.) [de

  14. Sensor placement for calibration of spatially varying model parameters (United States)

    Nath, Paromita; Hu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Sankaran


    This paper presents a sensor placement optimization framework for the calibration of spatially varying model parameters. To account for the randomness of the calibration parameters over space and across specimens, the spatially varying parameter is represented as a random field. Based on this representation, Bayesian calibration of spatially varying parameter is investigated. To reduce the required computational effort during Bayesian calibration, the original computer simulation model is substituted with Kriging surrogate models based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the model response and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) of the spatially varying parameters. A sensor placement optimization problem is then formulated based on the Bayesian calibration to maximize the expected information gain measured by the expected Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. The optimization problem needs to evaluate the expected K-L divergence repeatedly which requires repeated calibration of the spatially varying parameter, and this significantly increases the computational effort of solving the optimization problem. To overcome this challenge, an approximation for the posterior distribution is employed within the optimization problem to facilitate the identification of the optimal sensor locations using the simulated annealing algorithm. A heat transfer problem with spatially varying thermal conductivity is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. 40 CFR 133.103 - Special considerations. (United States)


    ... wastewater is the result of clear water industrial discharges, then the treatment works must control such... concentrated influent wastewater; (2) to meet the percent removal requirements, the treatment works would have... SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.103 Special considerations. (a) Combined sewers. Treatment works...

  16. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations (United States)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.


    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  17. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl


    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen......'s dividing of a form into form elements. The procedure has been tested in student projects....

  18. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.


    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  19. compounds: Structure–antitumor activity considerations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    human colon, gastric and prostate carcinomas. New strategies in ligand design, coordination chemistry with coinage metals (Au and Ag) and structure-biological activity considerations are presented. References. 1. Katti K V, Gali H, Smith C J and Berning D E 1999 Acc. Chem. Res. 32 9. 2. Gali H, Karra S R, Reddy V S and ...

  20. Teenage Pregnancy and Schooling: Legal Considerations. (United States)

    Belsches-Simmons, Grace

    School policy on teenage pregnancy must take into account a variety legal considerations. Up until recently, the favored way of dealing with pregnant pupils or pupils who are mothers was to exclude them from school. Several law cases involving instances of exclusion and segregation of pregnant pupils are cited. The 14th Amendment's guarantee of…

  1. Ethical Considerations for Data Collection Using Surveys. (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J


    Surveys are widely used instruments to collect research data. Although surveys may appear relatively benign and easily unlinked to participants, considerations for the ethical conduct of research with surveys are important. Maintaining scientific rigor is essential. This article explores ethical tenets in relation to informed consent and scientific consent when using surveys.

  2. Geronimo: Planning Considerations for Employing Airborne Forces (United States)


    risk mitigation measure in crisis response scenarios, correlates to successful operations . In fact, operations undertaken without 100 or more days...22 4 Planning Time Allotted for Airborne Selected Airborne Operation ............................. 29 5 Summary Risk ...considerations. The doctrinal and service requirements provide a planner with a toolkit for mitigating risk prior to execution of an operation . First, a

  3. Considerations in evaluating emissions from consumer products (United States)

    Girman, John R.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Wind, Marilyn L.

    While several indoor air quality studies suggest consumer products (e.g. aerosol sprays, paint removers, etc.) can be significant sources of volatile organic compounds, until recently characterizing emissions from consumer products has received relatively little attention. Many considerations that must be addressed in designing studies of consumer product emissions are similar to those addressed in studies of the emissions from building materials and combustion appliances. These similarities are discussed and, in addition, the considerations unique to studies of consumer product emissions are discussed with reference to an ongoing study of consumer products that contain methylene chloride. These unique considerations include bulk chemical analysis, the form of the product (e.g. liquid, aerosol or paste) and the related consumer usage pattern. The issue of personal exposure of the product user vs the average area concentration resulting from product use must be considered, as well as the challenge of incorporating results into predictive models that adequately treat the effect of different usage patterns. Finally, post-study considerations, such as exploring new issues discovered in the study, studying similar products, and validating predictive models through extension into field studies are summarized.

  4. Design considerations for mechanical face seals (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.


    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  5. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon


    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  6. [From care to consideration of disabled people]. (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François


    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  7. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.


