Sample records for incidence state space

  1. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  2. State financial cover for nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.


    Some States have introduced systems of compensation out of public funds in case the compensation under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention is insufficient to cover the damage caused by a nuclear incident. The systems are described in this paper as well as that in Switzerland, which is not Party to these Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  3. State Space Methods in gretl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Lucchetti


    Full Text Available gretl is a general-purpose econometric package, whose most important characteristic is being free software. This ensures that its source code is freely available under the general public license (GPL and, like most GPL software, that it can be used free of charge. As of version 1.8.1 (released in May 2009, it offers a mechanism for handling linear state space models in a reasonably general and efficient way. This article illustrates its main features with two examples.

  4. State-space predictive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a predictive control strategy based on state-space models. Important issues concerning inherent model identification and optimal control computation are briefly discussed. Predictive control relies heavily on a model with satisfactory predictive capabilities. An off-line identification procedure must be accomplished to obtain a proper model structure and a parameter set, which is required for on-line adjustment. The control calculation is based on a general performance index and parameterization of the control variables in a nonlinear model, which includes the relevant constraints. This results in a finite-dimensional optimization problem which can be repetitively solved on-line. Simulation studies on two very different, typical industrial processes are presented. The simulations show that this MPC technique offers a major improvement in the control of many industrial processes.

  5. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas


    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  6. Characterization of Spaces of Filtering States (United States)

    Navara, Mirko


    Filtering states on orthomodular lattices have been introduced by G.T. Rüttimann as an “opposite” of completely additive states. He proved that they form a face of the state space. The question which faces can be the sets of filtering states remained open. Here we prove that, for any semi-exposed face F of a compact convex set C, there is an orthomodular lattice L and an affine homeomorphism φ of C onto the state space of L such that φ( F) is the space of filtering states.

  7. State space consistency and differentiability

    CERN Document Server

    Serakos, Demetrios


    By investigating the properties of the natural state, this book presents an analysis of input-output systems with regard to the mathematical concept of state. The state of a system condenses the effects of past inputs to the system in a useful manner. This monograph emphasizes two main properties of the natural state; the first has to do with the possibility of determining the input-output system from its natural state set and the second deals with differentiability properties involving the natural state inherited from the input-output system, including differentiability of the natural state and natural state trajectories. The results presented in this title aid in modeling physical systems since system identification from a state set holds in most models. Researchers and engineers working in electrical, aerospace, mechanical, and chemical fields along with applied mathematicians working in systems or differential equations will find this title useful due to its rigorous mathematics.  

  8. Coherent states in the fermionic Fock space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert


    We construct the coherent states in the sense of Gilmore and Perelomov for the fermionic Fock space. Our treatment is from the outset adapted to the infinite-dimensional case. The fermionic Fock space becomes in this way a reproducing kernel Hilbert space of continuous holomorphic functions. (paper)

  9. The Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy in Ekiti State, Nigeria | Odu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the incidence of teenage pregnancy in Ekiti State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. The research design used for the study was the descriptive research design of the survey type. 120 pregnant teenagers aged between thirteen and nineteen years of age selected through purposive ...

  10. Incidence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cross River State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abattoir records base on typical tuberculosis lesions for ten year (1991-20000) were collated and analyzed to determine the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in three main abattoirs (Ogoja, Ikom and Bakoko) in the Northern, central and Southern senatorial zones of Cross River State. Out of the 66,680 ...

  11. Incidence of bovine cysticercosis in kano state, northwestern, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of infection due to Cysticercus bovis in Kano abattoir located in Fagge local government area (LGA) of Kano state, Nigeria was studied. Out of the 11,804 cattle which were examined, 315 (2.67%) were found to be infected. The tongue, cardiac and masseter muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts ...

  12. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis (United States)

    Martinez-Marin, T.


    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  13. My Life with State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Christensen, Søren


    State space models have had a tremendous impact on the analysis of time series. Even though the models and ideas are much older the work that Mike West and others started in the 1980ies brought the attention to the statisticians and the models and inferential possibilities have developed enormously....... The conceptual idea behind the state space model is that the evolution over time in the object we are observing and the measurement process itself are modelled separately. My very first serious analysis of a data set was done using a state space model, and since then I seem to have been "haunted" by state space...... models. I will not try to give a thorough exposition of the development from simple linear Gaussian state space models to the highly non-linear models analysed with computer intensive methods. Instead I will give examples of some health related applications, that I have been involved in, and relate...

  14. Migration and melanoma incidence rates among Washington state counties. (United States)

    Chan, Victor; Thompson, Ian; Whitney, David; Switzer, Michael; Anderson, Amy D; Smits, Shelly


    The purpose of this study was to look for a possible explanation for the variation in the incidence rate of melanoma among counties in Washington state. We used data from the Washington State Cancer Registry (WSCR), the Cancer Center at PeaceHealth St. Joseph Hospital in Whatcom County, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to get information on melanoma incidence. Demographic and migration records were obtained from the US Census Bureau, the Washington State Department of Licensing (DOL), and the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS). A number of different analytic techniques were used to address our research question, including a multiple regression analysis, time trend comparisons, and an analysis of birthplace data of melanoma patients in Whatcom county. We found a significant association between migration rate from the Southwest (SW) USA and melanoma incidence (PWhatcom county, almost half of all residents were born outside of Washington state, but they accounted for about 70% of all melanoma cases. Our analyses suggest that migration from the SW is an important factor in explaining the variation in melanoma rate among counties in Washington.

  15. Graph Subsumption in Abstract State Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Eduardo; Rensink, Arend; Wijs, A.; Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.

    In this paper we present the extension of an existing method for abstract graph-based state space exploration, called neighbourhood abstraction, with a reduction technique based on subsumption. Basically, one abstract state subsumes another when it covers more concrete states; in such a case, the

  16. Statistical Software for State Space Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. F. Commandeur


    Full Text Available In this paper we review the state space approach to time series analysis and establish the notation that is adopted in this special volume of the Journal of Statistical Software. We first provide some background on the history of state space methods for the analysis of time series. This is followed by a concise overview of linear Gaussian state space analysis including the modelling framework and appropriate estimation methods. We discuss the important class of unobserved component models which incorporate a trend, a seasonal, a cycle, and fixed explanatory and intervention variables for the univariate and multivariate analysis of time series. We continue the discussion by presenting methods for the computation of different estimates for the unobserved state vector: filtering, prediction, and smoothing. Estimation approaches for the other parameters in the model are also considered. Next, we discuss how the estimation procedures can be used for constructing confidence intervals, detecting outlier observations and structural breaks, and testing model assumptions of residual independence, homoscedasticity, and normality. We then show how ARIMA and ARIMA components models fit in the state space framework to time series analysis. We also provide a basic introduction for non-Gaussian state space models. Finally, we present an overview of the software tools currently available for the analysis of time series with state space methods as they are discussed in the other contributions to this special volume.

  17. State spaces of orthomodular structures


    Navara, Mirko


    We present several known and one new description of orthomodular structures (orthomodular lattices, orthomodular posets and orthoalgebras). Originally, orthomodular structures were viewed as pasted families of Boolean algebras. Here we introduce semipasted families of Boolean algebras as an alternative description which is not as detailed, but substantially simplex. Semipasted families of Boolean algebras correspond to orthomodular structures in such a way that states and evaluation functiona...

  18. Multimedia Mapping using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue


    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space'. Simulatio...

  19. Fitting State Space Models with EViews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. M. Van den Bossche


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how state space models can be fitted in EViews. We first briefly introduce EViews as an econometric software package. Next we fit a local level model to the Nile data. We then show how a multivariate “latent risk” model can be developed, making use of the EViews programming environment. We conclude by summarizing the possibilities and limitations of the software package when it comes to state space modeling.

  20. Incidence of diabetes in youth in the United States. (United States)

    Dabelea, Dana; Bell, Ronny A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Johansen, Judith M; Linder, Barbara; Liu, Lenna L; Loots, Beth; Marcovina, Santica; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Pettitt, David J; Waitzfelder, Beth


    Data on the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among US youth according to racial/ethnic background and DM type are limited. To estimate DM incidence in youth aged younger than 20 years according to race/ethnicity and DM type. A multiethnic, population-based study (The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study) of 2435 youth with newly diagnosed, nonsecondary DM in 2002 and 2003, ascertained at 10 study locations in the United States, covering a population of more than 10 million person-years. Incidence rates by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and DM type were calculated per 100,000 person-years at risk. Diabetes mellitus type (type 1/type 2) was based on health care professional assignment and, in a subset, further characterized with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoantibody and fasting C peptide measures. The incidence of DM (per 100,000 person-years) was 24.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.3-25.3). Among children younger than 10 years, most had type 1 DM, regardless of race/ethnicity. The highest rates of type 1 DM were observed in non-Hispanic white youth (18.6, 28.1, and 32.9 for age groups 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years, respectively). Even among older youth (> or =10 years), type 1 DM was frequent among non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and African American adolescents. Overall, type 2 DM was still relatively infrequent, but the highest rates (17.0 to 49.4 per 100,000 person-years) were documented among 15- to 19-year-old minority groups. Our data document the incidence rates of type 1 DM among youth of all racial/ethnic groups, with the highest rates in non-Hispanic white youth. Overall, type 2 DM is still relatively infrequent; however, the highest rates were observed among adolescent minority populations.

  1. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero


    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  2. Characteristics and tolerances of the pocket mouse and incidence of disease. [CNS lesions during space flights (United States)

    Lindberg, R. G.; Kraft, L. M.; Simmonds, R. C.; Bailey, O. T.; Dunlap, W. A.; Haymaker, W.


    Studies carried out on the pocket mouse colony on Apollo XVII are reported. They revealed no serological evidence of viral disease, no pathogenic enterobacteria or respiratory Mycoplasma on culture, a 25% incidence of sarcosporidiosis, and a 2% incidence of chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. It is concluded that the pocket mouse is a highly adaptive animal and very well-suited to space flight.

  3. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.


    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  4. Condensed State Spaces for Symmetrical Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper deals with state spaces. A state space is a directed graph with a node for each reachable state and an arc for each possible state change. We describe how symmetries of the modelled system can be exploited to obtain much more succinct state space analysis. The symmetries induce...... equivalence classes of states and equivalence classes of state changes. It is then possible to construct a condensed state space where each node represents an equivalence class of states while each arc represents an equivalence class of state changes. Such a condensed state space is often much smaller than...... the full state space and it is also much faster to construct. Nevertheless, it is possible to use the condensed state space to verify the same kind of behavioural properties as the full state space. Hence, we do not lose analytic power. We define state spaces and condensed state spaces for a language...

  5. Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Ding


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  6. Parameter and state estimator for state space models. (United States)

    Ding, Ruifeng; Zhuang, Linfan


    This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  7. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  8. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N


    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  9. Small Quantum Structures with Small State Spaces (United States)

    Navara, Mirko


    We summarize and extend results about “small” quantum structures with small dimensions of state spaces. These constructions have contributed to the theory of orthomodular lattices. More general quantum structures (orthomodular posets, orthoalgebras, and effect algebras) admit sometimes simplifications, but there are problems where no progress has been achieved.

  10. Multivariable Wind Modeling in State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.


    -spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modeling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order, and estimation of a state space model......Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of wind turbines. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper an empirical...... cross-spectral density function for the along-wind turbulence component over the rotor plane is taken as the starting point. The spectrum is spatially discretized in terms of a Hermitian cross-spectral density matrix for the turbulence state vector which turns out not to be positive definite. Since...

  11. Development of grazing incidence devices for space-borne time of flight mass spectrometry (United States)

    Cadu, A.; Devoto, P.; Louarn, P.; Sauvaud, J.-A.


    Time of flight mass spectrometer is widely used to study space plasmas in planetary and solar missions. This space-borne instrument selects ions in function of their energy through an electrostatic analyzer. Particles are then post-accelerated to energies in the range of 20 keV to cross a carbon foil. At the foil exit, electrons are emitted and separated from ion beam in the time of flight section. A first detector (a Micro-Channel Plate or MCP) emits a start signal at electron arrival and a second one emits a stop signal at incident ion end of path. The time difference gives the speed of the particle and its mass can be calculated, knowing its initial energy. However, current instruments suffer from strong limitations. The post acceleration needs very high voltage power supplies which are heavy, have a high power consumption and imply technical constraints for the development. A typical instrument weighs from 5 to 6 kg, includes a 20 kV power supply, consumes a least 5 W and encounters corona effect and electrical breakdown problems. Moreover, despite the particle high energy range, scattering and straggling phenomena in the carbon foil significantly reduce the instrument overall resolution. Some methods, such as electrostatic focus lenses or reflectrons, really improve mass separation but global system efficiency remains very low because of the charge state dependence of such devices. The main purpose of our work is to replace carbon foil by grazing incidence MCP's - also known as MPO's, for Micro Pore Optics - for electron emission. Thus, incident particles would back-scatter onto the channel inner surface with an angle of a few degrees. With this solution, we can decrease dispersion sources and lower the power supplies to post accelerate ions. The result would be a lighter and simpler instrument with a substantial resolution improvement. We have first simulated MPO's behavior with TRIM and MARLOWE Monte-Carlo codes. Energy scattering and output angle computed

  12. State-Space Modelling in Marine Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    State-space models provide a natural framework for analysing time series that cannot be observed without error. This is the case for fisheries stock assessments and movement data from marine animals. In fisheries stock assessments, the aim is to estimate the stock size; however, the only data...... available is the number of fish removed from the population and samples on a small fraction of the population. In marine animal movement, accurate position systems such as GPS cannot be used. Instead, inaccurate alternative must be used yielding observations with large errors. Both assessment and individual...... animal movement models are important for management and conservation of marine animals. Consequently, models should be developed to be operational in a management context while adequately evaluating uncertainties in the models. This thesis develops state-space models using the Laplace approximation...

  13. Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces. (United States)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu


    A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.

  14. Modeling volatility using state space models. (United States)

    Timmer, J; Weigend, A S


    In time series problems, noise can be divided into two categories: dynamic noise which drives the process, and observational noise which is added in the measurement process, but does not influence future values of the system. In this framework, we show that empirical volatilities (the squared relative returns of prices) exhibit a significant amount of observational noise. To model and predict their time evolution adequately, we estimate state space models that explicitly include observational noise. We obtain relaxation times for shocks in the logarithm of volatility ranging from three weeks (for foreign exchange) to three to five months (for stock indices). In most cases, a two-dimensional hidden state is required to yield residuals that are consistent with white noise. We compare these results with ordinary autoregressive models (without a hidden state) and find that autoregressive models underestimate the relaxation times by about two orders of magnitude since they do not distinguish between observational and dynamic noise. This new interpretation of the dynamics of volatility in terms of relaxators in a state space model carries over to stochastic volatility models and to GARCH models, and is useful for several problems in finance, including risk management and the pricing of derivative securities. Data sets used: Olsen & Associates high frequency DEM/USD foreign exchange rates (8 years). Nikkei 225 index (40 years). Dow Jones Industrial Average (25 years).

  15. Influence of nitrogen levels and plant spacing on the incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Centre (WARDA) Research Farm Abakaliki during 2006 and 2007 wet seasons to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels and plant spacing on the incidence of rice stem borers (Chilo zacconius Bles, Diopsis macropathalman Daman, Maliarpha separatalla Rog, Sesamia calamistis and Sciropophaga spp. Hamp.).

  16. Incidence of Small Bounded Edentulous Spaces in Children and Adolescents Living in Lviv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sofia Krupnyk


    Conclusions. The results of the research indicated that the incidence of small bounded edentulous spaces among school children in Lviv was significant, in the range of 10%. It had a tendency to increase with age substantiating the need for prosthetic rehabilitation of school age individuals.

  17. Rising Incidence of Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Marcus


    Full Text Available Background. While it is established that the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has risen over time in the United States, the incidence trend for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN is unknown. Methods. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database to determine incidence trends for MMHN from 1987 to 2009 in the United States. We determined annual percent change (APC by weighted least squares and joinpoint regression analysis. Results. MMHN incidence increased from 1987 to 2009 (APC 2.4%; . Nasal cavity lesions increased in incidence (APC 2.7%; over this duration, while the incidence of non-nasal cavity lesions remained stable. The highest rate of increase was in white females ages 55 to 84 (APC 5.1%; . Conclusions. The incidence of MMHN in the United States has been rising since 1987. This trend is driven primarily by increased incidence of nasal cavity melanomas.

  18. State space realization of fractional order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djamah, T.; Mansouri, R.; Djennoune, S.; Bettayeb, M.


    In the past few years, fractional calculus appeared to be a useful tool for the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Although, some methods of the control theory have been developed for the commensurate case, the difficulties of the non commensurate called generalized fractional systems still remain unsolved. In this paper, a method is presented for obtaining the state space model of a generalized fractional system starting from its transfer function. The method remains valid for the particular cases of commensurate and integer systems. An application to some examples illustrates the algorithm.

  19. Varied-space grazing incidence gratings in high resolution scanning spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.


    We discuss the dominant geometrical aberrations of a grazing incidence reflection grating and new techniques which can be used to reduce or eliminate them. Convergent beam geometries and the aberration correction possible with varied groove spacings are each found to improve the spectral resolution and speed of grazing incidence gratings. In combination, these two techniques can result in a high resolution (λ/Δλ > 10 4 ) monochromator or scanning spectrometer with a simple rotational motion for scanning wavelength or selecting the spectral band. 21 refs., 4 figs

  20. ASAP: An Extensible Platform for State Space Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael; Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    The ASCoVeCo State space Analysis Platform (ASAP) is a tool for performing explicit state space analysis of coloured Petri nets (CPNs) and other formalisms. ASAP supports a wide range of state space reduction techniques and is intended to be easy to extend and to use, making it a suitable tool...

  1. Dependence of extinction cross-section on incident polarization state and particle orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Wendisch, Manfred; Bi Lei; Kattawar, George; Mishchenko, Michael; Hu, Yongxiang


    This note reports on the effects of the polarization state of an incident quasi-monochromatic parallel beam of radiation and the orientation of a hexagonal ice particle with respect to the incident direction on the extinction process. When the incident beam is aligned with the six-fold rotational symmetry axis, the extinction is independent of the polarization state of the incident light. For other orientations, the extinction cross-section for linearly polarized light can be either larger or smaller than its counterpart for an unpolarized incident beam. Therefore, the attenuation of a quasi-monochromatic radiation beam by an ice cloud depends on the polarization state of the beam if ice crystals within the cloud are not randomly oriented. Furthermore, a case study of the extinction of light by a quartz particle is also presented to illustrate the dependence of the extinction cross-section on the polarization state of the incident light.

  2. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications (United States)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L.; Swinehart, P.


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, we are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. The performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented.

  3. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States)); Swinehart, P. (Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States))


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  4. Assessment of Evidence Base from Medical Debriefs Data on Space Motion Sickness Incidence and Treatment (United States)

    Younker, D.R.; Daniels, V.R.; Boyd, J.L.; Putcha, L.


    An objective of this data compilation and analysis project is to examine incidence and treatment efficacy of common patho-physiological disturbances during spaceflight. Analysis of medical debriefs data indicated that astronauts used medications to alleviate symptoms of four major ailments for which astronauts received treatment for sleep disturbances, space motion sickness (SMS), pain (headache, back pain) and sinus congestion. In the present data compilation and analysis project on SMS treatment during space missions, subject demographics (gender, age, first-time or repeat flyer), incidence and severity of SMS symptoms and subjective treatment efficacy from 317 crewmember debrief records were examined from STS-1 through STS-89. Preliminary analysis of data revealed that 50% of crew members reported SMS symptoms on at least one flight and 22% never experienced it. In addition, there were 387 medication dosing episodes reported, and promethazine was the most commonly used medication. Results of analysis of symptom check lists, medication use/efficacy and gender and flight record differences in incidence and treatment efficacy will be presented. Evidence gaps for treatment efficacy along with medication use trend analysis will be identified.

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  6. A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas


    State space exploration is a main approach to verification of finite-state systems. The sweep-line method exploits a certain kind of progress present in many systems to reduce peak memory usage during state space exploration. We present a new sweep-line algorithm for a compositional setting where...

  7. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.


    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  8. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.


    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  9. State Space Analysis of Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    In this paper, we consider state space analysis of Coloured Petri Nets. It is well-known that almost all dynamic properties of the considered system can be verified when the state space is finite. However, state space analysis is more than just formulating a set of formal requirements and invoking...... a corresponding set of queries. State space analysis is also applicable during the design and debugging of a system. An approach towards this is to allow the user to analyse the behaviour of systems by drawing and generating selected parts of the state space. The contribution of his paper is to present a tool...... in which formal verification, partial state spaces, and analysis by means of graphical feedback and simulation are integrated entities. The focus of the paper is twofold: the support for graphical feedback and the way it has been integrated with simulation, and the underlying algorithms and data...

  10. State space Newton's method for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton


    We introduce a new algorithm for solving certain classes of topology optimization problems, which enjoys fast local convergence normally achieved by the full space methods while working in a smaller reduced space. The computational complexity of Newton’s direction finding subproblem in the algori......We introduce a new algorithm for solving certain classes of topology optimization problems, which enjoys fast local convergence normally achieved by the full space methods while working in a smaller reduced space. The computational complexity of Newton’s direction finding subproblem...

  11. Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan | Ageek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan. ... The cancers were classified according to the organs affected and then ranked in their order of relative frequency. The mean age, age range, male to female ratio, the incidence ... Keywords: Prevalence, malignancies, Africa, Middle East Sudan Journal of Medical ...

  12. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  13. How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki


    In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

  14. The Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy in Ekiti State, Nigeria | Odu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were taken from five randomly selected Local Government Areas of Ekiti State. The research instrument used in this study was a self designed instrument titled “Questionnaire on Teenage Pregnancy”. Face and content validities of the instrument was determined by test experts and the reliability of the ...

  15. incidence of bovine cysticercosis in kano state, north

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    government area (LGA) of Kano state, Nigeria was studied. Out of the 11,804 cattle which were examined, 315 ... This information is considered useful for government authorities to direct control strategies as well as for ... tongue, after careful palpation, 3 parallel incisions were made underneath the base and extending from.

  16. United States Space Nuclear Electric Power Program. (United States)

    Newby, G. A.


    The principal characteristics and design features of major systems and technological developments in U.S. space nuclear power activities are reviewed, covering radioisotope thermoelectric generators, reactor space electric power technology, and the advanced liquid metal cooled power reactor program. The topics also include heat source design and development, thermoelectric efficiency, high performance thermoelectric materials, and alloy developments. The U.S. Space Electric Power Program is described as one aimed at the development of a minimum number of standard components and power modules for both radioisotopes and reactor systems that will meet the widest possible range of future requirements. The need to reduce the high cost of the isotopic generators already used in space missions is stressed.

  17. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  18. Adaptive importance sampling of random walks on continuous state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggerly, K.; Cox, D.; Picard, R.


    The authors consider adaptive importance sampling for a random walk with scoring in a general state space. Conditions under which exponential convergence occurs to the zero-variance solution are reviewed. These results generalize previous work for finite, discrete state spaces in Kollman (1993) and in Kollman, Baggerly, Cox, and Picard (1996). This paper is intended for nonstatisticians and includes considerable explanatory material

  19. The sweep-line state space exploration method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars M.; Mailund, Thomas


    The sweep-line method exploits intrinsic progress in concurrent systems to alleviate the state explosion problem in explicit state model checking. The concept of progress makes it possible to delete states from the memory during state space exploration and thereby reduce peak memory usage...

  20. National space policy of the United States. (United States)


    The space age began as a race for security and prestige between two superpowers . The opportunities : were boundless, and the decades that followed have seen a radical transformation in the way we live our : daily lives, in large part due to our use ...

  1. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Tree spacing impacts the individual incidence of Moniliophthora roreri disease in cacao agroforests. (United States)

    Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Alem, Laudine; Curtet, Chloé; Tixier, Philippe


    Using conventional pesticides in crop protection has raised serious environmental concerns and there is therefore a need for integrated pest management (IPM) methods. In this paper, we found that the spacing of trees can impact disease, which could result in a reduction in pesticide applications and may act as a potential IPM method. We studied Frosty Pod Rot (FPR) in 20 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica (Upala region). Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the impact of the neighborhood composition and distance from a studied cacao individual on its individual FPR incidence. We found that the number of cacao tree neighbors in a radius of 3.7 m and the number of fruit trees in a radius of 4.3 m had a significant negative influence on the incidence of FPR on individual cacao trees. Moreover, cacao tree neighbors had the most significant local influence compared to the neighborhood of other taller categories such as fruit or forest trees. The mechanisms involved are related to the barrier effect, due to the effectiveness of the cacao tree's architecture as an efficient barrier against FPR spore dispersal. This paper provides new insights into optimization of the spatial environment around each host as an original IPM method. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Long-term changes in fusiform rust incidence in the southeastern United States (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Ellis B. Cowling; Dale A. Starkey


    Fusiform rust is the most devastating disease of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the southeastern United States. Since the 1970s, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has assessed fusiform rust incidence on its network of ground plots in 13 states across the...

