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Sample records for incidence varies considerably

  1. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  2. Errors in 'BED'-derived estimates of HIV incidence will vary by place, time and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Hallett

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The BED Capture Enzyme Immunoassay, believed to distinguish recent HIV infections, is being used to estimate HIV incidence, although an important property of the test--how specificity changes with time since infection--has not been not measured.We construct hypothetical scenarios for the performance of BED test, consistent with current knowledge, and explore how this could influence errors in BED estimates of incidence using a mathematical model of six African countries. The model is also used to determine the conditions and the sample sizes required for the BED test to reliably detect trends in HIV incidence.If the chance of misclassification by BED increases with time since infection, the overall proportion of individuals misclassified could vary widely between countries, over time, and across age-groups, in a manner determined by the historic course of the epidemic and the age-pattern of incidence. Under some circumstances, changes in BED estimates over time can approximately track actual changes in incidence, but large sample sizes (50,000+ will be required for recorded changes to be statistically significant.The relationship between BED test specificity and time since infection has not been fully measured, but, if it decreases, errors in estimates of incidence could vary by place, time and age-group. This means that post-assay adjustment procedures using parameters from different populations or at different times may not be valid. Further research is urgently needed into the properties of the BED test, and the rate of misclassification in a wide range of populations.

  3. Stagewise pseudo-value regression for time-varying effects on the cumulative incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöller, Daniela; Schmidtmann, Irene; Weinmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    In a competing risks setting, the cumulative incidence of an event of interest describes the absolute risk for this event as a function of time. For regression analysis, one can either choose to model all competing events by separate cause-specific hazard models or directly model the association...... for time-varying effects. This is implemented by coupling variable selection between the grid times, but determining estimates separately. The effect estimates are regularized to also allow for model fitting with a low to moderate number of observations. This technique is illustrated in an application...

  4. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobero, R A; Peabody, J W

    2006-11-01

    In 2003, Peru and Bolivia reported the highest annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the Americas. Neighboring Colombia and Chile had lower annual incidence rates despite their proximity. To determine what factors contribute to differences in TB incidence rates among Chile, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Multiple sources of literature dating between 1990 and 2005 were used and World Health Organization TB control guidelines were consulted for policy level comparisons. Comprehensive implementation of the DOTS strategy is the main factor explaining the differences in TB incidence rates, even after considering socio-economic factors. Cross-national comparisons suggest ways to improve regional DOTS implementation.

  5. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

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    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  6. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  7. Incidence of herpes zoster amongst adults varies by severity of immunosuppression.

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    Schröder, Carsten; Enders, Dirk; Schink, Tania; Riedel, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    We examined the incidence of herpes zoster in immunocompromised adults (≥18 years) with different severities of immunosuppression and assessed the prevalence of complications and of various kinds of healthcare resource utilisation. German claims data from more than ten million adults were used to calculate annual incidence rates of herpes zoster for the years 2006-2012 and to analyse the prevalence of complications, physician visits, hospitalisations, and antiviral and analgesic treatments using a cohort design. The analyses were stratified by age, sex, and severity of immunosuppression, defined by immunocompromising conditions and drug therapies. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of herpes zoster was almost twice as high in immunocompromised patients (11.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4-11.6)) compared to immunocompetent subjects (5.9 (95% CI: 5.8-5.9)). The incidence rate was higher in highly immunocompromised patients (13.4 (95% CI: 13.2-13.6)) than in patients with a low severity of immunosuppression (10.0 (95% CI: 9.8-10.1)). These differences were observed for both sexes and in all age groups. Complications, outpatient physician visits, hospitalisations, and analgesic treatments occurred more frequently in immunocompromised patients as well. Our results show that immunocompromised individuals are affected by the disease in particular and that the burden of herpes zoster is highest in severely immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The SSRL ultrahigh vacuum grazing incidence monochromator: design considerations and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.C.; Bachrach, R.Z.; Lien, N.

    1978-01-01

    Considerable experience has now accumulated with the 'grasshopper' monochromator installed on the four degree line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. This is one of the first bakeable high vacuum instruments for use with a storage ring source in the photon energy range 25 to 1000 eV. The unique features of this instrument will be discussed from a general point of view, including the source emittance and the transforming properties of the beam line plus monochromator. Actual performance figures will be given in order to better appraise the limits of focusing optics and gratings at two degree grazing incidence. Improvements such as post-monochromator optics, isolation valves and provisions for adjustment will be briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Associação entre incidência de dengue e variáveis climáticas Association between dengue incidence and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa F Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a ocorrência de casos de dengue autóctone segundo sexo, faixa etária e local provável de infecção e sua relação com variáveis climatológicas. MÉTODOS: Os registros de casos autóctones em São Sebastião, SP, de 2001 a 2002, e confirmados laboratorialmente foram estudados. A densidade larval foi verificada pelos índices de predial, recipientes e Breteau. A relação entre dados de pluviosidade, temperatura e número de casos foi analisada pela correlação de Spearman utilizando-se o conceito time-lag. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de incidência anuais para 2001 e 2002 foram de 80,31 e 211,1 por 10.000 habitantes, respectivamente. A maioria dos casos de dengue (n=1.091; 65% foi registrada na área central do município. O sexo feminino foi o mais acometido (n=969; 60% e ambos os sexos nas faixas etárias entre 20 e 29 e 30 e 39 anos. Não foi observada correlação entre variáveis climatológicas e número de casos do mesmo mês, entretanto, esta associação ocorre a partir do segundo mês estendendo-se até o quarto mês. CONCLUSÕES: A associação entre o número de casos de dengue e fatores abióticos identificou o intervalo de tempo em que a chuva e a temperatura contribuíram na geração de novos casos. Tais aspectos, associados à vulnerabilidade turística da região litorânea, propiciaram condições para ocorrência da doença. A urbanização sem a devida estrutura de saneamento possivelmente influenciou na densidade de mosquitos e na incidência de dengue. Esses fatores podem ter contribuído para a dispersão do mosquito e disseminação dos vários sorotipos da doença.OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of autochthonous dengue cases according to sex, age, suspected infection site and its relation with climatic variables. METHODS: Autochthonous dengue cases reported in São Sebastião, Southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2002 and confirmed in laboratory were studied. Larval density was verified by

  10. Symmetry consideration in zero loop-area Sagnac interferometry at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects.

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    Zhu, X D

    2017-08-01

    I present a detailed account of a zero loop-area Sagnac interferometer operated at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects arising from a magnetized sample. In particular, I describe the symmetry consideration and various optical arrangements available to such an interferometer that enables measurements of magneto-optic effects due to both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization of the sample with optimizable signal-to-noise ratios.

  11. Research on the FDTD method of scattering effects of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves in time-varying plasma sheath on collision and plasma frequencies

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    Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.

  12. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  13. Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeze, J.; Keus, F.; Dieperink, W.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van Meurs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of critical illness with both attributed morbidity and mortality at short-term and long-term. The incidence of AKI reported in critically ill patients varies substantially with the population evaluated and the definitions used. We aimed

  14. The association of antidepressant and statin use with death and incident cardiovascular disease varies by depression severity.

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    May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Knight, Stacey; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Horne, Benjamin D; Brunisholz, Kimberly D; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2017-09-01

    Depression has been reported to be associated with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the impact of antidepressants (ADM) on CVD risk remains controversial. Statin use is known to decrease CVD risk. Whether the use of these medications together affects CVD risk has not been studied. Patients (N = 26,828) completing the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), ≥40 years of age, without prior CVD, and no prior ADM use were studied. Depressive severity was categorized as none-mild (PHQ-9 score ≤14, n = 21,517) and moderate-severe (PHQ-9 score ≥15, n = 5311). Cox hazard regression was used to evaluate the association of no ADM/no statin use (n = 23,104 [86.1%]), ADM/no statin use (n = 877 [3.3%]), no ADM/statin use (n = 2627 [9.8%]), and ADM/statin use (n = 220 [.8%]) with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, CAD, stroke). Patients averaged 56 ± 12 years; 61% female. There were 1182 (4.4%) 3 year MACE events. The association of ADM and statin use with MACE varied by depressive symptom severity, with statin therapy associated with a decreased risk in the none-mild group (HR = .78, p = .007) and ADM in the moderate-high group (HR = 0.58, p = 0.02). Concomitant use of ADMs and statins did not appear to provide additive benefit.

  15. Associations of Dairy Intake with Incident Prediabetes or Diabetes in Middle-Aged Adults Vary by Both Dairy Type and Glycemic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Ma, Jiantao; Rogers, Gail; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F

    2017-09-01

    Background: Inconsistent evidence describes the association between dietary intake of dairy and milk-based products and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Objective: Our objective was to assess associations between consumption of milk-based products, incident prediabetes, and progression to T2D in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. Methods: Total dairy and milk-based product consumption was assessed by ≤4 food-frequency questionnaires across a mean of 12 y of follow-up in 2809 participants [mean ± SD age: 54.0 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 27.1 ± 4.7; 54% female]. Prediabetes was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 to prediabetes at baseline, 902 (48%) developed prediabetes. Total, low-fat, and high-fat dairy consumptions were associated with a 39%, 32%, and 25% lower risk of incident prediabetes, respectively, in the highest compared with the lowest intakes (≥14 compared with prediabetes; moderate intake was associated with the greatest relative risk reduction. Neither cheese nor cream and butter was associated with prediabetes. Of 925 participants with prediabetes at baseline, 196 (21%) developed T2D. Only high-fat dairy and cheese showed evidence of dose-response, inverse associations with incident T2D, with 70% and 63% lower risk, respectively, of incident T2D between the highest and lowest intake categories (≥14 compared with prediabetes or diabetes varied both by dairy product and type and by baseline glycemic status in this middle-aged US population. Baseline glycemic status may partially underlie prior equivocal evidence regarding the role of dairy intake in diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Analysis of recent incidents of on-field violence in sport: legal decisions and additional considerations from psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, John H

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two recent incidents of serious on-field violence in sports and the legal consequences for those involved. The two incidents occurred in Dutch football (soccer) and became infamous owing to the nature of the violent incidents and widespread media coverage. The legal outcomes of these two incidents are described, and some of the difficulties that legal authorities face in considering assaults on the sports field are discussed. A new way of categorizing such violent incidents and the motivation behind them, based on an established psychological theory [reversal theory, Apter, 1982, 2001] is proposed. Taken along with the other points made in this article, being aware of when and how individuals cross the boundaries between play and anger, power or thrill violence may provide an additional perspective to making informed decisions about illegal violent acts on the sports field. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within "flap" areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders.

  18. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinger, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references

  19. Considerations Regarding Age at Surgery and Fistula Incidence Using One- and Two-stage Closure for Cleft Palate

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    Simona Stoicescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although cleft lip and palate (CLP is one of the most common congenital malformations, occurring in 1 in 700 live births, there is still no generally accepted treatment protocol. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for cleft palate repair; these techniques can be divided into one-stage (one operation cleft palate repair and two-stage cleft palate closure. The aim of this study is to present our cleft palate team experience in using the two-stage cleft palate closure and the clinical outcomes in terms of oronasal fistula rate. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 80 patients who underwent palate repair over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. All cleft palate patients were incorporated. Information on patient’s gender, cleft type, age at repair, one- or two-stage cleft palate repair were collected and analyzed. Results: Fifty-three (66% and twenty-seven (34% patients underwent two-stage and one-stage repair, respectively. According to Veau classification, more than 60% of them were Veau III and IV, associating cleft lip to cleft palate. Fistula occurred in 34% of the two-stage repairs versus 7% of one-stage repairs, with an overall incidence of 24%. Conclusions: Our study has shown that a two-stage cleft palate closure has a higher rate of fistula formation when compared with the one-stage repair. Two-stage repair is the protocol of choice in wide complete cleft lip and palate cases, while one-stage procedure is a good option for cleft palate alone, or some specific cleft lip and palate cases (narrow cleft palate, older age at surgery

  20. Incidence of malignant lymphoma in adolescents and young adults in the 58 counties of California with varying synthetic turf field density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Keegan, Theresa

    2018-04-01

    Case reports of cancer among soccer players raised concerns that the crumb rubber infill in synthetic turf fields may cause malignant lymphoma. One prior epidemiologic study on the topic found no association. An ecologic evaluation of county-level incidence of lymphomas by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for the state of California with data obtained from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Synthetic turf field density by county was obtained from the Synthetic Turf Council. During 2000-2013, 7214 14- to 30-year-old Californians were diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Annual lymphoma county incidence trends were not associated with the county-level synthetic turf field density. None of 20 sub-analyses by race/ethnicity, sex and county median household income indicated a correlation of lymphoma incidence with synthetic turf field density. In California, there was no evidence at the county-level that synthetic turf fields are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma in adolescents and young adults. Our findings in the state with the greatest number of such fields and a large, diverse patient population are consistent with those of a prior study observing no association between individual-level exposures to turf fields and cancer incidence. Avoidance of synthetic turf fields for fear of increased cancer risk is not warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence and clinical importance of chronic reactive periostal new formations of bone in the cervical region in patients with varying neurological symptomatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S; Fruehwald, F; Schwaighofer, B; Huebsch, P; Reisner, T; Binder, H

    1989-02-01

    81 patients classed into three groups with clinical evidence of neurological symptoms and posttraumatic pain of the cervical spine and the incidence of degenerative disorders were studied noninvasively via CT scanning. In about half of the patients with nerve-root symptomatology as well as with signs of involvement of long tracts, narrowing of the foramen intervertebrale, respectively of the spinal tract, was seen, attributable to degenerative osseous apposition with excellent clinical segmental and (according to radicular symptoms) side correlation. In contrast to these results the group of patients with posttraumatic clinical symptoms showed almost 50% less preexisting degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Hypertrophic changes of the processus articulares with narrowing of the spinal canal occurred in 14% and were therefore of minor clinical significance. (orig./GDG).

  2. Effect of house type on growth performance, litter quality and incidence of foot lesions in broiler chickens reared in varying stocking density

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    Danial Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.

  3. Design considerations of a randomized controlled trial of sedation level during hip fracture repair surgery: a strategy to reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjing; Wieland, L Susan; Oh, Esther; Neufeld, Karin J; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dickersin, Kay; Sieber, Frederick E

    2017-06-01

    Background Delirium is an acute change in mental status characterized by sudden onset, fluctuating course, inattention, disorganized thinking, and abnormal level of consciousness. The objective of the randomized controlled trial "A STrategy to Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients" (STRIDE) is to assess the effectiveness of light versus heavy sedation on delirium and other outcomes in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture repair surgery. Our goal is to describe the design considerations and lessons learned in planning and implementing the STRIDE trial. Methods Discussed are challenges encountered including (1) how to ensure that we quickly identify, assess the eligibility of, and randomize traumatic hip fracture patients; (2) how to implement interventions that involve continuous monitoring and adjustment during the surgery; and (3) how to measure and ascertain the primary outcome, delirium. Results To address the first challenge, we monitored the operating room schedule more actively than anticipated. We constructed and organized eligibility assessment data collection forms by purpose and by source of information needed to complete them. We decided that randomization needs to take place in the operating room. To address the second challenge, we designed and implemented a treatment protocol and covered the bispectral index monitor to prevent the Anesthesiologist/Anesthetist from being influenced by the bispectral index reading while administering the intervention. Finally, clinical assessment of delirium consisted of standardized interviews of the patient using validated instruments, interviews of those caring for the patient, and review of the medical record. A consensus panel made the final determination of a delirium diagnosis. We note that STRIDE is a single-center trial. The decisions we took may have different implications for multi-center trials. Conclusions Lessons learned are likely to provide useful information to others

  4. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

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    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J

    2017-12-01

    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Influência de variáveis climáticas sobre a incidência de meningite e sua distribuição espacial no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, 2001-2005 Influence of climatic variables on the incidence of meningitis and its space distribution in the city of Ponta Grossa-PR, 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroliny Stocco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os elementos climáticos têm destacada influência sobre a manifestação de muitas doenças nos seres humanos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de variáveis climáticas locais sobre a incidência mensal de meningite no Município de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, no período de 2001 a 2005, assim como distribuir espacialmente sua ocorrência na área urbana. A amostra inicial foi composta de 401 casos notificados e confirmados de indivíduos residentes nesse município. Verificou-se forte correlação entre a incidência média mensal de meningite e as variáveis climáticas temperatura média do ar, precipitação pluviométrica e umidade relativa do ar na maioria dos meses. A distribuição espacial dos casos em estudo revelou maior concentração nas porções centro-oeste e centro-norte da cidade.Climatic elements have an important influence on the manifestation of many human diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of local climate variables on the monthly incidence of meningitis in the city of Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, in the period from 2001 to 2005, and to spatially distribute its occurrence in the urban area. The initial sample was composed of 401 notified cases which were confirmed as being of resident citizens in this city. Strong correlation was verified between the average monthly incidence of meningitis and the following climate variables: mean air temperature, precipitation and relative humidity in most months. The spatial distribution of the cases under study showed higher concentration in the central-west and north-central portions of the city.

  6. Nuclear donor cell lines considerably influence cloning efficiency and the incidence of large offspring syndrome in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Su, J; Luo, Y; Quan, F; Zhang, Y

    2013-08-01

    Total five ear skin fibroblast lines (named F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) from different newborn Holstein cows have been used as nuclear donor cells for producing cloned cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The effects of these cell lines on both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates of cloned embryos, post-natal survivability and incidence of large offspring syndrome (LOS) were examined in this study. We found that the different cell lines possessed the same capacity to support pre-implantation development of cloned embryos, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates ranged from 80.2 ± 0.9 to 84.5 ± 2.5% and 28.5 ± 0.9 to 33.3 ± 1.4%, respectively. However, their capacities to support the in vivo development of SCNT embryos showed significant differences (p cloning efficiency was significantly higher in group F5 than those in group F1, F2, F3 and F4 (9.3% vs 4.1%, 1.2%, 2.0% and 5.0%, respectively, p cloned offspring from cell line F1, F2, F3 and F4 showed LOS and gestation length delay, while all cloned offspring from F5 showed normal birthweight and gestation length. We concluded that the nuclear donor cell lines have significant impact on the in vivo development of cloned embryos and the incidence of LOS in cloned calves. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Body weight considerations in the B6C3F1 mouse and the use of dietary control to standardize background tumor incidence in chronic bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakey, Julian E.A.; Seng, John E.; Allaben, William T.