    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  8. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations | Salem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article, through analysis, criticism and reevaluation of some relevant genetic considerations that have long been traditionally considered as observations in support of the concept of evolution, viz. genetic memory and evolutionary variations, genomic adaptations to stress and evolution, comparative genomics and ...

  9. Anaesthetic considerations for paediatric laparoscopy | Lasersohn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children, infants and neonates represent an anaesthetic challenge because of age-specific anatomical and physiological issues. Apart from paediatric-specific anaesthetic considerations, the paediatric anaesthetist must understand the implications of laparoscopic surgery, and prevent and react appropriately to changes ...

  10. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations. (United States)


    ... Partnership Initiative § 1160.24 Antitrust considerations. (a) The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any proposed Strategic Partnership. The Department may..., conduct workshops to discuss the formation of such partnerships in general. Commerce will not select the...

  11. Coupling Considerations in Assembly Language. Revision 1 (United States)


    control parameters = number of global variables used as data = number of global variables used as control = number of modules called ( fan ...out) = number of modules calling the module under consideration ( fan -in) NAWCWD TP 8823, Revision 1 6 Distribution Statement A. These

  12. Specialty-based, voluntary incident reporting in neonatal intensive care: description of 4846 incident reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.; van Lingen, R. A.; Klip, H.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van der Schaaf, T. W.; Molendijk, H. A.; Kok, J. H.; te Pas, E.; Pas, H.; van der Starre, C.; Bloemendaal, E.; Lopes Cardozo, R. H.; Molenaar, A. M.; Giezen, A.; Maat, H. E.; Molendijk, A.; Lavrijssen, S.; Mulder, A. L. M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Koolen, A. M. P.; Schellekens, M.; Verlaan, W.; Vrancken, S.; Schotman, L.; van der Zwaan, A.; van der Tuijn, Y.; Tibboel, D.; Kollen, B. J.


    OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of incidents reported after introduction of a voluntary, non-punitive incident reporting system for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Netherlands; and to investigate which types of reported incident pose the highest risk to patients in the NICU.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review. (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod


    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype. (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R


    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  15. Interactions Between Race/Ethnicity and Anthropometry in Risk of Incident Diabetes (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Pereira, Mark A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Jacobs, David R.


    This study examined how adiposity influences racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence by exploring whether relations between anthropometric measures and incident diabetes vary by race/ethnicity. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis initiated in 2000 (n = 5,446 US men and women aged 45–84 years) were analyzed by using proportional hazards and Poisson regression. The diabetes incidence rate was 2/100 person-years (n = 479 cases). Interactions were present between race and anthropometry (P-interaction(race × body mass index) = 0.002). The slope of incident diabetes per anthropometric unit was greatest for Chinese, less for whites and Hispanics, and still less for blacks. For small waist, risk of incident diabetes was <1/100 person-years for all racial/ethnic groups. At intermediate waist levels, Chinese had the highest and whites the lowest rates of incident diabetes. At the respective 95th percentiles of waist circumference, risk of incident diabetes per 100 person-years was 3.9 for Chinese (104 cm), 3.5 for whites (121 cm), 5.0 for blacks (125 cm), and 5.3 for Hispanics (121 cm). Adiposity influenced relative diabetes occurrence across racial/ethnic groups, in that Chinese had a steeper diabetes risk per unit of adiposity. However, the generally low level of adiposity in Chinese led to a relatively low diabetes occurrence. PMID:20570825

  16. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013. (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander


    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  17. Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sejvar, James J; Baughman, Andrew L; Wise, Matthew; Morgan, Oliver W


    Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is required to assess changes in GBS epidemiology, but published estimates of GBS incidence vary greatly depending on case ascertainment, definitions, and sample size. We performed a meta-analysis of articles on GBS incidence by searching Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1988-2009), Cinahl (1981-2009) and CABI (1973-2009) as well as article bibliographies. We included studies from North America and Europe with at least 20 cases, and used population-based data, subject matter experts to confirm GBS diagnosis, and an accepted GBS case definition. With these data, we fitted a random-effects negative binomial regression model to estimate age-specific GBS incidence. Of 1,683 nonduplicate citations, 16 met the inclusion criteria, which produced 1,643 cases and 152.7 million person-years of follow-up. GBS incidence increased by 20% for every 10-year increase in age; the risk of GBS was higher for males than females. The regression equation for calculating the average GBS rate per 100,000 person-years as a function of age in years was exp[-12.0771 + 0.01813(age in years)] × 100,000. Our findings provide a robust estimate of background GBS incidence in Western countries. Our regression model may be used in comparable populations to estimate the background age-specific rate of GBS incidence for future studies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations. (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C