  4. Incident and Trafficking Database: New Systems for Reporting and Accessing State Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, D.; Kittley, S.


    The IAEA's Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) is the Agency's authoritative source for information on incidents in which nuclear and other radioactive material is out of national regulatory control. It was established in 1995 and, as of June 2014, 126 States participate in the ITDB programme. Currently, the database contains over 2500 confirmed incidents, out of which 21% involve nuclear material, 62% radioactive source and 17% radioactively contaminated material. In recent years, the system for States to report incidents to the ITDB has been evolving — moving from fax-based to secure email and most recently to secure on-line reporting. A Beta version of the on-line system was rolled out this June, offering a simple, yet secure, communication channel for member states to provide information. In addition the system serves as a central hub for information related to official communication of the IAEA with Member States so some communication that is traditionally shared by e-mail does not get lost when ITDB counterparts change. In addition the new reporting system incorporates optional features that allow multiple Member State users to collaboratively contribute toward an INF. States are also being given secure on-line access to a streamlined version of the ITDB. This improves States' capabilities to retrieve and analyze information for their own purposes. In addition, on-line access to ITDB statistical information on incidents is available to States through an ITDB Dashboard. The dashboard contains aggregate information on number and types of incidents, material involved, as well some other statistics related to the ITDB that is typically provided in the ITDB Quarterly reports. (author)

  5. Embedding a State Space Model Into a Markov Decision Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Jørgensen, Erik; Højsgaard, Søren


    In agriculture Markov decision processes (MDPs) with finite state and action space are often used to model sequential decision making over time. For instance, states in the process represent possible levels of traits of the animal and transition probabilities are based on biological models...... estimated from data collected from the animal or herd. State space models (SSMs) are a general tool for modeling repeated measurements over time where the model parameters can evolve dynamically. In this paper we consider methods for embedding an SSM into an MDP with finite state and action space. Different...... ways of discretizing an SSM are discussed and methods for reducing the state space of the MDP are presented. An example from dairy production is given...

  6. Coherent states and Hermite polynomials on quaternionic Hilbert spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirulogasanthar, K; Krzyzak, A [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Honnouvo, G, E-mail: santhar@cs.concordia.c, E-mail: krzyzak@cs.concordia.c, E-mail: g-honnouvo@yahoo.f [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada)


    Coherent states, similar to the canonical coherent states of the harmonic oscillator, labeled by quaternions are established on the right and left quaternionic Hilbert spaces. On the left quaternionic Hilbert space reproducing kernels are established. As was claimed by Adler and Millard (J. Math. Phys. 1997 38 2117-26) it is proved that these coherent states cannot be realized as a group action on a quaternionic Hilbert space. As an extension of the complex Hermite polynomials, quaternionic Hermite polynomials are defined and these polynomials are associated with an operator as eigenfunctions.

  7. Social determinants of health predict state incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report. (United States)

    Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul


    There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the predictive ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the state level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate state-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models predicting HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that state-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that state-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates.

  8. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A


    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  9. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano


    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  10. Improved phase space treatment of massive multiparticle final states

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, Borut Paul


    In this paper the revised Kajantie-Byckling approach and improved phase space sampling techniques for the massive multiparticle final states are presented. The application of the developed procedures to the processes representative for LHC physics indicates the possibility of a substantial simplification of multiparticle phase space sampling while retaining a respectable weight variance reduction and unweighing efficiencies in the event generation process.

  11. Incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa in the United States: A sex- and age-adjusted population analysis. (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Lavian, Jonathan; Lin, Gloria; Strunk, Andrew; Alloo, Allireza


    The true incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is unknown. To determine standardized incidence estimates for HS in the United States. We used a retrospective cohort analysis, including incident HS cases identified using electronic health records data for a demographically heterogeneous population-based sample of >48 million unique patients across all 4 census regions. We calculated standardized 1- and 10-year cumulative incidences for the overall population and for sex-, age-, and race-specific groups. There were 5410 new HS diagnoses over a 1-year period, with an incidence of 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-11.8) cases per 100,000 population. One-year incidence in women was 16.1 (95% CI, 15.5-16.6) per 100,000, more than twice that of men [6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.2) per 100,000; P 2.5 times that of whites [11.7 (95% CI, 11.3-12.2) per 100,000; P population. The use of deidentified claims prevented validation for a larger case subset. HS incidence has increased over the past decade and disproportionately involves women, young adults, and African Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A State Space Approach to Canonical Factorization with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bart, Harm; Kaashoek, MA; Ran, Andre CM


    The present book deals with canonical factorization of matrix and operator functions that appear in state space form or that can be transformed into such a form. A unified geometric approach is used. The main results are all expressed explicitly in terms of matrices or operators, which are parameters of the state space representation. The applications concern different classes of convolution equations. A large part the book deals with rational matrix functions only.

  13. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation. (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara


    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013. (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud; Devine, Erin E


    To analyze oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States for the years 1973 through 2013. Cross-sectional study using a large population-based cancer database. Data on incidence and mortality rates were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Database. Annual percentage change in rates was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Incidence rates increased (annual percent change [APC]; 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 2.88) from 1973 to 1983, remained stable (APC -0.52, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.26) from 1983 to 1997, and increased (APC 1.32, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.81) from 1997 to 2013. Overall, incidence rates increased for males (APC 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.25) but not females (APC -0.77, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.82). Incidence rates increased in the white population (APC 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25) but decreased in the black population (APC -0.72, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.02). The incidence rates increased for tongue-base tumors (APC 1.17, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.92) and tonsil tumors (APC 0.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.96) but decreased for other sites. Incidence-based mortality decreased (APC -0.78, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.42) from 1993 to 2013. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates increased in a nonlinear fashion from 1973 to 2013, whereas mortality rates declined. This, along with variation in trends by demographic and tumor factors, suggest that human papilloma virus is the main driver of the recent rise in incidence. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Standard State Space Models of Unawareness (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fritz


    Full Text Available The impossibility theorem of Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini has been thought to demonstrate that standard state-space models cannot be used to represent unawareness. We first show that Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini do not establish this claim. We then distinguish three notions of awareness, and argue that although one of them may not be adequately modeled using standard state spaces, there is no reason to think that standard state spaces cannot provide models of the other two notions. In fact, standard space models of these forms of awareness are attractively simple. They allow us to prove completeness and decidability results with ease, to carry over standard techniques from decision theory, and to add propositional quantifiers straightforwardly.

  16. A Learning State-Space Model for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Greg C


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach based on a state-space model for learning the user concepts in image retrieval. We first design a scheme of region-based image representation based on concept units, which are integrated with different types of feature spaces and with different region scales of image segmentation. The design of the concept units aims at describing similar characteristics at a certain perspective among relevant images. We present the details of our proposed approach based on a state-space model for interactive image retrieval, including likelihood and transition models, and we also describe some experiments that show the efficacy of our proposed model. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a state-space model to estimate the user intuition in image retrieval.

  17. Likelihood functions for state space models with diffuse initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Shephard, N.; de Vos, A.F.


    State space models with non-stationary processes and/or fixed regression effects require a state vector with diffuse initial conditions. Different likelihood functions can be adopted for the estimation of parameters in time-series models with diffuse initial conditions. In this article, we consider

  18. Likelihood functions for state space models with diffuse initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; Koopmans, S.J.; de Vos, A.F.


    State space models with nonstationary processes and fixed regression effects require a state vector with diffuse initial conditions. Different likelihood functions can be adopted for the estimation of parameters in time series models with diffuse initial conditions. In this paper we consider

  19. A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas


    generation, since these states can never be reached again. This in turn reduces the memory used for state space storage during the task of verification. Examples of progress measures are sequence numbers in communication protocols and time in certain models with time. We illustrate the application...

  20. On the state space of the dipole ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binegar, B.


    A particular representation of SO(4, 2) is identified with the state space of the free dipole ghost. This representation is then given an explicit realization as the solution space of a 4th-order wave equation on a spacetime locally isomorphic to Minkowski space. A discrete basis for this solution space is given, as well as an explicit expression for its SO(4, 2) invariant inner product. The connection between the modes of dipole field and those of the massless scalar field is clarified, and a recent conjecture concerning the restriction of the dipole representation to the Poincare subgroup is confirmed. A particular coordinate transformation then reveals the theory of the dipole ghost in Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the solution space of the dipole equation is not unitarizable in a Poincare invariant manner. (orig.)

  1. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  2. Fundamental State Space Time Series Models for JEPX Electricity Prices (United States)

    Ofuji, Kenta; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    Time series models are popular in attempts to model and forecast price dynamics in various markets. In this paper, we have formulated two state space models and tested them for its applicability to power price modeling and forecasting using JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) data. The state space models generally have a high degree of flexibility with its time-dependent state transition matrix and system equation configurations. Based on empirical data analysis and past literatures, we used calculation assumptions to a) extract stochastic trend component to capture non-stationarity, and b) detect structural changes underlying in the market. The stepwise calculation algorithm followed that of Kalman Filter. We then evaluated the two models' forecasting capabilities, in comparison with ordinary AR (autoregressive) and ARCH (autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) models. By choosing proper explanatory variables, the latter state space model yielded as good a forecasting capability as that of the AR and the ARCH models for a short forecasting horizon.

  3. States in the Hilbert space formulation and in the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosiek, J.; Brzykcy, P.


    We consider the problem of testing whether a given matrix in the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics or a function considered in the phase space formulation of quantum theory represents a quantum state. We propose several practical criteria for recognising states in these two versions of quantum physics. After minor modifications, they can be applied to check positivity of any operators acting in a Hilbert space or positivity of any functions from an algebra with a ∗-product of Weyl type. -- Highlights: ► Methods of testing whether a given matrix represents a quantum state. ► The Stratonovich–Weyl correspondence on an arbitrary symplectic manifold. ► Criteria for checking whether a function on a symplectic space is a Wigner function

  4. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls


    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  5. Newly incident cannabis use in the United States, 2002–2011: a regional and state level benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Leinweber


    Full Text Available Background Cannabis use and cannabis regulatory policies recently re-surfaced as noteworthy global research and social media topics, including claims that Mexicans have been sending cannabis and other drug supplies through a porous border into the United States. These circumstances prompted us to conduct an epidemiological test of whether the states bordering Mexico had exceptionally large cannabis incidence rates for 2002–2011. The resulting range of cannabis incidence rates disclosed here can serve as 2002–2011 benchmark values against which estimates from later years can be compared. Methods The population under study is 12-to-24-year-old non-institutionalized civilian community residents of the US, sampled and assessed with confidential audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI during National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2011 (aggregate n ∼ 420,000 for which public use datasets were available. We estimated state-specific cannabis incidence rates based on independent replication sample surveys across these years, and derived meta-analysis estimates for 10 pre-specified regions, including the Mexico border region. Results From meta-analysis, the estimated annual incidence rate for cannabis use in the Mexico Border Region is 5% (95% CI [4%–7%], which is not an exceptional value relative to the overall US estimate of 6% (95% CI [5%–6%]. Geographically quite distant from Mexico and from states of the western US with liberalized cannabis policies, the North Atlantic Region population has the numerically largest incidence estimate at 7% (95% CI [6%–8%], while the Gulf of Mexico Border Region population has the lowest incidence rate at 5% (95% CI [4%–6%]. Within the set of state-specific estimates, Vermont’s and Utah’s populations have the largest and smallest incidence rates, respectively (VT: 9%; 95% CI [8%–10%]; UT: 3%; 95% CI [3%–4%]. Discussion Based on this study’s estimates, among 12-to-24-year-old US

  6. Space Sciences Education and Outreach Project of Moscow State University (United States)

    Krasotkin, S.

    2006-11-01 The space sciences education and outreach project was initiated at Moscow State University in order to incorporate modern space research into the curriculum popularize the basics of space physics, and enhance public interest in space exploration. On 20 January 2005 the first Russian University Satellite “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” was launched into circular polar orbit (inclination 83 deg., altitude 940-980 km). The onboard scientific complex “Tatyana“, as well as the mission control and information receiving centre, was designed and developed at Moscow State University. The scientific programme of the mission includes measurements of space radiation in different energy channels and Earth UV luminosity and lightning. The current education programme consists of basic multimedia lectures “Life of the Earth in the Solar Atmosphere” and computerized practice exercises “Space Practice” (based on the quasi-real-time data obtained from “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” satellite and other Internet resources). A multimedia lectures LIFE OF EARTH IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE containing the basic information and demonstrations of heliophysics (including Sun structure and solar activity, heliosphere and geophysics, solar-terrestrial connections and solar influence on the Earth’s life) was created for upper high-school and junior university students. For the upper-university students there a dozen special computerized hands-on exercises were created based on the experimental quasi-real-time data obtained from our satellites. Students specializing in space physics from a few Russian universities are involved in scientific work. Educational materials focus on upper high school, middle university and special level for space physics students. Moscow State University is now extending its space science education programme by creating multimedia lectures on remote sensing, space factors and materials study, satellite design and development, etc. The space

  7. Projective limits of state spaces IV. Fractal label sets (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas


    Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski (1977) to represent quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces (see Lanéry (2016) [1] for a concise introduction to this formalism). One can thus bypass the need to select a vacuum state for the theory, and still be provided with an explicit and constructive description of the quantum state space, at least as long as the label set indexing the projective structure is countable. Because uncountable label sets are much less practical in this context, we develop in the present article a general procedure to trim an originally uncountable label set down to countable cardinality. In particular, we investigate how to perform this tightening of the label set in a way that preserves both the physical content of the algebra of observables and its symmetries. This work is notably motivated by applications to the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity. Building on earlier work by Okołów (2013), a projective state space was introduced for this algebra in Lanéry and Thiemann (2016). However, the non-trivial structure of the holonomy-flux algebra prevents the construction of satisfactory semi-classical states (Lanéry and Thiemann, 2017). Implementing the general procedure just mentioned in the case of a one-dimensional version of this algebra, we show how a discrete subalgebra can be extracted without destroying universality nor diffeomorphism invariance. On this subalgebra, quantum states can then be constructed which are more regular than was possible on the original algebra. In particular, this allows the design of semi-classical states whose semi-classicality is enforced step by step, starting from collective, macroscopic degrees of freedom and going down progressively toward smaller and smaller scales.

  8. Multivariate time series with linear state space structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Víctor


    This book presents a comprehensive study of multivariate time series with linear state space structure. The emphasis is put on both the clarity of the theoretical concepts and on efficient algorithms for implementing the theory. In particular, it investigates the relationship between VARMA and state space models, including canonical forms. It also highlights the relationship between Wiener-Kolmogorov and Kalman filtering both with an infinite and a finite sample. The strength of the book also lies in the numerous algorithms included for state space models that take advantage of the recursive nature of the models. Many of these algorithms can be made robust, fast, reliable and efficient. The book is accompanied by a MATLAB package called SSMMATLAB and a webpage presenting implemented algorithms with many examples and case studies. Though it lays a solid theoretical foundation, the book also focuses on practical application, and includes exercises in each chapter. It is intended for researchers and students wor...

  9. Relativistic resonances as non-orthogonal states in Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, W


    We analyze the energy-momentum properties of relativistic short-lived particles with the result that they are characterized by two 4-vectors: in addition to the familiar energy-momentum vector (timelike) there is an energy-momentum 'spread vector' (spacelike). The wave functions in space and time for unstable particles are constructed. For the relativistic properties of unstable states we refer to Wigner's method of Poincare group representations that are induced by representations of the space-time translation and rotation groups. If stable particles, unstable particles and resonances are treated as elementary objects that are not fundamentally different one has to take into account that they will not generally be orthogonal to each other in their state space. The scalar product between a stable and an unstable state with otherwise identical properties is calculated in a particular Lorentz frame. The spin of an unstable particle is not infinitely sharp but has a 'spin spread' giving rise to 'spin neighbors'....

  10. Testicular cancer incidence trends in the United States (1975−2004): Plateau or shifting racial paradigm? (United States)

    L, Holmes; C, Escalante; O, Garrison; BX, Foldi; GO, Ogungbade; EJ, Essien; D, Ward


    OBJECTIVE: Plateau in testicular cancer incidence in some parts of the United States (US) especially among non-Hispanic white males in Los Angeles had been observed. We conducted three decades temporal trends analysis to assess the evidence of such a plateau, and to examine whether the rate remains stable across racial/ethnic groups as well as the influence of age at diagnosis on the incidence rate. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based temporal trends analysis. METHODS: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), we identified between 1975 and 2004, 16,580 of newly diagnosed testicular cancer cases, aged 15−49 years. The incidence rates were examined by calculating the age-adjusted rates and their 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for the age at diagnosis, SEER areas, and race by the year of diagnosis. The percent change and annual percent change were examined for trends. RESULTS: Incidence of testicular cancer continues to increase among US males, albeit the plateau of the 1990s. Between 1975 and 2004 the age-adjusted incidence rate for ages, 15−49 years increased from 2.9 (1975) to 5.1(2004) per 100,000. The trends indicated a percent change of 71.9% and a statistically significant annual percent change of 1.6 %,( 95% CI, 1.3−2.0), p testicular cancer incidence rate remains to plateau in the United States, while racial variance persists in rates, black males demonstrated the highest increase in the annual percent change. Further studies are needed to examine the recent increase among black males and the potential determinants. PMID:18555499

  11. Lung cancer incidence trends by gender, race and histology in the United States, 1973-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meza

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC incidence in the United States (US continues to decrease but with significant differences by histology, gender and race. Whereas squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates have been decreasing since the mid-80s, adenocarcinoma rates remain stable in males and continue to increase in females, with large racial disparities. We analyzed LC incidence trends by histology in the US with an emphasis on gender and racial differences.LC incidence rates from 1973-2010 were obtained from the SEER cancer registry. Age-adjusted incidence trends of five major histological types by gender and race were evaluated using joinpoint regression. Trends of LC histology and stage distributions from 2005-2010 were analyzed.US LC incidence varies by histology. Squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates continue to decrease for all gender/race combinations, whereas adenocarcinoma rates remain relatively constant in males and increasing in females. An apparent recent increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma since 2005 can be explained by a concomitant decrease in the number of cases classified as other non-small cell carcinoma. Black males continue to be disproportionally affected by squamous LCs, and blacks continue to be diagnosed with more advanced cancers than whites.LC incidence by histology continues to change over time. Additional variations are expected as screening becomes disseminated. It is important to continue to monitor LC rates to evaluate the impact of screening on current trends, assess the continuing benefits of tobacco control, and focus efforts on reducing racial disparities.

  12. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M


    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  13. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85. (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E


    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast.

  14. Hazardous chemical incidents in schools--United States, 2002-2007. (United States)


    Chemicals that can cause adverse health effects are used in many elementary and secondary schools (e.g., in chemistry laboratories, art classrooms, automotive repair areas, printing and other vocational shops, and facility maintenance areas). Every year, unintentional and intentional releases of these chemicals, or related fires or explosions, occur in schools, causing injuries, costly cleanups, and lost school days. The federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducts national public health surveillance of chemical incidents through its Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system. To identify school-related incidents and elucidate their causes and consequences to highlight the need for intervention, ATSDR conducted an analysis of HSEES data for 2002-2007. During that period, 423 chemical incidents in elementary and secondary schools were reported by 15 participating states. Mercury was the most common chemical released. The analysis found that 62% of reported chemical incidents at elementary and secondary schools resulted from human error (i.e., mistakes in the use or handling of a substance), and 30% of incidents resulted in at least one acute injury. Proper chemical use and management (e.g., keeping an inventory and properly storing, labeling, and disposing of chemicals) is essential to protect school building occupants. Additional education directed at raising awareness of the problem and providing resources to reduce the risk is needed to ensure that schools are safe from unnecessary dangers posed by hazardous chemicals.

  15. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne


    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien \\'A\\' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Claims incidence of work-related disorders of the upper extremities: Washington state, 1987 through 1995. (United States)

    Silverstein, B; Welp, E; Nelson, N; Kalat, J


    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the claim incidence rate, cost, and industry distribution of work-related upper extremity disorders in Washington. METHODS: Washington State Fund workers' compensation claims from 1987 to 1995 were abstracted and categorized into general and specific disorders of gradual or sudden onset. RESULTS: Accepted claims included 100,449 for hand/wrist disorders (incidence rate: 98.2/10,000 full-time equivalents; carpal tunnel syndrome rate: 27.3), 30,468 for elbow disorders (incidence rate: 29.7; epicondylitis rate: 11.7), and 55,315 for shoulder disorders (incidence rate: 54.0; rotator cuff syndrome rate: 19.9). Average direct workers' compensation claims costs (medical treatment and indemnity) were $15,790 (median: $6774) for rotator cuff syndrome, $12,794 for carpal tunnel syndrome (median: $4190), and $6593 for epicondylitis (median: $534). Construction and food processing were among the industries with the highest rate ratios for all disorders (> 4.0). CONCLUSIONS: Upper extremity disorders represent a large and costly problem in Washington State industry. Industries characterized by manual handling and repetitive work have high rate ratios. The contingent workforce appears to be at high risk. PMID:9842381

  17. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  18. The impact of state fire safe cigarette policies on fire fatalities, injuries, and incidents. (United States)

    Folz, David H; Shults, Chris

    Cigarettes are a leading cause of civilian deaths in home fires. Over the last decade, state fire service leaders and allied interest groups succeeded in persuading state lawmakers to require manufacturers to sell only low-ignition strength or "fire safe" cigarettes as a strategy to reduce these fatalities and the injuries and losses that stem from them. This article examines whether the states' fire safe cigarette laws actually helped to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce the incidence of home fires ignited by cigarettes left unattended by smokers. Controlling for the effects of key demographic, social, economic, and housing variables, this study finds that the states' fire-safe cigarette policies had significant impacts on reducing the rate of smoking-related civilian fire deaths and the incidence of fires started by tobacco products. The findings also suggest that the states' fire safe cigarette policies may have helped to reduce the rate of smoking-related fire injuries. The study shows that collective actions by leaders in the fire service across the states can result in meaningful policy change that protects lives and advances public safety even when a political consensus for action is absent at the national level.

  19. Prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in the United States using a large claims database. (United States)

    Powers, Julia; Joy, Karen; Ruscio, Aimee; Lagast, Hjalmar


    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder whose incidence and prevalence have not been well defined. This study aimed to 1) estimate the number of insured adult patients with hypoparathyroidism in the United States and 2) obtain physician assessment of disease severity and chronicity. Prevalence was estimated through calculation of diagnoses of hypoparathyroidism in a large proprietary health plan claims database over a 12-month period from October 2007 through September 2008 and projected to the US insured population. Incidence was also calculated from the same database by determining the proportion of total neck surgeries resulting in either transient (≤6 months) or chronic (>6 months) hypoparathyroidism. A physician primary market research study was conducted to assess disease severity and determine the percentage of new nonsurgical patients with hypoparathyroidism. Incidence data were entered into an epidemiologic model to derive an estimate of prevalence. The diagnosis-based prevalence approach estimated 58,793 insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States. The surgical-based incidence approach yielded 117,342 relevant surgeries resulting in 8901 cases over 12 months. Overall, 7.6% of surgeries resulted in hypoparathyroidism (75% transient, 25% chronic). The prevalence of chronic hypoparathyroidism among insured patients included in the surgical database was estimated to be 58,625. The physician survey found that 75% of cases treated over the past 12 months were reported due to surgery and, among all thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies and neck dissections performed in a year, 26% resulted in transient hypoparathyroidism and 5% progressed to a chronic state. In conclusion, the two claims-based methods yielded similar estimates of the number of insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States (~58,700). The physician survey was consistent with those calculations and confirmed the burden imposed by

  20. Transformation of Socioeconomic Space: The Role of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Shvetsov


    Full Text Available Modern Russia is traditionally characterized by a special and strong public participation in solving problems of spatial development. Thus, the state has following diverse roles: 1 the creator of the modern space configuration; 2 the mastermind and main driving force of modern spatial transformations; 3 the regulator and investor of these processes; 4 the main sponsor and beneficiary of space transformation; and, finally, the hostage of its own dominance in the processes of spatial transformation. However, stereotypes are being gradually overcome and public policy in the area of spatial transformations focuses not only on «public projects» but also on self-development of regions, combined with the interests of big business which plays an increasing role in the transformation of socioeconomic space. The article reveals the meaning and content of the problem of systemic interaction between the state and space concerning the modernization of the country. The author explores the range of fundamental research and applied issues resulting from the contradictory combination of traditional (historical stereotypes and the latest Russian circumstances. These issues determine the background, nature and consequences of state impacts on socio-economic space, as well as the composition, content and validity of the used instruments

  1. Determining the minimum embedding dimension for state space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The analysis of observed time series from nonlinear systems is usually done by making a time-delay reconstruction to unfold the dynamics on a multidimensional state space. An important aspect of the analysis is the choice of the correct embedding dimension. The conventional procedure used for this is either the ...

  2. An Embeddable Virtual Machine for State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.; Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.