    2003-01-01

    In B6C3F 1 mice, the rate of body growth influences susceptibility to liver neoplasia and large variations in body weight can complicate the interpretation of bioassay data. The relationship between body weight and liver tumor incidence was calculated for historical control populations of male and female ad libitum-fed mice (approx. 2750 and 2300 animals, respectively) and in populations of male and female mice which had been subjected to forced body weight reduction due to either dietary restriction or exposure to noncarcinogenic chemicals (approx. 1600 and 1700, respectively). Resulting tumor risk data were then used to construct idealized weight curves for male and female B6C3F 1 mice; these curves predict a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. Use of dietary control to manipulate body growth of male B6C3F 1 mice to fit the idealized weight curve was evaluated in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Cohorts of mice were successfully maintained at weights approximating their idealized target weights throughout the study. These mice exhibited less body weight variation than their ad libitum-fed counterparts (e.g., standard deviations of body weight were 1.4 and 3.4 g for respective control groups at 36 weeks). Historical control body weight and tumor risk data from the two male mouse populations were utilized to predict background liver tumor rates for each experimental group of the chloral hydrate study. The predicted background tumor rates closely matched the observed rates for both the dietary controlled and ad libitum-fed chloral hydrate control groups when each mouse was evaluated according to either its weekly food consumption or its weekly change in body weight

  8. Incidence and etiology of lumbar spondylolysis: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Suzue, Naoto; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Yasui, Natsuo

    2010-05-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a defect of the pars interarticularis known to occur as a stress fracture. Its incidence varies considerably depending on ethnicity, sex, and sports activity. However, there are few literature reviews describing its incidence in different ethnic groups or in people who engage in different sports. We reviewed the most relevant articles on spondylolysis published in scientific journals. First, we focused on its incidence in various ethnic groups distributed by sex, the familial occurrence, and in patients with relevant diseases. Second, we focused on the incidence of spondylolysis in relation to the sports practiced by the patients. Although placing special emphasis on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan, we also reviewed the Japanese and English literature to investigate its incidence among those who engage in different sports. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general Japanese population was 5.9%. Most studies report that the incidence in higher in male subjects than in female subjects. We found that Japanese rugby and judo players were prone to suffer lumbar spondylolysis, at an incidence of about 20%. However, the incidence for Japanese professional soccer and baseball players was much higher, at 30%, which was more than five times the incidence in the general Japanese population. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies depending on ethnicity, sex, family history, relevant disease, and sports activity.

  9. Effects of Climate on Incidence of Campylobacter spp. in Humans and Prevalence in Broiler Flocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Mary Evans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    humidity predicted the incidence in humans equally well. For broiler flock incidence these factors explained considerably less. Future research should focus on elements within the broiler environment that may be affected by climate, as well as the interaction of microclimatic factors on and around broiler...... and poultry sales that may vary by season....

  10. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  11. Ability To Serologically Confirm Recent Zika Virus Infection in Areas with Varying Past Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in the United States and U.S. Territories in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Staples, J Erin; Powell, Krista; Rabe, Ingrid B; Fischer, Marc; Powers, Ann M; Kosoy, Olga I; Mossel, Eric C; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Beltran, Manuela; Hancock, W Thane; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Ellis, Esther M; Ellis, Brett R; Panella, Amanda J; Basile, Alison J; Calvert, Amanda E; Laven, Janeen; Goodman, Christin H; Gould, Carolyn V; Martin, Stacey W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Villanueva, Julie; Mataia, Mary L; Sciulli, Rebecca; Gose, Remedios; Whelen, A Christian; Hills, Susan L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-reactivity within flavivirus antibody assays, produced by shared epitopes in the envelope proteins, can complicate the serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. We assessed the utility of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to confirm recent ZIKAV infections and rule out misleading positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) results in areas with various levels of past dengue virus (DENV) infection incidence. We reviewed PRNT results of sera collected for diagnosis of ZIKAV infection from 1 January through 31 August 2016 with positive ZIKAV IgM results, and ZIKAV and DENV PRNTs were performed. PRNT result interpretations included ZIKAV, unspecified flavivirus, DENV infection, or negative. For this analysis, ZIKAV IgM was considered false positive for samples interpreted as a DENV infection or negative. In U.S. states, 208 (27%) of 759 IgM-positive results were confirmed to be ZIKAV compared to 11 (21%) of 52 in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), 15 (15%) of 103 in American Samoa, and 13 (11%) of 123 in Puerto Rico. In American Samoa and Puerto Rico, more than 80% of IgM-positive results were unspecified flavivirus infections. The false-positivity rate was 27% in U.S. states, 18% in the USVI, 2% in American Samoa, and 6% in Puerto Rico. In U.S. states, the PRNT provided a virus-specific diagnosis or ruled out infection in the majority of IgM-positive samples. Almost a third of ZIKAV IgM-positive results were not confirmed; therefore, providers and patients must understand that IgM results are preliminary. In territories with historically higher rates of DENV transmission, the PRNT usually could not differentiate between ZIKAV and DENV infections. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  12. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  13. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    balance between the post-partum haemorrhage risk of leaving the placenta in ... Conclusion: Retained placenta still remains a potentially life threatening condition in ... obstetric services by high skilled health care providers in ensuring a properly conducted .... of the preterm placenta may require more uterine work and time ...

  14. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  15. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  16. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  17. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  18. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  19. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  20. Incidence and public health burden of sunburn among ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunburn, a preventable skin condition, is a major risk factor for skin cancer. Severe burns can result in emergency department visits and in some cases hospitalization. Many people spend hours in direct sunlight while at the beach, which could lead to sunburn. We pooled data from 13 prospective cohorts of beachgoers in the United States (n=84,411) to describe incidence of sunburn, risk factors associated with an increased risk of sunburn, and the health burden resulting from time lost from work or school, visits to the doctor, and medication use. The incidence of sunburn in this population in the 10-12 days after the beach visit was 14% (n=9,882), excluding those with sunburn at enrollment. Sunburn incidence increased with greater time spent in the sun. Approximately 8% of beachgoers only exposed for sunburn, whereas almost 20% spending ≥5 hours in the sun reported sunburn (psunburn (15% versus 11%, psunburns (17%) or freckles when in the sun (13%) compared to 11% who typically get dark tans. The incidence of sunburn varied considerably by age group. Children ages sunburn (2%) whereas adults between the ages of 19-35 had the highest incidence of sunburn (18%). Preliminary analyses indicate t

  1. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  3. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Center, Odette Cancer Centre, Cancer Care Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  4. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  5. [Theological moral considerations of advance directives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virt, G

    1997-01-01

    The forms for advanced directives vary considerably in respect to content and wording. This article intends to develop ethical criteria for such texts, from the moraltheological point of view, also considering the social context.

  6. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  7. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  8. Ethical considerations on novel neuronal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinbora, Kadircan H; Keskinbora, Kader

    2018-04-01

    Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals. It is possible to transmit such stimulation using remote control principles. Perhaps, the most important concern regarding the use of these devices termed as "neural dust" is represented by the possibility of controlling affection and other mental functions via waves reaching the brain using more advanced versions of such devices. This will not only violate the respect for authority principle of ethics, but also medical ethics, and may potentially lead to certain incidents of varying vehemence that may be considered illegal. Therefore, a sound knowledge and implementation of ethical principles is becoming a more important issue on the part of healthcare professionals. In both the ethical decision-making process and in ethical conflicts, it may be useful to re-appraise the principles of medical ethics. In this article, the ethical considerations of these devices are discussed.

  9. Multivariate time-varying volatility modeling using probabilistic fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basturk, N.; Almeida, R.J.; Golan, R.; Kaymak, U.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to accurately analyze financial risk have drawn considerable attention in financial institutions. One difficulty in financial risk analysis is the fact that banks and other financial institutions invest in several assets which show time-varying volatilities and hence time-varying financial

  10. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2015-07-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents) occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  11. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  12. Creative accounting: Nature, incidence and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Oriol Amat; Catherine Gowthorpe

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and incidence of creative accounting practices within the context of ethical considerations.It explores several definitions of creative accounting and the potential and the range of reasons for a company's directors to engage in creative accounting. Later the paper considers the various ways in which creative accounting can be undertaken and summarizes some empirical research on the nature and incidence of creative accounting. The ethical dimension of creative a...

  13. Impact of changes in welfare legislation on the incidence of disability pension. A cohort study of construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Mia; Mannelqvist, Ruth; Järvholm, Bengt; Schiöler, Linus; Stattin, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Study objectives were to investigate how changes in social insurance legislation influenced the incidence of disability pension. The study included 295,636 male construction workers who attended health examinations between 1971 and 1993, aged 20-60 years and without previous disability pension. Via the Swedish National Insurance Agency national register we identified 66,046 subjects who were granted disability pension up until 2010. The incidence rates were calculated and stratified according to age and diagnosis. The incidence rate of disability pension was fairly stable until the 1990s when large variations occurred, followed by a strong decreasing trend from the early 2000s to 2010. Trends in incidence rates, stratified by age and diagnosis, showed a consistent decrease in cardiovascular disease for all age groups. In subjects aged 30-49 years there was a high peak around 2003 for musculoskeletal diseases and psychiatric diseases. For the age group 50-59 years, musculoskeletal diagnosis, the most common cause of disability pension, had a sharp peak around 1993 and then a decreasing trend. In the 60-64 age group, the incidence rate for psychiatric diagnosis was stable, while incidence rates for musculoskeletal diagnosis varied during the 1990s. There are considerable variations in the incidence rate of disability pension over time, with different patterns depending on age and diagnosis. Changes in social insurance legislation, as well as in administration processes, seem to influence the variation.

  14. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  15. Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegren, Nathan D; Kraus, Chadd K

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne illness in North America. Reported cases of LD have increased from approximately 10,000 cases annually in 1991 to >25,000 cases in 2014. Greater recognition, enhanced surveillance, and public education have contributed to the increased prevalence, as have geographic expansion and the number of infected ticks. Cases are reported primarily in the Northeastern United States, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, with children having the highest incidence of LD among all age groups. The increased incidence and prevalence of LD in the United States makes it increasingly more common for patients to present to the emergency department (ED) for tick bites and LD-related chief complaints, such as the characteristic erythema migrans skin manifestation. We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations. In this review, ED considerations for LD are presented and clinical presentations and management of the disease at different stages is discussed. Delayed sequelae that have significant morbidity, including Lyme carditis and Lyme neuroborreliosis, are discussed. Diagnostic tests and management are described in detail. The increasing prevalence and growing geographic reach of Lyme disease makes it critically important for emergency physicians to consider the diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of LD and to initiate appropriate treatment to minimize the potential of delayed sequelae. Special consideration should be made for the epidemiology of LD and a high clinical suspicion should be present for patients in endemic areas or with known exposures to ticks. Emergency physicians can play a critical role in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  17. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  18. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  19. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  20. Flexible time-varying filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    1993-09-01

    Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.

  1. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  2. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs 137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m 2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  4. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  5. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. Incidence of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis in Latin America: the LATIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare but life-threatening disorders, often caused by drugs and other environmental exposures. Reported incidence of these diseases seems to vary between different geographic regions, and few data on their incidence are available for Latin American countries. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Incidence study. Seven centers took part in the pilot phase, so as to represent all Brazilian regions. METHODS: Each center conducted an active search for new cases in a defined region by means of regular contacts with all hematologists, main clinical laboratories and clinicians in hospitals of the region. RESULTS: 74 patients with aplastic anemia and 16 with agranulocytosis were identified. Patients with agranulocytosis had a median age of 31 years (interquartile range, IQR: 12.5-48.2; 32.2% were male and 81.2% were white. The median age of aplastic anemia patients was 21 years (IQR 15.0-35.2; 62.2% were male, 50.0% were white and 39.2% mulatto. The incidence of agranulocytosis was estimated to be 0.5 cases per million individuals per year, ranging from 0.0 to 1.1 cases per million per year between regions. The incidence of aplastic anemia was 2.7 cases per million per year, ranging from 1.1 to 7.1 cases per million per year between regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare diseases in Brazil. However, there is considerable variability in their incidences between different regions.

  8. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, D. W.; Gavin, A.; Hegarty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES). We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995-2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI) and Republic of Ireland (RoI). Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84-0.97)), with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79-0.92)). For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  11. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  12. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  14. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  15. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  16. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  17. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  18. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  19. The Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Diabetic (Compared to the Non-Diabetic) Population: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narres, Maria; Claessen, Heiner; Droste, Sigrid; Kvitkina, Tatjana; Koch, Michael; Kuss, Oliver; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetes is a life threatening complication resulting in a poor prognosis for patients as well as high medical costs. The aims of this systematic review were (1) to evaluate the incidence of ESRD due to all causes and due to diabetic nephropathy in the diabetic population and differences between incidences of ESRD with respect to sex, ethnicity, age and regions, (2) to compare incidence rates in the diabetic and non-diabetic population, and (3) to investigate time trends. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in the biomedical databases until January 3rd 2015; thirty-two studies were included. Among patients with incident type 1 diabetes the 30-year cumulative incidence ranged from 3.3% to 7.8%. Among patients with prevalent diabetes, incidence rates of ESRD due to all causes ranged from 132.0 to 167.0 per 100,000 person-years, whereas incidence rates of ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy varied from 38.4 to 804.0 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of ESRD in the diabetic population was higher compared to the non-diabetic population, and relative risks varied from 6.2 in the white population to 62.0 among Native Americans. The results regarding time trends were inconsistent. The review conducted demonstrates the considerable variation of incidences of ESRD among the diabetic population. Consistent findings included an excess risk when comparing the diabetic to the non-diabetic population and ethnic differences. We recommend that newly designed studies should use standardized methods for the determination of ESRD and population at risk. PMID:26812415

  20. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  1. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  2. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  3. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  4. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  5. Entrepreneurship: Some Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented some considerations about entrepreneurship. Most of these questions are linked with Portuguese context. Portugal has some particularities, namely because the asymmetries between the littoral and the interior. This situation carried out some problems that complicate and prevent the appearance of new innovated business. In a situation of crisis like that we have today this context can become a really problem to solve some questions.

  6. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. Epidemiology and incidence of acute and chronic Post-Surgical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Pasquale; Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Pota, Vincenzo; Colella, Umberto; Aurilio, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Post Surgical Pain (PSP) treatment represents a significant aspect of management of surgical patients. Incidence of severe PSP, with significant functional deficit is estimated at 5-10%. Most studies include a limited number of patients and this is a factor which affects power of results. Aims of our prospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of acute and chronic PSP in patients undergoing surgery at the university hospital of second university of naples. After Ethics Committee approval and written informed consent, the PSP acute on first day (at least 6 hours after surgery) through the International Pain Outcomes questionnaire was rated. Subsequently, patients were followed-up at 6 and 12 months; data collection took place by e-mail or phone and the Brief Pain Inventory and the DN4 were administered. We enrolled 235 patients, 219 performed the follow-up to 6months, 195 even that to 12 The incidence of CPSP at 6 months was of 45.2% for mild pain, 15.9% for moderate pain and of 2.7% for severe pain while the incidence of CPSP at 12 months was 35.9%, 11.8% and 2.5% respectively for the pain mild, moderate and severe. Neuropathic pain occurred in 40.3% of patients who CPSP moderate at 12 months compared with 31.9% of the patients interviewed at 6 months. Incidence and characteristics of PSP varied, often considerably, depending on the type of surgery, gender, age of the patient and the presence of PSP severe in the 24 hours following surgery. The incidence of CPSP 12 months after surgery must be improved in the next future. Preoperative pain and the percentage of time with severe pain during the first 24 hours after surgery seem to be CPSP predictors.

  9. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  10. Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Russell H.

    2007-01-01

    Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model’s contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual’s encountering the attitude objec...

  11. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  13. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ''life-cycle'' cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots

  14. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  15. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  16. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  17. Consideration of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, I.