    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  19. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015 (United States)

    Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert


    Background In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. Conclusions The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over

  20. Inferring dynamic gene networks under varying conditions for transcriptomic network comparison. (United States)

    Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru


    Elucidating the differences between cellular responses to various biological conditions or external stimuli is an important challenge in systems biology. Many approaches have been developed to reverse engineer a cellular system, called gene network, from time series microarray data in order to understand a transcriptomic response under a condition of interest. Comparative topological analysis has also been applied based on the gene networks inferred independently from each of the multiple time series datasets under varying conditions to find critical differences between these networks. However, these comparisons often lead to misleading results, because each network contains considerable noise due to the limited length of the time series. We propose an integrated approach for inferring multiple gene networks from time series expression data under varying conditions. To the best of our knowledge, our approach is the first reverse-engineering method that is intended for transcriptomic network comparison between varying conditions. Furthermore, we propose a state-of-the-art parameter estimation method, relevance-weighted recursive elastic net, for providing higher precision and recall than existing reverse-engineering methods. We analyze experimental data of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells stimulated by epidermal growth factor or heregulin with several doses and provide novel biological hypotheses through network comparison. The software NETCOMP is available at approximately shima/NETCOMP/.

  1. Social determinants and inequalities in tuberculosis incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César V. Munayco


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify key social determinants of tuberculosis (TB incidence among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, a geographic area regarded as one of the most socioeconomically unequal in the world METHODS: An ecological study was conducted at the country level. Data were obtained from several institutional-based sources. Random-effects regression modeling was used to explore the relationship between several social determinants indicators and TB incidence rates in 20 LAC countries in 1995-2012. Standard gap and gradient metrics of social inequality in TB incidence among countries in 2000, 2005, and 2010 were then calculated. RESULTS: TB incidence rate trends were significantly associated with health expenditure per capita and access to improved sanitation facilities, as well as with life expectancy at birth and TB detection rate, after adjusting for other socioeconomic, demographic, and health services variables. Absolute and relative inequality in TB incidence remained mostly unchanged: countries at the bottom 20% of both health expenditure and sanitation coverage distributions concentrated up to 40% of all TB incident cases, despite a considerable decline in the overall TB incidence mean rate during the period assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Along with the intensity of TB control (reflected by TB detection rate, both access to sanitation (as a proxy of quality of living conditions and health expenditure per capita (either as an indicator of the level of resources and/or commitment to health care appear to be key determinants of TB incidence trends in LAC countries. Inequalities in both health expenditure per capita and access to sanitation seem to define profound and persistent inverse gradients in TB incidence among LAC countries.

  2. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.


    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources

  3. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  4. Intake of radioactivity by inhalation, in buildings after nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.


    Risk studies so far assumed that in case of a nuclear incident, the exposure of persons through inhalation proceeds in free air by direct intake of contaminated ambient air. In reality, however, about 80 p.c. of the population is indoors, and there is a considerable delay of room air contamination in comparison with free air contamination. The radionuclides are deposited on indoor surfaces (such as walls, windows, furniture, etc.), and in air-conditioning systems on the filters. This contamination is somewhat regularly removed through cleaning or filter exchange, which reduces the contamination of room air, and then also the radiation exposure by inhalation. The reducing effect can be enhanced by such simple measures as closing doors and windows in time, and switching the air-conditioning system to recirculating regime, followed by enhanced fresh air supply at a later time. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Violent incidents on a regional secure unit. (United States)

    Rïx, G; Seymour, D


    This 1-year retrospective study was conducted on a regional secure unit at the Bethlem Royal Hospital, London, using the hospital's data collection sheet for violent incidents. The majority of incidents were minor in nature but there were a few assaults that involved pain, lacerations or bruising. Although violence was common to the majority of patients, two contributed a large number. Those staff at the bottom of the nursing hierachy who spent most time with patients were most at risk. Likewise fellow patients were also often involved in incidents. Violence did not tail off after the breakfast period, as reported in previous studies, but continued to rise until bedtime.