    The semantics of modelling languages are not always specified in a precise and formal way, and their rather complex underlying models make it a non-trivial exercise to reuse them in newly developed tools. We report on experiments with a virtual machine-based approach for state space generation. The

  3. Hybrid State-Space Time Integration of Rotating Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen


    . It is demonstrated that the equations of motion take a particularly simple form when starting from a hybrid state-space in terms of local displacements relative to the rotating frame and absolute velocities using similar interpolation. The equations of motion are formulated for small finit deformation beam elements...

  4. A state space algorithm for the spectral factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraffer, F.; Kraffer, F.; Kwakernaak, H.


    This paper presents an algorithm for the spectral factorization of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix. The algorithm is based on polynomial matrix to state space and vice versa conversions, and avoids elementary polynomial operations in computations; It relies on well-proven methods of numerical

  5. Estimates of Incidence and Prevalence of Visual Impairment, Low Vision, and Blindness in the United States. (United States)

    Chan, Tiffany; Friedman, David S; Bradley, Chris; Massof, Robert


    Updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness are needed to inform policy makers and develop plans to meet the future demands for low vision rehabilitation services. To provide updated estimates of the incidence and prevalence of low vision and blindness in the United States. Visual acuity measurements as a function of age from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with representation of racial and ethnic groups, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of visual impairments. Data from 6016 survey participants, ranging in age from younger than 18 years to older than 45 years, were obtained to estimate prevalence rates for different age groups. Incidence and prevalence rates of low vision (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] in the better-seeing eye of United States were estimated, using the 2010 US census data by age, from the rate models applied to the census projections for 2017, 2030, and 2050. Data were collected from November 1, 2007, to October 31, 2008. Data analysis took place from March 31, 2016, to March 19, 2017. Prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness in the United States. Of the 6016 people in the study, 1714 (28.4%) were younger than 18 years of age, 2358 (39.1%) were 18 to 44 years of age, and 1944 (32.3%) were 45 years of age or older. There were 2888 male (48%) and 3128 female (52%) participants. The prevalence of low vision and blindness for older adults (≥45 years) in the United States in 2017 is estimated to be 3 894 406 persons (95% CI, 3 034 442-4 862 549 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/40, 1 483 703 persons (95% CI, 968 656-2 370 513 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/60, and 1 082 790 persons (95% CI, 637 771-1 741 864 persons) with a BCVA of 20/200 or less. The estimated 2017 annual incidence (projected from 2010 census data) of low vision and blindness among older adults (≥45 years) in the United States is 481

  6. Coherent states on horospheric three-dimensional Lobachevsky space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Yu., E-mail:; Shoukavy, Dz., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Rybak, I., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)


    In the paper it is shown that due to separation of variables in the Laplace-Beltrami operator (Hamiltonian of a free quantum particle) in horospheric and quasi-Cartesian coordinates of three dimensional Lobachevsky space, it is possible to introduce standard (“conventional” according to Perelomov [Generalized Coherent States and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1986), p. 320]) coherent states. Some problems (oscillator on horosphere, charged particle in analogy of constant uniform magnetic field) where coherent states are suitable for treating were considered.

  7. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1995-1999. (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Lyon, Joseph L


    Population-based Utah Cancer Registry data were linked with Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) Church membership records to obtain site-specific cancer incidence for LDS and non-LDS populations in Utah during 1995-1999. Analyses were based on 27,631 incident cases of cancer identified among whites. Restriction to whites was made because of the small number of nonwhites, approximately 5%, in the state during the study period. The direct method was used to age-adjust the rates to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Significantly lower cancer incidence rates per 100,000 were observed among LDS compared with non-LDS males (287.2 vs. 321.1) and females (247.7 vs. 341.0). The lower rates are primarily explained by smoking-related cancers and female breast cancer. If the overall cancer incidence rate in LDS had occurred in the non-LDS population, 2.9% or 421 fewer cases would have occurred among males and 7.9% or 1,025 fewer cases would have occurred among females during the study period. Given our current knowledge of risk factors for cancer, differences between LDS and non-LDS in smoking for males and smoking and sexual and reproductive behaviors in females primarily explain the lower risk of cancer in LDS populations.

  8. Estimated incidence of pertussis in people aged <50 years in the United States (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chang; Balderston McGuiness, Catherine; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Kainan; Buck, Philip O.


    ABSTRACT The introduction of pertussis vaccination in the United States (US) in the 1940s has greatly reduced its burden. However, the incidence of pertussis is difficult to quantify, as many cases are not laboratory-confirmed or reported, particularly in adults. This study estimated pertussis incidence in a commercially insured US population aged pertussis or cough illness using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes, a commercial outpatient laboratory database for patients with a pertussis laboratory test, and the Centers for Disease Control influenza surveillance database. US national pertussis incidence was projected using 3 methods: (1) diagnosed pertussis, defined as a claim for pertussis (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3) during 2008–2013; (2) based on proxy pertussis predictive logistic regression models; (3) using the fraction of cough illness (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3, 786.2, 466.0, 466.1, 487.1) attributed to laboratory-confirmed pertussis, estimated by time series linear regression models. Method 1 gave a projected annual incidence of diagnosed pertussis of 9/100,000, which was highest in those aged pertussis of 649/100,000, approximately 58–93 times higher than method 1 depending on the year. These estimations, which are consistent with considerable underreporting of pertussis in people aged pertussis burden. PMID:27246119

  9. Quantum state space as a maximal consistent set (United States)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel


    Measurement statistics in quantum theory are obtained from the Born rule and the uniqueness of the probability measure it assigns through quantum states is guaranteed by Gleason's theorem. Thus, a possible systematic way of exploring the geometry of quantum state space expresses quantum states in terms of outcome probabilities of a symmetric informationally complete measurement. This specific choice for representing quantum states is motivated by how the associated probability space provides a natural venue for characterizing the set of quantum states as a geometric construct called a maximal consistent set. We define the conditions for consistency and maximality of a set, provide some examples of maximal consistent sets and attempt to deduce the steps for building up a maximal consistent set of probability distributions equivalent to Hilbert space. In particular, we demonstrate how the reconstruction procedure works for qutrits and observe how it reveals an elegant underlying symmetry among five SIC-POVMs and a complete set of mutually unbiased bases, known in finite affine geometry as the Hesse configuration.

  10. Bauman Moscow State Technical University Youth Space Centre: Student's Way in Space Technologies (United States)

    Mayorova, Victoria; Zelentsov, Victor


    The Youth Space Center (YSC) was established in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in 1989 to provide primary aerospace education for young people, stimulate youth creative research thinking, promote space science and technology achievements and develop cooperation with other youth organizations in the international aerospace community. The center is staffed by the Dr. Victoria Mayorova, BMSTU Associate Professor, the YSC director, Dr. Boris Kovalev, BMSTU Associate Professor, the YSC scientific director, 5 student consultants and many volunteers. Informally YSC is a community of space enthusiasts, an open club for BMSTU students interested in space science and technology and faculty teaching in this field. YSC educational activities are based on the concept of uninterrupted aerospace education, developed and implemented by the center. The concept includes working with young space interested people both in school and university and then assisting them in getting interesting job in Russian Space Industry. The school level educational activities of the center has got different forms, such as lecturing, summer scientific camps and even Classes from Space given by Mir space station flight crew in Mission Control Center - Moscow and done in cooperation with All- Russian Aerospace Society Soyuz (VAKO Soyuz). This helps to stimulate the young people interest to the fundamental sciences ( physics, mathematics, computer science, etc.) exploiting and developing their interest to space and thus increase the overall educational level in the country. YSC hosts annual Cosmonautics conference for high school students that provides the University with capability to select well-prepared and motivated students for its' rocket and space related departments. For the conference participants it's a good opportunity to be enrolled to the University without entrance examinations. BMSTU students can participate in such YSC activities as annual international workshop for space

  11. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs


    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  12. Pure state consciousness and its local reduction to neuronal space (United States)

    Duggins, A. J.


    The single neuronal state can be represented as a vector in a complex space, spanned by an orthonormal basis of integer spike counts. In this model a scalar element of experience is associated with the instantaneous firing rate of a single sensory neuron over repeated stimulus presentations. Here the model is extended to composite neural systems that are tensor products of single neuronal vector spaces. Depiction of the mental state as a vector on this tensor product space is intended to capture the unity of consciousness. The density operator is introduced as its local reduction to the single neuron level, from which the firing rate can again be derived as the objective correlate of a subjective element. However, the relational structure of perceptual experience only emerges when the non-local mental state is considered. A metric of phenomenal proximity between neuronal elements of experience is proposed, based on the cross-correlation function of neurophysiology, but constrained by the association of theoretical extremes of correlation/anticorrelation in inseparable 2-neuron states with identical and opponent elements respectively.

  13. Human Papillomavirus and Rising Oropharyngeal Cancer Incidence in the United States (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Xiao, Weihong; Kim, Esther; Jiang, Bo; Goodman, Marc T.; Sibug-Saber, Maria; Cozen, Wendy; Liu, Lihua; Lynch, Charles F.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Jordan, Richard C.; Altekruse, Sean; Anderson, William F.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Gillison, Maura L.


    Purpose Recent increases in incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but empirical evidence is lacking. Patients and Methods HPV status was determined for all 271 oropharyngeal cancers (1984-2004) collected by the three population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Residual Tissue Repositories Program by using polymerase chain reaction and genotyping (Inno-LiPA), HPV16 viral load, and HPV16 mRNA expression. Trends in HPV prevalence across four calendar periods were estimated by using logistic regression. Observed HPV prevalence was reweighted to all oropharyngeal cancers within the cancer registries to account for nonrandom selection and to calculate incidence trends. Survival of HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients was compared by using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Results HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal cancers significantly increased over calendar time regardless of HPV detection assay (P trend < .05). For example, HPV prevalence by Inno-LiPA increased from 16.3% during 1984 to 1989 to 71.7% during 2000 to 2004. Median survival was significantly longer for HPV-positive than for HPV-negative patients (131 v 20 months; log-rank P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46). Survival significantly increased across calendar periods for HPV-positive (P = .003) but not for HPV-negative patients (P = .18). Population-level incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers increased by 225% (95% CI, 208% to 242%) from 1988 to 2004 (from 0.8 per 100,000 to 2.6 per 100,000), and incidence for HPV-negative cancers declined by 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%; from 2.0 per 100,000 to 1.0 per 100,000). If recent incidence trends continue, the annual number of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers is expected to surpass the annual number of cervical cancers by the year 2020. Conclusion Increases in the

  14. Incidence and prevalence of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. (United States)

    Horimoto, Alex Magno Coelho; Matos, Erica Naomi Naka; Costa, Márcio Reis da; Takahashi, Fernanda; Rezende, Marcelo Cruz; Kanomata, Letícia Barrios; Locatelli, Elisangela Possebon Pradebon; Finotti, Leandro Tavares; Maegawa, Flávia Kamy Maciel; Rondon, Rosa Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Natália Pereira; Couto, Flávia Midori Arakaki Ayres Tavares do; Figueiredo, Túlia Peixoto Alves de; Ovidio, Raphael Antonio; Costa, Izaias Pereira da

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease which shows extreme heterogeneity in its clinical presentation and that follows a variable and unpredictable course. Although some discrepancies in the incidence and prevalence rates between geographical regions may reflect methodological differences in the definition and verification of cases, they may also reflect true local differences. To determine the prevalence and incidence of systemic sclerosis in the city of Campo Grande, state capital of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, during the period from January to December 2014. All health care services of the city of Campo Grande - MS with attending in the specialty of Rheumatology were invited to participate in the study through a standardized form of clinical and socio-demographic assessment. Physicians of any specialty could report a suspected case of systemic sclerosis, but necessarily the definitive diagnosis should be established by a rheumatologist, in order to warrant the standardization of diagnostic criteria and exclusion of other diseases resembling systemic sclerosis. At the end of the study, 15 rheumatologists reported that they attended patients with systemic sclerosis and sent the completed forms containing epidemiological data of patients. The incidence rate of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande for the year 2014 was 11.9 per million inhabitants and the prevalence rate was 105.6 per million inhabitants. Systemic sclerosis patients were mostly women, white, with a mean age of 50.58 years, showing the limited form of the disease with a mean duration of the disease of 8.19 years. Regarding laboratory tests, 94.4% were positive for antinuclear antibody, 41.6% for anti-centromere antibody and 19.1% for anti-Scl70; anti-RNA Polymerase III was performed in 37 patients, with 16.2% positive. The city of Campo Grande, the state capital of MS, presented a lower incidence/prevalence of systemic sclerosis in comparison with those numbers found in US studies and close

  15. Analysis of current trends in United States mesothelioma incidence; Analyse des tendances actuelles de l'incidence du mesotheliome aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B.


    The objectives of this study are to analyze the mesotheliomas incidence in the United States and to estimate the risk of mesothelioma on the whole life by generation, as also the annual number of cases expected for the next seventy years. (N.C.)

  16. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States. (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C


    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  17. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wu Chuang

    Full Text Available The northern Great Plains (NGP of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and actual evapotranspiration (ETa derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI, temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST, and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa, highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  18. State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.


    This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response of a fractio......This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...

  19. Estimation methods for nonlinear state-space models in ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro


    The use of nonlinear state-space models for analyzing ecological systems is increasing. A wide range of estimation methods for such models are available to ecologists, however it is not always clear, which is the appropriate method to choose. To this end, three approaches to estimation in the theta...... Markov model (HMM). The second method uses the mixed effects modeling and fast numerical integration framework of the AD Model Builder (ADMB) open-source software. The third alternative is to use the popular Bayesian framework of BUGS. The study showed that state and parameter estimation performance...

  20. Steady state micro-g environment on Space Station (United States)

    Waters, L.; Heck, M.; Deryder, L.


    In circular earth orbit, the Space Station (SS) will sense acceleration from external environmental forces due to the gravitational gradient, rotational accelerations, and atmospheric drag. This paper discusses these forces and how they will affect the SS micro-g environment. The effect of SS attitude on the micro-g profile is addressed. Sources for nonsteady state acceleration levels for which disturbance models are currently being developed are briefly considered.

  1. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space (United States)


    conventional trains with steel wheels on steel rails. Several experimen- tal maglev systems in Germany and Japan have demonstrated that this mode of...Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace

  2. Real space renormalization group for spectra and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.


    We discuss the implementation of the Real Space Renormalization Group Decimation Technique for 1-d tight-binding models with long range interactions with or without disorder and for the 2-d regular square lattice. The procedure follows the ideas developed by Southern et al. Some new explicit formulae are included. The purpose of this study is to calculate spectra and densities of states following the procedure developed in our previous work. (author)

  3. Joint Bayesian Analysis of Parameters and States in Nonlinear, Non-Gaussian State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barra, I.; Hoogerheide, L.F.; Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.


    We propose a new methodology for designing flexible proposal densities for the joint posterior density of parameters and states in a nonlinear, non-Gaussian state space model. We show that a highly efficient Bayesian procedure emerges when these proposal densities are used in an independent

  4. Development of a fire incident database for the United States nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, G.


    The Nuclear Power Industry in the United States has identified a need to develop and maintain a comprehensive fire events database to support anticipated performance-based or risk-based fire protection programs and regulations. These new programs will require accurate information on the frequency, severity and consequences of fire events. Previous attempts to collect fire incident data had been made over the years for other purposes, but it was recognized that the detail and form of the data collected would be insufficient to support the new initiatives. Weaknesses in the earlier efforts included the inability in some cases to obtain fire incidents reports, inconsistent of incomplete information reported, and the inability to easily retrieve, sort, analyze and trend the data. The critical elements identified for the new data collection efforts included a standardized fire incident report from to assure consistent and accurate information, some mechanism to assure that all fire events are reported, and the ability to easily access the data for trending and analysis. In addition, the database would need to be unbiased and viewed as such by outside agencies. A new database is currently being developed that should meet all of these identified need. (author)

  5. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States. (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T


    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined 10 649 adult recipients of a primary transplant performed at 26 centers across the United States in the Transplant Skin Cancer Network during 1 of 2 calendar years (either 2003 or 2008) identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Recipients of all organs except intestine were included, and the follow-up periods were 5 and 10 years. Incident skin cancer was determined through detailed medical record review. Data on predictors were obtained from the OPTN database. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer overall and for SCC, MM, and MCC were calculated per 100 000 person-years. Potential risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer were tested using multivariate Cox regression analysis to yield adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 10 649 organ transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51 [12] years; 3873 women [36%] and 6776 men [64%]) contributed 59 923 years of follow-up. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer was 1437 per 100 000 person-years. Specific subtype rates for SCC, MM, and MCC were 812, 75, and 2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer included pretransplant skin cancer (HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.26-6.73), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.81), white race (HR, 9.04; 95% CI, 6.20-13.18), age at transplant 50 years or older (HR, 2

  6. Social vulnerability and Lyme disease incidence: a regional analysis of the United States, 2000-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhitinut Ratnapradipa


    Full Text Available Background: Lyme disease (LD, which is highly preventable communicable illness, is the most commonly reported vector borne disease in the USA. The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI is a county level measure of SES and vulnerability to environmental hazards or disease outbreaks, but has not yet been used in the study of LD. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between the SoVI and LD incidence at the national level and regional division level in the United States between 2000 and 2014. Methods: County level LD data were downloaded from the CDC. County level SoVI were downloaded from the HVRI at the University of South Carolina and the CDC. Data were sorted into regional divisions as per the US Census Bureau and condense into three time intervals, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014. QGIS was utilized to visually represent the data. Logarithmic OLS regression models were computed to determine the predictive power of the SoVI in LD incidence rates. Results: LD incidence was greatest in the Northeastern and upper Midwestern regions of the USA.  The results of the regression analyses showed that SoVI exhibited a significant quadratic relationship with LD incidence rates at the national level. Conclusion: Our results showed that counties with the highest and lowest social vulnerability were at greatest risk for LD. The SoVI may be a useful risk assessment tool for public health practitioners within the context of LD control.

  7. Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Ansa


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC incidence rates have declined in recent years for people of all races/ethnicities; however, the extent to which the decrease varies annually by demographic and disease-related characteristics is largely unknown. This study examines trends and annual percent change (APC in the incidence among persons diagnosed with CRC in the United States of America from 2000–2014. The data obtained from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program were analyzed, and all persons (N = 577,708 with malignant CRC recorded in the SEER 18 database from 2000 to 2014 were characterized according to sex, race, age at diagnosis, disease site and stage. Incidence rates and APC were calculated for the entire study period. Overall, the incidence rate of CRC decreased from 54.5 in 2000 to 38.6 per 100,000 in 2014, with APC = −2.66 (p < 0.0001. Decline in rates was most profound between 2008 and 2011 from 46.0 to 40.7 per 100,000 (APC = −4.04; p < 0.0001. Rates were higher for males (vs. females; rate ratio (RR = 1.33 and for blacks (vs. whites; RR = 1.23. Proximal colon cancers at the localized stage were the predominant cancers. An increase in rate was observed among people younger than 50 years (6.6 per 100,000, APC= 1.5. The annual rate of CRC has decreased over time. However, the development and implementation of interventions that further reduce the disparities among demographic and disease-related subgroups are warranted.

  8. The Marker State Space (MSS method for classifying clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Fallon

    Full Text Available The development of accurate clinical biomarkers has been challenging in part due to the diversity between patients and diseases. One approach to account for the diversity is to use multiple markers to classify patients, based on the concept that each individual marker contributes information from its respective subclass of patients. Here we present a new strategy for developing biomarker panels that accounts for completely distinct patient subclasses. Marker State Space (MSS defines "marker states" based on all possible patterns of high and low values among a panel of markers. Each marker state is defined as either a case state or a control state, and a sample is classified as case or control based on the state it occupies. MSS was used to define multi-marker panels that were robust in cross validation and training-set/test-set analyses and that yielded similar classification accuracy to several other classification algorithms. A three-marker panel for discriminating pancreatic cancer patients from control subjects revealed subclasses of patients based on distinct marker states. MSS provides a straightforward approach for modeling highly divergent subclasses of patients, which may be adaptable for diverse applications.

  9. Nineteen-year trends in incidence and indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the NY State experience. (United States)

    Alli, Vamsi V; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jianjin; Bates, Andrew T; Pryor, Aurora D; Talamini, Mark A; Telem, Dana A


    Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), there has been continued evolution in technique, instrumentation and postoperative management. With increased experience, LC has migrated to the outpatient setting. We asked whether increased availability and experience has impacted incidence of and indications for LC. The New York (NY) State Planning and Research Cooperative System longitudinal administrative database was utilized to identify patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1995 and 2013. ICD-9 and CPT procedure codes were extracted corresponding to laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy and the associated primary diagnostic codes. Data were analyzed as relative change in incidence (normalized to 1000 LC patients) for respective diagnoses. From 1995 to 2013, 711,406 cholecystectomies were performed in NY State: 637,308 (89.58 %) laparoscopic. The overall frequency of cholecystectomy did not increase (1.23 % increase with a commensurate population increase of 6.32 %). Indications for LC during this time were: 72.81 % for calculous cholecystitis (n = 464,032), 4.88 % for biliary colic (n = 31,124), 8.98 % for acalculous cholecystitis (n = 57,205), 3.01 % for gallstone pancreatitis (n = 19,193), and 1.59 % for biliary dyskinesia (n = 10,110). The incidence of calculous cholecystitis declined (-20.09 %, p 320-fold. Analysis of LC through 2014 revealed increasing rates of digestive, infectious, respiratory, and renal complications, with overall cholecystectomy complication rates of 9.29 %. A shifting distribution of operative indications and increasing rates of complications should prompt careful consideration prior to surgery for benign biliary disease. For what is a common procedure, LC carries substantial risk of complications, thus requiring the patient to be an active participant and to share in the decision-making process.

  10. A hierarchical state space approach to affective dynamics. (United States)

    Lodewyckx, Tom; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter; Allen, Nicholas; Sheeber, Lisa


    Linear dynamical system theory is a broad theoretical framework that has been applied in various research areas such as engineering, econometrics and recently in psychology. It quantifies the relations between observed inputs and outputs that are connected through a set of latent state variables. State space models are used to investigate the dynamical properties of these latent quantities. These models are especially of interest in the study of emotion dynamics, with the system representing the evolving emotion components of an individual. However, for simultaneous modeling of individual and population differences, a hierarchical extension of the basic state space model is necessary. Therefore, we introduce a Bayesian hierarchical model with random effects for the system parameters. Further, we apply our model to data that were collected using the Oregon adolescent interaction task: 66 normal and 67 depressed adolescents engaged in a conflict interaction with their parents and second-to-second physiological and behavioral measures were obtained. System parameters in normal and depressed adolescents were compared, which led to interesting discussions in the light of findings in recent literature on the links between cardiovascular processes, emotion dynamics and depression. We illustrate that our approach is flexible and general: The model can be applied to any time series for multiple systems (where a system can represent any entity) and moreover, one is free to focus on whatever component of the versatile model.

  11. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014. (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C


    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence

  12. Hybrid state-space time integration of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre


    from Hamiltonian mechanics, where displacement and momentum have similar roles, both sets of state-space variables are interpolated between nodes by the same shape functions, leading to a general format where all inertia effects are represented via the classic constant mass matrix, while effects...... energy dissipation in terms of local displacements and velocities, typical of structural vibrations, is developed and implemented in the form of forward weighting of appropriate mean value terms in the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented for a beam theory with consistent quadratic non...

  13. Validation of ecological state space models using the Laplace approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Berg, Casper Willestofte


    for estimation in general mixed effects models. Implementing one-step predictions in the R package Template Model Builder, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform model validation with little effort, even if the ecological model is multivariate, has non-linear dynamics, and whether observations...... are continuous or discrete. With both simulated data, and a real data set related to geolocation of seals, we demonstrate both the potential and the limitations of the techniques. Our results fill a need for convenient methods for validating a state space model, or alternatively, rejecting it while indicating...

  14. Review of State-Space Models for Fisheries Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aeberhard, William H.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nielsen, Anders


    stocks will respond to varying levels of fishing pressure in the future. Such tools are essential with overfishing now reducing stocks and employment worldwide, with in turn many serious social, economic, and environmental implications. Increasingly, a state-space framework is being used in place...... of deterministic and standard parametric stock assessment models. These efforts have not only had considerable impact on fisheries management but have also advanced the supporting statistical theory and inference tools as well as the required software. An application of such techniques to the North Sea cod stock...

  15. The incidence of the criminal policy in the conformation of the public space


    Monroy, Carla


    Mexican Criminal Policy is distinguished by its historical repression, the strategies implemented by the current government affected directly the violence and crime index. These facts beat and modified the conformation of the public space. Recreational places, parks, streets, squares, etc., stopped having the dynamism that used to have. On the other hand, the global postmodern speech changes the conception of the city, nowadays is privileged the consumption, so the city has transform in order...

  16. Incidence Rate of Cardiovascular Disease End Points in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Astronaut Corps


    Ade, Carl J.; Broxterman, Ryan M.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Barstow, Thomas J.