    1982-01-01

    Mr. Smart notes that the optimistic promise of nuclear energy for developing countries has not been met, but feels that nuclear power can still provide a growing share of energy during the transition from oil dependence. He observes that cost-benefit analyses vary for each country, but good planning and management can give nuclear power a positive future for those developing countries which can establish a need for it; have access to the economic, technological, and human resources necessary to develop and operate it; and can make nuclear power compatible with the social, economic, and cultural structure. 11 references

  18. Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1985-08-01

    A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs

  19. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  20. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  1. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  2. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  4. A varying-α brane world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-08-01

    We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)

  5. Nutritional considerations in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Jentjens, Roy L P G; Moseley, Luke

    2005-01-01

    Triathlon combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) and competitions last between 1 hour 50 minutes (Olympic distance) and 14 hours (Ironman distance). Independent of the distance, dehydration and carbohydrate (CHO) depletion are the most likely causes of fatigue in triathlon, whereas gastrointestinal (GI) problems, hyperthermia and hyponatraemia are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events. Although glycogen supercompensation may be beneficial for triathlon performance (even Olympic distance), this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. More recently, studies have revealed ways to increase muscle glycogen concentrations to very high levels with minimal modifications in diet and training. During competition, cycling provides the best opportunity to ingest fluids. The optimum CHO concentration seems to be in the range of 5-8% and triathletes should aim to achieve a CHO intake of 60-70 g/hour. Triathletes should attempt to limit body mass losses to 1% of body mass. In all cases, a drink should contain sodium (30-50 mmol/L) for optimal absorption and prevention of hyponatraemia.Post-exercise rehydration is best achieved by consuming beverages that have a high sodium content (>60 mmol/L) in a volume equivalent to 150% of body mass loss. GI problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance triathlon. Problems seem related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, or hyperosmotic drinks, and the intake of fibre, fat and protein. Endotoxaemia has been suggested as an explanation for some of the GI problems, but this has not been confirmed by recent research. Although mild endotoxaemia may occur after an Ironman-distance triathlon, this does not seem to be related to the incidence of GI problems. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slow competitors in triathlons and probably arises due to loss of sodium in sweat coupled with very high

  6. Optimal routing of hazardous substances in time-varying, stochastic transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Miller-Hooks, E.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report is concerned with the selection of routes in a network along which to transport hazardous substances, taking into consideration several key factors pertaining to the cost of transport and the risk of population exposure in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the fact that travel time and the risk measures are not constant over time is explicitly recognized in the routing decisions. Existing approaches typically assume static conditions, possibly resulting in inefficient route selection and unnecessary risk exposure. The report described the application of recent advances in network analysis methodologies to the problem of routing hazardous substances. Several specific problem formulations are presented, reflecting different degrees of risk aversion on the part of the decision-maker, as well as different possible operational scenarios. All procedures explicitly consider travel times and travel costs (including risk measures) to be stochastic time-varying quantities. The procedures include both exact algorithms, which may require extensive computational effort in some situations, as well as more efficient heuristics that may not guarantee a Pareto-optimal solution. All procedures are systematically illustrated for an example application using the Texas highway network, for both normal and incident condition scenarios. The application illustrates the trade-offs between the information obtained in the solution and computational efficiency, and highlights the benefits of incorporating these procedures in a decision-support system for hazardous substance shipment routing decisions

  7. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  8. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  9. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  10. Risk assessment of several incidents in nuclear waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buetow, E.; Memmert, G.; Storck, R.; Weymann, J.; Matthies, M.; Vogt, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Regarding surface facilities two incidents of MAVA (failure of the filter in the exhaust gas system, fire in the bituminization system) and one incident in the Krypton storage and regarding underground systems the water inlet in the pit building have been evaluated. According to the calculations only the two nuclides Tc-99 and J-129 can involve a considerable exposure. The barrier system of overlying rocks and the pit system as a whole is largely redundant and diverse. (DG) [de

  11. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  12. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  13. Probabilistic safety considerations for the final disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the safety-related balanced concept of the plant design with respect to the operational phase, probabilistic safety considerations were made for the planned German repository for radioactive wastes, the Konrad repository. These considerations are described with respect to the handling and transfer system in the above-ground and underground facility. The operational sequences and the features of a repository are similar to those of conventional transportation and loading facilities and mining techniques. Hence, failure sequences and probability data were derived from these conventional areas. Incidents taken into consideration are e. g. collision of vehicles, fires, drop of waste packages due to failures of lifting equipment. The statistical data used were made available by authorities, insurance companies, and expert organizations. These data have been converted into probability data which were used for the determination of the frequencies for all radiologically relevant incidents. (author)

  14. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  15. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.

    2008-01-01

    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  16. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  17. Augmented cross-sectional studies with abbreviated follow-up for estimating HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, B; Lagakos, S W; Wang, R

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010, Biometrics 66, 864-874) propose an augmented cross-sectional design that provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this article, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. © 2011, The

  18. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  19. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  20. Incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan based on multidetector computed tomography scans from two thousand subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Takao, Shoichiro; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yasui, Natsuo

    2009-10-01

    Epidemiological analysis using CTs. To investigate the true incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan. Although there have been several reports on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis, they had some weakness. One of them concerns the subjects investigated, because the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies considerably, and some patients are asymptomatic. In addition, most of the past studies used plain radiograph films or skeletal investigation. Therefore, the past reported incidence may not correspond to that of the general population. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) scans of 2000 subjects (age: 20-92 years) who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT on a single multidetector CT scanner for reasons unrelated to low back pain. We reviewed them for spondylolysis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, and spina bifida occulta (SBO) in the lumbosacral region. The grade (I-IV) of spondylolisthesis was measured using midsagittal reconstructions. Lumbar spondylolysis was found in 117 subjects (5.9%). Their male-female ratio was 2:1. Multiple-level spondylolysis was found in 5 subjects (0.3%). Among these 117 subjects, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. Of them, 112 (90.3%) corresponded to L5, and 26 (21.0%) had unilateral spondylolysis.SBO was found in 154 subjects. Of them, 25 had spondylolysis (16.2%), whereas, in 1846 subjects without SBO, 92 had spondylolysis (5.0%). The incidence of spondylolysis among the patients with SBO was significantly higher than that in subjects without SBO (Odd ratio was 3.7-fold).Of 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis, 75 (60.5%) showed low-grade (Meyerding grade I or II) spondylolisthesis, and no subject presented high-grade spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis was found in 74.5% of the subjects with bilateral spondylolysis, and in 7.7% of those with unilateral spondylolysis. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the Japanese general population was 5.9% (males: 7.9%, females: 3.9%).

  1. Worldwide variation in hip fracture incidence weakly aligns with genetic divergence between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, I J; Botigué, L R; Lin, M; Smaers, J B; Henn, B M; Grine, F E

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of genetic differentiation in determining worldwide heterogeneity in osteoporosis-related hip fracture rates. The results indicate that global variation in fracture incidence exceeds that expected on the basis of random genetic variance. Worldwide, the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures varies considerably. This variability is believed to relate mainly to non-genetic factors. It is conceivable, however, that genetic susceptibility indeed differs across populations. Here, we present the first quantitative assessment of the effects of genetic differentiation on global variability in hip fracture rates. We investigate the observed variance in publically reported age-standardized rates of hip fracture among 28 populations from around the world relative to the expected variance given the phylogenetic relatedness of these populations. The extent to which these variances are similar constitutes a "phylogenetic signal," which was measured using the K statistic. Population genetic divergence was calculated using a robust array of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. While phylogenetic signal is maximized when K > 1, a K value of only 0.103 was detected in the combined-sex fracture rate pattern across the 28 populations, indicating that fracture rates vary more than expected based on phylogenetic relationships. When fracture rates for the sexes were analyzed separately, the degree of phylogenetic signal was also found to be small (females: K = 0.102; males: K = 0.081). The lack of a strong phylogenetic signal underscores the importance of factors other than stochastic genetic diversity in shaping worldwide heterogeneity in hip fracture incidence.

  2. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  3. Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2003-01-01

    Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints

  4. Detection of dynamically varying interaural time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlrausch, Armin; Le Goff, Nicolas; Breebaart, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    of fringes surrounding the probe is equal to the addition of the effects of the individual fringes. In this contribution, we present behavioral data for the same experimental condition, called dynamically varying ITD detection, but for a wider range of probe and fringe durations. Probe durations varied...

  5. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  6. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  7. Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Carstensen, Bendix; Møller, Henrik; Zappa, Marco; Zakelj, Maja Primic; Lawrence, Gill; Hakama, Matti; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2005-09-01

    Rapid increases in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence have been observed in Western countries in recent decades. Postulated explanations include an increasing specificity of subtype-the capability to diagnose the disease, an inability of cytologic screening to reduce adenocarcinoma, and heterogeneity in cofactors related to persistent human papillomavirus infection. This study examines the possible contribution of these factors in relation with trends observed in Europe. Age-period-cohort models were fitted to cervical adenocarcinoma incidence trends in women ages countries. Age-adjusted adenocarcinoma incidence rates increased throughout Europe, the rate of increase ranging from around 0.5% per annum in Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland to >/=3% in Finland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The increases first affected generations born in the early 1930s through the mid-1940s, with risk invariably higher in women born in the mid-1960s relative to those born 20 years earlier. The magnitude of this risk ratio varied considerably from around 7 in Slovenia to almost unity in France. Declines in period-specific risk were observed in United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden, primarily among women ages >30. Whereas increasing specificity of subtype with time may be responsible for some of the increases in several countries, the changing distribution and prevalence of persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types, alongside an inability to detect cervical adenocarcinoma within screening programs, would accord with the temporal profile observed in Europe. The homogeneity of trends in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in birth cohort is consistent with the notion that they share a similar etiology irrespective of the differential capability of screen detection. Screening may have had at least some impact in reducing cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in several countries during the 1990s.

  8. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  9. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  10. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  11. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  12. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  13. Vibration condition monitoring of planetary gearbox under varying external load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelmus, W.; Zimroz, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-01-15

    The paper shows that for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes it is important to identify the external varying load condition. In the paper, systematic consideration has been taken of the influence of many factors on the vibration signals generated by a system in which a planetary gearbox is included. These considerations give the basis for vibration signal interpretation, development of the means of condition monitoring, and for the scenario of the degradation of the planetary gearbox. Real measured vibration signals obtained in the industrial environment are processed. The signals are recorded during normal operation of the diagnosed objects, namely planetary gearboxes, which are a part of the driving system used in a bucket wheel excavator, used in lignite mines. It has been found that the most important factor of the proper planetary gearbox condition is connected with perturbation of arm rotation, where an arm rotation gives rise to a specific vibration signal whose properties are depicted by a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and Wigner-Ville distribution presented as a time-frequency map. The paper gives evidence that there are two dominant low-frequency causes that influence vibration signal modulation, i.e. the varying load, which comes from the nature of the bucket wheel digging process, and the arm/carrier rotation. These two causes determine the condition of the planetary gearboxes considered.

  14. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  15. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  16. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  17. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  18. Methodological considerations for economic modelling of latent tuberculous infection screening in migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedrawy, J; Siroka, A; Oxlade, O; Matteelli, A; Lönnroth, K

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants from endemic to low-incidence countries results mainly from the reactivation of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). LTBI screening policies for migrants vary greatly between countries, and the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of the different approaches is weak and heterogeneous. The aim of this review was to assess the methodology used in published economic evaluations of LTBI screening among migrants to identify critical methodological options that must be considered when using modelling to determine value for money from different economic perspectives. Three electronic databases were searched and 10 articles were included. There was considerable variation across this small number of studies with regard to economic perspective, main outcomes, modelling technique, screening options and target populations considered, as well as in parameterisation of the epidemiological situation, test accuracy, efficacy, safety and programme performance. Only one study adopted a societal perspective; others adopted a health care or wider government perspective. Parameters representing the cascade of screening and treating LTBI varied widely, with some studies using highly aspirational scenarios. This review emphasises the need for a more harmonised approach for economic analysis, and better transparency in how policy options and economic perspectives influence methodological choices. Variability is justifiable for some parameters. However, sufficient data are available to standardise others. A societal perspective is ideal, but can be challenging due to limited data. Assumptions about programme performance should be based on empirical data or at least realistic assumptions. Results should be interpreted within specific contexts and policy options, with cautious generalisations.

  19. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  20. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  1. Pelvic incidence variation among individuals: functional influence versus genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Fang; Zhao, Chang-Qing

    2018-03-20

    Pelvic incidence has become one of the most important sagittal parameters in spinal surgery. Despite its great importance, pelvic incidence can vary from 33° to 85° in the normal population. The reasons for this great variability in pelvic incidence remain unexplored. The objective of this article is to present some possible interpretations for the great variability in pelvic incidence under both normal and pathological conditions and to further understand the determinants of pelvic incidence from the perspective of the functional requirements for bipedalism and genetic backgrounds via a literature review. We postulate that both pelvic incidence and pelvic morphology may be genetically predetermined, and a great variability in pelvic incidence may already exist even before birth. This great variability may also serve as a further reminder that the sagittal profile, bipedal locomotion mode, and genetic background of every individual are unique and specific, and clinicians should avoid making universally applying broad generalizations of pelvic incidence. Although PI is an important parameter and there are many theories behind its variability, we still do not have clear mechanistic answers.

  2. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  3. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  4. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  5. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  6. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  7. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  8. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  9. VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Timothy D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.

  10. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  11. Incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in mouse masticatory muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, A; Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S

    1989-01-01

    Cross-sections of normal digastric, temporalis and masseter muscles from 7- and 30-week-old mice were studied for centrally positioned nuclei. Such nuclei were inhomogeneously distributed throughout each muscle and varied markedly between specimens. The incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in...

  12. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  14. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  15. Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osantowski, John F. (Editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

  16. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  17. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2016-04-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  18. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  19. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halos Lénaïg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.

  20. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Lebert, Isabelle; Abrial, David; Danlois, Fabien; Garzik, Karin; Rodes, Daniel; Schillmeier, Monika; Ducrot, Christian; Guillot, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i) Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii) France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii) Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection. PMID:24626325

  1. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  2. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  3. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  4. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  5. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  6. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  7. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  8. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  9. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-04-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  10. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.

  11. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  12. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, 'SAC-5, CSPC', (''3/4'') large, and (''3/8'') small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study

  13. Endogenous time-varying risk aversion and asset returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stylized facts about statistical properties for short horizon returns in financial markets have been identified in the literature, but a satisfactory understanding for their manifestation is yet to be achieved. In this work, we show that a simple asset pricing model with representative agent is able to generate time series of returns that replicate such stylized facts if the risk aversion coefficient is allowed to change endogenously over time in response to unexpected excess returns under evolutionary forces. The same model, under constant risk aversion, would instead generate returns that are essentially Gaussian. We conclude that an endogenous time-varying risk aversion represents a very parsimonious way to make the model match real data on key statistical properties, and therefore deserves careful consideration from economists and practitioners alike.

  14. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...

  15. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed

  16. Varied line-space gratings and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed

  17. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  18. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  19. New varying speed of light theories

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying $c$, dispelling the myth that the constancy of $c$ is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a color dependent speed of light; varying $c$ induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how ``doubly special'' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space...

  20. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: A rapidly increasing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The

  1. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  2. A nationwide registry-based cohort study of incidence of tonsillectomy in Denmark, 1991-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Rasmussen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update tonsillectomy incidence rates in Denmark and identify whether the incidence rates vary between geographical areas in the country during the period 1991-2012. DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from the comprehensive Danish patient registries. ...

  3. Fast-neutrons incident on rotors: Tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alan B.

    2005-01-01

    Mono-energetic neutrons are elastically and inelastically scattered from elemental tantalum at incident energies of ∼0.3-10.0 MeV. These experimental results are augmented with neutron total-cross-section and additional neutron-scattering data from the literature to form a composite experimental database. The latter is interpreted in the context of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models, including consideration of collective rotations, dispersion effects and other physical properties. The results are compared with those of similar processes in this region of collective nuclei. A regional model is proposed for the interpretation and prediction of such interactions. The model and the experimental results are compared with corresponding values given in ENDF/B-VI

  4. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  5. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  6. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  7. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  8. A case of necrotizing sialomataplasia: consideration on cause, bone change, and incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a rare, benign, self-limiting lesion, but it mimics carcinoma both clinically and histologically. Authors present a case of NS on the right posterior hard palate in a 16-year-old boy. This case showed underlying erosive bone change on CT images. We supposed this lesion resulted from the local anesthesia for dental treatment. Presented NS is the only one case from approximately 1,500 oral and maxillofacial biopsies (0.07%) at Chonnam National University Hospital during the period from 1999 to 2004.

  9. A case of necrotizing sialomataplasia: consideration on cause, bone change, and incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a rare, benign, self-limiting lesion, but it mimics carcinoma both clinically and histologically. Authors present a case of NS on the right posterior hard palate in a 16-year-old boy. This case showed underlying erosive bone change on CT images. We supposed this lesion resulted from the local anesthesia for dental treatment. Presented NS is the only one case from approximately 1,500 oral and maxillofacial biopsies (0.07%) at Chonnam National University Hospital during the period from 1999 to 2004.

  10. Considerations relating to the operation of PWRs after an incident or accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porecki, D.; Griffon, M.; Capel, R.

    1981-01-01

    All safety analysts are agreed that the main cause of the escalation of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident was that the operator failed to diagnose the situation correctly in the first hours of the accident. Human error contributed a great deal to the accident and the underlying reasons for this should be examined. Lack of understanding of the physical phenomena involved was clearly much to blame, but the operator's environment also played a substantial role. The TMI-2 accident serves as a reminder both to designers and operators of the importance of the ''man-machine interface''. Safety analysis should in future pay greater heed to problems arising during operation and to the prevention of human error. This paper summarizes the short- and medium-term steps taken by Electricite de France (EDF) in this direction with regard to the improvement of data processing and presentation, increased reliability of operator action, the training of operating personnel, operating experience feedback and current thinking on the man-machine interface. The company Framatome, the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and agencies which specialize in psychology and ergonomics are participating with EDF in this in-depth study. Increasing the reliability of operator action will be the subject of a special exposition dealing with diagnosis of accidents and post-accident behaviour. With regard to the latter, it is planned to update existing procedures and carry out a comprehensive review of their technical and formal presentation. (author)

  11. Considerations relating to the operation of PWRs after an incident or accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porecki, D [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Courbevoie (France); Griffon, M [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Capel, R [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris. Service de la Production Thermique

    1981-01-01

    All safety analysts are agreed that the main cause of the escalation of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident was that the operator failed to diagnose the situation correctly in the first hours of the accident. Human error contributed a great deal to the accident and the underlying reasons for this should be examined. Lack of understanding of the physical phenomena involved was clearly much to blame, but the operator's environment also played a substantial role. The TMI-2 accident serves as a reminder both to designers and operators of the importance of the ''man-machine interface''. Safety analysis should in future pay greater heed to problems arising during operation and to the prevention of human error. This paper summarizes the short- and medium-term steps taken by Electricite de France (EDF) in this direction with regard to the improvement of data processing and presentation, increased reliability of operator action, the training of operating personnel, operating experience feedback and current thinking on the man-machine interface. The company Framatome, the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and agencies which specialize in psychology and ergonomics are participating with EDF in this in-depth study. Increasing the reliability of operator action will be the subject of a special exposition dealing with diagnosis of accidents and post-accident behaviour. With regard to the latter, it is planned to update existing procedures and carry out a comprehensive review of their technical and formal presentation.