  6. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin


    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility...... without knowing whether an incident has occurred. The resulting departure time pattern may be compressed or dispersed according to whether or not the bottleneck is fully utilized throughout the departure period on days without incidents. For both the user equilibrium (UE) and the social optimum (SO...

  7. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players. (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal


    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  8. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang


    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  9. Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study. (United States)

    Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana


    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.

  10. Stochastic skyline route planning under time-varying uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Guo, Chenjuan; Jensen, Christian S.


    Different uses of a road network call for the consideration of different travel costs: in route planning, travel time and distance are typically considered, and green house gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly being considered. Further, travel costs such as travel time and GHG emissions are time...

  11. Population-based incidence trends of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancers by sex among the poorest and underprivileged populations


    Auluck, Ajit; Walker, Blake Byron; Hislop, Greg; Lear, Scott A; Schuurman, Nadine; Rosin, Miriam


    Background Oral cancer is an important health issue, with changing incidence in many countries. Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC, in tonsil and oropharygeal areas) is increasing, while oral cavity cancer (OCC, other sites in the mouth) is decreasing. There is the need to identify high risk groups and communities for further study and intervention. The objective of this study was to determine how the incidence of OPC and OCC varied by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) in British Columbia (B...

  12. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality. (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol


    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Noise Considerations for V/STOL Transports (United States)

    Kenyon, George C.


    Noise consideration may well be as important a factor in future aircraft concept selection as such economic factors as operating cost and profitability. The impact of noise on some of the design and operational aspects of future V/STOL transports is examined in detail, including consideration of configuration, attitude-control system, lift system, and terminal flight pattern. Extended vertical rise of VTOL aircraft as a method of limiting the intense noise exposure to the terminal area is shown to be only partially effective as well as costly. Comparisons are made of noise contours for conceptual V/STOL transports for several PNdB criteria. The variation in extent of affected area with configuration and criterion emphasizes the importance of establishing an "acceptable" noise level for "city-center" operation.

  14. Surface materials considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Kazuho; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Abe, Tetsuya


    Surface materials considerations have been made to support the Impurity Control and First Wall Engineering task in the INTOR. They focussed on low-Z material candidates including C(graphite), SiC and TiC. Properties considered are listed in the following: 1) Physical Sputtering. 2) Chemical Sputtering. 3) Arcing. 4) H/He Retention/Release. 5) Redeposited Materials Characteristics. (author)

  15. Environmental Consideration in Tax Policy Design


    John Whalley


    This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal, which inevitably will involve the particular rather than the general. As a result, notions of neutrality which dominate current thinking on tax design will come ...

  16. General aspects of siting and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, E.


    The siting process from site selection to the different stages of review by the regulatory body is described. Special attention is payed to the role and responsibilities of the licensing authority. Next, the basic considerations involved in the siting process are reviewed. They include system planning, engineering, safety, environmental impact (including land use) and economics. Case studies illustrating different aspects of the siting process (e.g. site selection) are presented. (orig.)

  17. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women


    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana


    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summari...

  18. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam


    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  19. Reactor design considerations for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.


    The most challenging reactor design consideration is protection of the cavity wall from the various energy forms as released by the pellet and as affected by the reaction-chamber phenomena. These phenomena depend on both the design and the yield of the pellet, as well as on ambient conditions in the chamber at the time of the pellet microexplosion. The effects on pellet energy-release mechanisms of various reaction chamber atmosphere options are summarized

  20. Aerobiology: Experimental Considerations, Observations, and Future Tools


    Haddrell, Allen E.; Thomas, Richard J.


    ABSTRACT Understanding airborne survival and decay of microorganisms is important for a range of public health and biodefense applications, including epidemiological and risk analysis modeling. Techniques for experimental aerosol generation, retention in the aerosol phase, and sampling require careful consideration and understanding so that they are representative of the conditions the bioaerosol would experience in the environment. This review explores the current understanding of atmospheri...

  1. Considerations on automation of coating machines (United States)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; O'Donnell, Michael S.