    Background It is unknown whether the astronaut occupation or exposure to microgravity influences the risk of long?term cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study explored the effects of being a career National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut on the risk for clinical CVD end points. Methods and Results During the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, data were collected on 310 NASA astronauts and 981 nonastronaut NASA employees. The nonastronauts were matched to the astro...

  17. Distributed state-space generation of discrete-state stochastic models (United States)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco; Gluckman, Joshua; Nicol, David


    High-level formalisms such as stochastic Petri nets can be used to model complex systems. Analysis of logical and numerical properties of these models of ten requires the generation and storage of the entire underlying state space. This imposes practical limitations on the types of systems which can be modeled. Because of the vast amount of memory consumed, we investigate distributed algorithms for the generation of state space graphs. The distributed construction allows us to take advantage of the combined memory readily available on a network of workstations. The key technical problem is to find effective methods for on-the-fly partitioning, so that the state space is evenly distributed among processors. In this paper we report on the implementation of a distributed state-space generator that may be linked to a number of existing system modeling tools. We discuss partitioning strategies in the context of Petri net models, and report on performance observed on a network of workstations, as well as on a distributed memory multi-computer.

  18. State of the art in silicon immersed gratings for space (United States)

    van Amerongen, Aaldert; Krol, Hélène; Grèzes-Besset, Catherine; Coppens, Tonny; Bhatti, Ianjit; Lobb, Dan; Hardenbol, Bram; Hoogeveen, Ruud


    We present the status of our immersed diffraction grating technology, as developed at SRON and of their multilayer optical coatings as developed at CILAS. Immersion means that diffraction takes place inside the medium, in our case silicon. The high refractive index of the silicon medium boosts the resolution and the dispersion. Ultimate control over the groove geometry yields high efficiency and polarization control. Together, these aspects lead to a huge reduction in spectrometer volume. This has opened new avenues for the design of spectrometers operating in the short-wave-infrared wavelength band. Immersed grating technology for space application was initially developed by SRON and TNO for the short-wave-infrared channel of TROPOMI, built under the responsibility of SSTL. This space spectrometer will be launched on ESA's Sentinel 5 Precursor mission in 2015 to monitor pollution and climate gases in the Earth atmosphere. The TROPOMI immersed grating flight model has technology readiness level 8. In this program CILAS has qualified and implemented two optical coatings: first, an anti-reflection coating on the entrance and exit facet of the immersed grating prism, which reaches a very low value of reflectivity for a wide angular range of incidence of the transmitted light; second, a metal-dielectric absorbing coating for the passive facet of the prism to eliminate stray light inside the silicon prism. Dual Ion Beam Sputtering technology with in-situ visible and infrared optical monitoring guarantees the production of coatings which are nearly insensitive to temperature and atmospheric conditions. Spectral measurements taken at extreme temperature and humidity conditions show the reliability of these multi-dielectric and metal-dielectric functions for space environment. As part of our continuous improvement program we are presently developing new grating technology for future missions, hereby expanding the spectral range, the blaze angles and grating size, while

  19. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action. (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka


    Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and simultaneously, strengthening case

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis. (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco


    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  1. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa


    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  2. Space Motion Sickness - Analysis of Medical Debriefs Data for Incidence and Treatment (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Younker, D.; Daniels, V.


    Astronauts use medications for the treatment of a variety of illnesses during space travel. Data mining efforts to assess minor clinical conditions occurring during Shuttle flights STS-1 through STS-94 revealed that space motion sickness (SMS) was the most common ailment during early flight days, occurring in approx.40% of crewmembers, followed by digestive system disturbances (9%) and infectious diseases, which most commonly involved the respiratory or urinary tracts. A more recent analysis of postflight medical debriefs data to examine trends with respect to medication use by astronauts during spaceflights indicated that 37% of all prescriptions recorded was for pain followed by sleep (22%), SMS (18%), decongestion (14%), and all others (14%). Further analysis revealed that about 150 of 317 crewmembers experienced symptoms of SMS. Nearly all (132 of 150) crewmembers took medication for the treatment of symptoms with a total of 387 doses. Promethazine was taken most often (201 doses); in most cases this resulted in alleviation of symptoms with 130 crewmembers (65%) reporting feeling much or somewhat better. Although fewer total doses of the combination of promethazine and dextroamphetamine (Phen/Dex) were taken (45 doses), slightly more than half of these doses resulted in improvement. The combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (Scop/Dex) was reported to be effective in only 37% of cases, with 36 of 97 total doses resulting in improvement. A higher percentage (24%) of Scop/Dex doses was reported to be ineffective compared with promethazine alone or as Phen/Dex (10% and 7%, respectively). Comparisons of the effectiveness of the different dosage forms of promethazine revealed that intramuscular injection was most effective in alleviating symptoms with 55% feeling much better, 16% feeling somewhat better, and only 7% feeling no effect or worse. Overall, it appears that promethazine alone was used more frequently during flight and was reported effective for

  3. The State of the US Army and Space Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allison, Avery


    .... This study explores the importance of space support to U.S. ground warfighters. U.S. military planners have made efforts to develop space policy and doctrine reflecting the end of the Cold War and emerging space systems technology...

  4. Incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Helena de Souza


    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, during the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods Ecological, temporal, and descriptive methods were employed using data obtained from the Information System on Disease Notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Results One hundred sixteen reported cases of tuberculous meningitis occurred from 2001 to 2010, corresponding to 1.2% (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants of all meningitis cases reported in SC. There was a predominance of new cases in males, corresponding to 56.9% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; males vs. females; p=0.374, in patients aged 20-39 years, corresponding to 52.6% of new cases (0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 20-39 years versus others; p<0.001, and in urban areas, corresponding to 91.4% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; urban vs. rural; p=0.003. In 48.3% of cases, the outcome was death. Conclusions The incidence rate of tuberculous meningitis in SC has increased within the last decade, with the most affected population comprising young adult white males with an average education. Thus, tuberculous meningitis remains a serious disease, emphasizing the need for disease prevention with vaccination campaigns against tuberculosis, the development of faster and more accurate diagnostic methods, and the use of current epidemiological knowledge regarding the disease to facilitate the establishment of early treatment.

  5. Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Namioka, Takeshi


    Comparative studies have been made on the holographic plane grating and the ruled varied-line-spacing (VLS) plane grating designed for two kinds of objective Monk - Gillieson type high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator, I and II. The ray-traced performance of monochromator types I and II on a synchrotron radiation beam line was evaluated in terms of resolving power and spectral purity by the introduction of new concepts of effective Gaussian line and purity profiles. The resolving power defined on the basis of the effective Gaussian profile is consistent with the spectral purity of the beam emerging from the exit slit and is more realistic as compared with those defined in the conventional manner, especially when spectral images have asymmetric profiles. It is concluded that holographic plane gratings recorded with a spherical and an aspheric wave front are capable of providing high resolution with high spectral purity and are fully interchangeable with the corresponding ruled VLS plane gratings. This interchangeability provides more flexibility for users in choosing a proper grating for a high-resolution grazing incidence monochromator of the Monk - Gillieson type. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  6. Method of incident low-energy gamma-ray direction reconstruction in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheymits, M D; Leonov, A A; Zverev, V G; Galper, A M; Arkhangelskaya, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Yurkin, Yu T; Bakaldin, A V; Suchkov, S I; Topchiev, N P; Dalkarov, O D


    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space-based telescope has as its main goals to measure cosmic γ-ray fluxes and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component produced, theoretically, in dark-matter-particles decay or annihilation processes, to search for discrete γ-ray sources and study them in detail, to examine the energy spectra of diffuse γ-rays — both galactic and extragalactic — and to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and γ-rays from the active Sun. Scientific goals of GAMMA-400 telescope require fine angular resolution. The telescope is of a pair-production type. In the converter-tracker, the incident gamma-ray photon converts into electron-positron pair in the tungsten layer and then the tracks are detected by silicon- strip position-sensitive detectors. Multiple scattering processes become a significant obstacle in the incident-gamma direction reconstruction for energies below several gigaelectronvolts. The method of utilising this process to improve the resolution is proposed in the presented work. (paper)

  7. State-space forecasting of Schistosoma haematobium time-series in Niono, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Medina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits high levels of morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The incidence of Schistosoma sp.-which are neglected tropical diseases exposing and infecting more than 500 and 200 million individuals in 77 countries, respectively-is rising because of 1 numerous irrigation and hydro-electric projects, 2 steady shifts from nomadic to sedentary existence, and 3 ineffective control programs. Notwithstanding the colossal scope of these parasitic infections, less than 0.5% of Schistosoma sp. investigations have attempted to predict their spatial and or temporal distributions. Undoubtedly, public health programs in developing countries could benefit from parsimonious forecasting and early warning systems to enhance management of these parasitic diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this longitudinal retrospective (01/1996-06/2004 investigation, the Schistosoma haematobium time-series for the district of Niono, Mali, was fitted with general-purpose exponential smoothing methods to generate contemporaneous on-line forecasts. These methods, which are encapsulated within a state-space framework, accommodate seasonal and inter-annual time-series fluctuations. Mean absolute percentage error values were circa 25% for 1- to 5-month horizon forecasts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The exponential smoothing state-space framework employed herein produced reasonably accurate forecasts for this time-series, which reflects the incidence of S. haematobium-induced terminal hematuria. It obliquely captured prior non-linear interactions between disease dynamics and exogenous covariates (e.g., climate, irrigation, and public health interventions, thus obviating the need for more complex forecasting methods in the district of Niono, Mali. Therefore, this framework could assist with managing and assessing S. haematobium transmission and intervention impact, respectively, in

  8. Practical Application of Neural Networks in State Space Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    theoretic notions followed by a detailed description of the topology, neuron functions and learning rules of the two types of neural networks treated in the thesis, the multilayer perceptron and the neurofuzzy networks. In both cases, a Least Squares second-order gradient method is used to train......In the present thesis we address some problems in discrete-time state space control of nonlinear dynamical systems and attempt to solve them using generic nonlinear models based on artificial neural networks. The main aim of the work is to examine how well such control algorithms perform when...... applied to a realistic process. The thesis therefore strives to provide a thorough treatment of two classes of neural network-based controllers, and to make a rigorous comparison between them and a classical linear controller. Thus, the thesis starts out with a short review of some relevant system...

  9. A General State-Space Formulation for Online Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Gupta


    Full Text Available We present a generalized state-space model formulation particularly motivated by an online scheduling perspective, which allows modeling (1 task-delays and unit breakdowns; (2 fractional delays and unit downtimes, when using discrete-time grid; (3 variable batch-sizes; (4 robust scheduling through the use of conservative yield estimates and processing times; (5 feedback on task-yield estimates before the task finishes; (6 task termination during its execution; (7 post-production storage of material in unit; and (8 unit capacity degradation and maintenance. Through these proposed generalizations, we enable a natural way to handle routinely encountered disturbances and a rich set of corresponding counter-decisions. Thereby, greatly simplifying and extending the possible application of mathematical programming based online scheduling solutions to diverse application settings. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this model on a case study from the field of bio-manufacturing.

  10. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  11. Landscape, demographic, entomological, and climatic associations with human disease incidence of West Nile virus in the state of Iowa, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Brad J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV emerged as a threat to public and veterinary health in the Midwest United States in 2001 and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality annually. To investigate biotic and abiotic factors associated with disease incidence, cases of reported human disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV in the state of Iowa were aggregated by census block groups in Iowa for the years 2002–2006. Spatially explicit data on landscape, demographic, and climatic conditions were collated and analyzed by census block groups. Statistical tests of differences between means and distributions of landscape, demographic, and climatic variables for census block groups with and without WNV disease incidence were carried out. Entomological data from Iowa were considered at the state level to add context to the potential ecological events taking place. Results Numerous statistically significant differences were shown in the means and distributions of various landscape and demographic variables for census block groups with and without WNV disease incidence. Census block groups with WNV disease incidence had significantly lower population densities than those without. Landscape variables showing differences included stream density, road density, land cover compositions, presence of irrigation, and presence of animal feeding operations. Statistically significant differences in the annual means of precipitations, dew point, and minimum temperature for both the year of WNV disease incidence and the prior year, were detected in at least one year of the analysis for each parameter. However, the differences were not consistent between years. Conclusion The analysis of human WNV disease incidence by census block groups in Iowa demonstrated unique landscape, demographic, and climatic associations. Our results indicate that multiple ecological WNV transmission dynamics are most likely taking place in Iowa. In 2003 and 2006, drier

  12. Dispersion measurement on chirped mirrors at arbitrary incidence angle and polarization state (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kovacs, Mate; Somoskoi, Tamas; Seres, Imre; Borzsonyi, Adam; Sipos, Aron; Osvay, Károly


    The optical elements of femtosecond high peak power lasers have to fulfill more and more strict requirements in order to support pulses with high intensity and broad spectrum. In most cases chirped pulse amplification scheme is used to generate high peak power ultrashort laser pulses, where a very precise control of spectral intensity and spectral phase is required in reaching transform-limited temporal shape at the output. In the case of few cycle regime, the conventional bulk glass, prism-, grating- and their combination based compressors are not sufficient anymore, due to undesirable nonlinear effects in their material and proneness to optical damages. The chirped mirrors are also commonly used to complete the compression after a beam transport system just before the target. Moreover, the manufacturing technology requires quality checks right after production and over the lifetime of the mirror as well, since undesired deposition on the surface can lead alteration from the designed value over a large part of the aperture. For the high harmonic generation, polarization gating technology is used to generate single attosecond pulses [1]. In this case the pulse to be compressed has various polarization state falling to the chirped mirrors. For this reason, it is crucial to measure the dispersion of the mirrors for the different polarization states. In this presentation we demonstrate a simple technique to measure the dispersion of arbitrary mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 55 degree, even for a 12" optics. A large aperture 4" mirror has been scanned over with micrometer accuracy and the dispersion property through the surface has been investigated with a stable interference fringes in that robust geometry. We used Spectrally Resolved Interferometry, which is based on a Michaelson interferometer and a combined visible and infrared spectrometer. Tungsten halogen lamp with 10 mW coupled optical power was used as a white-light source so with the selected

  13. Construction of spaces of kinematic quantum states for field theories via projective techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okołów, Andrzej


    We present a method of constructing a space of quantum states for a field theory: given phase space of a theory, we define a family of physical systems each possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom, next we define a space of quantum states for each finite system, finally using projective techniques we organize all these spaces into a space of quantum states which corresponds to the original phase space. This construction is kinematic in this sense that it bases merely on the structure of the phase space of a theory and does not take into account possible constraints on the space. The construction is a generalization of a construction by Kijowski—the latter one is limited to theories of linear phase spaces, while the former one is free of this limitation. The method presented in this paper enables to construct a space of quantum states for the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. (paper)

  14. Incidence Rate of Cardiovascular Disease End Points in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Astronaut Corps. (United States)

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Barstow, Thomas J


    It is unknown whether the astronaut occupation or exposure to microgravity influences the risk of long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study explored the effects of being a career National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut on the risk for clinical CVD end points. During the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, data were collected on 310 NASA astronauts and 981 nonastronaut NASA employees. The nonastronauts were matched to the astronauts on age, sex, and body mass index, to evaluate acute and chronic morbidity and mortality. The primary outcomes were composites of clinical CVD end points (myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and coronary artery bypass surgery) or coronary artery disease (CAD) end points (myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass surgery). Of the astronauts, 5.2% had a clinical CVD end point and 2.9% had a CAD end point compared with the nonastronaut comparisons with 4.7% and 3.1% having CVD and CAD end points, respectively. In the multivariate models adjusted for traditional risk factors, astronauts had a similar risk of CVD compared with nonastronauts (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.60-1.93; P =0.80). Risk of a CAD end point was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 0.97; CI, 0.45-2.08; P =0.93). In astronauts with early spaceflight experience, the risk of CVD (hazard ratio, 0.80; CI, 0.25-2.56; P =0.71) and CAD (hazard ratio, 1.23; CI: 0.27-5.61; P =0.79) compared with astronauts with no experience were not different. These findings suggest that being an astronaut is not associated with increased long-term risk of CVD development. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Making Faces - State-Space Models Applied to Multi-Modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue


    The two main focus areas of this thesis are State-Space Models and multi modal signal processing. The general State-Space Model is investigated and an addition to the class of sequential sampling methods is proposed. This new algorithm is denoted as the Parzen Particle Filter. Furthermore...... optimizer can be applied to speed up convergence. The linear version of the State-Space Model, the Kalman Filter, is applied to multi modal signal processing. It is demonstrated how a State-Space Model can be used to map from speech to lip movements. Besides the State-Space Model and the multi modal...

  16. State-space representation of the reactor dynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.


    This paper describes a novel formulation of the reactor space-independent kinetics equations. The intent is to present these equations in a form that is both compatible with modern control theory and mathematically rigorous. It is desired to write the kinetics equations in the standard state variable representation, x = Ax, where x is the state vector and A is the system matrix and, at the same time, avoid mathematical compromises such as the linearization of an equation about a particular operating point. The advantage to this proposed formulation is that it may allow the lateral transfer of existing control concepts, some that have been developed for other fields, to the operation of nuclear reactors. For example, sliding mode control has been developed to allow robots to function in a robust manner in the presence of changes in the system model. This is necessary because a robot is expected to be capable of picking up an object of unknown mass and moving that object along a specified trajectory. The variability of the object's mass introduces an uncertainty into the system model that is used to deduce the appropriate control action. Thus, the robot controller must be made robust against such variations. Sliding mode control is one means of accomplishing this. A reactor controller might benefit from the same concept if its objective were to cause the reactor power to move along a demanded trajectory despite the presence of some uncertainty in the net amount of reactivity that is present

  17. Variational learning for switching state-space models. (United States)

    Ghahramani, Z; Hinton, G E


    We introduce a new statistical model for time series that iteratively segments data into regimes with approximately linear dynamics and learnsthe parameters of each of these linear regimes. This model combines and generalizes two of the most widely used stochastic time-series models -- hidden Markov models and linear dynamical systems -- and is closely related to models that are widely used in the control and econometrics literatures. It can also be derived by extending the mixture of experts neural network (Jacobs, Jordan, Nowlan, & Hinton, 1991) to its fully dynamical version, in which both expert and gating networks are recurrent. Inferring the posterior probabilities of the hidden states of this model is computationally intractable, and therefore the exact expectation maximization (EM) algorithm cannot be applied. However, we present a variational approximation that maximizes a lower bound on the log-likelihood and makes use of both the forward and backward recursions for hidden Markov models and the Kalman filter recursions for linear dynamical systems. We tested the algorithm on artificial data sets and a natural data set of respiration force from a patient with sleep apnea. The results suggest that variational approximations are a viable method for inference and learning in switching state-space models.

  18. Associations between active shooter incidents and gun ownership and storage among families with young children in the United States. (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W


    The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state. Approximately one-fifth of young children lived in households with one or more guns; of these children, only two-thirds lived in homes that stored all guns in locked cabinets. Results suggest that the experience of a recent active shooter incident was associated with an increased likelihood of storing all guns locked, with the magnitude dependent on the temporal and geographic proximity of the incident. The severity of the incident, defined as the number of fatalities, predicted an increase in storing guns locked. Findings suggest that public shootings change behaviors related to firearm storage among families with young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang


    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  20. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong


    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  1. Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006 (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S.


    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance. PMID:24655615

  2. Psychiatric boarding incidence, duration, and associated factors in United States emergency departments. (United States)

    Nolan, Jason M; Fee, Christopher; Cooper, Bruce A; Rankin, Sally H; Blegen, Mary A


    Boarding, especially among psychiatric patients, has been characterized as a significant cause of ED crowding, but no quantitative analysis has described boarding nationally. This study determines the incidence, duration, and factors associated with ED boarding in the United States. 2008 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey ED data were stratified by visit type (psychiatric vs. non-psychiatric), boarding status, and patient and hospital characteristics. Boarding was defined as a visit with an ED length of stay >6 hours, and boarding time as ED length of stay minus 6 hours. Pearson's chi-square tests describe hospital and patient characteristics stratified by boarding status. Multilevel multivariable logistic and linear regressions determine associations with boarding and boarding time. While 11% of all ED patients boarded, 21.5% of all psychiatric ED patients boarded. Boarding was also more prolonged for psychiatric ED patients. Controlling for confounders, odds of boarding for psychiatric patients were 4.78 (2.63-8.66) times higher than non-psychiatric, and psychiatric patients boarded 2.78 (1.91-3.64) hours longer than non-psychiatric. US EDs experienced high proportions and durations of boarding with psychiatric patients disproportionately affected. Additional research concerning mental health care services and legislation may be required to address ED psychiatric patient boarding. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas


    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  4. Weaponizing the Final Frontier: The United States and the New Space Race (United States)


    the FAS test, but contains major levels of risk. The major risk associated with this policy corresponds to the concern from outside regulation. Any...United States develop and deploy weapons in space? The ultimate decision is driven by the National Space Policy developed by the President of and freedom of access. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Space Weapons, Weaponization of Space, Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT), Space Policy , Outer Space Treaty

  5. Quasi steady state multi-dimensional space-dependent kinetic code EUREKA-SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, Teruo; Ohnishi, Nobuaki


    A quasi steady state, multi-dimensional, space-dependent, kinetic code EUREKA-SPACE which is coupled with multi-region thermal-hydraulic model has been developed to analyze a water cooled, power reactor during a reactivity accident. The code includes the following features: (1) Multi-dimensional power and flux distributions are calculated for several fuel enthalpy increments, and the transient reactor power behavior is determined by use of point kinetics equation. The power and flux distributions of the core are calculated with multi-group multi-dimensional diffusion equations, using temperature dependent cross section data. (2) Thermal-hydraulic calculation for up to maximum of five regions is performed to provide the details for feedback reactivity. (3) Feedback reactivity from doppler effect, moderator effect, void formation and cladding thermal expansion effects is taken into account. The code is written in FORTRAN IV language for FACOM-230/75 and CDC-6600. This report presents detailed descriptions of the code, including basic equations, lists of input and output and test calculation results. (auth.)

  6. United States Changing Demographics - English/Spanish Space Education (United States)

    Leon, R.


    Accordingly the United States Census Bureau, the ethnic group adding the largest number of people to the national population is the Hispanic exceeding 12 percent of the population and growing by almost 60 percent between 1990 and 2000. The status of the nation's educational system with respect to Hispanic students is perhaps one of the most influential issues facing the largest economy of the world. The low income, lack of language skills, highest drop-out rate in the nation, are some of the reasons why Hispanics are less likely to receive a university degree than any other ethical group. In short, the government requires to implement compensatory programs and bilingual education to ensure global leadership. Because of ongoing immigration, Spanish persists longer among Hispanics than it did among other immigrant groups. Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world after Mandarin, Hindustani and English. Although not all U.S. Hispanics speak Spanish, almost all U.S. Spanish speakers are Hispanics. This paper is intended to outline the challenging implementation of a bilingual education project affiliated to NASA Johnson Space Center encouraging greater academic success of Hispanics in engineering, math and science. The prospective project covers the overall role of space activities in the development of science and technology, socioeconomic issues and international cooperation. An existent JSC project is the starting stage to keep on developing an interactive video teleconference and web-media technology and produce stimulating learning products in English and Spanish for students and teachers across the nation and around the world.

  7. Incidence and survival trends in oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in the United States from 2000 to 2013: a CBTRUS Report. (United States)

    Achey, Rebecca L; Khanna, Vishesh; Ostrom, Quinn T; Kruchko, Carol; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S


    Measuring tumor-specific trends in incidence is necessary to elucidate tumor-type contribution to overall cancer burden in the US population. Recently, there have been conflicting reports concerning the incidence of oligodendrogliomas (OD) and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD). Therefore, our goal was to examine trends in OD and AOD incidence and survival by age, gender and race. Data was analyzed from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) from 2000 to 2013. Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and annual percent changes (APCs) with 95% CI were calculated for OD and AOD by age, sex and race. Survival rates were calculated for age, sex and race using a subset of the CBTRUS data. OD and AOD incidence peaked at 36-40 and 56-60 years, respectively. AOD:OD ratio increased up to age 75. Overall, OD and AOD incidence decreased [OD: APC -3.2 (2000-2013), AOD: -6.5 (2000-2007)]. OD incidence was highest in Whites but decreased significantly (2000-2013: APC -3.1) while incidence in Black populations did not significantly decrease (2000-2013: APC -1.6). Survival rates decreased with advancing age for OD, while persons aged 0-24 had the lowest survival for AOD. The current study reports a decrease in overall OD and AOD incidence from 2000 to 2013. Furthermore, AOD makes up an increasing proportion of oligodendroglial tumors up to age 75. Lower AOD survival in 0-24 years old may indicate molecular differences in pediatric cases. Thus, surveillance of tumor-specific trends by age, race and sex can reveal clinically relevant variations.

  8. Incidence of Pes planus amongst the people of Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each volunteer, bilateral plantar prints were obtained using ink procedure method. All prints were counted, separated into sexes and the incidence of flat foot calculated for both sexes. A total of 111 individuals had flat foot comprising 44 males and 67 females. The overall incidence of Pes planus was 22.20% with a ...