  12. Attitudes and perceived barriers influencing incident reporting by nurses and their correlation with reported incidents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wing Mei; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Chow, Yeow Leng

    abstracts. Nine studies were included in this review. Cultural and demographic factors were the most significant factors in affecting nurses' attitudes towards incident reporting. Major perceived barriers included fear, administrative issues, and the reporting process. Also, nurses were more likely to report incidents that caused direct harm, and if reporting was kept anonymous. This review demonstrated that attitudes of nurses towards incident reporting vary across different study settings, with perceived barriers hindering the reporting process. Using the findings, interventions can be customised to increase reporting rates can be developed to curb the problem of underreporting.A non-punitive culture towards incident reporting has to be cultivated, and nursing authorities should provide frequent positive feedback to staff who reported incidents. Investigating system errors should be the focus rather than individual blame.Further research should target the development and evaluation of strategies to increase rates of incident reporting. Any differences between actual and perceived reporting rates should also be explored.

  13. Risk adjusted receding horizon control of constrained linear parameter varying systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznaier, M.; Lagoa, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems (LPV) has been the object of considerable attention, as a way of formalizing the intuitively appealing idea of gain scheduling control for nonlinear systems. However, currently available LPV techniques are both computationally

  14. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  15. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  16. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  17. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  18. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  19. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    ). Incidence varied considerably between and within the described regions, and by cancer type, sex, age, and racial and ethnic group. Since the 1980s, the global WSR of registered cancers in children aged 0-14 years has increased from 124·0 (95% CI 123·3-124·7) to 140·6 (140·1-141·1) per million person-years. This unique global source of childhood cancer incidence will be used for aetiological research and to inform public health policy, potentially contributing towards attaining several targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. The observed geographical, racial and ethnic, age, sex, and temporal variations require constant monitoring and research. International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Union for International Cancer Control. Copyright © 2017 World Health Organization; licensee Elsevier. This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO license which permits users to download and share the article for non-commercial purposes, so long as the article is reproduced in the whole without changes, and provided the original source is properly cited. This article shall not be used or reproduced in association with the promotion of commercial products, services or any entity. There should be no suggestion that WHO endorses any specific organisation, products, or services. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article's original URL.

  20. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  1. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  2. Functional analysis of controbloc incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Jorel, M.

    1992-11-01

    The subject of the present paper is the survey jointly carried out in 1989 by the IPSN Safety Analysis Department and the Firm BERTIN and Co. on significant incidents related to the Controbloc system equipping the EDF 1300 MWe PWR power plants in France. This survey consisted in a general review of Controbloc operating problems, together with analysis of the safety consequences of the incidents discussed. The survey enabled improvements to be recommended in this respect and provided a basis for safety analysis

  3. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  4. Graphite irradiated by swift heavy ions under grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is irradiated with various heavy projectiles (Ne, Ni, Zn, Xe and U) in the MeV to GeV energy range under different oblique angles of incidence. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the impact zones are imaged as hillocks protruding from the surface. The diameter of surface-grazing tracks varies between 3 nm (Ne) and 6 nm (U), which is about twice as large as under normal beam incidence. Exclusively for U and Xe projectiles, grazing tracks exhibit long comet-like tails consisting of successive little bumps indicating that the damage along the ion path is discontinuous even for highest electronic stopping powers.

  5. Assessment of BED HIV-1 incidence assay in seroconverter cohorts: effect of individuals with long-term infection and importance of stable incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M McNicholl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance of the BED assay in estimating HIV-1 incidence has previously been evaluated by using longitudinal specimens from persons with incident HIV infections, but questions remain about its accuracy. We sought to assess its performance in three longitudinal cohorts from Thailand where HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B' dominate the epidemic. DESIGN: BED testing was conducted in two longitudinal cohorts with only incident infections (a military conscript cohort and an injection drug user cohort and in one longitudinal cohort (an HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial cohort that also included long-term infections. METHODS: Incidence estimates were generated conventionally (based on the number of annual serocoversions and by using BED test results in the three cohorts. Adjusted incidence was calculated where appropriate. RESULTS: For each longitudinal cohort the BED incidence estimates and the conventional incidence estimates were similar when only newly infected persons were tested, whether infected with CRF01_AE or subtype B'. When the analysis included persons with long-term infections (to mimic a true cross-sectional cohort, BED incidence estimates were higher, although not significantly, than the conventional incidence estimates. After adjustment, the BED incidence estimates were closer to the conventional incidence estimates. When the conventional incidence varied over time, as in the early phase of the injection drug user cohort, the difference between the two estimates increased, but not significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the performance of incidence assays requires the inclusion of a substantial number of cohort-derived specimens from individuals with long-term HIV infection and, ideally, the use of cohorts in which incidence remained stable. Appropriate adjustments of the BED incidence estimates generate estimates similar to those generated conventionally.

  6. Progress on MEVVA source VARIS at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A.; Hollinger, R.

    2018-05-01

    For the last few years, the development of the VARIS (vacuum arc ion source) was concentrated on several aspects. One of them was the production of high current ion beams of heavy metals such as Au, Pb, and Bi. The requested ion charge state for these ion species is 4+. This is quite challenging to produce in vacuum arc driven sources for reasonable beam pulse length (>120 µs) due to the physical properties of these elements. However, the situation can be dramatically improved by using the composite materials or alloys with enhanced physical properties of the cathodes. Another aspect is an increase of the beam brilliance for intense U4+ beams by the optimization of the geometry of the extraction system. A new 7-hole triode extraction system allows an increase of the extraction voltage from 30 kV to 40 kV and also reduces the outer aperture of the extracted ion beam. Thus, a record beam brilliance for the U4+ beam in front of the RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) has been achieved, exceeding the RFQ space charge limit for an ion current of 15 mA. Several new projectiles in the middle-heavy region have been successfully developed from VARIS to fulfill the requirements of the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) programs. An influence of an auxiliary gas on the production performance of certain ion charge states as well as on operation stability has been investigated. The optimization of the ion source parameters for a maximum production efficiency and highest particle current in front of the RFQ has been performed. The next important aspect of the development will be the increase of the operation repetition rate of VARIS for all elements especially for uranium to 2.7 Hz in order to provide the maximum availability of high current ion beams for future FAIR experiments.

  7. New varying speed of light theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, Joao

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication

  8. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  9. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian S.

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini......-world are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  10. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B

    2016-01-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)

  11. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  12. Syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men in China: results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohong; Cao, Ya; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ming; Tang, Weiming; Li, Jianjun; Babu, Giridhara R; Jia, Yue; Huan, Xiping; Xu, Genxing; Yang, Haitao; Fu, Gengfeng; Li, Lei

    2017-02-01

    The recent upsurge of syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is one of the major challenges facing China. However, the overall burden is still not clear. This study aims to summarize the incidence of syphilis among MSM in China by using meta-analysis. We comprehensively searched PubMed-MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang databases. Articles published between December 2009 and March 2015 that met the inclusion criteria were considerably involved in this meta-analysis. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating the overall syphilis incidence. STATA 12.0 was used to summarize the overall incidence of syphilis. In all, 14 studies from 13 papers were included in this study. Follow-up duration of these studies ranged from six to 36 months, while drop-out rates ranged from 11.9% to 83.6%. The individual incidence rates of the included studies varied from 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) to 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), with a pooled incidence of 9.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-12.2/100 person-years). The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that incidence estimates were 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), 12.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-17.2/100 person-years), 11.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.7-23.1/100 person-years), 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI, 6.5-11.2/100 person-years), 5.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 3.4-8.0/100 person-years) and 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) in Northeast, North, Southwest, East, South and Northwest China, respectively. Syphilis incidence among Chinese MSM is high, and this may increase the spread of other sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. It is essential to integrate syphilis control programs with HIV control programs. This can be achieved by establishing public health response systems to monitor and control

  13. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  14. A consideration of ketamine dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejja, P; Galloon, S

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to see whether covering of the eyes during and after ketamine anaesthesia would reduce the incidence of dreams. One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups, underwent therapeutic abortion with ketamine as the sole anaesthesia. One hundred patients had their eyes completely covered, 50 in the operating room only and 50 in the operating room and in the recovery room. The third 50 were controls, with their eyes uncovered. All patients were questioned post-operatively about dreams, nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness and experiences, and also how frequently they dreamed at home. Although covering the eyes in the recovery room only reduced the incidence of dreams marginally, it became obvious that the patients who dreamed after ketamine (in all 3 groups) were those who normally dreamed at home. There were 82 patients who were recorded as not being home-dreamers, and only two of these dreamed after ketamine. In contrast, of the 68 home-dreamers, 50 dreamed after ketamine, and 17 of these had unpleasant dreams. In the home-dreamers, covering the eyes reduced the incidence of dreams from 86 per cent in Group 1 to 72 per cent in Group 2 and 64 per cent in Group 3. It is suggested that goggles may be advantageous when dealing with home-dreamers, and a question about the patient's tendency to dream should be included in the preoperative questioning. Alterations in premedication and the use of a quiet dark room during recovery may even further reduce unpleasant dreams in this group.

  15. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI

  16. Considerations relating to different types of packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Cohendy, G.

    1976-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials has never given rise to a serious accident in France. This is due to the high quality of the provisions contained in the Regulations and to the conscientious manner in which the latter are applied. However, it would now seem appropriate to re-examine certain of these provisions in the light of a number of minor incidents which have occurred, or merely because problems have arisen which did not exist at the time of the last revision. This applies particularly to Type B packaging, intended for irradiated fuel shipments whose considerable bulk calls for a mock-up study. The transport of Type B packaging by sea may pose the problem of its resistance to fire on normal merchant ships, and similarly its behaviour under the effect of crushing should be examined in the context of air transport. Industrial-type packaging likewise presents problems, although these are basically of a psychological nature. This is particularly the case with consignments of uraniferous concentrates, uranium hexafluoride and plutonium-contaminated wastes. The accumulation (which sometimes reaches substantial numbers) of Type A packaging on a single vehicle may involve consequences which also call for study. (author)

  17. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  18. The Incidence and Intensity of Formal Lifelong Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars

    across genders. We consider both the incidence (take-up in a given year) and intensity (hours conditional on enrolment) of training. We find evidence of considerable lifelong learning with regards to enrolment in basic and vocational training regardless of gender, whereas post-secondary training...... hours in post-secondary training are strongly age dependent. Hours in basic training do decrease significantly with age but the effects are very small....

  19. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  20. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  1. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis G. Gerwing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females suffered from self-reported TA at some point over the course of their university career. The prevalence of TA varied by faculty, with the highest incidence among those students enrolled concurrently in Arts and Science, and Nursing students. While student perceptions varied by age, sex, and experience with TA, one third of students expressed negative and inaccurate views about TA. These negative perceptions may explain why 11.3% of surveyed students indicated they would not seek help for their TA as, for many, to do so would make them seem weak in the eyes of their colleagues. Further, 20.5% of students surveyed reported that they believe professors would be unable or unwilling to help. It may be the case that this negative perception towards TA makes it difficult for faculty and helping professionals to identify and intervene effectively. Faculty specific educational campaigns designed to educate students about TA, in particular about its prevalence and severity, are suggested as a method to circumvent the negative stigma surrounding this condition. Implementation of such educational policies will likely improve the educational experience and performance of students with TA, as well as improve student retention.

  2. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  3. IRID: specifications for the Ionising Radiations Incident Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.O.; Croft, J.R.; Williams, M.K.; McHugh, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Technologies that make use of ionising radiations are widespread. They provide many benefits but, as with other technologies, the use of ionising radiations carries with it the potential for incidents and accidents. Their severity can vary from the trivial to the fatal and may involve substantial economic penalties. In order to minimise the number of incidents and their consequences it is important that there is a mechanism to learn the lessons from those that do occur. To help pursue this objective the National Radiological Protection Board, the Health and Safety Executive and the Environment Agency have established a national Ionising Radiations Incident Database (IRID) to cover radiation incidents in industry, medicine, research and teaching. This publication details the specifications for IRID and its methods of operation. All information in the database will be unattributable and names of persons or organisations will not be included. It is a personal computer based system with 24 fields to categorise an incident, including a text field that will provide a description of the incident giving the causes, consequences, follow-up actions and lessons to be learned. These descriptions will be used in subsequent publications to provide feedback to the users. (UK)

  4. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  5. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham-Nordling, Mirna; Byström, Kristina; Törring, Ove; Lantz, Mikael; Berg, Gertrud; Calissendorff, Jan; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Jansson, Svante; Jörneskog, Gun; Karlsson, F Anders; Nyström, Ernst; Ohrling, Hans; Orn, Thomas; Hallengren, Bengt; Wallin, Göran

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100,000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for ~40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows: clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100,000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100,000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.

  6. Electrothermally Actuated Microbeams With Varying Stiffness

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2017-11-03

    We present axially loaded clamped-guided microbeams that can be used as resonators and actuators of variable stiffness, actuation, and anchor conditions. The applied axial load is implemented by U-shaped electrothermal actuators stacked at one of the beams edges. These can be configured and wired in various ways, which serve as mechanical stiffness elements that control the operating resonance frequency of the structures and their static displacement. The experimental results have shown considerable increase in the resonance frequency and mid-point deflection of the microbeam upon changing the end conditions of the beam. These results can be promising for applications requiring large deflection and high frequency tunability, such as filters, memory devices, and switches. The experimental results are compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  7. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  8. Pediatric considerations in craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bernadette L

    2014-08-01

    In many respects, craniofacial trauma in children is akin to that in adults. The appearance of fractures and associated injuries is frequently similar. However, the frequencies of different types of fractures and patterns of injury in younger children vary depending on the age of the child. In addition, there are unique aspects that must be considered when imaging the posttraumatic pediatric face. Some of these are based on normal growth and development of the skull base and craniofacial structures, and others on the varying etiologies and mechanisms of craniofacial injury in children, such as injuries related to toppled furniture, nonaccidental trauma, all-terrain vehicle accidents, and impalement injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  10. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  11. Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes

  12. Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks

  13. Literature review on medical incident command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Rune; Braut, Geir Sverre

    2015-04-01

    It is not known what constitutes the optimal emergency management system, nor is there a consensus on how effectiveness and efficiency in emergency response should be measured or evaluated. Literature on the role and tasks of commanders in the prehospital emergency services in the setting of mass-casualty incidents has not been summarized and published. This comprehensive literature review addresses some of the needs for future research in emergency management through three research questions: (1) What are the basic assumptions underlying incident command systems (ICSs)? (2) What are the tasks of ambulance and medical commanders in the field? And (3) How can field commanders' performances be measured and assessed? A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center, Current Controlled Trials, and PROSPERO covering January 1, 1990 through March 1, 2014 was conducted. Reference lists of included literature were hand searched. Included papers were analyzed using Framework synthesis. The literature search identified 6,049 unique records, of which, 76 articles and books where included in qualitative synthesis. Most ICSs are described commonly as hierarchical, bureaucratic, and based on military principles. These assumptions are contested strongly, as is the applicability of such systems. Linking of the chains of command in cooperating agencies is a basic difficulty. Incident command systems are flexible in the sense that the organization may be expanded as needed. Commanders may command by direction, by planning, or by influence. Commanders' tasks may be summarized as: conducting scene assessment, developing an action plan, distributing resources, monitoring operations, and making decisions. There is considerable variation between authors in nomenclature and what tasks are included or highlighted

  14. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  15. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  16. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  17. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotheraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Andre, L.; Georg, D.; Hodapp, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Results: Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course. (orig.)

  20. [Rules and regulations applying to incidents in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, F; Baus, W; Vorwerk, H; Schlömp, B; André, L; Georg, D; Hodapp, N

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential and reliable element of the treatment armamentarium in oncology. Numerous rules, regulations, and protocols minimize the associated risks. It can, however, never be excluded that errors in the treatment delivery chain result in inadequate tumor doses or unnecessary damage to organs at risk. A legal framework governs the management of such incidents. The most important European and North American regulations are reported. Various directives issued by the European Union are differently implemented nationally. This applies particularly to the characterization of incidents that must be reported to authorities. Reporting thresholds, audit systems, and the extent of the integration of voluntary reporting systems vary. Radiotherapy incidents are dealt with differently on an international level. Changes are to be expected based on the European Basic Safety Standards Directive that is currently being prepared and will have to be implemented nationally in due course.

  1. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  2. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  3. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  4. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  5. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  6. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  7. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  8. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  9. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  10. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  11. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  12. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  13. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...