    Most deposition chambers sold into the optical coating market today are outfitted with an automated control system. We surveyed several of the larger equipment providers, and nine of them responded with information about their hardware architecture, data logging, level of automation, error handling, user interface, and interfacing options. In this paper, we present a summary of the results of the survey and describe commonalities and differences together with some considerations of tradeoffs, such as between capability for high customization and simplicity of operation.

  2. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur


    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  3. Importance-driven time-varying data visualization. (United States)

    Wang, Chaoli; Yu, Hongfeng; Ma, Kwan-Liu


    The ability to identify and present the most essential aspects of time-varying data is critically important in many areas of science and engineering. This paper introduces an importance-driven approach to time-varying volume data visualization for enhancing that ability. By conducting a block-wise analysis of the data in the joint feature-temporal space, we derive an importance curve for each data block based on the formulation of conditional entropy from information theory. Each curve characterizes the local temporal behavior of the respective block, and clustering the importance curves of all the volume blocks effectively classifies the underlying data. Based on different temporal trends exhibited by importance curves and their clustering results, we suggest several interesting and effective visualization techniques to reveal the important aspects of time-varying data.

  4. Robust linear parameter varying induction motor control with polytopic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Khamari


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a robust controller for an induction motor which is represented as a linear parameter varying systems. To do so linear matrix inequality (LMI based approach and robust Lyapunov feedback controller are associated. This new approach is related to the fact that the synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV feedback controller for the inner loop take into account rotor resistance and mechanical speed as varying parameter. An LPV flux observer is also synthesized to estimate rotor flux providing reference to cited above regulator. The induction motor is described as a polytopic model because of speed and rotor resistance affine dependence their values can be estimated on line during systems operations. The simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach where robustness stability and high performances have been achieved over the entire operating range of the induction motor.

  5. Anderson's considerations on the flow of superfluid helium: Some offshoots (United States)

    Varoquaux, Eric


    Nearly five decades have elapsed since the seminal 1966 paper of P. W. Anderson on the flow of superfluid helium, 4He at that time. Some of his "considerations"—the role of the quantum phase as a dynamical variable, the interplay between the motion of quantized vortices and potential superflow, its incidence on dissipation in the superfluid and the appearance of critical velocities, the quest for the hydrodynamic analogs of the Josephson effects in helium—and the way they have evolved over the past half century are recounted in this review. But it is due to key advances on the experimental front that phase slippage could be harnessed in the laboratory, leading to a deeper understanding of superflow, vortex nucleation, the various intrinsic and extrinsic dissipation mechanisms in superfluids, macroscopic quantum effects, and the superfluid analog of both ac and dc Josephson effects—pivotal concepts in superfluid physics—have been performed. Some of the experiments that have shed light on the more intimate effect of quantum mechanics on the hydrodynamics of the dense heliums are surveyed, including the nucleation of quantized vortices both by Arrhenius processes and by macroscopic quantum tunneling, the setting up of vortex mills, and superfluid interferometry.

  6. The association of the human development index with global kidney cancer incidence and mortality. (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Prasad, Sandip M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Eggener, Scott E


    We describe contemporary worldwide age standardized incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, and their association with social and economic development metrics. We obtained gender specific, age standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratio on the national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with the development level of each country using the United Nations Human Development Index. The age standardized incidence rate varied twentyfold worldwide with the highest rate in North America, and the lowest in Africa and South Central Asia (11.8 vs 1.2 and 1.0/100,000 individuals, respectively). The geographic distribution of the age standardized mortality rate was similar to that of the age standardized incidence rate with the highest rates in Europe and North America (3.1 and 2.6/100,000 individuals, respectively) and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions (0.6 to 1.5). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates were 4.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, in more developed countries than in developing countries. However, the mortality-to-incidence ratio was highest in Africa and Asia, and lowest in North America (0.6 to 0.8 vs 0.2/100,000 individuals). There was a strong inverse relationship between the Human Development Index and the mortality-to-incidence ratio (regression coefficient -0.79, p<0.0001). Kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates vary widely throughout the world while the mortality-to-incidence ratio is highest in less developed nations. These observations suggest significant health care disparities and may reflect differences in risk factors, health care access, quality of care, diagnostic modalities and treatment options available. Future research should assess whether the mortality-to-incidence ratio decreases with increasing development. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  7. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration. (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye


    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload. (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales


    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  9. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia. (United States)

    Choi, Youngjo; Tang, Choon Siang; McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Chan, Vibol; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra Romauld; Iddings, Steven; Huy, Rekol


    Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control measures to be better targeted, timed and implemented.