  9. The United States Space Force: Not If, But When (United States)


    technology development of the US space industry , the national objectives being considered, and the technology and national objectives of our allies...and through space, including the rising industry of space tourism . For the purposes of this thesis, commercial transit is defined as the movement...become so dependent. Presently, the commercial space travel and tourism industry is in its infancy. It is following a similar path as that of the

  10. Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000–2009)


    Schoenfeld, AJ; McCriskin, B.; Hsiao, M.; Burks, R.


    The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) within the population of the United States military from 2000–2009. This investigation also sought to define potential risk factors for the development of SCI.

  11. Optimum solution of dual-ring double-scattering system for an incident beam with given phase space for proton beam spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, Y


    A systematic method is given for deriving optimum scatterer parameters for the dual-ring double-scattering system for the incident proton beam with the given phase space parameters. This is accomplished by relating it to the known optimum solution for zero-emittance beam. Limitations on the phase space parameters of the beam incident on the first scatterer have been clarified to obtain such valid solutions. It is shown that the dual-ring double-scattering method can be applied to an incident beam with emittance as large as 100-200 pi mm mrad. The effect of the change of phase space parameters on the lateral distribution has been investigated. It was found that the larger the emittance of the beam, the more sensitive the fluence distribution is to the change of phase space parameters. The effect of the different emittances of the incident beam in x-theta, y-phi spaces is discussed. It is shown that lateral distribution is sensitive to the misalignment of the beam.

  12. A Knowledge Discovery from POS Data using State Space Models (United States)

    Sato, Tadahiko; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    The number of competing-brands changes by new product's entry. The new product introduction is endemic among consumer packaged goods firm and is an integral component of their marketing strategy. As a new product's entry affects markets, there is a pressing need to develop market response model that can adapt to such changes. In this paper, we develop a dynamic model that capture the underlying evolution of the buying behavior associated with the new product. This extends an application of a dynamic linear model, which is used by a number of time series analyses, by allowing the observed dimension to change at some point in time. Our model copes with a problem that dynamic environments entail: changes in parameter over time and changes in the observed dimension. We formulate the model with framework of a state space model. We realize an estimation of the model using modified Kalman filter/fixed interval smoother. We find that new product's entry (1) decreases brand differentiation for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing difference between cross-price elasticities; (2) decreases commodity power for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing trend; and (3) decreases the effect of discount for existing brands, as indicated by a decrease in the magnitude of own-brand price elasticities. The proposed framework is directly applicable to other fields in which the observed dimension might be change, such as economic, bioinformatics, and so forth.

  13. Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan


    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.

  14. State Space Methods in Ox/SsfPack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo M. Pelagatti


    Full Text Available The use of state space models and their inference is illustrated using the package SsfPack for Ox. After a rather long introduction that explains the use of SsfPack and many of its functions, four case-studies illustrate the practical implementation of the software to real world problems through short sample programs. The first case consists in the analysis of the well-known (at least to time series analysis experts Nile data with a local level model. The other case-studies deal with ARIMA and RegARIMA models applied to the (also well-known Airline time series, structural time series models applied to the Italian industrial production index and stochastic volatility models applied to the FTSE100 index. In all applications inference on the model (hyper- parameters is carried out by maximum likelihood, but in one case (stochastic volatility also an MCMC-based approach is illustrated. Cubic splines are covered in a very short example as well.

  15. Hierarchical state-space estimation of leatherback turtle navigation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mills Flemming

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed tracking technology has revealed remarkable migration patterns that were previously unknown; however, models to optimally use such data have developed more slowly. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayes state-space framework that allows us to combine tracking data from a collection of animals and make inferences at both individual and broader levels. We formulate models that allow the navigation ability of animals to be estimated and demonstrate how information can be combined over many animals to allow improved estimation. We also show how formal hypothesis testing regarding navigation ability can easily be accomplished in this framework. Using Argos satellite tracking data from 14 leatherback turtles, 7 males and 7 females, during their southward migration from Nova Scotia, Canada, we find that the circle of confusion (the radius around an animal's location within which it is unable to determine its location precisely is approximately 96 km. This estimate suggests that the turtles' navigation does not need to be highly accurate, especially if they are able to use more reliable cues as they near their destination. Moreover, for the 14 turtles examined, there is little evidence to suggest that male and female navigation abilities differ. Because of the minimal assumptions made about the movement process, our approach can be used to estimate and compare navigation ability for many migratory species that are able to carry electronic tracking devices.

  16. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando


    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  17. Holography and quantum states in elliptic de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, Illan F. [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Neiman, Yasha [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)


    We outline a program for interpreting the higher-spin dS/CFT model in terms of physics in the causal patch of a dS observer. The proposal is formulated in “elliptic” de Sitter space dS{sub 4}/ℤ{sub 2}, obtained by identifying antipodal points in dS{sub 4}. We discuss recent evidence that the higher-spin model is especially well-suited for this, since the antipodal symmetry of bulk solutions has a simple encoding on the boundary. For context, we test some other (free and interacting) theories for the same property. Next, we analyze the notion of quantum field states in the non-time-orientable dS{sub 4}/ℤ{sub 2}. We compare the physics seen by different observers, with the outcome depending on whether they share an arrow of time. Finally, we implement the marriage between higher-spin holography and observers in dS{sub 4}/ℤ{sub 2}, in the limit of free bulk fields. We succeed in deriving an observer’s operator algebra and Hamiltonian from the CFT, but not her S-matrix. We speculate on the extension of this to interacting higher-spin theory.

  18. Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: State Space Model versus Rate Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Taleb


    Full Text Available A simple and accurate dynamic model for QD-SOAs is proposed. The proposed model is based on the state space theory, where by eliminating the distance dependence of the rate equation model of the QD-SOA; we derive a state space model for the device. A comparison is made between the rate equation model and the state space model under both steady state and transient regimes. Simulation results demonstrate that the derived state space model not only is much simpler and faster than the rate equation model, but also it is as accurate as the rate equation model.

  19. Colder environments are associated with a greater cancer incidence in the female population of the United States. (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Sharma, Tanu; Panwar, Mahaveer S; Sharma, Devesh; Bundel, Rashmi; Hamilton, Ryan T; Radosevich, James A; Mandal, Chandi C


    Cancer incidence and/or mortality among individuals varies with diet, socio-culture, ethnicity, race, gender, and age. Similarly, environmental temperature modulates many biological functions. To study the effect of environment temperature on cancer incidence, the US population was selected. Because, county-wise cancer incidence rate data of various anatomical site-specific cancers and different races/ethnicities for both males and females are available. Moreover, the differences amongst the aforementioned factors among individuals are much less, as compared to the world population. Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between the average annual temperature and cancer incidence rate at all anatomical sites and individually for 13 types (out of 16 types) of anatomical site-specific cancer incidence rates (e.g. uterine, bladder, thyroid, breast, esophagus, ovary, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, brain, pancreas, etc.) for females. Further analysis found a similar inverse trend in all races/ethnicities of the female population but not in all male races/ethnicities or anatomical site-specific cancers. Moreover, the majority of the counties having the top-most cancer incidence rate in females are located above the latitude 36.5°N. These findings indicate that living in a cold county in the United States might have a higher risk of cancer irrespective of cancer type (except cervical and liver) and races/ethnicities for females but not in all such cases for the male population.

  20. Childhood and Adolescent Cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil: Incidence, Geographical Distribution, and Association With Environmental Health Indicators. (United States)

    Bastos, Lídia N V; Silveira, José C; Luna, Carlos F; Lucena-Silva, Norma


    Cases of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed considering the patients' sex and age, the type of cancer and the municipality of living to determine the incidence, geographical distribution, and association with environmental health indicators. The spatial distribution pattern of the cancer incidence was estimated using the Global Moran's index. The association between environmental health indicators and cancer incidence was evaluated by multiple regression. From 2009 to 2012, 1261 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years old in the state of Pernambuco. Leukemia/lymphoma were the most common type of cancer contemplating 45.28% of the cases. The average age-adjusted incidence rate was 113 cases per million with no spatial distribution pattern. The municipalities were clustered according to their degree of inequality (P=0.017), human development index (P=0.001), population growth rate (P=0.008), urbanization level (P=0.001), number of agricultural crops per capita (P=0.001), and number of industries per capita (P=0.030). However, only urbanization level was positive correlated with incidence of pediatric cancer (P=0.009) likely because in more developed cities, people are more exposed to potential oncogenic factors, such as air and water pollution and processed and ultraprocessed food. The better access to specialized health services, which increases the chances of early diagnosis, may also contributes for a higher number of cases in more developed cities.

  1. Urban-Rural Differences in Tubal Ligation Incidence in the State of Georgia, USA. (United States)

    Travers, Curtis D; Spencer, Jessica B; Cwiak, Carrie A; Mertens, Ann C; Howards, Penelope P


    To evaluate the difference in tubal ligation use between rural and urban counties in the state of Georgia, USA. The study population included 2,160 women aged 22-45. All participants completed a detailed interview on their reproductive histories. County of residence was categorized using the National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme. We estimated the association between urbanization of county of residence and tubal ligation using Cox regression. Among women with a tubal ligation, we examined factors associated with prior contraception use and the desire for more children. After adjustment for covariates, women residing in rural counties had twice the incidence rate of tubal ligation compared with women in large metropolitan counties (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9) and were on average 3 years younger at the time of the procedure. No differences were observed between small metropolitan and large metropolitan counties (aHR = 1.1, CI = 0.9-1.5). Our data suggest that women from large metropolitan counties are slightly more likely than women from rural counties to use hormonal contraception or long-acting reversible contraception prior to tubal ligation and to desire more children after tubal ligation. Women from rural counties are more likely to undergo a tubal ligation than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that circumstances regarding opting for tubal ligation may differ between urban and rural areas, and recommendations of alternative contraceptive options may need to be tailored differently for rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Incidence and Cost of Ankle Sprains in United States Emergency Departments (United States)

    Shah, Shweta; Thomas, Abbey C.; Noone, Joshua M.; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.


    Background: Ankle sprains represent a common injury in emergency departments, but little is known about common complications, procedures, and charges associated with ankle sprains in emergency departments. Hypothesis: There will be a higher incidence of ankle sprains among younger populations (≤25 years old) and in female patients. Complications and procedures will differ between ankle sprain types. Lateral ankle sprains will have lower health care charges relative to medial and high ankle sprains. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the 2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was conducted. Outcomes such as charges, complications, and procedures were compared using propensity score matching between lateral and medial as well as lateral and high ankle sprains. Results: The sample contained 225,114 ankle sprains. Female patients sustained more lateral ankle sprains (57%). After propensity score adjustment, lateral sprains incurred greater charges than medial ankle sprains (median [interquartile range], $1008 [$702-$1408] vs $914 [$741-$1108]; P sprain of the foot (2.96% vs 0.70%, P ankle sprain events. Among procedures, medial ankle sprains were more likely to include diagnostic radiology (97.91% vs 83.62%, P ankle sprains (0.87% vs 2.79%, P ankle sprains than lateral ankle sprains (24 [6.06%] vs 1 [0.25%], P Ankle sprain emergency department visits account for significant health care charges in the United States. Age- and sex-related differences persist among the types of ankle sprains. Clinical Relevance: The health care charges associated with ankle sprains indicate the need for additional preventive measures. There are age- and sex-related differences in the prevalence of ankle sprains that suggest these demographics may be risk factors for ankle sprains. PMID:27474161

  3. Demographic variation in incidence of adult glioma by subtype, United States, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darefsky Amy S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that race/ethnic group, sex, age, and/or calendar period variation in adult glioma incidence differs between the two broad subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM and non-GBM. Primary GBM, which constitute 90-95% of GBM, differ from non-GBM with respect to a number of molecular characteristics, providing a molecular rationale for these two broad glioma subtypes. Methods We utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1992-2007, ages 30-69 years. We compared 15,088 GBM cases with 9,252 non-GBM cases. We used Poisson regression to calculate adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results The GBM incidence rate increased proportionally with the 4th power of age, whereas the non-GBM rate increased proportionally with the square root of age. For each subtype, compared to non-Hispanic Whites, the incidence rate among Blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives was substantially lower (one-fourth to one-half for GBM; about two-fifths for non-GBM. Secondary to this primary effect, race/ethnic group variation in incidence was significantly less for non-GBM than for GBM. For each subtype, the incidence rate was higher for males than for females, with the male/female rate ratio being significantly higher for GBM (1.6 than for non-GBM (1.4. We observed significant calendar period trends of increasing incidence for GBM and decreasing incidence for non-GBM. For the two subtypes combined, we observed a 3% decrease in incidence between 1992-1995 and 2004-2007. Conclusions The substantial difference in age effect between GBM and non-GBM suggests a fundamental difference in the genesis of primary GBM (the driver of GBM incidence versus non-GBM. However, the commonalities between GBM and non-GBM with respect to race/ethnic group and sex variation, more notable than the somewhat subtle, albeit statistically significant, differences, suggest that within the context of a

  4. Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000-2009). (United States)

    Schoenfeld, A J; McCriskin, B; Hsiao, M; Burks, R


    Cohort study. The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) within the population of the United States military from 2000-2009. This investigation also sought to define potential risk factors for the development of SCI. The population of the United States military from 2000-2009. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was queried for the years 2000-2009 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for SCI (806.0, 806.1, 806.2, 806.3, 806.4, 806.5, 806.8, 806.9, 952.0, 952.1, 952.2, 952.8, 952.9). The raw incidence of SCI was calculated and unadjusted incidence rates were generated for the risk factors of age, sex, race, military rank and branch of service. Adjusted incidence rate ratios were subsequently determined via multivariate Poisson regression analysis that controlled for other factors in the model and identified significant independent risk factors for SCI. Between 2000 and 2009, there were 5928 cases of SCI among a population at-risk of 13,813,333. The raw incidence of SCI within the population was 429 per million person-years. Male sex, white race, enlisted personnel and service in the Army, Navy or Marine Corps were found to be significant independent risk factors for SCI. The age groups 20-24, 25-29 and >40 were also found to be at significantly greater risk of developing the condition. This study is one of the few investigations to characterize the incidence, epidemiology and risk factors for SCI within the United States. Results presented here may represent the best-available evidence for risk factors of SCI in a large and diverse American cohort.

  5. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaruma Filho Francisco


    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  6. State and parameter estimation of state-space model with entry-wise correlated uniform noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelková, Lenka; Kárný, Miroslav


    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2014), s. 1189-1205 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030123; GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : state-space models * bounded noise * filtering problems * estimation algorithms * uncertain dynamic systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.346, year: 2014

  7. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.


    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  8. Solid State Energy Conversion for Deep Space Power (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices employed in static radioisotope generators show great promise for highly efficient, reliable, and resilient power generation for...

  9. An Approach to Distributed State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Petrucci, Laure


    We present an approach and associated computer tool support for conducting distributed state space exploration for Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs). The distributed state space exploration is based on the introduction of a coordinating process and a number of worker processes. The worker processes...... Tools. This makes the distributed state space exploration and analysis largely transparent to the analyst. We illustrate the use of the developed tool on an example....

  10. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

      We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms in the form......  We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms...

  11. The State of Play: US Space Systems Competitiveness (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar


    Collects space systems cost and related data (flight rate, payload, etc.) over time. Gathers only public data. Non-recurring and recurring. Minimal data processing. Graph, visualize, add context. Focus on US space systems competitiveness. Keep fresh update as data arises, launches occur, etc. Keep fresh focus on recent data, indicative of the future.

  12. Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.


    The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)

  13. Incidence and biochemical parameters of dermatophilosis in Nigerian cattle breeds from livestock markets, Oyo state, Nigeria. (United States)

    Olaogun, Sunday Charles; Onwuzuruike, Keleshi Joseph


    Dermatophilosis is one of the major economically important diseases of cattle in Nigeria. Managing the condition has been very challenging and re-occurrence has been reported with moderate to high morbidity and mortality. The incidence and biochemical features of cattle with dermatophilosis was conducted in June to December 2016 across the four geopolitical zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Clinical diagnosis were made based on appearance of dermatophilosis lesion, breeds morphologically characterized, ageing were based on rostral dentition and severity based on the extent and nature of the lesion. Biochemical analysis was based on standard procedure as prescribed by Fortress International. Fifty cattle were found to be infected with clinical dermatophilosis during the period of the study. Twenty four (48%) in Ibadan zone, 14 (28%) in Oyo/Ogbomosho, 8 (16%) in Oke-ogun and 4 (8%) in Ibarapa zone. Breeds distribution across the zones showed 28 (56%) White Fulani, 5 (10%) Sokoto Gudali, 3 (6%) Adamawa Gudali, 7 (14%) Red Bororo, 5 (10%) Cross breeds while the Kuri was 2 (4%). Regarding animal ages, less than 2 years old were 2 animals (4%) while the adults were 48 animals (96%) and they fall under the categories of 2-2½ years of age, 3-3½ years of age and those which are over 3½ years of age. The different levels of severity were categorized into mild (20 (40%)), moderate (23 (46%)) and severe (7 (14%)) .The best parameters were seen in White Fulani, while the least were seen in Adamawa Gudali. The age group in the category of 3 - 3½ years had most of the best serum values while the least values were seen in animals less than 2 years of age. Cattle exhibiting mild lesions had most of the best serum values and the least values were observed in cattle with severe lesions. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the mean values for the various parameters studied among the breeds, age, and severity of condition.

  14. Incidence, Trends, and Outcomes of Cerebral Edema Among Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the United States. (United States)

    Patel, Achint; Singh, Dinesh; Bhatt, Parth; Thakkar, Badal; Akingbola, Olugbenga A; Srivastav, Sudesh K


    There are limited data regarding the incidence, trends, and outcomes of cerebral edema among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). NIS database was used from year 2002 to 2012. Cases with primary diagnosis of DKA were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) code 250.1 x. Cerebral edema patients were identified using ICD-9 CM code 348.5. We compared the baseline characteristics of both groups to estimate differences using the χ(2) test, Student's t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and survey regression depending on the distributions of variables. For trend analysis, the χ(2) test of trend for proportions was used using the Cochrane Armitage test via the "trend" command in Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Multivariate odds ratios were calculated. P value for cerebral edema were identified among 52 049 (weighted n = 246 925) DKA patients, which estimates the incidence of cerebral edema at 0.39%. Trends of incidence of developing cerebral edema increased almost 2 times, from 0.34 in 2002 to 0.64 in 2012 (P cerebral edema. Our study shows that over the study period, trend in incidence of cerebral edema among DKA patients has increased. Patients with cerebral edema were found to have longer LOS and higher cost of hospitalization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Risk-adjusted melanoma skin cancer incidence rates in Whites (United States). (United States)

    Merrill, Ray Martell


    The objective of this study was to obtain a better population-based measure of risk for melanoma skin cancer. A method has been previously proposed for estimating cancer incidence rates for data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Unlike conventionally reported incidence rates in the USA, this method uses the first primary cancer and adjusts for population-based cancer prevalence to obtain a better measure of cancer risk. The study involves SEER data for white men and women. Conventional melanoma incidence rates overestimate risk for men, increasingly so from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 11.3% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation in risk for women ranged from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 8.9% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation of risk was more pronounced when both in-situ and malignant melanomas were considered. Increasing trends in conventional rates were slightly greater than trends in risk-adjusted incidence rates (RAIRs). In 2007, the estimated number of cases with malignant melanoma among the white population based on conventional cancer incidence rates is 37 636 (64 125 including in-situ cases) for men and 28 935 (49 361 including in-situ cases) for women. The estimated number of cases in the USA based on RAIRS is 34 652 [(7.9%); 55 413 (13.6%) including in-situ cases] for male and 27 178 [(6.1%); 44 467 (9.9%) including in-situ cases] for women. We concluded that RAIRs are a better measure of melanoma skin cancer risk and should be used for estimating the number of cancer patients in the USA.

  16. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren


    We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models with response densities within the exponential family. The described methodology is implemented in the R-package sspir. A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R, and then the time-varying terms...

  17. Edge-state inner products and real-space entanglement spectrum of trial quantum Hall states (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Read, N.; Rezayi, E. H.


    We consider the trial wave functions for the fractional quantum Hall effect that are given by conformal blocks, and construct their associated edge excited states in full generality. The inner products between these edge states are computed in the thermodynamic limit, assuming generalized screening (i.e., short-range correlations only) inside the quantum Hall droplet and using the language of boundary conformal field theory (boundary CFT). These inner products take universal values in this limit: they are equal to the corresponding inner products in the bulk two-dimensional chiral CFT which underlies the trial wave function. This is a bulk/edge correspondence; it shows the equality between equal-time correlators along the edge and the correlators of the bulk CFT up to a Wick rotation. This approach is then used to analyze the entanglement spectrum of the ground state obtained with a bipartition A∪B in real space. Starting from our universal result for inner products in the thermodynamic limit, we tackle corrections to scaling using standard field-theoretic and renormalization-group arguments. We prove that generalized screening implies that the entanglement Hamiltonian HE=-lnρA is isospectral to an operator that is local along the cut between A and B. We also show that a similar analysis can be carried out for particle partition. We discuss the close analogy between the formalism of trial wave functions given by conformal blocks and tensor product states, for which results analogous to ours have appeared recently. Finally, the edge theory and entanglement spectrum of px±ipy paired superfluids are treated in a similar fashion in the Appendixes.

  18. HIV-1 incidence among people seeking voluntary counseling and testing centers, including pregnant women, in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. (United States)

    Lima, Kledoaldo Oliveira de; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Leal, Élcio de Souza; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos


    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has displayed new characteristics over time, with an increase in heterosexual transmission and a decline in the male-to-female ratio in AIDS cases. HIV screening was offered to patients attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Paulista, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, in Northeast Brazil, to determine HIV-1 incidence. BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was used to measure HIV-1 incidence, comparing it to the AxSYM avidity index method (Ax-AI). From 2006 to 2009, 14,014 individuals were tested, and only 18 pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV infection, resulting in 0.15% annual incidence (95%CI: 0-0.33), significantly lower than in men (1.03; 95%CI: 0.45-1.61) and non-pregnant women (0.50; 95%CI: 0.11-0.89). Despite the low HIV-1 incidence in pregnant women, the high rate of recent infection detected during prenatal care emphasizes the need to increase measures to prevent vertical transmission.

  19. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.


    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  20. The state of space science in Africa | Mhlahlo | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an increase in the number of space science activities and facilities in Africa in the last 15 years. This increase, however, is not proportionate to the indigenous user community for these activities and facilities. In this paper, I discuss these activities and their benefits for the African region, and point out some of ...

  1. Trends of Incidence and Survival of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors in the United States: A Seer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki L. Tsikitis, Betsy C. Wertheim, Marlon A. Guerrero


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in detection and survival of hollow viscus gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs across time and geographic regions of the U.S.METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to investigate 19,669 individuals with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal NETs. Trends in incidence were tested using Poisson regression. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine survival.RESULTS: Incidence increased over time for NETs of all gastrointestinal sites (all P < 0.001, except appendix. Rates have risen faster for NETs of the small intestine and rectum than stomach and colon. Rectal NETs were detected at a faster pace among blacks than whites (P < 0.001 and slower in the East than other regions (P < 0.001. We observed that appendiceal and rectal NETs carry the best prognosis and survival of small intestinal and colon NETs has improved for both men and women. Colon NETs showed different temporal trends in survival according to geographic region (Pinteraction = 0.028. Improved prognosis was more consistent across the country for small intestinal NETs.CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has increased, accompanied by inconsistently improved survival for different anatomic sites among certain groups defined by race and geographic region.

  2. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  3. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsen, I.D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.


    Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio...... development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity......, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological “road map” for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods...