  14. Practical considerations in developing an instrument-maintenance plan--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, M.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author develops a general set of considerations to explain how a consistent, well-organized, prioritized, and adequate time-allowance program plan for routine maintenance can be constructed. The analysis is supplemented with experience from the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at US Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). After the preventive maintenance (PM) problem was defined, the instruments on the schedule were selected based on the manufacturer's design specifications, quality-assurance requirements, prior classifications, experiences with the incidence of breakdowns or calibration, and dependencies among instruments. The effects of repair error in PM should be also studied. The HFIR requires three full-time technicians to perform both PM and unscheduled maintenance. A review is presented of concepts from queuing theory to determine anticipated breakdown patterns. In practice, the pneumatic instruments have a much longer lifetime than the electric/electronic instruments on various reactors at ORNL. Some special considerations and risk aversion in choosing a maintenance schedule

  15. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  16. Global Incidence and Mortality for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Temporal Patterns and Trends in 36 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Goggins, William B; Wang, Harry H X; Fung, Franklin D H; Leung, Colette; Wong, Samuel Y S; Ng, Chi Fai; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, but its specific geographic patterns and temporal trends are under-researched. To test the hypotheses that PCa incidence is higher and PCa mortality is lower in countries with higher socioeconomic development, and that temporal trends for PCa incidence have increased while mortality has decreased over time. Data on age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in 2012 were retrieved from the GLOBOCAN database. Temporal patterns were assessed for 36 countries using data obtained from Cancer incidence in five continents volumes I-X and the World Health Organization mortality database. Correlations between incidence or mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators (human development index [HDI] and gross domestic product [GDP]) were evaluated. The average annual percent change in PCa incidence and mortality in the most recent 10 yr according to join-point regression. Reported PCa incidence rates varied more than 25-fold worldwide in 2012, with the highest incidence rates observed in Micronesia/Polynesia, the USA, and European countries. Mortality rates paralleled the incidence rates except for Africa, where PCa mortality rates were the highest. Countries with higher HDI (r=0.58) and per capita GDP (r=0.62) reported greater incidence rates. According to the most recent 10-yr temporal data available, most countries experienced increases in incidence, with sharp rises in incidence rates in Asia and Northern and Western Europe. A substantial reduction in mortality rates was reported in most countries, except in some Asian countries and Eastern Europe, where mortality increased. Data in regional registries could be underestimated. PCa incidence has increased while PCa mortality has decreased in most countries. The reported incidence was higher in countries with higher socioeconomic development. The incidence of prostate cancer has shown high variations geographically and over time, with smaller

  17. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  18. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  19. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  20. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  1. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  2. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  5. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  7. Criticality incident detection assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, Richard M.; Warburton, Simon J.; Bowden, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, all nuclear facilities that handle, treat or store fissile material require a Criticality Incident Detection and Alarm System (CIDAS) to be installed, unless a case is made for the omission of such a system. Where it is concluded that a CIDAS is required, the primary objective is the reliable detection of criticality and the initiation of prompt evacuation of plant workers from the vicinity of the incident. This paper will examine and compare various methods that can be used to demonstrate that a CIDAS will satisfy the detection criterion. The paper will focus on fit-for-purpose and cost-effective methods for the assessment of gamma-based systems. In the experience of the authors this is particularly useful in demonstrating the efficacy of existing systems in operational plant. (author)

  8. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  9. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  10. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  11. Effects of varying laser trimming geometries on thin film\\ud resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Alafogianni, Maria; Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - This paper studies the effects of varying laser trim patterns on several performance parameters of thin film resistors such as the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and target resistance value.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The benefits and limitations of basic trim patterns are taken into consideration and the plunge cut, double plunge cut and the curved L-cut were selected to be modelled and tested experimentally. A computer simulation of the laser trim patterns h...

  12. Reliable Memory Feedback Design for a Class of Nonlinear Fuzzy Systems with Time-varying Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Qing Wang; Dong-Hua Zhou; Li-Heng Liu

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust reliable memory controller design for a class of fuzzy uncertain systems with time-varying delay. The system under consideration is more general than those in other existent works. The controller, which is dependent on the magnitudes and derivative of the delay, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The closed-loop system is asymptotically stable for all admissible uncertainties as well as actuator faults. A numerical example is presented for illustration.

  13. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.

    1970-01-01

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  14. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile A. van den Heuvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic. This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings.

  15. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  16. Ethical Considerations of Preclinical Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Goldenthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of animal tests being conducted are on a sharp incline.  Much of this increase is directly due to our ability to generate transgenic models and knock-outs, thereby increasing the validity of the animal model but not necessarily correlating directly with any translational medical benefits to the human counterpart.  In spite of our best efforts, there still exist species differences that prevent the application directly from animal to human, and in some examples having a completely different and adverse effect from that seen in the animal model. There are several ways in which we can improve the opportunity for a positive test outcome and at the same time reduce the animal usage which is associated with our current animal testing practices. The benefit of the 3R’s is that they encourage us not only to avoid wastage of life but that they require us to provide considerable foresight and extrapolated thought before directly engaging in the preclinical testing phase.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  18. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references

  19. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  20. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  1. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-03-28

    Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human-mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  2. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human–mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. Principal findings: The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Conclusions: Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  3. The Incidence of Primary Systemic Vasculitis in Jerusalem: A 20-year Hospital-based Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Gideon; Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Mazal, Bracha; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of primary systemic vasculitides varies among different geographic regions and ethnic origins. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence rates of vasculitides in the Jerusalem Jewish population, and to examine possible trends in incidence rates over a 20-year period. The clinical databases of inpatients at the 2 medical centers in Jerusalem were searched for patients with vasculitis diagnosed between 1990-2009. Individual records were then reviewed by one of the authors. The significance of trends in incidence rates throughout the study period was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. The average annual incidence rate of polyarteritis nodosa was 3.6/million adults (95% CI 1.6-4.7). Incidence rates did not change significantly during this period (r = 0.39, p = 0.088). The incidence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was 4.1 (2.2-5.9) for the whole period, during which it increased significantly (r = 0.53, p Jerusalem are in the lower range of global incidence rates. While GPA and MPA incidence are increasing, GCA incidence is decreasing.

  4. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  5. Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Y C

    2006-12-01

    Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia is an important tool for quality improvement and maintenance of high safety standards in anaesthetic services. It is now widely accepted as a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia and has become part of the many quality assurance programmes of many general hospitals under the Ministry of Health. Despite wide-spread reservations about its value, critical incident monitoring is a classical qualitative research technique which is particularly useful where problems are complex, contextual and influenced by the interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. Thus, it is well suited to be used in probing the complex factors behind human error and system failure. Human error has significant contributions to morbidities and mortalities in anaesthesia. Understanding the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents is important for prevention and risk management to reduce harm to patients. Cardiac arrests in the operating theatre (OT) and prolonged stay in recovery, constituted the bulk of reported incidents. Cardiac arrests in OT resulted in significant mortality and involved mostly de-compensated patients and those with unstable cardiovascular functions, presenting for emergency operations. Prolonged-stay in the recovery extended period of observation for ill patients. Prolonged stay in recovery was justifiable in some cases, as these patients needed a longer period of post-operative observation until they were stable enough to return to the ward. The advantages of the relatively low cost, and the ability to provide a comprehensive body of detailed qualitative information, which can be used to develop strategies to prevent and manage existing problems and to plan further initiatives for patient safety makes critical incident monitoring a valuable tool in ensuring patient safety. The contribution of critical incident reporting to the issue of patient safety is

  6. The Tricastin incident; L'incident du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2008-07-01

    The author comments the incident which occurred on the Tricastin site in July 2008: the release of 30 cubic meters of a uranium-containing solution. First, he recalls the international nuclear event scale, outlines that the Tricastin is not a nuclear power plant, that uranium is more a chemical toxic product than a radiological toxic product. After having briefly recalled some dose threshold values, he discusses the presence of uranium in the environment, and states that the event is actually a non-event which has been in fact magnified by the media

  7. Development of Incident Report Database for Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Abe, Tomotaka; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Makinouchi, Akifumi

    The necessity of an incident reporting system has recently been increasing for hospitals. Japan Council for Quality Health Care (JCQHC) started operating a national incident reporting system to which domestic hospitals would report their incidents. However, the reporting system obtained an additional problem for the hospitals. They managed their own systems which collected reports by papers. The purposes of the reporting systems was to analyze considerable causes involved in incidents to improve the quality of patient safety management. On the contrary, the national reporting system aimed at collecting a statistical tendency of normal incidents. Simultaneously operating the two systems would be too much workload for safety managers. The load may have the managers rest only a short time for summarizing occurrences, not enough for analyzing their causes. However, to the authors' knowledge, there has not been an integrating policy of the two forms to adapt them to practical situations in patient safety management. The scope of this paper is to establish the integrated form in order to use in analyzing the causes of incidents as well as reporting for the national system. We have developed new data base system using XML + XSLT and Java Servlet. The developed system is composed of three computers; DB server , DB client and Data sending server. To investigate usability of the developed system, we conducted a monitoring test by real workers in reporting workplaces. The result of subjective evaluations by examinees was so preferable for the developed system. The results of usability test and the achievement of increasing the number of reports after the introduction can demonstrate the enough effectiveness of the developed system for supporting the activity of patient safety management.

  8. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  9. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of an...

  10. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area for...

  11. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However...

  12. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  13. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  14. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following order...

  15. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  16. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  17. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  18. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-12-02

    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  19. Evolution of perturbation in charge-varying dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel, S.I.; Golub, A.P.; Losseva, T.V.; Bingham, R.; Benkadda, S.

    2001-01-01

    The nonstationary problem of the evolution of perturbation and its transformation into nonlinear wave structure in dusty plasmas is considered. For this purpose two one-dimensional models based on a set of fluid equations, Poisson's equation, and a charging equation for dust are developed. The first (simplified) model corresponds to the case [Popel et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 4313 (1996)] when exact steady-state shock wave solutions can exist. This simplified model includes variable-charged dust grains, Boltzmann electrons, and inertial ions. The second (ionization source) model takes into account the variation of the ion density and the ion momentum dissipation due to dust particle charging as well as the source of plasma particles due to ionization process. The computational method for solving the set of equations which describe the evolution in time of a nonlinear structure in a charge-varying dusty plasma is developed. The case of the evolution of an intensive initial nonmoving region with a constant enhanced ion density is investigated on the basis of these two models. The consideration within the ionization source model is performed for the data of the laboratory experiment [Luo et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3455 (1999)]. It is shown that the ionization source model allows one to obtain shock structures as a result of evolution of an initial perturbation and to explain the experimental value of the width of the shock wave front. Comparison of the numerical data obtained on the basis of the ionization source model and the simplified model shows that the main characteristic features of the shock structure are the same for both models. Nevertheless, the ionization source model is much more sensitive to the form of the initial perturbation than the simplified model. The solution of the problem of the evolution of perturbation and its transformation into shock wave in charge-varying dusty plasmas opens up possibilities for description of the real phenomena like supernova

  20. Dynamic prediction of cumulative incidence functions by direct binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Mia K; de Witte, Theo J M; Putter, Hein

    2018-03-25

    In recent years there have been a series of advances in the field of dynamic prediction. Among those is the development of methods for dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function in a competing risk setting. These models enable the predictions to be updated as time progresses and more information becomes available, for example when a patient comes back for a follow-up visit after completing a year of treatment, the risk of death, and adverse events may have changed since treatment initiation. One approach to model the cumulative incidence function in competing risks is by direct binomial regression, where right censoring of the event times is handled by inverse probability of censoring weights. We extend the approach by combining it with landmarking to enable dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function. The proposed models are very flexible, as they allow the covariates to have complex time-varying effects, and we illustrate how to investigate possible time-varying structures using Wald tests. The models are fitted using generalized estimating equations. The method is applied to bone marrow transplant data and the performance is investigated in a simulation study. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  2. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  3. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  4. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in incidence of congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel L; Ridout, Deborah; Crowe, Sonya; Bull, Catherine; Wray, Jo; Tregay, Jenifer; Franklin, Rodney C; Barron, David J; Cunningham, David; Parslow, Roger C; Brown, Katherine L

    2017-06-01

    Ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) have been reported; however, studies of the contemporary UK population are lacking. We investigated ethnic variations in incidence of serious CHDs requiring cardiac intervention before 1 year of age. All infants who had a cardiac intervention in England and Wales between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010 were identified in the national congenital heart disease surgical audit and matched with paediatric intensive care admission records to create linked individual child records. Agreement in reporting of ethnic group by each audit was evaluated. For infants born 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for CHDs by ethnicity and investigated age at intervention, antenatal diagnosis and area deprivation. We identified 5350 infants (2940 (55.0%) boys). Overall CHD incidence was significantly higher in Asian and Black ethnic groups compared with the White reference population (incidence rate ratios (IRR) (95% CIs): Asian 1.5 (1.4 to 1.7); Black 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)); incidence of specific CHDs varied by ethnicity. No significant differences in age at intervention or antenatal diagnosis rates were identified but affected children from non-White ethnic groups were more likely to be living in deprived areas than White children. Significant ethnic variations exist in the incidence of CHDs, including for specific defects with high infant mortality. It is essential that healthcare provision mitigates ethnic disparity, including through timely identification of CHDs at screening, supporting parental choice and effective interventions. Future research should explore the factors underlying ethnic variation and impact on longer-term outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

  7. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  8. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  9. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  10. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  11. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  12. Employer Requirements to Work during Emergency Responses: Key Ethics Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Taylor, Holly A; Powell, Tia

    2017-03-01

    Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work. After describing different approaches taken by local health departments throughout the United States, we briefly identify and explore key ethics considerations that arise for local health departments when employees are required to report to work for emergency responses. We then discuss how these ethics considerations may inform local health department practices intended to promote a robust emergency response.

  13. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  14. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  15. Statistical considerations on safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, L.; Makai, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have investigated the statistical methods applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors and arrived at alarming conclusions: a series of calculations with the generally appreciated safety code ATHLET were carried out to ascertain the stability of the results against input uncertainties in a simple experimental situation. Scrutinizing those calculations, we came to the conclusion that the ATHLET results may exhibit chaotic behavior. A further conclusion is that the technological limits are incorrectly set when the output variables are correlated. Another formerly unnoticed conclusion of the previous ATHLET calculations that certain innocent looking parameters (like wall roughness factor, the number of bubbles per unit volume, the number of droplets per unit volume) can influence considerably such output parameters as water levels. The authors are concerned with the statistical foundation of present day safety analysis practices and can only hope that their own misjudgment will be dispelled. Until then, the authors suggest applying correct statistical methods in safety analysis even if it makes the analysis more expensive. It would be desirable to continue exploring the role of internal parameters (wall roughness factor, steam-water surface in thermal hydraulics codes, homogenization methods in neutronics codes) in system safety codes and to study their effects on the analysis. In the validation and verification process of a code one carries out a series of computations. The input data are not precisely determined because measured data have an error, calculated data are often obtained from a more or less accurate model. Some users of large codes are content with comparing the nominal output obtained from the nominal input, whereas all the possible inputs should be taken into account when judging safety. At the same time, any statement concerning safety must be aleatory, and its merit can be judged only when the probability is known with which the

  16. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric

  17. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna

    2010-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  18. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-01-01

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for β-delayed high-energy γ-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-γ and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed

  19. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on the incidence of stroke subtypes among ethnic minority groups are limited. We assessed ethnic differences in the incidence of stroke subtypes in the Netherlands. METHODS: A Dutch nationwide register-based cohort study (n=7 423 174) was conducted between 1998 and 2010....... We studied the following stroke subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence differences between first-generation ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population (ethnic Dutch). RESULTS: Compared.......16-0.72), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.42; 0.20-0.88 and 0.34; 0.17-0.68) compared with ethnic Dutch counterparts. The results varied by stroke subtype and sex for the other minority groups. For example, Turkish women had a reduced incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas Turkish men had an increased incidence...

  20. Dependence on incident angle of solid state detector response to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Ueki, Kohtaro

    2002-01-01

    The shape and size of a NaI(Tl) scintillator that should maximize response variation with γ-ray incident angle was estimated by analytical model calculation. It proved that, even for gamma rays of energy exceeding 1 MeV, a slab detector measuring 50 cm x 50 cm x 5 cm thick should present a ratio of at least 4 between maximum and minimum responses against incidence at different angles. For a sample case of 60 keV gamma rays, estimation of the incident angle dependence by means of Monte Carlo simulation agreed well with experiment using a CZT detector. The counts from photo-electric peak varied with incident angle roughly along a sine curve. The foregoing finding served as basis for proposing a practical direction finder for γ-ray source operating on the principle of determining the source direction from variations in count with incident angle. (author)

  1. Tantalum films with well-controlled roughness grown by oblique incidence deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechendorff, K.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Chevallier, J.; Foss, M.; Besenbacher, F.

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated how tantalum films with well-controlled surface roughness can be grown by e-gun evaporation with oblique angle of incidence between the evaporation flux and the surface normal. Due to a more pronounced shadowing effect the root-mean-square roughness increases from about 2 to 33 nm as grazing incidence is approached. The exponent, characterizing the scaling of the root-mean-square roughness with length scale (α), varies from 0.75 to 0.93, and a clear correlation is found between the angle of incidence and root-mean-square roughness.

  2. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  3. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  4. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  5. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  6. Reactor coolant pump transportation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noce, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an incident, which occurred on August 27, 1991, in which a Reactor Coolant Pump motor en route from Surry Power Station to Westinghouse repair facilities struck the overpass at the junction of Interstate 64 and Jefferson Avenue in Newport News, Virginia. The transport container that housed the reactor coolant pump motor failed to clear the overpass. The force of the impact dislodged the container and motor from the truck bed, and it landed on the acceleration land and road shoulder. Upon impact, the container broke open and exposed the reactor coolant pump motor. Incidental radioactively contaminated water that remained in the motor coolers drained onto the road, contaminating the aggregate as well as the underlying gravel

  7. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  8. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  9. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-01-01

    According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of c...

  10. Scrutinizing incident reporting in anaesthesia: why is an incident perceived as critical?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, R; la Cour, M; Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the incidence and type of incidents that occurred in relation to anaesthesia and surgery during a 1-year period in six Danish hospitals. Furthermore, we wanted to identify risk factors for incidents, as well as risk factors for incidents being deeme...... critical....