  10. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjo Choi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. Methods We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Results Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. Conclusions The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control

  11. Drivers of uncertainty in estimates of foodborne gastroenteritis incidence. (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn D


    Estimates of the incidence of foodborne illness are increasingly used at national and international levels to quantify the burden of disease and advocate for improvements in food safety. The calculation of such estimates involves multiple datasets and several disease multipliers, applied to dozens of pathogens. Unsurprisingly, this process often produces wide interval estimates. Using a model of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, we calculate the contribution of both data and multipliers to the width of the interval. We then compare pathogen-specific estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis that is foodborne from national-level studies conducted in Canada, Greece, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Overall, we estimate that 74% (range 63-92%) of the interval width for foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia is a result of uncertainty in the proportion of gastroenteritis that is due to contaminated food. Across national studies, we find considerable variability in point estimates and the width of interval estimates for the foodborne proportion for relatively common pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and norovirus. While some uncertainty in estimates of gastroenteritis incidence is inevitable, an understanding of the drivers of this uncertainty can help to focus further research. In particular, this work highlights the value of studies quantifying the routes of transmission for common pathogens.

  12. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus


    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended......This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately...... to accommodate linear parameter varying systems as well....

  13. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab


    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  14. Varied appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, L.; Weiss, A.


    Lymphoma is frequently present in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). But unlike in the general population, the appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS is extremely varied. The computed tomographic scans, chest radiographs, and subsequent hospital courses of 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma are presented. The patients presented with isolated pleural effusion (six patients), pleural and pericardial effusion (one patient), pulmonary infiltrates (five patients), and mediastinal adenopathy (three patients). This varied manner of presentation of lymphoma in AIDS patients should be recognized if diagnosis is to be made in the earlier stages of presentation

  15. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja


    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  16. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan. (United States)


    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  17. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  18. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  19. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  1. National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) is a reporting standard that fire departments use to uniformly report on the full range of their activities, from...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  4. Modelling and Simulation for Major Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pacciani


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in Major Incidents with big impact on the citizens health and the society. Without the possibility of conducting live experiments when it comes to physical and/or toxic trauma, only an accurate in silico reconstruction allows us to identify organizational solutions with the best possible chance of success, in correlation with the limitations on available resources (e.g. medical team, first responders, treatments, transports, and hospitals availability and with the variability of the characteristic of event (e.g. type of incident, severity of the event and type of lesions. Utilizing modelling and simulation techniques, a simplified mathematical model of physiological evolution for patients involved in physical and toxic trauma incident scenarios has been developed and implemented. The model formalizes the dynamics, operating standards and practices of medical response and the main emergency service in the chain of emergency management during a Major Incident.

  5. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin


    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  9. Testing the performance of beta diversity measures based on incidence data: the robustness to undersampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Veech, Joseph A.


    regarding the behaviour of most beta diversity indices when applied to incomplete samples, a situation which is more common than usually recognized. Our objective was to assess the behaviour and robustness of a number of beta diversity measures for incidence data from undersampled communities. Location...... Mainland Portugal and the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic). Methods Data from intensive sampling of spiders in mainland Portugal and arthropods in Azores were collected. We examined the properties of 15 beta diversity measures developed for incidence data. We simulated varying degrees of completeness, whereas...

  10. A Consideration for the Light Environmental Modeling under Tropical Rainforest Canopies (United States)

    Yoshimura, M.; Yamashita, M.


    Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) is the most important light source for plant photosynthesis. It is known that most of PAR from solar radiation is well absorbed by the surface. The canopy is the surface in forest region, consists an aboveground portion of plant community and formed by plant crowns. On the other hand, incident solar radiation is fluctuating at all times because of fluctuating sky conditions. Therefore, qualitative light environmental measurements in forest are recommended to execute under stable cloudy condition. In fact, it is quite a few opportunities to do under this sky condition. It means that the diffuse light condition without the direct light is only suitable for this measurement. In this study, we challenged the characterization the forest light environment as its representativeness under no consideration of sky conditions through analysis huge quantities of instantaneous data which obtained under the different sky conditions. All examined data were obtained under the different sky conditions at the tropical rainforest canopy as one of the typical fluctuating sky conditions regions. An incident PAR is transmitted and scattered by different forest layers at different heights. Various PAR data were measured with quantum units as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) at different forest heights by the quantum sensors. By comparing PPFDs at different heights with an incident PPFD, relative PPFDs were calculated, which indicate the degree of PPFD decrease from the canopy top to lower levels. As the results of these considerations, daily averaging is confirmed to be cancelled sky fluctuating influences.