  4. Transformation of Neural State Space Models into LFT Models for Robust Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus


    This paper considers the extraction of linear state space models and uncertainty models from neural networks trained as state estimators with direct application to robust control. A new method for writing a neural state space model in a linear fractional transformation form in a non-conservative ......-conservative way is proposed, and it is demonstrated how a standard robust control law can be designed for a system described by means of a multi layer perceptron....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins ADJEI MENSAH


    Full Text Available Integrating green spaces such as parks and gardens into the physical landscape of cities has been identified to enhance the health and wellbeing of urban dwellers. This paper assesses the state of green spaces in Kumasi city (Ghana, once known as the garden city of West Africa. Using a case study approach, a mixture of qualitative research techniques were employed whilst a set of eight themes were put together to guide the assessment. In all, green spaces were found to be in poor state. With the exception of conservation and heritage theme, the remaining seven themes that were used for the assessment all found the green spaces to be in poor state. It is therefore recommended that there should be an attitudinal change towards the maintenance of green spaces, the application of a collaborative governance approach, and priority giving to green spaces in all development agendas by city authorities.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Incidence of Esophageal Cancer in the United States, 1992-2013. (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Rabbani, Sirus; Petrick, Jessica L; Cook, Michael B; Lagergren, Jesper


    Racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence of esophageal cancer have not been thoroughly characterized with quantitative health-disparity measures. Using data from 1992-2013 from 13 US cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we assessed such disparities according to histological type, based on a variety of disparity metrics. The age-standardized incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was highest among black persons, while adenocarcinoma mainly affected white men. The rate of SCC decreased over time in all racial/ethnic groups, and this was most pronounced in black persons (by 5.7% per year among men and 5.0% among women). The adenocarcinoma rate rose among non-Hispanic whites and among black men. Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of total esophageal cancer decreased over time, which was due mainly to reduced disparities in SCC. The 2 absolute disparity measures-range difference and between-group variance-for adenocarcinoma rose by 3.2% and 6.8% per year, respectively, in men and by 1.8% and 5.3% per year, respectively, in women. This study demonstrates decreased racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of esophageal SCC over time in the United States, while disparities increased in adenocarcinoma incidence as measured on the absolute scale. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states. (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H


    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  8. Diet-dependent net acid load and risk of incident hypertension in United States women. (United States)

    Zhang, Luxia; Curhan, Gary C; Forman, John P


    Animal and human studies suggest a potential link between acid-base status and blood pressure. Contemporary Western diets yield a daily systemic acid load of varying amounts, yet the association with hypertension has never been explored. We prospectively examined the association between the diet-dependent net acid load (also known as the estimated net endogenous acid production) and the risk of incident hypertension among 87 293 women without a history of hypertension in the Nurses' Health Study II. We also used the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake as an alternative evaluation of diet-dependent net acid load. We identified 15 385 incident cases of hypertension during 995 239 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load had an increased risk of hypertension (relative risk: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.24; P for trend=0.01) compared with women in the bottom decile. To test whether the association between estimated diet-dependent net acid load and hypertension is independent of its individual components, an additional adjustment for intakes of protein and potassium was made and resulted in a relative risk of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.41; P for trend=0.003) for the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load. Results of the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake were similar with those of estimated diet-depend net acid load. In conclusion, a high diet-dependent net acid load is independently associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension.

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in United States Veterans on Statin Therapy. (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Faselis, Charles; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Nylen, Eric; Sui, Xuemei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lavie, Carl J


    Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on statin-related incidence of type 2 diabetes has not been assessed. We assessed the cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes incidence association in dyslipidemic patients on statins. We identified dyslipidemic patients with a normal exercise test performed during 1986 and 2014 at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC or Palo Alto, Calif. The statin-treated patients (n = 4092; age = 58.8 ± 10.9 years) consisted of 2701 Blacks and 1391 Whites. None had evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to statin therapy. We formed 4 fitness categories based on age and peak metabolic equivalents achieved: Least-fit (n = 954), Low-fit (n = 1201), Moderate-fit (n = 1242), and High-fit (n = 695). The non-statin-treated cohort (n = 3001; age = 57.2 ± 11.2 years) with no evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to the exercise test served as controls. Diabetes incidence was 24% higher in statin-treated compared with non-statin-treated patients (P fit, adjusted risk decreased progressively with increasing fitness and was 34% lower for High-fit patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.82; P fit (HR 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30-1.73; P fit patients (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; P = .006). Risk of diabetes in statin-treated dyslipidemic patients was inversely and independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The increased risk was evident only in relatively low-fitness patients. Improving fitness may modulate the potential diabetogenic effects of statins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Analysis of the incidence of syphilis in the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg: the current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Agaev


    Full Text Available In 1996–2009, the incidence of syphilis in the North-West region of Russia has declined and changed its structure. The frequency of neurosyphilis and latent forms increased, especially of late and unspecified latent syphilis. Differences in the structure of syphilis between the Leningrad region and St. Petersburg have been identified, which consisted in the reduction of primary syphilis and an increase in early latent syphilis in comparison with the city.

  11. Incidence and cost of pneumonia in older adults with COPD in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ryan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of pneumonia by COPD status and the excess cost of inpatient primary pneumonia in elders with COPD. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, longitudinal study using claims linked to eligibility/demographic data for a 5% sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2005 through 2007. METHODS: Incidence rates of pneumonia were calculated for elders with and without COPD and for elders with COPD and coexistent congestive heart failure (CHF. Propensity-score matching with multivariate generalized linear regression was used to estimate the excess direct medical cost of inpatient primary pneumonia in elders with COPD as compared with elders with COPD but without a pneumonia hospitalization. RESULTS: Elders with COPD had nearly six-times the incidence of pneumonia compared with elders without COPD (167.6/1000 person-years versus 29.5/1000 person-years; RR=5.7, p <0 .01; RR increased to 8.1 for elders with COPD and CHF compared with elders without COPD. The incidence of inpatient primary pneumonia among elders with COPD was 54.2/1000 person-years compared with 7/1000 person-years for elders without COPD; RR=7.7, p<0.01; RR increased to 11.0 for elders with COPD and CHF compared with elders without COPD. The one-year excess direct medical cost of inpatient pneumonia in COPD patients was $ 22,697 ($45,456 in cases vs. $ 22,759 in controls (p <0.01; 70.2% of this cost was accrued during the quarter of the index hospitalization. During months 13 through 24 following the index hospitalization, the excess direct medical cost was $ 5,941 ($23,215 in cases vs. $ 17,274 in controls, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumonia occurs more frequently in elders with COPD than without COPD. The excess direct medical cost in elders with inpatient pneumonia extends up to 24 months following the index hospitalization and represents $28,638 in 2010 dollars.

  12. Vacuum states for gravitons field in de Sitter space (United States)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Rahbardehghan, Surena; Pejhan, Hamed


    In this paper, considering the linearized Einstein equation with a two-parameter family of linear covariant gauges in de Sitter spacetime, we examine possible vacuum states for the gravitons field with respect to invariance under the de Sitter group S O0(1 ,4 ) . Our calculations explicitly reveal that there exists no natural de Sitter-invariant vacuum state (the Euclidean or Bunch-Davies state) for the gravitons field. Indeed, on the foundation of a rigorous group-theoretical reasoning, we prove that if one insists on full covariance as well as causality for the theory, one has to give up the positivity requirement of the inner product. However, one may still look for states with as much symmetry as possible, more precisely, a restrictive version of covariance by considering the gravitons field and the associated vacuum state which are, respectively, covariant and invariant with respect to some maximal subgroup of the full de Sitter group. In this regard, we treat the S O (4 ) case and find a family of S O (4 )-invariant states. The associated S O (4 )-covariant quantum field is given, as well.

  13. Pediatric Oral Electrical Burns: Incidence of Emergency Department Visits in the United States, 1997-2012. (United States)

    Umstattd, Lauren A; Chang, C W David


    To investigate the epidemiology of emergency department visits for pediatric patients presenting with electrical burns to the mouth. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Database. The Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database was used to derive a national weighted estimate of emergency department visits for oral electrical burns and was queried for each patient's age, sex, race, local of incidence, disposition, and related consumer product. There were an estimated 1042 emergency department visits for pediatric oral electrical burns from 1997 to 2012, or an average of approximately 65.1 cases per year. A total of 59.6% of patients were male. Nearly half of emergency department visits involved patients pediatric oral electrical burns varied substantially within the literature and varied from small case reports to single-year studies. Our multiyear data analysis provides evidence of decreasing annual incidence when compared with historical estimates for a common but potentially morbid injury among the pediatric population. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  14. State-of-the-art Space Telescope Digicon performance data (United States)

    Ginaven, R. O.; Choisser, J. P.; Acton, L.; Wysoczanski, W.; Alting-Mees, H. R.; Smith, R. D., II; Beaver, E. A.; Eck, H. J.; Delamere, A.; Shannon, J. L.


    The Digicon has been chosen as the detector for the High Resolution Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Space Telescope. Both tubes are 512 channel, parallel-output devices and feature CsTe photocathodes on MgF2 faceplates. Using a computer-assisted test facility, the tubes have been characterized with respect to diode array performance, photocathode response (1100-9000 A), and imaging capability. Data are presented on diode dark current and capacitance distributions, pulse height resolution, photocathode quantum efficiency, uniformity and blemishes, dark count rate, distortion, resolution, and crosstalk.

  15. Solid State Radiation Dosimeters for Space and Medical Applications (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Editor)


    This report describes the development of two radiation monitors (RADMON's) for use in detecting total radiation dose and high-energy particles. These radiation detectors are chip-size devices fabricated in 1.2 micrometer CMOS and have flown in space on both experimental and commercial spacecraft. They have been used to characterize protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, particles from the Sun, and protons used for medical therapy. Having proven useful in a variety of applications, the detector is now being readied for commercialization.

  16. Incidence and severity of gingival invaginations associated with early versus late initiation of orthodontic space closure after tooth extraction : A multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Reichert, Christoph; Kutschera, Eric; Plötz, Christina; Scharf, Sven; Gölz, Lina; Fimmers, Rolf; Fuhrmann, Christine; Wahl, Gerhard; Braumann, Bert; Jäger, Andreas


    Gingival invaginations are a common side effect of orthodontic extraction-space closure. The timing of initiating the closure of an extraction space varies greatly in clinical practice. In this multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial, we prospectively investigated whether initiating space closure in the early stage of wound healing would benefit the incidence and severity of invaginations developing in the extraction sites. A total of 368 patients were screened for indications to extract at least one mandibular premolar. Those recruited were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: initiation of space closure either 2-4 weeks (arm A) or ≥12 weeks (arm B) after tooth extraction. Clinical data regarding treatment process and periodontal tissue response were recorded during and after space closure and analyzed by a specialized biometrics unit. The study was performed under continuous surveillance by an independent study control center. A total of 74 extraction sites were analyzed. Regarding the incidence of gingival invaginations, there were no significant intergroup differences [p = 0.13; group A comprising 37/44 (84.1%) and group B 29/30 (96.7%) invaginated sites]. The same was true based on either maxillary (p = 0.52) or mandibular (p = 0.21) sites only, and the severity of the invaginations did not differ between the treatment arms. As to the incidence and severity of gingival invaginations, we did not notice any statistically significant differences between the two timeframes. Our data do, however, provide a basis to identify additional confounders and to improve the accuracy of case-load estimations for future trials.

  17. Filtering and smoothing of stae vector for diffuse state space models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Durbin, J.


    This paper presents exact recursions for calculating the mean and mean square error matrix of the state vector given the observations for the multi-variate linear Gaussian state-space model in the case where the initial state vector is (partially) diffuse.

  18. Displaced squeezed number states: Position space representation, inner product, and some applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Jørgensen, Thomas Godsk; Dahl, Jens Peder


    For some applications the overall phase of a quantum state is crucial. For the so-called displaced squeezed number state (DSN), which is a generalization of the well-known squeezed coherent state, we obtain the position space representation with the correct overall phase, from the dynamics...

  19. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant


    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  20. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, G.; Nagargar, V.; Sharif, D.


    Personnel engaged in space flight are exposed to significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Presently, there exist no compact neutron sensor capable of being integrated in a flight instrument to provide real time measurement of this radiation flux. A proposal was made to construct such an instrument using special PIN silicon diode which has the property of being insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. Studies were performed to determine the design and construction of a better reading system to allow the PIN diode to be read with high precision. The physics of the device was studied, especially with respect to those factors which affect the sensitivity and reproducibility of the neutron response. This information was then used to develop methods to achieve high sensitivity at low neutron doses. The feasibility was shown of enhancing the PIN diode sensitivity to make possible the measurement of the low doses of neutrons encountered in space flights. The new PIN diode will make possible the development of a very compact, accurate, personal neutron dosimeter

  1. First-year outcomes of incident peritoneal dialysis patients in the United States. (United States)

    Pulliam, Joseph; Li, Nien-Chen; Maddux, Franklin; Hakim, Raymond; Finkelstein, Frederic O; Lacson, Eduardo


    Patterns of early outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) are not well studied and dialysis providers need to establish a baseline of key outcomes for continuous quality improvement initiatives. Retrospective cohort study. Incident PD patients from Fresenius Medical Care, North America from January 1 through December 31, 2009. Case-mix, comorbid illness, and baseline laboratory values. Death, hospitalization, peritonitis, and switch to hemodialysis (HD) within the first year on PD therapy. Event rates and outcome predictors. Of 1,677 incident PD patients, 1,313 started on PD therapy and 367 switched from HD therapy within the first 90 days. Normalized first-year event rates for mortality, switch to HD therapy, peritonitis, and hospitalization were 10, 27, 42, and 128 per 100 patient-years, respectively. 336 of 463 (72.6%) first peritonitis episodes and 637 of 939 (67.8%) first hospitalizations occurred within the first 6 months of PD treatment. Black race, higher body mass index, non-Hispanic ethnicity, peripheral vascular disease, and low weekly Kt/V associated with peritonitis risk. Dialysis vintage, female sex, diabetes, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and history of limb amputation along with lower laboratory values for albumin, hemoglobin, and phosphorus and weekly Kt/V associated with hospitalization. Switchers to HD therapy (n=350) used central venous catheters 81.4% of the time as initial access (still 78.3% at 90 days later) because of lack of permanent access. Residual confounding from unmeasured variables and exclusion of patients with a training day but who never started home PD therapy. Despite low first-year mortality, incident PD patients had high morbidity, particularly within the first 3-6 months. Increased focus to identify patients at greatest risk for peritonitis and hospitalization, as well as evaluation of care processes and implementation of preventive strategies, is required. Access planning for transition to HD therapy

  2. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station (United States)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg


    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  3. Complex sample survey estimation in static state-space (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski


    Increased use of remotely sensed data is a key strategy adopted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. However, multiple sensor technologies require complex sampling units and sampling designs. The Recursive Restriction Estimator (RRE) accommodates this complexity. It is a design-consistent Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction for the state-vector, which...

  4. Optical Characterization of Deep-Space Object Rotation States (United States)


    between the satellite and observer for thermal emission measurements). When detected with sufficient accuracy, such synodic frequency variations can...the satellite and observer for thermal emission measurements). When detected with sufficient accuracy, such synodic frequency variations can be... CubeSats , cylinders for rocket-bodies, etc.). 5.4 Rotation State Estimation for Nearly Cylindrical Objects Some satellites can be approximated

  5. The clinical manifestations of HIV infections in adults presenting to Khartoum state and the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis among them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Amir Abd Elraouf


    This is a prospective study of 60 patients with HIV infection admitted to medical wards at Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Tropical Diseases' Hospital in Omdurman, Chest Teaching Hospital in Khartoum State during the period June 1997 to June 1998, to study the clinical manifestations of HIV, the possible mode of transmission and the incidence of tuberculosis among them. The population of the study were those with HIV infection of both sexes above 15 years of age. Data was collected using a questionnaire detailing the medical history, through medical examination and laboratory investigations

  6. Sensorless State-Space Control of Elastic Two-Inertia Drive System Using a Minimum State Order Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Comnac


    Full Text Available The paper presents sensorless state-space control of two-inertia drive system with resilient coupling. The control structure contains an I+PI controller for load speed regulation and a state feedback controller for effective vibration suppression of the elastic coupling. Mechanical state variable of two-inertia drive are obtained by using a linear minimum-order (Gopinath state observer. The design of the combined (I+PI and state feedback controller is achieved with the extended version of the modulus criterion [5]. The dynamic behavior of presented control structure has been examined, for different conditions, using MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation.

  7. State Space Models and the Kalman-Filter in Stochastic Claims Reserving: Forecasting, Filtering and Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Chukhrova


    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed overview of the current state of research in relation to the use of state space models and the Kalman-filter in the field of stochastic claims reserving. Most of these state space representations are matrix-based, which complicates their applications. Therefore, to facilitate the implementation of state space models in practice, we present a scalar state space model for cumulative payments, which is an extension of the well-known chain ladder (CL method. The presented model is distribution-free, forms a basis for determining the entire unobservable lower and upper run-off triangles and can easily be applied in practice using the Kalman-filter for prediction, filtering and smoothing of cumulative payments. In addition, the model provides an easy way to find outliers in the data and to determine outlier effects. Finally, an empirical comparison of the scalar state space model, promising prior state space models and some popular stochastic claims reserving methods is performed.

  8. Racial and ethnic variation in the incidence of small-bowel cancer subtypes in the United States, 1995-2008. (United States)

    Goodman, Marc T; Matsuno, Rayna K; Shvetsov, Yurii B


    Small-bowel cancer is uncommon and, accordingly, little is known about the epidemiology of this malignancy, especially by race and subtype. The objective of this analysis was to describe the distribution of small-bowel cancer in the United States by demographic, pathological, and clinical features. This study was retrospective in design. Data from 26 population-based cancer registries in the United States from 1995 to 2008 were used. Patients diagnosed with small-bowel cancer (topography codes C17.0-17.3 and C17.8-17.9) were included. The primary outcomes measured were race- and histology-specific incidence (age-adjusted rate trends and age-specific rates) of small-bowel cancer. A total of 56,223 men and women diagnosed with small-bowel cancer were identified. The overall age-adjusted incidence rates for small-bowel cancer were 26.1 in men and 17.7 in women. Neuroendocrine tumors were the most common histological types of small-bowel cancer in men and women, followed by carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. In comparison with whites, the rate of small-bowel cancer was 42% greater in black men, 46% greater in black women, 34% lower in Asian-Pacific Islander men, and 37% lower in Asian-Pacific Islander women. Rates of small-bowel cancer were 24% lower in Hispanic men and 15% lower in Hispanic women than rates in non-Hispanics. The excess of small-bowel cancer in blacks and the deficit in Asian-Pacific Islanders were attributable mainly to the incidence of adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The incidence of GI stromal tumor was significantly higher among Asian-Pacific Islanders. This is one of the largest studies of small-bowel cancer to date. These cancer registry data showed substantial racial and ethnic variation in the incidence of histological subtypes of small-bowel malignancy that suggest possible etiologic diversity and/or disparities in detection.

  9. Incidence and Treatment Patterns in Hospitalizations for Malignant Spinal Cord Compression in the United States, 1998-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Kimberley S.; Lee, Leslie K.; Mak, Raymond H.; Wang, Shuang; Pile-Spellman, John; Abrahm, Janet L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Balboni, Tracy A.


    Purpose: To characterize patterns in incidence, management, and costs of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) hospitalizations in the United States, using population-based data. Methods and Materials: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an all-payer healthcare database representative of all U.S. hospitalizations, MSCC-related hospitalizations were identified for the period 1998-2006. Cases were combined with age-adjusted Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer death data to estimate annual incidence. Linear regression characterized trends in patient, treatment, and hospital characteristics, costs, and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to examine inpatient treatment (radiotherapy [RT], surgery, or neither) by hospital characteristics and year, adjusting for confounding. Results: We identified 15,367 MSCC-related cases, representing 75,876 hospitalizations. Lung cancer (24.9%), prostate cancer (16.2%), and multiple myeloma (11.1%) were the most prevalent underlying cancer diagnoses. The annual incidence of MSCC hospitalization among patients dying of cancer was 3.4%; multiple myeloma (15.0%), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (13.9%), and prostate cancer (5.5%) exhibited the highest cancer-specific incidence. Over the study period, inpatient RT for MSCC decreased (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.81), whereas surgery increased (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.84). Hospitalization costs for MSCC increased (5.3% per year, p < 0.001). Odds of inpatient RT were greater at teaching hospitals (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.67), whereas odds of surgery were greater at urban institutions (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.29-2.58). Conclusions: In the United States, patients dying of cancer have an estimated 3.4% annual incidence of MSCC requiring hospitalization. Inpatient management of MSCC varied over time and by hospital characteristics, with hospitalization costs increasing. Future studies are required to determine the impact of treatment patterns on MSCC

  10. The state-of-the-art of dc power distribution systems/components for space applications (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.


    This report is a survey of the state of the art of high voltage dc systems and components. This information can be used for consideration of an alternative secondary distribution (120 Vdc) system for the Space Station. All HVdc components have been prototyped or developed for terrestrial, aircraft, and spacecraft applications, and are applicable for general space application with appropriate modification and qualification. HVdc systems offer a safe, reliable, low mass, high efficiency and low EMI alternative for Space Station secondary distribution.

  11. A Study on Improving United States Air Force Space Systems Engineering and Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stahr, Jeremiah B


    ...) and United States Air Force (USAF) policies and practices, many government systems engineers today lack the systems engineering/management skills required to successfully execute national security space programs...

  12. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael J


    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...

  13. Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature state-space components (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — State-Space Decomposition of Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C....

  14. State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.


    Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

  15. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis (United States)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  16. State space in BRST-quantization and Kugo-Ojima quartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybkin, G.N.


    The structure of the state space in the BRST-quantization is considered and the connection between different approaches to the proof of the positive definiteness of the metric on the physical state space is established. The correspondence between different expressions for the BRST-charge, quadratic in fields, is obtained. The relation between different representations of the BRST-algebra is found. 22 refs

  17. Limits on nonlocal correlations from the structure of the local state space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian; Barrett, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas


    The outcomes of measurements on entangled quantum systems can be nonlocally correlated. However, while it is easy to write down toy theories allowing arbitrary nonlocal correlations, those allowed in quantum mechanics are limited. Quantum correlations cannot, for example, violate a principle known as macroscopic locality, which implies that they cannot violate Tsirelson's bound. This paper shows that there is a connection between the strength of nonlocal correlations in a physical theory and the structure of the state spaces of individual systems. This is illustrated by a family of models in which local state spaces are regular polygons, where a natural analogue of a maximally entangled state of two systems exists. We characterize the nonlocal correlations obtainable from such states. The family allows us to study the transition between classical, quantum and super-quantum correlations by varying only the local state space. We show that the strength of nonlocal correlations - in particular whether the maximally entangled state violates Tsirelson's bound or not-depends crucially on a simple geometric property of the local state space, known as strong self-duality. This result is seen to be a special case of a general theorem, which states that a broad class of entangled states in probabilistic theories-including, by extension, all bipartite classical and quantum states-cannot violate macroscopic locality. Finally, our results show that models exist that are locally almost indistinguishable from quantum mechanics, but can nevertheless generate maximally nonlocal correlations.

  18. Rosette of rosettes of Hilbert spaces in the indefinite metric state space of the quantized Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, W.; Ernst, V.


    The indefinite metric space O/sub M/ of the covariant form of the quantized Maxwell field M is analyzed in some detail. S/sub M/ contains not only the pre-Hilbert space X 0 of states of transverse photons which occurs in the Gupta--Bleuler formalism of the free M, but a whole rosette of continuously many, isomorphic, complete, pre-Hilbert spaces L/sup q/ disjunct up to the zero element o of S/sub M/. The L/sup q/ are the maximal subspaces of S/sub M/ which allow the usual statistical interpretation. Each L/sup q/ corresponds uniquely to one square integrable, spatial distribution j/sup o/(x) of the total charge Q=0. If M is in any state from L/sup q/, the bare charge j 0 (x) appears to be inseparably dressed by the quantum equivalent of its proper, classical Coulomb field E(x). The vacuum occurs only in the state space L 0 of the free Maxwell field. Each L/sup q/ contains a secondary rosette of continuously many, up to o disjunct, isomorphic Hilbert spaces H/sub g//sup q/ related to different electromagnetic gauges. The space H/sub o//sup q/, which corresponds to the Coulomb gauge within the Lorentz gauge, plays a physically distinguished role in that only it leads to the usual concept of energy. If M is in any state from H/sub g//sup q/, the bare 4-current j 0 (x), j(x), where j(x) is any square integrable, transverse current density in space, is endowed with its proper 4-potential which depends on the chosen gauge, and with its proper, gauge independent, Coulomb--Oersted field E(x), B(x). However, these fields exist only in the sense of quantum mechanical expectation values equipped with the corresponding field fluctuations. So they are basically different from classical electromagnetic fields

  19. Parallel symbolic state-space exploration is difficult, but what is the alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Ciardo


    Full Text Available State-space exploration is an essential step in many modeling and analysis problems. Its goal is to find the states reachable from the initial state of a discrete-state model described. The state space can used to answer important questions, e.g., "Is there a dead state?" and "Can N become negative?", or as a starting point for sophisticated investigations expressed in temporal logic. Unfortunately, the state space is often so large that ordinary explicit data structures and sequential algorithms cannot cope, prompting the exploration of (1 parallel approaches using multiple processors, from simple workstation networks to shared-memory supercomputers, to satisfy large memory and runtime requirements and (2 symbolic approaches using decision diagrams to encode the large structured sets and relations manipulated during state-space generation. Both approaches have merits and limitations. Parallel explicit state-space generation is challenging, but almost linear speedup can be achieved; however, the analysis is ultimately limited by the memory and processors available. Symbolic methods are a heuristic that can efficiently encode many, but not all, functions over a structured and exponentially large domain; here the pitfalls are subtler: their performance varies widely depending on the class of decision diagram chosen, the state variable order, and obscure algorithmic parameters. As symbolic approaches are often much more efficient than explicit ones for many practical models, we argue for the need to parallelize symbolic state-space generation algorithms, so that we can realize the advantage of both approaches. This is a challenging endeavor, as the most efficient symbolic algorithm, Saturation, is inherently sequential. We conclude by discussing challenges, efforts, and promising directions toward this goal.