  11. Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Veling (Wim); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); E. Susser (Ezra); W. Laan (Winfried); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H.W. Hoek (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to

  12. Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Susser, Ezra; Laan, Winfried; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hoek, Hans W.

    BACKGROUND: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to which they

  13. Emergency reception of accidents and incidents in working with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamse, J.C.; Gispen, J.G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a general manual for the responsible expert regarding radiation hygienics in order to assist him in establishing an organization for combat of accidents and incidents. First attention is paid considerations underlying emergency measures and aid, subsequently the demands and desirabilities in the practical organization are discussed. (author). 3 figs

  14. Management of Gynecomastia in Patients With Different Body Types: Considerations on 312 Consecutive Treated Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; Melita, Dario; Mori, Francesco; Ciancio, Francesco; Innocenti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Gynecomastia is a common finding in male subjects which incidence varies widely in the world population. In adolescents, it is frequently temporary but, if it becomes persistent, it generates considerable embarrassment, inducing the patients to seek surgical consultation. Even in patients with good body contour, gynecomastia creates even greater distress considering the special attention given by these subjects to their physical appearance. The authors present their experience in the treatment of gynecomastia comparing different body types of patients with the aim to investigate dissimilar expectations, needs and surgical outcomes thus optimizing the management of the pathological condition, achieving high levels of agreement and reducing unsatisfied patients arising from cosmetic surgery. Between January 2007 and January 2015, 312 selected patients have been treated surgically for gynecomastia. Patients were grouped according to their physical aspect: 97 were classified as high muscle mass body type (group A), 106 as normal (group B) and 109 as overweight patients (group C). All of them were adults ranging in age between 18 and 52 years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 60 months. In all cases, an excision of the gland in the form of a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed; the most common surgical access was in the inferior part of the areola. No breast cancers were found at the histological examinations. Also, no skin or areola necrosis have been referred, and no recurrence of gynecomastia disorder has been reported. Six cases of seroma (limited to the fatty gynecomastia) and 3 cases of hematomas (requiring immediate surgical revision) were found. Although the patients in group B resulted more distressed by the disorder, higher levels of postoperative satisfaction were recorded in this group. The study demonstrates the importance of the different management of the same disorder according to the different patients' expectations, related to the different body type. Our

  15. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  16. International Cyber Incident Repository System: Information Sharing on a Global Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Amanda L.; Evans, PhD, Nathaniel; Tanzman, Edward A.; Israeli, Daniel

    2017-02-02

    According to the 2016 Internet Security Threat Report, the largest number of cyber attacks were recorded last year (2015), reaching a total of 430 million incidents throughout the world. As the number of cyber incidents increases, the need for information and intelligence sharing increases, as well. This fairly large increase in cyber incidents is driving the need for an international cyber incident data reporting system. The goal of the cyber incident reporting system is to make available shared and collected information about cyber events among participating international parties. In its 2014 report, Insurance Industry Working Session Readout Report-Insurance for CyberRelated Critical Infrastructure Loss: Key Issues, on the outcomes of a working session on cyber insurance, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security observed that “many participants cited the need for a secure method through which organizations could pool and share cyber incident information” and noted that one underwriter emphasized the importance of internationally harmonized data taxonomies. This cyber incident data reporting system could benefit all nations that take part in reporting incidents to provide a more common operating picture. In addition, this reporting system could allow for trending and anticipated attacks and could potentially benefit participating members by enabling them to get in front of potential attacks. The purpose of this paper is to identify options for consideration for such a system in fostering cooperative cyber defense.

  17. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. (ed.) [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  18. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  19. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  20. Geometrical considerations in analyzing isotropic or anisotropic surface reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonot, Lionel; Obein, Gael

    2007-05-10

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) represents the evolution of the reflectance with the directions of incidence and observation. Today BRDF measurements are increasingly applied and have become important to the study of the appearance of surfaces. The representation and the analysis of BRDF data are discussed, and the distortions caused by the traditional representation of the BRDF in a Fourier plane are pointed out and illustrated for two theoretical cases: an isotropic surface and a brushed surface. These considerations will help characterize either the specular peak width of an isotropic rough surface or the main directions of the light scattered by an anisotropic rough surface without misinterpretations. Finally, what is believed to be a new space is suggested for the representation of the BRDF, which avoids the geometrical deformations and in numerous cases is more convenient for BRDF analysis.

  1. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is...

  2. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  3. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  4. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  5. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  6. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...

  7. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  8. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  9. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    ), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  10. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frances; Doherty, Michael; Grainge, Matthew J; Lanyon, Peter; Zhang, Weiya

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to review the worldwide incidence and prevalence of SLE and variation with age, sex, ethnicity and time. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines was carried out using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus combined with incidence, prevalence and epidemiology in August 2013 and updated in September 2016. Author, journal, year of publication, country, region, case-finding method, study period, number of incident or prevalent cases, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) or prevalence (per 100 000 persons) and age, sex or ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence were collected. The highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of SLE were in North America [23.2/100 000 person-years (95% CI: 23.4, 24.0) and 241/100 000 people (95% CI: 130, 352), respectively]. The lowest incidences of SLE were reported in Africa and Ukraine (0.3/100 000 person-years), and the lowest prevalence was in Northern Australia (0 cases in a sample of 847 people). Women were more frequently affected than men for every age and ethnic group. Incidence peaked in middle adulthood and occurred later for men. People of Black ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of SLE, whereas those with White ethnicity had the lowest incidence and prevalence. There appeared to be an increasing trend of SLE prevalence with time. There are worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of SLE that vary with sex, age, ethnicity and time. Further study of genetic and environmental risk factors may explain the reasons for these differences. More epidemiological studies in Africa are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Critical incidents: exploring theory policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Beeke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Responding to critical incidents in school communities has become an established part of the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Despite this the EP professional journal literature is sparse, the last major study being conducted by Houghton in 1996. Within a mixed methods design this study aimed to explore various aspects of EP practice in response to critical incidents. Firstly, critical incident policy and EP journal literature was examined to provide a definition...

  13. Shielding considerations for neutral-beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Seynes, X.

    1983-03-01

    Results of a study on the geometry of an FED-A Neutral Beam Injector beamline duct shield are presented. Also included is a calculation of dose rates, as a function of time, from an activated NBI. The shielding investigations consisted of varying the parameters of the geometry and transporting particles through it using the MCNP Monte-Carlo code. The dose rates were calculated by the ACDOS3 code using realistic MCNP results. A final-to-incident flux ratio of 6.5 x 10 -7 can be achieved through the use of a 65.5 cm reentry duct. This is for a realistic source and pure water shielding material. The activated NBI produced a dose rate of 15.9 mrem/hr two and a half days after shutdown of the reactor

  14. Reactor incident status 1981 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor Incident followup action is summarized through periodic status reports. This annual report summarizes action taken or anticipated for Reactor Incidents through December 1981. Incidents for which action has been completed, have been deleted from the report. Quarterly addende will update the report by tabulating incidents for each three month period through the coming year. The report consists of a part for the P, K, and C Reactors. Each reactor part is divided into three sections: Further Technical Analysis or Followup Needed; Funding and/or Implementation Needed; and No Further Technical Analysis Anticipated

  15. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  16. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A. M.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based

  17. Analysis on Passivity for Uncertain Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of passivity analysis for neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties is considered. By the consideration of newly constructed Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, improved sufficient conditions to guarantee the passivity of the concerned networks are proposed with the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which can be solved easily by various efficient convex optimization algorithms. The enhancement of the feasible region of the proposed criteria is shown via two numerical examples by the comparison of maximum allowable delay bounds.

  18. Chronobiological considerations for exercise and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Drust, Barry; George, Keith; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Although regular physical activity is beneficial for many clinical conditions, an acute bout of exercise might increase the risk of an adverse clinical event, such as sudden cardiac death or myocardial infarction, particularly in vulnerable individuals. Since it is also known that the incidence of these events peaks in the morning and that some cardiac patients prefer to schedule leisure-time physical activity before lunch, the question arises as to whether morning exercise is 'inherently' more risky than physical activity performed at other times of day. We attempt to answer this question by reviewing the relevant epidemiological data as well as the results of chronobiological and exercise-related studies that have concentrated on the pathophysiological mechanisms for sudden cardiac events. We also consider generally how chronobiology might impact on exercise prescription in heart disease. We performed a structured literature search in the PubMed and WEBofSCIENCE databases for relevant studies published between 1981 and 2004. The limited amount of published epidemiological data did not allow us to conclude that a bout of vigorous exercise in the morning increases the relative risk of either primary cardiac events in apparently healthy individuals, or secondary events in cardiac patients enrolled in supervised exercise programmes. Nevertheless, these data are not directly relevant to individuals who have a history of heart disease and perform uncontrolled habitual activities. It appears as though the influence of time of day on the cardiovascular safety of this type of exercise has not been examined in this population. There is evidence that several pathophysiological variables (e.g. blood pressure, endothelial function, fibrinolysis) vary in parallel with typical diurnal changes in freely chosen activity. Nevertheless, few studies have been designed to examine specifically whether such variables respond differently to a 'set' level of exercise in the morning

  19. Power quality improvement in highly varying loads using thyristor-switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshtan, M. [Petroleum Inst., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mokhtari, H.; Esmaeili, A. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Ordinary contactor-based-capacitor (CBC) banks may not be able to response quickly enough in highly varying electrical loads such as welding machines or arc furnace loads. Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC) banks are therefore used to compensate for reactive power of highly varying loads. In this paper, the performance of a TSC was compared to CBC banks. The 2 systems, were also compared in terms of energy saving in transmission systems. Simulations carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC software showed that there was a considerable difference in the performance of the 2 systems. The shortcomings of existing CBC systems include slow response of mechanical switching systems; problem of switching more than one bank into the system; and, voltage/current transients during on-off switching. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs.

  20. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer. 11 refs

  1. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  2. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity of the incidence of early effects to the duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.; Hallam, J.; Kelly, G.N.

    1979-12-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB-R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. In this study the sensitivity of the predicted incidence of early effects to the release duration, in so far as it affects the crosswind spread of the activity, is investigated. Two situations are considered; a short release in which the crosswind distribution of the activity is assumed to be Gaussian and a more prolonged release (as modelled in the initial study) in which the crosswind distribution of activity is assumed uniform over a 30 0 sector. For the particular conditions and population distributions considered, the incidence of early effects is greater for the short compared with the more prolonged release. The size of the increase depends upon the radionuclide composition, the magnitude of the release, the distribution of the exposed population, and the prevailing meteorological conditions, but in general the increase is not large. This relatively limited sensitivity indicates that the results obtained in the initial study can be assumed, to a good approximation, to be applicable irrespective of the release duration. (author)

  3. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  4. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  5. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  7. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  8. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  9. The role of periodically varying discharge on river plume structure and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Avener, Margaret; Bevan, Shaun

    2018-04-01

    We present results from laboratory experiments that simulate the effects of periodically varying discharge on buoyant coastal plumes. Freshwater is discharged into a two meter diameter tank filled with saltwater on a rotating table. The mean inflow rate, tank rotation period and density of the ambient salt water are varied to simulate a range of inflow Froude and Rossby numbers. The amplitude and the period of the inflow modulation are varied across a range that simulates variability due to tides and storms. Using the optical thickness method, we measure the width and depth of the plume, plume volume and freshwater retention rate in the plume. With constant discharge, freshwater is retained in a growing anticyclonic bulge circulation near the river mouth, as observed in previous studies. When the discharge is varied, the bulge geometry oscillates between a circular plume structure that extends mainly in the offshore direction, and a compressed plume structure that extends mainly in the alongshore direction. The oscillations result in periodic variations in the width and depth of the bulge and the incidence angle formed where the bulge flow re-attaches with the coastal wall. The oscillations are more pronounced for longer modulation periods, but are relatively insensitive to the modulation amplitude. A phase difference between the time varying transport within the bulge and bulge geometry determines the fraction of the bulge flow discharged into the coastal current. As a result, the modulation period determines the variations in amount of freshwater that returns to the bulge. Freshwater retention in the bulge is increased in longer modulation periods and more pronounced for larger modulation amplitudes.

  10. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  11. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  12. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  13. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John PA; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene–environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal. PMID:22333905

  14. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  15. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  16. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  17. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the public...

  18. Shoulder dystocia: definitions and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alexandra; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2014-06-01

    Though subjective in nature, both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists green guideline are in agreement on the descriptor of shoulder dystocia: requirement of additional obstetric maneuvers when gentle downward traction has failed to affect the delivery of the shoulders. The rate of shoulder dystocia is about 1.4% of all deliveries and 0.7% for vaginal births. Compared to non-diabetics (0.6%), among diabetics, the rate of impacted shoulders is 201% higher (1.9%); newborns delivered by vacuum or forceps have 254% higher likelihood of shoulder dystocia than those born spontaneously (2.0% vs. 0.6%, respectively). When the birthweight is categorized as 4500 g, the likelihood of shoulder dystocia in the US vs. other countries varies significantly. Future studies should focus on lowering the rate of shoulder dystocia and its associated morbidities, without concomitantly increasing the rate of cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  20. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    liver cancer and leukemia in both sexes. In contrast, this region is projected to experience elevated incidence rates in males for about half the cancers studied. The incidence rates for all cancers combined are projected to continue to be highest for males in the Atlantic region and for females in Quebec in 15 years but in Ontario thereafter, and lowest in British Columbia. The inter-regional differences are larger in males than in females, possibly due to variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing (for prostate cancer and risk factors. In both males and females, colorectal cancer incidence rates will remain highest in the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia. Lung cancer incidence rates are projected to be highest in Quebec and lowest in Ontario and British Columbia for both sexes. The similar regional rates of breast cancer in females are expected to persist. The significantly lowest rates of prostate cancer in Quebec are projected to continue, as are the elevated rates in the Atlantic region. Incidence by sex and age: Cancer is more common in males than in females except in those aged under 55. The overall cancer incidence rate in men aged 65 or older has been falling and will continue to do so. The decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65 or older from decreased tobacco use and the decrease in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older have contributed to the overall decrease in this age range. In women aged 65 or older, the relatively stable rate is primarily the result of an increase in lung cancer incidence offset by decreases in incidence for the other cancer sites. This stable trend is projected to continue. Targeted cancer prevention efforts and specific needs for health care services can be expected to vary at different points in the age continuum for males and females. Smoking-related cancers: Between 2003-2007 and 2028-2032, substantial risk reductions are projected for major common tobacco-related cancers in Canada, even with

  1. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  2. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incident investigation. 68.81 Section 68.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly investigate and analyze the incident. (d) A report shall be...

  3. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Institute (API); American Public Transportation Association (APTA); American Short Line and Regional...-0131, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC00 Critical Incident Stress Plans AGENCY: Federal Railroad... incident stress plans that provide for appropriate support services to be offered to their employees who...

  4. Asphyxia Neonatorum-Incidence In Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    task of all concerned with the process of human repro- duction. In order to achieve this, a study of the incidence and risk factors of asphyxia neonatorum was undertaken in the Groote Schuur Maternity Hospital. TABLE I. INCIDENCE OF ASPHYXIA NEONATORUM. Source of. Hospital. Apgar score 0 - 3% information.

  5. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Incident management. (a) Each airport operator must establish procedures to evaluate bomb threats, threats...

  6. The Three-Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    A description is given of the engineering design principles of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) of the Three Mile Island-2 power plant. The successive stages of the incident are recounted, with diagrammatic illustrations, and graphs showing the reactor coolant system parameters at various times after the incident. The consequential events and core damage are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Siemerink, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Verhaegh, M.E.J.M.; Ostertag, J.U.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the incidence of skin cancer is rising rapidly worldwide, but no reliable figures on multiple nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are available. Aim To determine the actual incidence of skin cancer in dermatology practice and to estimate how this relates to the first primary

  8. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...

  9. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  10. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  11. Development of a highway incident management operational and training guide for incident responders in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Each year highway traffic incidents, such as crashes, place responders on and beside roadways with : dangerous high-speed traffic. The unexpected conditions of an incident scene have the potential to surprise : unsuspecting or inattentive drivers, po...

  12. Computer incident response and forensics team management conducting a successful incident response

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Leighton

    2013-01-01

    Computer Incident Response and Forensics Team Management provides security professionals with a complete handbook of computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management. This unique approach teaches readers the concepts and principles they need to conduct a successful incident response investigation, ensuring that proven policies and procedures are established and followed by all team members. Leighton R. Johnson III describes the processes within an incident response event and shows the crucial importance of skillful forensics team management, including when and where the transition to forensics investigation should occur during an incident response event. The book also provides discussions of key incident response components. Provides readers with a complete handbook on computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management Identify the key steps to completing a successful computer incident response investigation Defines the qualities necessary to become a succ...

  13. Dealing Collectively with Critical Incident Stress Reactions in High Risk Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, joachim

    2015-01-01

    organisations. Indeed, we found that the CISM programme once integrated within the socio-cultural patterns of this specific working environment enhanced not only individual feelings of being supported but also organisational safety culture. Keywords: coping; safety culture; critical incident stress management......aim of this paper is to shift the representation of coping patterns within high risk occupations to an existential part of cultural pattern and social structure, which characterises high reliability organisations. Drawing upon the specific peer model of critical incident stress management (CISM......), in which qualified operational peers support colleagues who experienced critical incident stress, the paper discusses critical incident stress management in air traffic control. Our study revealed coping patterns that co-vary with the culture that the CISM programme fostered within this specific high...