  11. Incident analysis for the large reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Nagel, K.


    In the report period the analysis of important incidents in the extraction area has been started in caloboration with WAK (= Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant) representatives. Ignition sources, ignitable substances, possible fires and the possible propagation of these fires within and beyond the cells were reviewed. The detailed analysis for a special incident was started. A fault tree was constructed for the conditions leading to an oxyhydrogen explosion in the 2 BX battery. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Wrong-patient incidents during medication administrations. (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Tiainen, Maijaterttu; Haatainen, Kaisa


    To describe the factors pertaining to medication being administered to the wrong patient and to describe how patient identification is mentioned in wrong-patient incident reports. Although patient identification has been given high priority to improve patient safety, patient misidentifications occur, and wrong-patient incidents are common. A descriptive content analysis. Incident reports related to medication administration (n = 1,012) were collected from two hospitals in Finland between 1 January 2013-31 December 2014. Of those, only incidents involving wrong-patient medication administration (n = 103) were included in this study. Wrong-patient incidents occurred due for many reasons, including nurse-related factors (such as tiredness, a lack of skills or negligence) but also system-related factors (such as rushing or heavy workloads). In 77% (n = 79) of wrong-patient incident reports, the process of identifying of the patient was not described at all. There is need to pay more attention to and increase training in correct identification processes to prevent wrong-patient incidents, and it is important to adjust system factors to support nurses. Active patient identification procedures, double-checking and verification at each stage of the medication process should be implemented. More attention should also be paid to organisational factors, such as division of work, rushing and workload, as well as to correct communication. The active participation of nurses in handling incidents could increase risk awareness and facilitate useful protection actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors associated with the incidence of pressure ulcer during hospital stay. (United States)

    Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Tiensoli, Sabrina Daros; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Gomes, Flávia Sampaio Latini


    Estimating the incidence rate of pressure ulcers and verifying factors associated with this occurrence in a cohort of hospitalized patients. This is a cohort study in which the considered outcome was the time until pressure ulcer occurrence. Estimated effect of the variables on the cumulative incidence ratio of the outcome was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Variable selection occurred via the Logrank hypothesis test. The sample consisted of 442 adults, with 25 incidents of pressure ulcers. Patients with high scores on the Braden scale presented a higher risk of pressure ulcer incidence when compared to those classified into the low score category. These results reinforce the importance of using the Braden Scale to assist in identifying patients more likely to develop pressure ulcers. Estimar a taxa de incidência de úlcera por pressão e verificar fatores associados a essa ocorrência em uma coorte de pacientes hospitalizados. Trata-se de estudo de coorte no qual o desfecho foi a ocorrência da úlcera por pressão. A estimativa do efeito das variáveis para a proporção de incidência acumulada do desfecho foi realizada utilizando o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. A seleção das variáveis ocorreu por meio do teste de hipóteses Logrank. A amostra foi composta de 442 adultos, com 25 casos incidentes de úlcera por pressão. Pacientes com altos escores na escala de Braden apresentaram maior risco de incidência de úlcera por pressão quando comparados com aqueles classificados na categoria de baixo escore. Os resultados reforçam a importância do uso da Escala de Braden para auxiliar na identificação dos pacientes com maior probabilidade de desenvolver úlcera por pressão.