  20. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, G.J.


    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) is a comprehensive data base containing more than 50,000 investigation reports of injury/illness, property damage and vehicle accident cases representing safety data from 1975 to the present for more than 150 DOE contractor organizations. A special feature is that the text of each accident report is translated using a controlled dictionary and rigid sentence structure called Factor Relationship and Sequence of Events (FRASE) that enhances the ability to retrieve specific types of information and to perform detailed analyses. DOE summary and individual contractor reports are prepared quarterly and annually. In addition, ''Safety Performance Profile'' reports for individual organizations are prepared to provide advance information to appraisal teams, and special topical reports are prepared for areas of concern such as an increase in the number of security injuries or environmental releases. The data base is open to all DOE and Contractor registered users with no access restrictions other than that required by the Privacy Act

  1. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014. (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna


    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  2. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States. (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G


    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  3. [Problems of the health system in Mexican states with high incidence of maternal mortality]. (United States)

    Rouvier, Mariel; González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Sesia, Paola; Becerril-Montekio, Víctor


    To identify and prioritize problems in states' health systems which limit the efficacy of interventions to prevent maternal mortality. We made a conceptual mapping of priority problems perceived as such by communities of practice (COP) in four states with high ratios of maternal mortality in Mexico. Then, the four COP reviewed the literature and refined their formulation of previously identified problems. Priority problems focused on emergency obstetric care (EmOC), specifically: inadequate financial resources (Guerrero), substandard training among available EmOC providers (State of Mexico), inefficiencies in existing EmOC networks (Oaxaca) and inadequate knowledge of, and/or compliance to, standard EmOC protocols (Veracruz). The literature review confirmed the pertinence of problems previously identified by COP through conceptual mapping. CONCLUSIONS. The four COP showed a high level of congruency between their original perception of problems in the states' health systems and international scientific evidence. Identified problems and their reformulation based on evidence help identify solutions adaptable to local contexts.

  4. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph


    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  5. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A


    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Spin flip of multiqubit states in discrete phase space (United States)

    Srinivasan, K.; Raghavan, G.


    Time reversal and spin flip are discrete symmetry operations of substantial importance to quantum information and quantum computation. Spin flip arises in the context of separability, quantification of entanglement and the construction of universal NOT gates. The present work investigates the relationship between the quantum state of a multiqubit system represented by the discrete Wigner function (DWFs) and its spin-flipped counterpart. The two are shown to be related through a Hadamard matrix that is independent of the choice of the quantum net used for the tomographic reconstruction of the DWF. These results are of interest to cases involving the direct tomographic reconstruction of the DWF from experimental data, and in the analysis of entanglement related properties purely in terms of the DWF.

  7. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. Methods We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. Results For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females, gallbladder (stronger in females than males, and thyroid (only seen in females. No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. Conclusion This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer

  8. Discrete coherent states and probability distributions in finite-dimensional spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetti, D.; Marchiolli, M.A.


    Operator bases are discussed in connection with the construction of phase space representatives of operators in finite-dimensional spaces and their properties are presented. It is also shown how these operator bases allow for the construction of a finite harmonic oscillator-like coherent state. Creation and annihilation operators for the Fock finite-dimensional space are discussed and their expressions in terms of the operator bases are explicitly written. The relevant finite-dimensional probability distributions are obtained and their limiting behavior for an infinite-dimensional space are calculated which agree with the well know results. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs.

  9. State space model-based trust evaluation over wireless sensor networks: an iterative particle filter approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu


    Full Text Available In this study, the authors propose a state space modelling approach for trust evaluation in wireless sensor networks. In their state space trust model (SSTM, each sensor node is associated with a trust metric, which measures to what extent the data transmitted from this node would better be trusted by the server node. Given the SSTM, they translate the trust evaluation problem to be a non-linear state filtering problem. To estimate the state based on the SSTM, a component-wise iterative state inference procedure is proposed to work in tandem with the particle filter (PF, and thus the resulting algorithm is termed as iterative PF (IPF. The computational complexity of the IPF algorithm is theoretically linearly related with the dimension of the state. This property is desirable especially for high-dimensional trust evaluation and state filtering problems. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by both simulations and real data analysis.

  10. Personal History of Prostate Cancer and Increased Risk of Incident Melanoma in the United States (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Ma, Jing; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Han, Jiali


    Purpose Steroid hormones, particularly androgens, play a major role in prostatic carcinogenesis. Personal history of severe acne, a surrogate for higher androgen activity, has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and one recent study indicated that severe teenage acne was a novel risk factor for melanoma. These findings suggest a possible relationship between PCa and risk of melanoma. We prospectively evaluated this association among US men. Methods A total of 42,372 participants in the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986 to 2010) were included. Biennially self-reported PCa diagnosis was confirmed using pathology reports. Diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was self-reported biennially, and diagnosis of melanoma was pathologically confirmed. We sought to confirm the association in 18,603 participants from the Physicians' Health Study (PHS; 1982 to 1998). Results We identified 539 melanomas in the HPFS. Personal history of PCa was associated with an increased risk of melanoma (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.54). Although we also detected a marginally increased risk of NMSC associated with PCa (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.995 to 1.16), the difference in the magnitude of the association between melanoma and NMSC was significant (P for heterogeneity = .002). We did not find an altered risk of melanoma associated with personal history of other cancers. The association between PCa and risk of incident melanoma was confirmed in the PHS (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.21). Conclusion Personal history of PCa is associated with an increased risk of melanoma, which may not be entirely a result of greater medical scrutiny. PMID:24190118

  11. Food environment, walkability, and public open spaces are associated with incident development of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a biomedical cohort. (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Haren, Matthew T; Howard, Natasha J; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark


    We investigated whether residential environment characteristics related to food (unhealthful/healthful food sources ratio), walkability and public open spaces (POS; number, median size, greenness and type) were associated with incidence of four cardio-metabolic risk factors (pre-diabetes/diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, abdominal obesity) in a biomedical cohort (n=3205). Results revealed that the risk of developing pre-diabetes/diabetes was lower for participants in areas with larger POS and greater walkability. Incident abdominal obesity was positively associated with the unhealthful food environment index. No associations were found with hypertension or dyslipidaemia. Results provide new evidence for specific, prospective associations between the built environment and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The incidence risk, clustering, and clinical presentation of La Crosse virus infections in the eastern United States, 2003-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Haddow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although La Crosse virus (LACV is one of the most common causes of pediatric arboviral infections in the United States, little has been done to assess its geographic distribution, identify areas of higher risk of disease, and to provide a national picture of its clinical presentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of LACV infections reported in the United States, to identify hot-spots of infection, and to present its clinical picture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Descriptive and cluster analyses were performed on probable and confirmed cases of LACV infections reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2003-2007. A total of 282 patients had reported confirmed LACV infections during the study period. Of these cases the majority (81 percent presented during the summer, occurred in children 15 years and younger (83.3 percent, and were found in male children (64.9 percent. Clinically, the infections presented as meningioencephalitis (56.3 percent, encephalitis (20.7 percent, meningitis (17.2 percent, or uncomplicated fever (5 percent. Deaths occurred in 1.9 percent of confirmed cases, and in 8.6 percent of patients suffering from encephalitis. The majority of these deaths were in patients 15 years and younger. The county-level incidence risk among counties (n = 136 reporting both probable and confirmed cases for children 15 years and younger (n = 355 ranged from 0.2 to 228.7 per 100,000 persons. The southern United States experienced a significantly higher (p<0.05 incidence risk during the months of June, July, August, and October then the northern United States. There was significant (p<0.05 clustering of high risk in several geographic regions with three deaths attributed to complications from LAC encephalitis occurring in two of these hot-spots of infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both the incidence risk and case fatality rates were found to be higher than previously

  13. Projective limits of state spaces III. Toy-models (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas


    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013) [1,2], which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). A strategy to implement the dynamics in this formalism was presented in our first paper Lanéry and Thiemann (2017) (see also Lanéry, 2016, section 4), which we now test in two simple toy-models. The first one is a very basic linear model, meant as an illustration of the general procedure, and we will only discuss it at the classical level. In the second one, we reformulate the Schrödinger equation, treated as a classical field theory, within this projective framework, and proceed to its (non-relativistic) second quantization. We are then able to reproduce the physical content of the usual Fock quantization.

  14. Linear discrete-time state space realization of a modified quadruple tank system with state estimation using Kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd. Azam, Sazuan Nazrah


    In this paper, we used the modified quadruple tank system that represents a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system as an example to present the realization of a linear discrete-time state space model and to obtain the state estimation using Kalman filter in a methodical mannered. First, an existing...... part of the Kalman filter is used to estimates the current state, based on the model and the measurements. The static and dynamic Kalman filter is compared and all results is demonstrated through simulations....... dynamics of the system of stochastic differential equations is linearized to produce the deterministic-stochastic linear transfer function. Then the linear transfer function is discretized to produce a linear discrete-time state space model that has a deterministic and a stochastic component. The filtered...

  15. State-space approach for evaluating the soil-plant-atmosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, L.C.; Reichardt, K.; Cassaro, F.A.M.; Tominaga, T.T.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Oliveira, J.C.M.; Dourado-Neto, D.


    Using as examples one sugarcane and one forage oat experiment, both carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, this chapter presents recent state-space approaches used to evaluate the relation between soil and plant properties. A contrast is made between classical statistics methodologies that do not take into account the sampling position coordinates, and the more recently used methodologies which include the position coordinates, and allow a better interpretation of the field-sampled data. Classical concepts are first introduced, followed by spatially referenced methodologies like the autocorrelation function, the cross correlation function, and the state-space approach. Two variations of the state-space approach are given: one emphasizes the evolution of the state system while the other based on the bayesian formulation emphasizes the evolution of the estimated observations. It is concluded that these state-space analyses using dynamic regression models improve data analyses and are therefore recommended for analyzing time and space data series related to the performance of a given soil-plant-atmosphere system. (author)

  16. Incidence and treatment patterns in males presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms to the emergency department in the United States. (United States)

    Roghmann, Florian; Ghani, Khurshid R; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Bhojani, Naeem; Sammon, Jesse D; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Trudeau, Vincent; Becker, Andreas; Sukumar, Shyam; Menon, Mani; Zorn, Kevin C; Karakiewicz, Pierre; Sun, Maxine; Noldus, Joachim; Trinh, Quoc-Dien


    Due to varying clinical definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms, it has been difficult to determine comparable prevalence and incidence rates of lower urinary tract symptoms and their treatment modalities. We assessed the incidence of emergency department visits in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who presented to emergency departments in the United States and factors associated with an increased likelihood of hospitalization. Emergency department visits from 2006 to 2009 associated with a primary diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms using established criteria were abstracted from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Age adjusted incidence rates of emergency department visits and charges were calculated. We performed multivariable analysis to examine patient and hospital characteristics of those hospitalized and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia related adverse events. A weighted estimate of 1,178,423 emergency department visits for lower urinary tract symptoms was recorded with a national incidence of 197.6/100,000 males per year. A total of 112,288 visits (9.5%) resulted in hospitalization. Adverse events were identified in 734,269 patients (62.3%). The most common adverse events were catheterization in 44.6% of cases, infection in 17.4%, hematuria in 9.6%, bladder stones in 1.7%, hydronephrosis in 1.2% and acute renal failure in 0.1%. On multivariable analysis independent predictors of hospital admission included comorbidities, socioeconomic status, hospital characteristics and adverse events such as sepsis, acute renal failure and hydronephrosis. Independent predictors of adverse events included patient age, year of visit, socioeconomic status, hospital characteristics and concomitant neurological disease. In 2009 total emergency department charges for lower urinary tract symptoms were $494,981,922. The number of men with lower urinary tract symptoms who visit the emergency department has remained stable, while emergency

  17. The Impact of Safety Regulations on the Incidence of Upper-Extremity Power Saw Injuries in the United States. (United States)

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Harper, Carl M; Byers, Ashlyn; Gutman, Adva; Novack, Victor; Iorio, Matthew L


    Over 50,000 power saw-related injuries occur annually in the United States. Numerous safety measures have been implemented to protect the users of these tools. This study was designed to determine which interventions, if any, have had a positive impact on the safety of the consumer or laborer. We queried the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database for hand and upper-extremity injuries attributed to power saws from 1997 to 2014. Demographic information including age, sex, date of injury, device, location, body part involved, diagnosis, and disposition was recorded. We performed statistical analysis using interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the incidence of injury with respect to specific safety guidelines as well as temporal trends including patients' age. An 18% increase in power saw-related injuries was noted from 1997 (44,877) to 2005 (75,037). From 2006 to 2015 an annual decrease of 5.8% was observed. This was correlated with regulations for power saw use by the Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) and Underwriters Laboratories. Mean age of injured patients increased from 48.8 to 52.9 years whereas the proportion of subjects aged less than 50 years decreased from 52.8% to 41.9%. These trends were most pronounced after the 2006 CPSC regulations. The incidence of power saw injuries increased from 1997 to 2005, with a subsequent decrease from 2006 to 2015. The guidelines for safer operation and improvements in equipment, mandated by the CPSC and Underwriters Laboratories, appeared to have been successful in precipitating a decrease in the incidence of power saw injuries to the upper extremity, particularly in the younger population. The publication of safety regulations has been noted to have an association with a decreased incidence in power saw injuries. Based on this, clinicians should take an active role in their practice as well as in their professional societies to educate and counsel patients to prevent further injury. Copyright

  18. Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P.M.; Paxton, Eben H.


    Estimating population abundances and patterns of change over time are important in both ecology and conservation. Trend assessment typically entails fitting a regression to a time series of abundances to estimate population trajectory. However, changes in abundance estimates from year-to-year across time are due to both true variation in population size (process variation) and variation due to imperfect sampling and model fit. State-space models are a relatively new method that can be used to partition the error components and quantify trends based only on process variation. We compare a state-space modelling approach with a more traditional linear regression approach to assess trends in uncorrected raw counts and detection-corrected abundance estimates of forest birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i. Most species demonstrated similar trends using either method. In general, evidence for trends using state-space models was less strong than for linear regression, as measured by estimates of precision. However, while the state-space models may sacrifice precision, the expectation is that these estimates provide a better representation of the real world biological processes of interest because they are partitioning process variation (environmental and demographic variation) and observation variation (sampling and model variation). The state-space approach also provides annual estimates of abundance which can be used by managers to set conservation strategies, and can be linked to factors that vary by year, such as climate, to better understand processes that drive population trends.

  19. The promise of the state space approach to time series analysis for nursing research. (United States)

    Levy, Janet A; Elser, Heather E; Knobel, Robin B


    Nursing research, particularly related to physiological development, often depends on the collection of time series data. The state space approach to time series analysis has great potential to answer exploratory questions relevant to physiological development but has not been used extensively in nursing. The aim of the study was to introduce the state space approach to time series analysis and demonstrate potential applicability to neonatal monitoring and physiology. We present a set of univariate state space models; each one describing a process that generates a variable of interest over time. Each model is presented algebraically and a realization of the process is presented graphically from simulated data. This is followed by a discussion of how the model has been or may be used in two nursing projects on neonatal physiological development. The defining feature of the state space approach is the decomposition of the series into components that are functions of time; specifically, slowly varying level, faster varying periodic, and irregular components. State space models potentially simulate developmental processes where a phenomenon emerges and disappears before stabilizing, where the periodic component may become more regular with time, or where the developmental trajectory of a phenomenon is irregular. The ultimate contribution of this approach to nursing science will require close collaboration and cross-disciplinary education between nurses and statisticians.

  20. The incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho. (United States)

    Seedat, R Y


    Although the estimated incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) has been determined in countries in North America and Europe and in Australia, no studies have attempted to determine the incidence or prevalence of JORRP in African countries. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho. This was a retrospective study in which the records of all patients with JORRP from the Free State province of South Africa or Lesotho treated at Universitas Academic Hospital or by otorhinolaryngologists in private practice between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were reviewed. The estimated incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State were 1.34 and 3.88 per 100,000 population respectively while the estimated incidence and prevalence in Lesotho were 0.49 and 1.04 per 100,000 population respectively. However, these figures are probably an underestimation. The incidence and prevalence calculated for the Free State were generally higher than those found in other studies, while those calculated for Lesotho was similar to those obtained in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating health state utility values from discrete choice experiments--a QALY space model approach. (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie


    Using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to estimate health state utility values has become an important alternative to the conventional methods of Time Trade-Off and Standard Gamble. Studies using DCEs have typically used the conditional logit to estimate the underlying utility function. The conditional logit is known for several limitations. In this paper, we propose two types of models based on the mixed logit: one using preference space and the other using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) space, a concept adapted from the willingness-to-pay literature. These methods are applied to a dataset collected using the EQ-5D. The results showcase the advantages of using QALY space and demonstrate that the preferred QALY space model provides lower estimates of the utility values than the conditional logit, with the divergence increasing with worsening health states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States. (United States)

    De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Bartley, Amanda; Welch, Aaron Z; Berry, John P


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present study, a sample of wines sourced from the United States was assessed for OTA. Wines were primarily analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) coupled to a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique which was developed and validated as a simplified sample preparation approach. More than 85% of the wines evaluated were found to contain OTA, at levels above the limit-of-detection (LOD = 0.1 µg L -1 ), and 76% were above the limit-of-quantitation (LOQ = 0.3 µg L -1 ) for the LLE/HPLC-FD method. More than two-thirds of the wines above the LOQ were found to exceed 1 µg L -1 . Complementary analysis by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmed OTA in 74% of the OTA-positive wines (i.e., >LOQ by HPLC-FD). Overall, both the occurrence and measured levels of OTA were generally high, specifically relative to previous assessments of OTA in wine, and two of the wines were above the only current (European Union) regulatory limit of two parts-per-billion (ppb, ~2 µg L -1 ). Possible trends with respect to geographical region and/or growing climate are noted. As the first assessment of U.S. wines in more than a decade, the overall high occurrence and levels of OTA in wine, and possible geographic and climatic trends, point to a need for regular surveillance of wines, as well as investigation of the relevant contributors to OTA occurrence toward mitigating contamination and exposure risks.

  3. Effect of a Culture-Based Screening Algorithm on Tuberculosis Incidence in Immigrants and Refugees Bound for the United States (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L.; Cetron, Martin S.; Painter, John A.


    Background Before 2007, U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative and culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to implement a culture-based algorithm. Objective To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Patients Immigrants and refugees with TB. Measurements Comparison of the increase of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Results Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative and culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 in 2007 to 629 in 2012. Limitation This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Conclusion Implementation of the culture-based algorithm in U

  4. State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bellucci


    Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.

  5. State-space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations and Black Holes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano


    We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a new perspective of black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic state-space geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, \\textit{viz.}, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory. Keywords: Intrinsic Geometry; ...

  6. An application of gain-scheduled control using state-space interpolation to hydroactive gas bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Camino, Juan F.; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    , it is possible to design a gain-scheduled controller using multiple controllers optimised for a single frequency. Gain-scheduling strategies using the Youla parametrisation can guarantee stability at the cost of increased controller order and performance loss in the interpolation region. This paper contributes...... with a gain-scheduling strategy using state-space interpolation, which avoids both the performance loss and the increase of controller order associated to the Youla parametrisation. The proposed state-space interpolation for gain-scheduling is applied for mass imbalance rejection for a controllable gas...... bearing scheduled in two parameters. Comparisons against the Youla-based scheduling demonstrate the superiority of the state-space interpolation....

  7. Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems, New Mexico State University (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; DeLeon, Phillip; Borah, Deva; Lyman, Ray


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems activities at New Mexico State University. Presentations cover the following topics: (1) small satellite communications, including nanosatellite radio and virtual satellite development; (2) modulation and detection studies, including details on smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) spectra and highlights of an adaptive turbo multiuser detector; (3) decoupled approaches to nonlinear ISI compensation; (4) space internet testing; (4) optical communication; (5) Linux-based receiver for lightweight optical communications without a laser in space, including software design, performance analysis, and the receiver algorithm; (6) carrier tracking hardware; and (7) subband transforms for adaptive direct sequence spread spectrum receivers.

  8. State-space models - from the EM algorithm to a gradient approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue


    Slow convergence is observed in the EM algorithm for linear state-space models. We propose to circumvent the problem by applying any off-the-shelf quasi-Newton-type optimizer, which operates on the gradient of the log-likelihood function. Such an algorithm is a practical alternative due to the fact...... that the exact gradient of the log-likelihood function can be computed by recycling components of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in three relevant instances of the linear state-space model. In high signal-to-noise ratios, where EM is particularly...

  9. Robust Quasi-LPV Control Based on Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus


    the system description into a linear part and a nonlinear part. Linear parameter-varying control synthesis methods are then applied to design a nonlinear control law for this system. Since the model is assumed to have been identified from input-output measurement data only, it must be expected......In this paper we derive a synthesis result for robust LPV output feedback controllers for nonlinear systems modelled by neural state space models. This result is achieved by writing the neural state space model on a linear fractional transformation form in a non-conservative way, separating...

  10. Robust Quasi-LPV Control Based on Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus


    the system description into a linear part and a nonlinear part. Linear parameter-varying control synthesis methods are then applied to design a nonlinear control law for this system. Since the model is assumed to have been identified from input-output measurement data only, it must be expected......In this paper we derive a synthesis result for robust LPV output feedback controllers for nonlinear systems modelled by neural state space models. This result is achieved by writing the neural state space model on a linear fractional transformation form in a non-conservative way, separating...

  11. Mixture estimation with state-space components and Markov model of switching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Ivan; Suzdaleva, Evgenia


    Roč. 37, č. 24 (2013), s. 9970-9984 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030123 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : probabilistic dynamic mixtures, * probability density function * state-space models * recursive mixture estimation * Bayesian dynamic decision making under uncertainty * Kerridge inaccuracy Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2013 estimation with state-space components and markov model of switching.pdf

  12. Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronics Systems Using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth


    based on the state-space averaging and generalized averaging, these also have limitations to show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulations. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling....... Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory for large dc power electronics systems can be reduced. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulation, but with the faster simulation time which is beneficial in a large network....

  13. Inverse scattering of a layered and dispersionless dielectric half-space - 1. reflection data from plane waves at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, S.


    The theory given by Moses and deRidder is modified so that the derivative of the solution of the Gelfand-Levitan integral equation is not required. Based on this modification, a numerical procedure is developed which approximately constructs the dielectric profile of the layered half-space from the impulse response. Moreover, an inverse scattering theory is developed for a Goupillaud-type dielectric medium, and a fast numerical procedure based on the Berryman and Greene algorithm is presented. The performance of the numerical algorithms is examined by applying them to pecise and imprecise artificial impulse response data. 11 refs

  14. Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.


    High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is ∼10 -3 , and the electrical current of the beam pulse is ∼1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.

  15. Exploratory space-time analysis of dengue incidence in Trinidad: a retrospective study using travel hubs as dispersal points, 1998-2004. (United States)

    Sharma, Karmesh D; Mahabir, Ron S; Curtin, Kevin M; Sutherland, Joan M; Agard, John B; Chadee, Dave D


    Dengue is an acute arboviral disease responsible for most of the illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions. Over the last 25 years there has been increase epidemic activity of the disease in the Caribbean, with the co-circulation of multiple serotypes. An understanding of the space and time dynamics of dengue could provide health agencies with important clues for reducing its impact. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases observed for the period 1998-2004 were georeferenced using Geographic Information System software. Spatial clustering was calculated for individual years and for the entire study period using the Nearest Neighbor Index. Space and time interaction between DHF cases was determined using the Knox Test while the Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical method was used to extract DHF hot spots. All space and time distances calculated were validated using the Pearson r significance test. Results shows that (1) a decrease in mean distance between DHF cases correlates with activity leading up to an outbreak, (2) a decrease in temporal distance between DHF cases leads to increased geographic spread of the disease, with an outbreak occurrence about every 2 years, and (3) a general pattern in the movement of dengue incidents from more rural to urban settings leading up to an outbreak with hotspot areas associated with transportation hubs in Trinidad. Considering only the spatial dimension of the disease, results suggest that DHF cases become more concentrated leading up to an outbreak. However, with the additional consideration of time, results suggest that when an outbreak occurs incidents occur more rapidly in time leading to a parallel increase in the rate of distribution of the disease across space. The results of this study can be used by public health officers to help visualize and understand the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue, and to prepare warnings for the public. Dengue space-time patterns and hotspot detection will provide useful

  16. Identification of a Class of Non-linear State Space Models using RPE Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei-Wu; Blanke, Mogens


    The RPE (recursive prediction error) method in state-space form is developed in the nonlinear systems and extended to include the exact form of a nonlinearity, thus enabling structure preservation for certain classes of nonlinear systems. Both the discrete and the continuous-discrete versions...... of the algorithm in an innovations model are investigated, and a nonlinear simulation example shows a quite convincing performance of the filter as combined parameter and state estimator...