  14. The incidence of congenital heart disease: Previous findings and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with “adult” CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  15. State Medicaid Coverage, ESRD Incidence, and Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Mitani, Aya A.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of low-income nonelderly adults covered by Medicaid varies widely by state. We sought to determine whether broader state Medicaid coverage, defined as the proportion of each state’s low-income nonelderly adult population covered by Medicaid, associates with lower state-level incidence of ESRD and greater access to care. The main outcomes were incidence of ESRD and five indicators of access to care. We identified 408,535 adults aged 20–64 years, who developed ESRD between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. Medicaid coverage among low-income nonelderly adults ranged from 12.2% to 66.0% (median 32.5%). For each additional 10% of the low-income nonelderly population covered by Medicaid, there was a 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.0% to 2.6%) decrease in ESRD incidence. Among nonelderly adults with ESRD, gaps in access to care between those with private insurance and those with Medicaid were narrower in states with broader coverage. For a 50-year-old white woman, the access gap to the kidney transplant waiting list between Medicaid and private insurance decreased by 7.7 percentage points in high (>45%) versus low (Medicaid coverage states. Similarly, the access gap to transplantation decreased by 4.0 percentage points and the access gap to peritoneal dialysis decreased by 3.8 percentage points in high Medicaid coverage states. In conclusion, states with broader Medicaid coverage had a lower incidence of ESRD and smaller insurance-related access gaps. PMID:24652791

  16. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S

    2007-06-01

    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  17. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  18. Critical incidents and critical incident stress management (CISM) - an employee assistance programme (EAP) perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Terblanche, Lourie; van Wyk, André

    2014-01-01

    Employees are increasingly becoming victims of critical incidents. From a systems theory point of view, it is necessary to acknowledge the impact of critical incidents not only on the personal life of the employee, but on the workplace itself. Employees respond differently to critical incidents, which makes it even more complicated when this reaches the point of requiring therapeutic intervention. The most common response to critical incidents may be the risk of developing post-traumatic s...

  19. HIV incidence in Asia: a review of available data and assessment of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Kim, Andrea A; Le, Linh-Vi; Nadol, Patrick J; Prybylski, Dimitri; Wolfe, Mitchell I

    2013-01-01

    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.

  20. Polarization dependence in ELNES: Influence of probe convergence, collector aperture and electron beam incidence angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bosse, J.C.; Epicier, T.; Jouffrey, B.

    2006-01-01

    The differential scattering cross section in electron energy loss near edge spectroscopy (ELNES) generally depends on the orientation of the Q wave vector transferred from the incident electron to an atomic core electron. In the case where the excited atom belongs to a threefold, fourfold or sixfold main rotation axis, the dipole cross section depends on the angle of Q with respect to this axis. In this paper, we restrict to this situation called dichroism. Furthermore, if we take into account the relativistic effects due to the high incident electron velocity, this dipole cross section also depends on the angle of Q with respect to the electron beam axis. It is due to these dependences that the shape of measured electron energy loss spectra varies with the electron beam incidence, the collector aperture, the incident beam convergence and the incident electron energy. The existence of a particular beam incidence angle for which the scattering cross section becomes independent of collection and beam convergence semi-angles is clearly underscored. Conversely, it is shown that EELS spectra do not depend on the beam incidence angle for a set of particular values of collection and convergence semi-angles. Particularly, in the case of a parallel incident beam, there is a collection semi-angle (often called magic angle) for which the cross section becomes independent of the beam orientation. This magic angle depends on the incident beam kinetic energy. If the incident electron velocity V is small compared with the light velocity c, this magic angle is about 3.975θ E (θ E is the scattering angle). It decreases to 0 when V approaches c. These results are illustrated in the case of the K boron edge in the boron nitride

  1. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Fredric M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the

  2. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M

    2004-07-12

    Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate

  3. Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabagin, Kuantkan; Igissinov, Nurbek; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Sandybayev, Marat; Nurgazin, Murat; Massadykov, Adilzhan; Tanatarov, Sayat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Urazalina, Nailya; Abiltayeva, Aizhan; Baissalbayeva, Ainoor; Zhabagina, Almagul; Sabitova, Dinara; Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul; Kenbayeva, Dinara; Rakhimbekov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were 24.1/105 and 15.9/105 respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

  4. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  5. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  6. Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...

  7. Semantic Considerations in the Treatment of Echolalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Norman B.; David, Leigh E.

    1975-01-01

    Two mentally retarded preschool children, both of whom echoed all forms of yes-no questions, were subjected to different treatment procedures varied according to the semantic function of the antecedent verbal stimulus. (Author)

  8. Stem-spermatogonial survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations in the γ-irradiated boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the effects of γ-radiation on stem-cell survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations, boar testes were irradiated with 100, 200, or 400 rad. Stem-cell survival was markedly affected by 100 rad (51% of control) and reduced to 34% of control by 400 rad. Production of differentiating spermatogonia renewal was incomplete at 12 weeks. Incidence of translocations peaked at 200 rad and the number occurring at 100 and 400 rad was similar. Kinetics of porcine spermatogonial renewal differs considerably from those of the rodent and, relative to the rodent, this may account for the boar's higher sensitivity to stem-cell killing and lower sensitivity to translocation

  9. Time trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, Outi; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Pukkala, Eero; Syvänen, Kari; Boström, Peter J

    2018-02-20

    To describe the trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries utilising national cancer registries, NORDCAN (NORDCAN project/database presents the incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival from >50 cancers in the Nordic countries) and NOCCA (Nordic Occupational Cancer) databases. We obtained the incidence data of testicular cancer for 5-year periods from 1960-1964 to 2000-2014 and for 5-year age-groups from the NORDCAN database. Morphological data on incident cases of seminoma and non-seminoma were obtained from national cancer registries. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASR) were calculated per 100 000 person-years (World Standard). Regression analysis was used to evaluate the annual change in the incidence of testicular cancer in each of the Nordic countries. The risk of testicular cancer in different professions was described based on NOCCA information and expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). During 2010-2014 the ASR for testicular cancer varied from 11.3 in Norway to 5.8 in Finland. Until 1998, the incidence was highest in Denmark. There has not been an increase in Denmark and Iceland since the 1990s, whilst the incidence is still strongly increasing in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. There were no remarkable changes in the ratio of seminoma and non-seminoma incidences during the past 50 years. There was no increase in the incidences in children and those of pension age. The highest significant excess risks of testicular seminoma were found in physicians (SIR 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99), artistic workers (SIR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-1.99) and religious workers etc. (SIR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56). The lowest SIRs of testicular seminoma were seen amongst cooks and stewards (SIR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), and forestry workers (SIR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.86). The occupational category of administrators was the only one with a significantly elevated SIR for testicular non-seminoma (SIR 1.21, 95

  10. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources

  11. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  12. CRITICAL INCIDENTS AND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM – AN EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (EAP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terblanche, Lourie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Employees are increasingly becoming victims of critical incidents. From a systems theory point of view, it is necessary to acknowledge the impact of critical incidents not only on the personal life of the employee, but on the workplace itself. Employees respond differently to critical incidents, which makes it even more complicated when this reaches the point of requiring therapeutic intervention. The most common response to critical incidents may be the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and/or depression. This reality requires management – through the Employee Assistance Programme (EAP – to be able to effectively deal with such critical incidents.

  13. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  14. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  15. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  16. Design consideration on severe accident for future LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities' Severe Accident Management strategies, selected based on Individual Plant Examination, are in the process of implementation for each operating plant. Activities for the next generation LWR design are going on by Utilities, NSSS vendors and Research Institutes. The proposed new designs vary from evolutionary design to revolutionary design such as the supercritical LWR. Discussion on the consideration of Severe Accident in the design of next generation LWR is being held to establish the industry's self-regulatory document on containment design and its performance, which ABWR-IER (Improved Evolutionary Reactor) on the part of BWR and Evolutionary APWR and New PWR21 on the part of PWR are expected to comply. Conceptual design study for ABWR-IER will illustrate an example of design approach for the prevention and mitigation of Severe Accident and its impact on capital cost

  17. Focusing the Sun: State Considerations for Designing Community Solar Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report summarizes outcomes from the National Community Solar Partnership State Best Practices working group by identifying key differences in state policies that enable community solar and illustrating how various policy design approaches may impact the market. For the latter question, it is too early to quantify a relationship between policy design and market impacts, because most state programs have not been fully implemented. So, the authors conducted interviews with 19 subject matter experts, including project developers, regulators, and utilities to better understand how various policy design approaches may impact community solar markets. These perspectives, along with those gleaned from the working group and relevant literature were synthesized to identify key considerations for policymakers designing community solar programs. Though state community solar policies vary in numerous ways, the report focuses on the following critical elements: program cap, project size cap, subscriber location requirements, subscriber eligibility requirements, low- and moderate-income stipulations, and subscriber compensation.

  18. Adaptive Immunity to Francisella tularensis and Considerations for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. Roberts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. There are several subspecies of F. tularensis whose ability to cause disease varies in humans. The most virulent subspecies, tularensis, is a Tier One Select Agent and a potential bioweapon. Although considerable effort has made to generate efficacious tularemia vaccines, to date none have been licensed for use in the United States. Despite the lack of a tularemia vaccine, we have learned a great deal about the adaptive immune response the underlies protective immunity. Herein, we detail the animal models commonly used to study tularemia and their recapitulation of human disease, the field's current understanding of vaccine-mediated protection, and discuss the challenges associated with new vaccine development.

  19. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  20. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1972-01-01

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  1. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D.; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  2. Design of 2D time-varying vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.

  3. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  4. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2005-01-01

    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  5. Performance of a solar chimney by varying design parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available the design of solar chimneys to ensure optimal performance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the performance of an example solar chimney by varying the design parameters and examining their effects on the interior ventilation performance... chimney by varying design parameters Tichaona Kumirai, Researcher, Built Environment CSIR Jan-Hendrik Grobler, DPSS CSIR Dr D.C.U. Conradie, Senior researcher, Built Environment CSIR 1 Introduction Trombe walls and solar chimneys are not widely...

  6. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  7. Marketingový mix HC Enegie Karlovy Vary

    OpenAIRE

    Štrobl, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of HC Energie Karlovy Vary Objectives: This thesis is based on a questionnaire responses obtained from HC Energie Karlovy Vary fans. Its objective is focused on evaluation of their opinions on the marketing mix, their subsequent interpretation, and finally even development of recommendations for improvement based on previous analysis. Methods: Two methods are used to analyse the marketing mix. The first method is qualitative participant observation. The second method is a...

  8. Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk

    Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....

  9. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  10. Pemodelan Markov Switching Dengan Time-varying Transition Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Anggita Puri; Warsito, Budi; Rahmawati, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Exchange rate or currency is an economic variable which reflects country's state of economy. It fluctuates over time because of its ability to switch the condition or regime caused by economic and political factors. The changes in the exchange rate are depreciation and appreciation. Therefore, it could be modeled using Markov Switching with Time-Varying Transition Probability which observe the conditional changes and use information variable. From this model, time-varying transition probabili...

  11. Quantum capacity under adversarial quantum noise: arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelakovic, Igor; Boche, Holger; Noetzel, Janis

    2010-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes...

  12. Social determinants and inequalities in tuberculosis incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César V. Munayco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify key social determinants of tuberculosis (TB incidence among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, a geographic area regarded as one of the most socioeconomically unequal in the world METHODS: An ecological study was conducted at the country level. Data were obtained from several institutional-based sources. Random-effects regression modeling was used to explore the relationship between several social determinants indicators and TB incidence rates in 20 LAC countries in 1995-2012. Standard gap and gradient metrics of social inequality in TB incidence among countries in 2000, 2005, and 2010 were then calculated. RESULTS: TB incidence rate trends were significantly associated with health expenditure per capita and access to improved sanitation facilities, as well as with life expectancy at birth and TB detection rate, after adjusting for other socioeconomic, demographic, and health services variables. Absolute and relative inequality in TB incidence remained mostly unchanged: countries at the bottom 20% of both health expenditure and sanitation coverage distributions concentrated up to 40% of all TB incident cases, despite a considerable decline in the overall TB incidence mean rate during the period assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Along with the intensity of TB control (reflected by TB detection rate, both access to sanitation (as a proxy of quality of living conditions and health expenditure per capita (either as an indicator of the level of resources and/or commitment to health care appear to be key determinants of TB incidence trends in LAC countries. Inequalities in both health expenditure per capita and access to sanitation seem to define profound and persistent inverse gradients in TB incidence among LAC countries.

  13. Estimating the incidence of breast cancer in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, Davies; Sowunmi, Olaperi Y.; Jacobs, Wura; David, Rotimi A; Adeosun, Adeyemi A; Amuta, Ann O.; Misra, Sanjay; Gadanya, Muktar; Auta, Asa; Harhay, Michael O; Chan, Kit Yee

    2018-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer worldwide. We sought to assemble publicly available data from Africa to provide estimates of the incidence of breast cancer on the continent. Methods A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and African Journals Online (AJOL) was conducted. We included population- or hospital-based registry studies on breast cancer conducted in Africa, and providing estimates of the crude incidence of breast cancer among women. A random effects meta-analysis was employed to determine the pooled incidence of breast cancer across studies. Results The literature search returned 4648 records, with 41 studies conducted across 54 study sites in 22 African countries selected. We observed important variations in reported cancer incidence between population- and hospital-based cancer registries. The overall pooled crude incidence of breast cancer from population-based registries was 24.5 per 100 000 person years (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.1-28.9). The incidence in North Africa was higher at 29.3 per 100 000 (95% CI 20.0-38.7) than Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) at 22.4 per 100 000 (95% CI 17.2-28.0). In hospital-based registries, the overall pooled crude incidence rate was estimated at 23.6 per 100 000 (95% CI 18.5-28.7). SSA and Northern Africa had relatively comparable rates at 24.0 per 100 000 (95% CI 17.5-30.4) and 23.2 per 100 000 (95% CI 6.6-39.7), respectively. Across both registries, incidence rates increased considerably between 2000 and 2015. Conclusions The available evidence suggests a growing incidence of breast cancer in Africa. The representativeness of these estimates is uncertain due to the paucity of data in several countries and calendar years, as well as inconsistency in data collation and quality across existing cancer registries. PMID:29740502

  14. Social Relations at Work and Incident Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat......Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical....... Conclusions: Our data partially support that social relations at work are associated with incident dementia....

  15. A critical incident reporting system in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimbamuto, F D; Chiware, R

    2001-01-01

    To audit the recently established Critical Incident Reporting System in the Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Zimbabwe Medical School. The system was set up with the purpose of improving the quality of care delivered by the department. Cross sectional study. A critical incident was defined as 'any adverse and reversible event in theatre, during or immediately after surgery that if it persisted without correction would cause harm to the patient'. The anaesthetic or recovery room staff filled a critical incident form anonymously. Data was collected from critical incident reporting forms for analysis. The anaesthetic service in the two teaching hospitals of Harare Central and Parirenyatwa General Hospitals. Between May and October 2000, 62 completed critical incident forms were collected. The nature of the incident and the monitoring used were recorded, the cause was classified as human, equipment or monitoring failure and the outcome for each patient reported. There was no formal system for reminding staff to fill in their critical incident forms. A total of 14,165 operations were performed over the reporting period: 62 critical incident forms were collected, reporting 130 incidents, giving a rate of 0.92% (130/14,165). Of these, 42 patients were emergencies and 20 elective. The incidents were hypotension, hypoxia, bradycardia, ECG changes, aspiration, laryngospasm, high spinal, and cardiac arrest. Monitoring present on patients who had critical incidents was: capnography 57%, oxymetry 90% and ECG 100%. Other monitors are not reported. Human error contributed in 32/62 of patients and equipment failure in 31/62 of patients. Patient outcome showed 15% died, 23% were unplanned admissions to HDU while 62% were discharged to the ward with little or no adverse outcome. Despite some under reporting, the critical incident rate was within the range reported in the literature. Supervision of juniors is not adequate, especially on call. The

  16. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility...... without knowing whether an incident has occurred. The resulting departure time pattern may be compressed or dispersed according to whether or not the bottleneck is fully utilized throughout the departure period on days without incidents. For both the user equilibrium (UE) and the social optimum (SO...

  17. SPS Machine Protection Incident in 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2009-01-01

    During the 008 SPS run a single machine operation incident happened on June 27th when a high intensity CNGS beam was lost in a dipole of sextant 1 following a time system ‘freeze’. The vacuum chamber was punctured over a length of over 10 cm, and the vacuum in the affected sector rose to atmospheric pressure. The dipole was exchanged June 30th. This note describes the incident in detail and presents the measures taken to avoid a similar incident in the future.

  18. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  19. Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery...... the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164-0.234%). The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127-0.187%). CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of the observed to the expected numbers of cancers, that is, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using incidence rates for the general Danish and Swedish populations as a reference. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 5,652,918 person-years of follow-up, 80,990 cancers occurred......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  1. Incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Lisbeth; Olesen, Bente; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    to an annual incidence of 0.44 per 100,000 population. The annual incidence for males and females was 0.56 and 0.31 per 100,000, respectively. The median age was 56 years (range 0-97 years) with variation among genera. One hundred and forty-three isolates were identified to the species level and six...... to the genus level: Haemophilus spp. n=55, Aggregatibacter spp. n=37, Cardiobacterium spp. n=9, Eikenella corrodens n=21, and Kingella spp. n=27. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in a large surveillance population and may inspire further studies of the HACEK group...

  2. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  3. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  4. Intake of radioactivity by inhalation, in buildings after nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Risk studies so far assumed that in case of a nuclear incident, the exposure of persons through inhalation proceeds in free air by direct intake of contaminated ambient air. In reality, however, about 80 p.c. of the population is indoors, and there is a considerable delay of room air contamination in comparison with free air contamination. The radionuclides are deposited on indoor surfaces (such as walls, windows, furniture, etc.), and in air-conditioning systems on the filters. This contamination is somewhat regularly removed through cleaning or filter exchange, which reduces the contamination of room air, and then also the radiation exposure by inhalation. The reducing effect can be enhanced by such simple measures as closing doors and windows in time, and switching the air-conditioning system to recirculating regime, followed by enhanced fresh air supply at a later time. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.