  14. NEA incident reporting system: Three years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Y.; Haeussermann, W.


    The paper presents an overview of the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) which was set up to collect, assess and disseminate on safety-related incidents in nuclear power plants. The IRS information exchange is significant in two senses. First, it enables regulatory authorities and utilities in participating countries to take appropriate action to prevent the reported mishaps occurring again elsewhere. Secondly, the continuous collection and systematic analysis of such information allows identification of areas of concern where safety research should be strengthened. There are two stages in the IRS information exchange. First, the national IRS Co-ordinator selects information on significant incidents, in accordance with a common reporting threshold, from the abnormal occurrences reported to the regulatory body, to be distributed through the NEA Secretariat. This screening is intended to exclude minor events, so that only significant information is sent to participating countries. Secondly, a group of experts periodically reviews the incidents reported during the preceding twelve months to identify major areas of concern. To assist this process, a computer-based data retrieval system is being developed for IRS incident reports. The paper gives some details of the IRS mechanism and discusses reporting criteria and the information included in a report. Areas of concern derived from reported incidents, an outline of the data retrieval system, and examples of feedback of lessons learned and possibilities for international co-operation are also discussed. (author)

  15. Serious incidents after death: content analysis of incidents reported to a national database. (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Donaldson, Liam J


    Objectives To describe serious incidents occurring in the management of patient remains after their death. Design Incidents occurring after patient deaths were analysed using content analysis to determine what happened, why it happened and the outcome. Setting The Strategic Executive Information System database of serious incidents requiring investigation occurring in the National Health Service in England. Participants All cases describing an incident that occurred following death, regardless of the age of the patient. Main outcome measures The nature of the incident, the underlying cause or causes of the incident and the outcome of the incident. Results One hundred and thirty-two incidents were analysed; these related to the storage, management or disposal of deceased patient remains. Fifty-four incidents concerned problems with the storage of bodies or body parts. Forty-three incidents concerned problems with the management of bodies, including 25 errors in postmortem examination, or postmortems on the wrong body. Thirty-one incidents related to the disposal of bodies, 25 bodies were released from the mortuary to undertakers in error; of these, nine were buried or cremated by the wrong family. The reported underlying causes were similar to those known to be associated with safety incidents occurring before death and included weaknesses in or failures to follow protocol and procedure, poor communication and informal working practices. Conclusions Serious incidents in the management of deceased patient remains have significant implications for families, hospitals and the health service more broadly. Safe mortuary care may be improved by applying lessons learned from existing patient safety work.

  16. Declining incidence in fall-induced deaths of older adults: Finnish statistics during 1971-2015. (United States)

    Kannus, Pekka; Niemi, Seppo; Sievänen, Harri; Parkkari, Jari


    Fall-induced deaths of elderly people are a major problem. Using the Official Cause-of-Death Statistics of Finland, we aimed to determine the current trends in the number and age-adjusted incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fall deaths among older Finns by taking into account 50 years or older persons who died because of a fall-induced injury in 1971-2015. Among men, the number of fall-induced deaths increased considerably between 1971 and 2003 (from 162 in 1971 to 564 in 2003), while thereafter, this number has been relatively stable (579 deaths in 2015). Men's age-adjusted incidence of fall deaths rose from 45.6 in 1971 to 69.5 in 1998, after which it stayed relatively stable until 2005 (69.9). Since 2005, this figure has shown a steady, deep decline (only 45.1 in 2015). Among women, the number of fall-induced deaths increased considerably between 1971 and 1998 (from 279 in 1971 to 563 in 1998), while thereafter, this number has been relatively stable (532 deaths in 2015). In sharp contrast to men, women's age-adjusted incidence of fall-induced deaths has been declining since the early 1970s, the incidence being 82.6 in 1971 while only 33.0 in 2015. A steady, deep decline started in 1998. Among 50 years or older Finns the number of fall-induced deaths increased considerably from the early 1970s until the late 1990s but stabilized thereafter. In the new millennium, the age-adjusted incidence of these deaths has started to decline in both sexes. Despite this we have to effectively continue the falls prevention efforts, because our elderly population will grow rapidly in the near future.

  17. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review


    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish


    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...

  18. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian


    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  19. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papori Borah


    Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  20. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg


    were cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with population controls, bacteremia patients were at the highest risk of death from genitourinary diseases and infectious diseases within 1 year of bacteremia. Among 1-year survivors of bacteremia, the risk of death was increased for all major causes....... The most common causes of death after bacteremia are cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Among hospitalized patients, the incidence of bacteremia is highest within days of admission and varies with patient and clinical characteristics.......Bacteremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and ranks among the top seven causes of death in Europe and North America. The occurrence of bacteremia has increased for decades while short-term prognosis has remained unchanged or improved only slightly. Consequently, we are facing...