  6. Incidence, epidemiology, and treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 12 midwest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba-Davis, Mary; Bohnstedt, Bradley N; Payner, Troy D; Leipzig, Thomas J; Palmer, Erin; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-01-01

    Only 8 studies have investigated the incidence and epidemiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in the United States. This is the first investigation in Indiana, which has some of the highest rates of tobacco smoking and obesity in the nation. The authors prospectively identified 441 consecutive patients with aSAH from 2005 to 2010 at 2 hospitals where the majority of cases are treated. Incidence calculations were based on US Census populations. Epidemiologic variables included demography; risk factors; Hunt and Hess scale; Fisher grade; number, location, and size of aneurysms; treatment type; and complications. Overall incidence was 21.8 per 100,000 population. Incidence was higher in women, increased with age, and did not vary by race. One third to half of patients were hypertensive and/or smoked cigarettes at the time of ictus. Variations by count were partially explained by Health Factor and Morbidity Rankings. Complications varied by treatment. These findings deviate from estimates that 6-16 per 100,000 people in the United States will develop aSAH and are double the incidence in a Minnesota population between 1945 and 1974. The results also deviate from the worldwide estimate of 9.0 aSAHs per 100,000 person-years. The predictive value of variations in Health Factor and Morbidity Rankings implicates the importance of future research on multivariate biopsychosocial causation of aSAH. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-water considerations for NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Frank, T.; Wahl, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of reactor safety considerations flood protection and the evaluation of low-water events are safety relevant issues. Therefore low-water statistics were performed for the coastal region Cuxhaven and the Elbe river estuary. The consideration of the longitudinal profile of water levels during low-tide in connection with surface water effects, morphodynamic changes of the river and anthropogenic modifications is of importance for conclusions concerning the NPP sites in some distance of the reference tide gauge. The authors performed a statistical low-tide analysis for the NPP sites Brunsbuettel and Brokdorf.

  8. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  9. The association of the human development index with global kidney cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Prasad, Sandip M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Eggener, Scott E

    2012-06-01

    We describe contemporary worldwide age standardized incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, and their association with social and economic development metrics. We obtained gender specific, age standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratio on the national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with the development level of each country using the United Nations Human Development Index. The age standardized incidence rate varied twentyfold worldwide with the highest rate in North America, and the lowest in Africa and South Central Asia (11.8 vs 1.2 and 1.0/100,000 individuals, respectively). The geographic distribution of the age standardized mortality rate was similar to that of the age standardized incidence rate with the highest rates in Europe and North America (3.1 and 2.6/100,000 individuals, respectively) and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions (0.6 to 1.5). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates were 4.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, in more developed countries than in developing countries. However, the mortality-to-incidence ratio was highest in Africa and Asia, and lowest in North America (0.6 to 0.8 vs 0.2/100,000 individuals). There was a strong inverse relationship between the Human Development Index and the mortality-to-incidence ratio (regression coefficient -0.79, p<0.0001). Kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates vary widely throughout the world while the mortality-to-incidence ratio is highest in less developed nations. These observations suggest significant health care disparities and may reflect differences in risk factors, health care access, quality of care, diagnostic modalities and treatment options available. Future research should assess whether the mortality-to-incidence ratio decreases with increasing development. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  10. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  11. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  12. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  13. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document

  14. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  15. Reported incidences and factors associated with percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Office User

    precautions, training and reduction of long working hours are necessary in order to reduce infections from .... -4-. Incidences of percutaneous injuries and mucocutaneous blood exposure ... than 40 hours per week (14.9 %) (p= 0.001).

  16. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  17. Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galles, Q.; Gamo, J. M.; Jorda, M.; Sanchez-Garrido, P.; Lopez, F.; Asensio, L.; Reig, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN) proposed the creation of a working group formed by experts from all Spanish NPPs with the purpose of jointly analyze relevant incidents occurred in each one of the plants. This initiative was a response to a historical situation in which the exchange of information on incidents between the Spanish NPP's was below the desired level. In june 2009, UNESA's Guide CEN-29 established the performance criteria for the so called Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group of Operating Experience, under the Operations Commission (COP). (Author)

  18. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  19. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. INCIDENCE.CDR NEW 1.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Commercial ... are at far greater risk than the drivers and passengers of. 4 ... Despite the clear evidence of higher ... recall, thus the incidence of accidents is likely to be ..... complete picture of the pattern of injuries which occur.

  1. Traffic control concepts for incident clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This document discusses various aspects of traffic control for incidents with the focus on the traffic control roles and responsibilities of the responders as well as the safety of the responders and the motoring public. It also recognizes that activ...

  2. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  3. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  4. National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) is a reporting standard that fire departments use to uniformly report on the full range of their activities, from...

  5. International variations and trends in renal cell carcinoma incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Laversanne, Mathieu; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence rates are higher in developed countries, where up to half of the cases are discovered incidentally. Declining mortality trends have been reported in highly developed countries since the 1990s. To compare and interpret geographic variations and trends in the incidence and mortality of RCC worldwide in the context of controlling the future disease burden. We used data from GLOBOCAN, the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series, and the World Health Organisation mortality database to compare incidence and mortality rates in more than 40 countries worldwide. We analysed incidence and mortality trends in the last 10 yr using joinpoint analyses of the age-standardised rates (ASRs). RCC incidence in men varied in ASRs (World standard population) from approximately 1/100,000 in African countries to >15/100,000 in several Northern and Eastern European countries and among US blacks. Similar patterns were observed for women, although incidence rates were commonly half of those for men. Incidence rates are increasing in most countries, most prominently in Latin America. Although recent mortality trends are stable in many countries, significant declines were observed in Western and Northern Europe, the USA, and Australia. Southern European men appear to have the least favourable RCC mortality trends. Although RCC incidence is still increasing in most countries, stabilisation of mortality trends has been achieved in many highly developed countries. There are marked absolute differences and opposing RCC mortality trends in countries categorised as areas of higher versus lower human development, and these gaps appear to be widening. Renal cell cancer is becoming more commonly diagnosed worldwide in both men and women. Mortality is decreasing in the most developed settings, but not in low- and middle-income countries, where access to and the availability of optimal therapies are likely to be limited. Copyright © 2014 European Association of

  6. Comparing population and incident data for optimal air ambulance base locations in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; van den Berg, Pieter L; Lindner, Thomas; Zakariassen, Erik; Uleberg, Oddvar; Aardal, Karen; van Essen, J Theresia

    2018-05-24

    Helicopter emergency medical services are important in many health care systems. Norway has a nationwide physician manned air ambulance service servicing a country with large geographical variations in population density and incident frequencies. The aim of the study was to compare optimal air ambulance base locations using both population and incident data. We used municipality population and incident data for Norway from 2015. The 428 municipalities had a median (5-95 percentile) of 4675 (940-36,264) inhabitants and 10 (2-38) incidents. Optimal helicopter base locations were estimated using the Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) optimization model, exploring the number and location of bases needed to cover various fractions of the population for time thresholds 30 and 45 min, in green field scenarios and conditioned on the existing base structure. The existing bases covered 96.90% of the population and 91.86% of the incidents for time threshold 45 min. Correlation between municipality population and incident frequencies was -0.0027, and optimal base locations varied markedly between the two data types, particularly when lowering the target time. The optimal solution using population density data put focus on the greater Oslo area, where one third of Norwegians live, while using incident data put focus on low population high incident areas, such as northern Norway and winter sport resorts. Using population density data as a proxy for incident frequency is not recommended, as the two data types lead to different optimal base locations. Lowering the target time increases the sensitivity to choice of data.

  7. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. Methods We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Results Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. Conclusions The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control

  8. Consideration of the Harrisburg accident has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    At the 'Kerntechnik '80' annual conference in Berlin, current problems of nuclear power were discussed. The determining factor of the accident in the U.S. nuclear power plant Three Mile Island, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was faulty interaction between man and plant. Since 1975, 789 safety-related incidents have been reported from West German nuclear power plants. For the present, West Germany is keeping all its options open with regard to radwaste disposal. (orig.) [de

  9. Special Considerations in Children with Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette

    2017-04-01

    Childhood vitiligo differs from adult-onset vitiligo for several features including increased incidence of the segmental variant, higher prevalence of halo nevi, and more common family history for autoimmune diseases and atopic diathesis. The major differential diagnoses are the postinflammatory hypomelanoses for nonsegmental vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus for segmental vitiligo. From a therapeutic standpoint, early awareness of the diagnosis seems to correlate with a good treatment outcome in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6. million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35000 births presenting about 113 new patients per ...

  11. Improving Agent Based Modeling of Critical Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Till

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Agent Based Modeling (ABM is a powerful method that has been used to simulate potential critical incidents in the infrastructure and built environments. This paper will discuss the modeling of some critical incidents currently simulated using ABM and how they may be expanded and improved by using better physiological modeling, psychological modeling, modeling the actions of interveners, introducing Geographic Information Systems (GIS and open source models.

  12. Incidence of epilepsy in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Edward; Pedelini, Francesco; Faggioli, Raffaella; Monetti, Vincenza Cinzia; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria

    2013-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in the same area at different times, allowing an assessment of the incidence of epilepsy (E.), including all ages, over time. The available data on temporal trend show a decrease in E. incidence in childhood and an increase in the elderly. We sought to update the incidence of E. in the province of Ferrara, where a previous study estimated an incidence rate of 33.1 per 100,000, 35.8, if standardized to the European population. Newly diagnosed patients aged up to 14 years were drawn from a community-based prospective multi-source registry, and adult onset E. cases were collected through multiple overlapping sources of case collection. Cases were included and classified according to ILAE recommendations. During the study period (2007-2008), 141 newly diagnosed cases (66 men and 75 women) living in the study area were identified. The crude incidence rate was 46.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 39.0-54.5), 35.5 (95 % CI 28.0-43.0) if adjusted to the European population. The incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy was 57.0 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 33.8-90.0), lower than that reported in our previous study, and it was 44.8 (95 % CI 37.4-53.6) for adult onset E., which is significantly higher as compared to our previous study. The overall incidence of E. in northern Italy is stable over time. We detected a significant decrease in incidence of childhood and adolescence E. and an increase in adult-onset E. The burden of epilepsy will increase as the population continues to age.

  13. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  14. NEA incident reporting system: Three years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Y.; Haeussermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) which was set up to collect, assess and disseminate on safety-related incidents in nuclear power plants. The IRS information exchange is significant in two senses. First, it enables regulatory authorities and utilities in participating countries to take appropriate action to prevent the reported mishaps occurring again elsewhere. Secondly, the continuous collection and systematic analysis of such information allows identification of areas of concern where safety research should be strengthened. There are two stages in the IRS information exchange. First, the national IRS Co-ordinator selects information on significant incidents, in accordance with a common reporting threshold, from the abnormal occurrences reported to the regulatory body, to be distributed through the NEA Secretariat. This screening is intended to exclude minor events, so that only significant information is sent to participating countries. Secondly, a group of experts periodically reviews the incidents reported during the preceding twelve months to identify major areas of concern. To assist this process, a computer-based data retrieval system is being developed for IRS incident reports. The paper gives some details of the IRS mechanism and discusses reporting criteria and the information included in a report. Areas of concern derived from reported incidents, an outline of the data retrieval system, and examples of feedback of lessons learned and possibilities for international co-operation are also discussed. (author)

  15. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G

    2007-01-01

    registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... system and inclusion of outpatients. From 1995 to 2002 the incidence rate was reasonable constant with an average of 83.3 new cases per 100,000 person-years at risk, except for patients over 60 years of age where we observed an increase in incidence with calendar time. The age-specific incidence rates...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  16. Anaesthetic considerations for paediatric laparoscopy | Lasersohn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children, infants and neonates represent an anaesthetic challenge because of age-specific anatomical and physiological issues. Apart from paediatric-specific anaesthetic considerations, the paediatric anaesthetist must understand the implications of laparoscopic surgery, and prevent and react appropriately to changes ...

  17. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  18. Implementing Sustainability Considerations in Packaging Design Curricula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; de Koeijer, Bjorn; Torn, Isaäc Anthony Robbert-Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to address the structured implementation of sustainability considerations in packaging design processes by proposing a teaching framework for design students. The framework builds upon a four-year research program which aims to deliver insights regarding the environmental burden

  19. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  20. Environmental approvals in New Brunswick : economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrack, C.; Maitland, R. [Suez Renewable Energy North America, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided a timeline of economic considerations related to New Brunswick's regulatory approval process for wind power developments. The economics of wind power projects require careful consideration during the initial planning phases, as it is not yet known if projects are viable. Spending in the early stages of a project should therefore be limited to items that focus on components of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process that include establishing a relationship with First Nations groups in the area, and conducting seasonal bird studies. Economic considerations change when project viability is confirmed, and developers can then progress to conducting traditional knowledge studies and further seasonal bird studies. Baseline information studies should be reviewed, and biophysical surveys should involve the identification of any wetlands, sensitive areas, and rare plants. Archaeology studies are also required by the provincial government, as well as bat studies to determine if the site has a resident population of bats. Public and stakeholder consultations and open houses should then be held with an adequate time-frame for the submission of questions and concerns and the development of mitigation strategies. Project viability should be confirmed before power purchase agreements (PPAs) are signed. After PPAs are signed, the largest economic consideration is the schedule-related risk associated with legal and financial problems. It was concluded that noise impact, visual impact, and socioeconomic assessments and studies can be conducted after the PPA is secured. tabs., figs.

  1. Ethical Considerations for Data Collection Using Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2017-03-01

    Surveys are widely used instruments to collect research data. Although surveys may appear relatively benign and easily unlinked to participants, considerations for the ethical conduct of research with surveys are important. Maintaining scientific rigor is essential. This article explores ethical tenets in relation to informed consent and scientific consent when using surveys.

  2. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS PRESERVATION OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE THROUGH THE PLACEMENT OF PROCUREMENT... sells a significant proportion of its production to the Government is generally depressed or has a... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the entire...

  3. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen......'s dividing of a form into form elements. The procedure has been tested in student projects....

  4. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  5. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives analyzed in the environmental documents. (f) Pursue the objective of furthering foreign policy and... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a... CATEX from environmental impact analysis (appendix B). (c) Make environmental documents, comments, and...

  6. Topics for Current and Future Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; Jerman, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    What lies ahead for nontraditional doctorate programs? What issues should concern administrators, faculty, and scholars? Faculty and administrators raised concerns that the marketplace demand for "nontraditional doctoral programs" would pollute the academic purity and sanctity of traditional programs. The authors provide some considerations for…

  7. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  8. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a female employee be considered to lack remuneration with respect to a day solely because of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General considerations. 332.2 Section 332.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT...

  9. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  10. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  11. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  12. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  13. Transplanting the Body : Preliminary Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Lantz E.

    2017-01-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor’s entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment:

  14. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  15. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Partnership Initiative § 1160.24 Antitrust considerations. (a) The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any proposed Strategic Partnership. The Department may..., conduct workshops to discuss the formation of such partnerships in general. Commerce will not select the...

  16. Mediation analysis with time varying exposures and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we consider causal mediation analysis when exposures and mediators vary over time. We give non-parametric identification results, discuss parametric implementation, and also provide a weighting approach to direct and indirect effects based on combining the results of two marginal structural models. We also discuss how our results give rise to a causal interpretation of the effect estimates produced from longitudinal structural equation models. When there are time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator, natural direct and indirect effects are not identified. However, we define a randomized interventional analogue of natural direct and indirect effects that are identified in this setting. The formula that identifies these effects we refer to as the "mediational g-formula." When there is no mediation, the mediational g-formula reduces to Robins' regular g-formula for longitudinal data. When there are no time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator values, then the mediational g-formula reduces to a longitudinal version of Pearl's mediation formula. However, the mediational g-formula itself can accommodate both mediation and time-varying confounders and constitutes a general approach to mediation analysis with time-varying exposures and mediators.

  17. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2018-03-01

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  18. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Factors associated with the incidence of pressure ulcer during hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Tiensoli, Sabrina Daros; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Gomes, Flávia Sampaio Latini

    2017-05-25

    Estimating the incidence rate of pressure ulcers and verifying factors associated with this occurrence in a cohort of hospitalized patients. This is a cohort study in which the considered outcome was the time until pressure ulcer occurrence. Estimated effect of the variables on the cumulative incidence ratio of the outcome was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Variable selection occurred via the Logrank hypothesis test. The sample consisted of 442 adults, with 25 incidents of pressure ulcers. Patients with high scores on the Braden scale presented a higher risk of pressure ulcer incidence when compared to those classified into the low score category. These results reinforce the importance of using the Braden Scale to assist in identifying patients more likely to develop pressure ulcers. Estimar a taxa de incidência de úlcera por pressão e verificar fatores associados a essa ocorrência em uma coorte de pacientes hospitalizados. Trata-se de estudo de coorte no qual o desfecho foi a ocorrência da úlcera por pressão. A estimativa do efeito das variáveis para a proporção de incidência acumulada do desfecho foi realizada utilizando o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. A seleção das variáveis ocorreu por meio do teste de hipóteses Logrank. A amostra foi composta de 442 adultos, com 25 casos incidentes de úlcera por pressão. Pacientes com altos escores na escala de Braden apresentaram maior risco de incidência de úlcera por pressão quando comparados com aqueles classificados na categoria de baixo escore. Os resultados reforçam a importância do uso da Escala de Braden para auxiliar na identificação dos pacientes com maior probabilidade de desenvolver úlcera por pressão.

  20. Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan

    2017-09-27

    Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License