    The optimal nonlinear feedback law for both an unbounded and bounded Brachistochrone problem is given. These control laws describe the... Brachistochrone problem in a very simple manner. These laws are derived by using a dimensionless set of state variables which are of lower dimension than the...bounded Brachistochrone problem. This illustrates that the state space may be reduced so that the storage of a field of extremal trajectories will not

  18. Bayesian state space models for dynamic genetic network construction across multiple tissues. (United States)

    Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad


    Construction of gene-gene interaction networks and potential pathways is a challenging and important problem in genomic research for complex diseases while estimating the dynamic changes of the temporal correlations and non-stationarity are the keys in this process. In this paper, we develop dynamic state space models with hierarchical Bayesian settings to tackle this challenge for inferring the dynamic profiles and genetic networks associated with disease treatments. We treat both the stochastic transition matrix and the observation matrix time-variant and include temporal correlation structures in the covariance matrix estimations in the multivariate Bayesian state space models. The unevenly spaced short time courses with unseen time points are treated as hidden state variables. Hierarchical Bayesian approaches with various prior and hyper-prior models with Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Gibbs sampling algorithms are used to estimate the model parameters and the hidden state variables. We apply the proposed Hierarchical Bayesian state space models to multiple tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney) Affymetrix time course data sets following corticosteroid (CS) drug administration. Both simulation and real data analysis results show that the genomic changes over time and gene-gene interaction in response to CS treatment can be well captured by the proposed models. The proposed dynamic Hierarchical Bayesian state space modeling approaches could be expanded and applied to other large scale genomic data, such as next generation sequence (NGS) combined with real time and time varying electronic health record (EHR) for more comprehensive and robust systematic and network based analysis in order to transform big biomedical data into predictions and diagnostics for precision medicine and personalized healthcare with better decision making and patient outcomes.

  19. The Microgravity Isolation Mount: A Linearized State-Space Model a la Newton and Kane (United States)

    Hampton, R. David; Tryggvason, Bjarni V.; DeCarufel, Jean; Townsend, Miles A.; Wagar, William O.


    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) was built by the Canadian Space Agency to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels, and has been operational on the Russian Space Station Mir since May 1996. It has demonstrated good isolation performance and has supported several materials science experiments. The MIM uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation (Euler-parameter) measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of the MIM, in a form suitable for optimal controller design. The equations are first derived using Newton's Second Law directly; then a second derivation (i.e., validation) of the same equations is provided, using Kane's approach.

  20. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California


    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surfaces top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  1. A Bayesian state-space model for mixed-stock migrations, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a multi-stock, multi-fleet, multi-area, seasonally structured Bayesian state-space model in which different stocks spawn in spatially different areas and the mixing of these stocks is explicitly accounted for in the absence of sufficient tagging data with which to estimate migration rates. The model is applied to the ...

  2. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.


    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  3. Choosing the observational likelihood in state-space stock assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Nielsen, Anders; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    By implementing different observational likelihoods in a state-space age-based stock assessment model, we are able to compare the goodness-of-fit and effects on estimated fishing mortallity for different model choices. Model fit is improved by estimating suitable correlations between agegroups. We...

  4. Monte Carlo estimation for nonlinear non-Gaussian state space models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbacker, B.M.J.P.; Koopman, S.J.


    We develop a proposal or importance density for state space models with a nonlinear non-Gaussian observation vector y ∼ p(yθ) and an unobserved linear Gaussian signal vector θ ∼ p(θ). The proposal density is obtained from the Laplace approximation of the smoothing density p(θy). We present efficient

  5. State-space modeling indicates rapid invasion of an alien shrub in coastal dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Frølund; Nygaard, Bettina; Ejrnæs, Rasmus


    Invasion by alien plants has negative effects on coastal dunes. Monitoring local spread of invasive species depends on long-term data with sufficient spatial resolution. Bayesian state-space models are a new method for monitoring invasive plants based on unbalanced permanent-plot data. The method...

  6. System Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using State Space and ARMAV Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the relations between an ambient excited structural system, represented by an innovation state space system, and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) model are considered. It is shown how to obtain a multivariate estimate of the ARMAV model from output measurements, usi...

  7. Evolved finite state controller for hybrid system in reduced search space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun


    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate finite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. The proposed approach reduces the search space using an invariant analysis of the system. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been...

  8. Determinants of road traffic safety : new evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nghiem, S. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Connelly, L.B.


    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958–2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic

  9. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nghiem, S.; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Connelly, L.B.


    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic

  10. A direct derivation of the exact Fisther information matrix of Gaussian vector state space models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.A.B.; Neudecker, H.


    This paper deals with a direct derivation of Fisher's information matrix of vector state space models for the general case, by which is meant the establishment of the matrix as a whole and not element by element. The method to be used is matrix differentiation, see [4]. We assume the model to be

  11. Numerically Accelerated Importance Sampling for Nonlinear Non-Gaussian State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Scharth, M.


    We propose a general likelihood evaluation method for nonlinear non-Gaussian state-space models using the simulation-based method of efficient importance sampling. We minimize the simulation effort by replacing some key steps of the likelihood estimation procedure by numerical integration. We refer

  12. Exploiting Stabilizers and Parallelism in State Space Generation with the Symmetry Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentsen, Louise; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    The symmetry method is a main reduction paradigm for alleviating the state explosion problem. For large symmetry groups deciding whether two states are symmetric becomes time expensive due to the apparent high time complexity of the orbit problem. The contribution of this paper is to alleviate th...... the negative impact of the orbit problem by the specification of canonical representatives for equivalence classes of states in Coloured Petri Nets, and by giving algorithms exploiting stabilizers and parallelism for computing the condensed state space.......The symmetry method is a main reduction paradigm for alleviating the state explosion problem. For large symmetry groups deciding whether two states are symmetric becomes time expensive due to the apparent high time complexity of the orbit problem. The contribution of this paper is to alleviate...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Murugiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Seroma formation and its sequelae including infection, flap necrosis, delayed wound healing and patient discomfort form one of most commonly encountered complication following mastectomy and axillary dissection. Mechanical closure of dead space by flap fixation is a simple surgical procedure that eliminates dead space after mastectomy by decreasing the movement of flap over chest wall and thereby reducing the exudate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mechanical closure of dead space after mastectomy in prevention of seroma formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 patients of carcinoma breast who underwent modified radical mastectomy in Department of General Surgery, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, during the period from March 2016 to August 2016, were included, randomised into two groups based on inpatient number. 42 patients with odd IP number in conventional simple wound closure (Group A and 38 patients with even IP number in flap fixation (Group B. Patients were evaluated for day 1 drain volume, total drain volume, drain removal day, seroma and wound complications. RESULTS Of the 80 women, 42 women with mean age 48 ± 8 years belongs to group A and 38 women with mean age 46 ± 7 years belongs to group B. Average size of the tumour at presentation was 3.4 cm. 36 (45% women presented with stage IIA disease and 44 (55% with stage IIB disease. Drain volume in first postoperative day varied from 100 to 200 mL with average of 170 mL in group A and 163 mL in group B. There was no statistically significant difference in the drain volume in first postoperative day (p>0.05. The average total drain volume in the postoperative period in group A was 1426 mL and 932 mL in group B. P value was found to be significant (0.05. One patient developed wound complication (cellulitis vs. none in group B. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of wound complications in both groups. CONCLUSION The

  14. Quantum Brachistochrone Problem and the Geometry of the State Space in Pseudo-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics (United States)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali


    A non-Hermitian operator with a real spectrum and a complete set of eigenvectors may serve as the Hamiltonian operator for a unitary quantum system provided that one makes an appropriate choice for the defining the inner product of physical Hilbert state. We study the consequences of such a choice for the representation of states in terms of projection operators and the geometry of the state space. This allows for a careful treatment of the quantum Brachistochrone problem and shows that it is indeed impossible to achieve faster unitary evolutions using PT-symmetric or other non-Hermitian Hamiltonians than those given by Hermitian Hamiltonians.

  15. Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease Attributed to Diabetes Among Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes - United States and Puerto Rico, 2000-2014. (United States)

    Burrows, Nilka Rios; Hora, Israel; Geiss, Linda S; Gregg, Edward W; Albright, Ann


    During 2014, 120,000 persons in the United States and Puerto Rico began treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (i.e., kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation) (1). Among these persons, 44% (approximately 53,000 persons) had diabetes listed as the primary cause of ESRD (ESRD-D) (1). Although the number of persons initiating ESRD-D treatment each year has increased since 1980 (1,2), the ESRD-D incidence rate among persons with diagnosed diabetes has declined since the mid-1990s (2,3). To determine whether ESRD-D incidence has continued to decline in the United States overall and in each state, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, CDC analyzed 2000-2014 data from the U.S. Renal Data System and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. During that period, the age-standardized ESRD-D incidence among persons with diagnosed diabetes declined from 260.2 to 173.9 per 100,000 diabetic population (33%), and declined significantly in most states, DC, and Puerto Rico. No state experienced an increase in ESRD-D incidence rates. Continued awareness of risk factors for kidney failure and interventions to improve diabetes care might sustain and improve these trends.

  16. The quantum state vector in phase space and Gabor's windowed Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, A J; Watson, P


    Representations of quantum state vectors by complex phase space amplitudes, complementing the description of the density operator by the Wigner function, have been defined by applying the Weyl-Wigner transform to dyadic operators, linear in the state vector and anti-linear in a fixed 'window state vector'. Here aspects of this construction are explored, and a connection is established with Gabor's 'windowed Fourier transform'. The amplitudes that arise for simple quantum states from various choices of windows are presented as illustrations. Generalized Bargmann representations of the state vector appear as special cases, associated with Gaussian windows. For every choice of window, amplitudes lie in a corresponding linear subspace of square-integrable functions on phase space. A generalized Born interpretation of amplitudes is described, with both the Wigner function and a generalized Husimi function appearing as quantities linear in an amplitude and anti-linear in its complex conjugate. Schroedinger's time-dependent and time-independent equations are represented on phase space amplitudes, and their solutions described in simple cases.

  17. Smooth transition from sudden to adiabatic states in heavy-ion fusion reactions at deep-subbarrier incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatoshi, Ichikawa; Kouichi, Hagino; Akira, Iwamoto


    We propose a novel extension of the standard coupled-channel (CC) model in order to account for the steep falloff of fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier incident energies. We introduce a damping factor in the coupling potential in the CC model, simulating smooth transitions from sudden to adiabatic states in deep- subbarrier fusion reactions. The CC model extended with the damping factor can reproduce well not only the steep falloff of the fusion cross section but also the saturation of the logarithmic derivatives for the fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier energies for the 16 O+ 208 Pb, 64 Ni+ 64 Ni, and 58 Ni+ 58 Ni reactions at the deep-subbarrier energies. The important point in our model is that the transition takes place at different places for each Eigen channel. We conclude that the smooth transition from the two-body to the adiabatic one-body potential is responsible for the steep falloff of the fusion cross section

  18. A Stochastic and State Space Model for Tumour Growth and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yuan Tan


    Full Text Available We develop a state space model documenting Gompertz behaviour of tumour growth. The state space model consists of two sub-models: a stochastic system model that is an extension of the deterministic model proposed by Gyllenberg and Webb (1991, and an observation model that is a statistical model based on data for the total number of tumour cells over time. In the stochastic system model we derive through stochastic equations the probability distributions of the numbers of different types of tumour cells. Combining with the statistic model, we use these distribution results to develop a generalized Bayesian method and a Gibbs sampling procedure to estimate the unknown parameters and to predict the state variables (number of tumour cells. We apply these models and methods to real data and to computer simulated data to illustrate the usefulness of the models, the methods, and the procedures.

  19. Steady-State Magneto-Optical Trap with 100-Fold Improved Phase-Space Density (United States)

    Bennetts, Shayne; Chen, Chun-Chia; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Schreck, Florian


    We demonstrate a continuously loaded 88Sr magneto-optical trap (MOT) with a steady-state phase-space density of 1.3 (2 )×10-3 . This is 2 orders of magnitude higher than reported in previous steady-state MOTs. Our approach is to flow atoms through a series of spatially separated laser cooling stages before capturing them in a MOT operated on the 7.4-kHz linewidth Sr intercombination line using a hybrid slower+MOT configuration. We also demonstrate producing a Bose-Einstein condensate at the MOT location, despite the presence of laser cooling light on resonance with the 30-MHz linewidth transition used to initially slow atoms in a separate chamber. Our steady-state high phase-space density MOT is an excellent starting point for a continuous atom laser and dead-time free atom interferometers or clocks.

  20. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.


    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  1. A state-space Bayesian framework for estimating biogeochemical transformations using time-lapse geophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K.; Pride, S.; Li, L.; Steefel, C.; Slater, L.


    We develop a state-space Bayesian framework to combine time-lapse geophysical data with other types of information for quantitative estimation of biogeochemical parameters during bioremediation. We consider characteristics of end-products of biogeochemical transformations as state vectors, which evolve under constraints of local environments through evolution equations, and consider time-lapse geophysical data as available observations, which could be linked to the state vectors through petrophysical models. We estimate the state vectors and their associated unknown parameters over time using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. To demonstrate the use of the state-space approach, we apply it to complex resistivity data collected during laboratory column biostimulation experiments that were poised to precipitate iron and zinc sulfides during sulfate reduction. We develop a petrophysical model based on sphere-shaped cells to link the sulfide precipitate properties to the time-lapse geophysical attributes and estimate volume fraction of the sulfide precipitates, fraction of the dispersed, sulfide-encrusted cells, mean radius of the aggregated clusters, and permeability over the course of the experiments. Results of the case study suggest that the developed state-space approach permits the use of geophysical datasets for providing quantitative estimates of end-product characteristics and hydrological feedbacks associated with biogeochemical transformations. Although tested here on laboratory column experiment datasets, the developed framework provides the foundation needed for quantitative field-scale estimation of biogeochemical parameters over space and time using direct, but often sparse wellbore data with indirect, but more spatially extensive geophysical datasets.

  2. You Pretty Little Flocker: Exploring the Aesthetic State Space of Creative Ecosystems. (United States)

    Eldridge, Alice


    Artificial life models constitute a rich compendium of tools for the generative arts; complex, self-organizing, emergent behaviors have great interactive and generative potential. But how can we go beyond simply visualizing scientific simulations and manipulate these models for use in design and creative art contexts? You Pretty Little Flocker is a proof-of-concept study in expanding and exploring the aesthetic state space of a model for generative design. A modified version of Reynolds' flocking algorithm (1987) is described in which the space of possible images is extended and navigable in a way that at once provides user control and maintains generative autonomy.

  3. Inequities in coverage of smokefree space policies within the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lowrie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found extensive geographic and demographic differences in tobacco use. These differences have been found to be reduced by effective public policies, including banning smoking in public spaces. Smokefree indoor and outdoor spaces reduce secondhand smoke exposure and denormalize smoking. Methods We evaluated regional and demographic differences in the proportion of the population covered by smokefree policies enacted in the United States prior to 2014, for both adults and children. Results Significant differences in coverage were found by ethnicity, region, income, and education (p < 0.001. Smokefree policy coverage was lower for jurisdictions with higher proportions of poor households, households with no high school diploma and the Southeast region. Increased ethnic heterogeneity was found to be a significant predictor of coverage in indoor “public spaces generally”, meaning that diversity is protective, with differential effect by region (p = 0.004 – which may relate to urbanicity. Children had a low level of protection in playgrounds and schools (~10% covered nationwide – these spaces were found to be covered at lower rates than indoor spaces. Conclusions Disparities in smokefree space policies have potential to exacerbate existing health inequities. A national increase in smokefree policies to protect children in playgrounds and schools is a crucial intervention to reduce such inequities.

  4. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic site and disease stage in the United States from 1976 to 2005. (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Eng, Cathy; Nieman, Linda Z; Kapadia, Asha S; Du, Xianglin L


    The objectives of the current study were to examine the trends in incidence rates of subsite-specific colorectal cancer at all stages in a large US population and to explore the impact of age and sex on colorectal cancer incidence. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 registries. Colorectal cancer incidence was divided into 3 anatomic subsite groupings: proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Incidence rates and relative risk were calculated using the SEER*Stat software provided by the National Cancer Institute. From 1976 to 2005, age-adjusted incidence of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers per 100,000 population have steadily decreased from 22.5, 18.8, and 19.2 to 21.1, 11.7, and 13.6, respectively, contributing to the overall decline in the incidence of colorectal cancer from 60.5 to 46.4. Distal colon cancer had the greatest incidence decline (-37.79%), whereas the most minimal change in the incidence rates occurred for proximal colon cancer (-6.37%) because of increased incidence rates of ascending colon (24.8%) and hepatic flexure (21.3%) over 30 years. The steadily increased proportion of proximal colorectal cancer subsites was observed in both men and women starting at age 50 although women experienced a greater increase than did men. Overall incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased over the past 3 decades. The percent of ascending colon and hepatic flexure cancers diagnosed at early stages (localized and regional) increased. The finding on sex difference over years suggests that great attention should be paid in the future studies to male and female disparities.

  5. Prediction of Safety Incidents (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  6. Incidence and Trends of Six Types of Cancer in Populations Environmentally Exposed to Obsolete Pesticides in the Colombian State of Cesar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas H, Martha P


    Objective: To determine incidence and trends related to the appearance of bladder, kidney, non melanoma skin (except head and neck),lung, liver and colon cancer in the State of Cesar and in the entirety of its municipalities from January 1, 1998-December 31, 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transverse epidemiologic study carried out in the municipalities of the State of Cesar where environmental exposure to obsolete or near obsolete pesticides had occurred. Census of secondary information sources was conducted at main geographical points where state residents sought medical care. Active data collection (at the source) was employed in accordance with Population Cancer Registry. Results: In the State of Cesar, between 1998-2006, average annual percentage and statistically significant changes occurred in the incidence of lung, colon, and rectal cancers for both sexes, and of non melanoma skin cancer for men. The municipalities of Agustin Codazzi and El Copey revealed age standard rates (ASR) above the state average for liver cancer in both sexes, and for bladder cancer in women. Gender related multiple ASR for the municipalities of Valledupar, Aguachica, Pailitas and La Paz stood out with respectively higher ASR than that for the entire State of Cesar. Conclusions: It is possible that there is a statistical and geospatial association between the incidence of the following cancers and the environmental exposure to PLADES: (a) bladder cancer in women, in Agustin Codazzi and El Copey; (b) bladder cancer in men, only in El Copey, and (c) non melanoma skin cancer in men, only in Agustin Codazzi.

  7. Quantum corrections in thermal states of fermions on anti-de Sitter space-time (United States)

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth


    We study the energy density and pressure of a relativistic thermal gas of massless fermions on four-dimensional Minkowski and anti-de Sitter space-times using relativistic kinetic theory. The corresponding quantum field theory quantities are given by components of the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor operator acting on a thermal state. On Minkowski space-time, the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor is by definition zero, while on anti-de Sitter space-time the vacuum contribution to this expectation value is in general nonzero. We compare the properties of the vacuum and thermal expectation values of the energy density and pressure for massless fermions and discuss the circumstances in which the thermal contribution dominates over the vacuum one.

  8. Urban Green Space and the Pursuit of Health Equity in Parts of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings


    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges. The projects cover locations such as Atlanta (GA, Los Angeles (CA, the District of Columbia (Washington D.C., South Bronx (NY, and Utica (NY. Such insight can develop our understanding of green space projects that support health equity and inform the dialogue on this topic in ways that advance research and advocacy.

  9. Event Driven Automatic State Modification of BNL's Booster for NASA Space Radiation Laboratory Solor Particle Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Kevin A; Harvey, Margaret; Morris, John; Rusek, Adam; Tsoupas, Nicholaos


    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will desribe the system and present results of beam tests.

  10. Point prevalence and incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in captive elephants in the United States of America. (United States)

    Feldman, Melissa; Isaza, Ramiro; Prins, Cindy; Hernandez, Jorge


    Captive elephants infected with tuberculosis are implicated as an occupational source of zoonotic tuberculosis. However, accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence of elephant tuberculosis from well-defined captive populations are lacking in the literature. Studies published in recent years contain a wide range of prevalence estimates calculated from summary data. Incidence estimates of elephant tuberculosis in captive elephants are not available. This study estimated the annual point prevalence, annual incidence, cumulative incidence, and incidence density of tuberculosis in captive elephants within the USA during the past 52 years. We combined existing elephant census records from captive elephants in the USA with tuberculosis culture results obtained from trunk washes or at necropsy. This data set included 15 years where each elephant was screened annually. Between 1960 and 1996, the annual point prevalence of tuberculosis complex mycobacteria for both species was 0. From 1997 through 2011, the median point prevalence within the Asian elephant population was 5.1%, with a range from 0.3% to 6.7%. The incidence density was 9.7 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 7.0-13.4). In contrast, the annual point prevalence during the same time period within the African elephant population remained 0 and the incidence density was 1.5 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 0.7-4.0). The apparent increase in new cases noted after 1996 resulted from a combination of both index cases and the initiation of mandatory annual tuberculosis screening in 1997 for all the elephants. This study found lower annual point prevalence estimates than previously reported in the literature. These discrepancies in prevalence estimates are primarily due to differences in terminology and calculation methods. Using the same intensive testing regime, the incidence of tuberculosis differed significantly between Asian and African elephants. Accurate and species specific knowledge of prevalence and

  11. The actual state of the effects, treatment and incidence of disabling pain in a gender perspective-- a Swedish study. (United States)

    Müllersdorf, M; Söderback, I


    The purpose of the study was to elicit the actual state of self-perceived experience of long-term and/or recurrent pain and its effects as reported by women and men with disabilities due to pain, in order to determine criteria for assessing the need for measures in rehabilitation/occupational therapy. The study used a comparative design with a sample randomized from the Swedish population aged 18-58 years (n = 10,000). The inclusion criterion was that the respondents had or had had pain causing activity limitation or restricting participation in daily life. A special questionnaire including items concerning demography, pain, coping, occupations in daily life, work, treatments, care institutions and hospital/care staff visited, was posted to 1,849 persons and was answered by 1,448 respondents (study group n = 1,305, control group n= 117). Gender differences were found in the overall prevalence of pain, women reporting more frequent episodes of pain than men did. Differences were also found in pain variables, in daily occupations, days of sick-leave and work variables. Women completed more varied treatment than men. The incidence rate of long-term/recurrent pain in the population studied was 0.07. As a conclusion from this study, three essential components are suggested for use when assessing the need for rehabilitation/occupational therapy: (1) shoulder/arm or lower back pain of aching, tensed and/or searing character, particularly among women; (2) emotional/affective pain effects causing restlessness and depression, particularly among women; and (3) limitations in daily occupations assessed by FSQ and the demand/control/support model with results falling within the warning zones plus long sick-leave periods.

  12. Muscle artifact suppression using independent-component analysis and state-space modeling. (United States)

    Santillán-Guzmán, Alina; Heute, Ulrich; Stephani, Ulrich; Galka, Andreas


    In this paper, we aim at suppressing the muscle artifacts present in electroencephalographic (EEG) signals with a technique based on a combination of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and State-Space Modeling (SSM). The novel algorithm uses ICA to provide an initial model for SSM which is further optimized by the maximum-likelihood approach. This model is fitted to artifact-free data. Then it is applied to data with muscle artifacts. The state space is augmented by extracting additional components from the data prediction errors. The muscle artifacts are well separated in the additional components and, hence, a suppression of them can be performed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by application to a clinical epilepsy EEG data set.

  13. A state space approach for the eigenvalue problem of marine risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras


    A numerical state-space approach is proposed to examine the natural frequencies and critical buckling limits of marine risers. A large axial tension in the riser model causes numerical limitations. These limitations are overcome by using the modified Gram–Schmidt orthonormalization process as an intermediate step during the numerical integration process with the fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The obtained results are validated against those obtained with other numerical methods, such as the finite-element, Galerkin, and power-series methods, and are found to be in good agreement. The state-space approach is shown to be computationally more efficient than the other methods. Also, we investigate the effect of a high applied tension, a high apparent weight, and higher-order modes on the accuracy of the numerical scheme. We demonstrate that, by applying the orthonormalization process, the stability and convergence of the approach are significantly improved.

  14. Algorithms for a parallel implementation of Hidden Markov Models with a small state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper; Sand, Andreas


    Two of the most important algorithms for Hidden Markov Models are the forward and the Viterbi algorithms. We show how formulating these using linear algebra naturally lends itself to parallelization. Although the obtained algorithms are slow for Hidden Markov Models with large state spaces......, they require very little communication between processors, and are fast in practice on models with a small state space. We have tested our implementation against two other imple- mentations on artificial data and observe a speed-up of roughly a factor of 5 for the forward algorithm and more than 6...... for the Viterbi algorithm. We also tested our algorithm in the Coalescent Hidden Markov Model framework, where it gave a significant speed-up....

  15. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability from soil physical properties using state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe; Møldrup, Per; Nielsen, Don


    Estimates of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and air permeability (k(a)) at given soil-water potentials are often used as reference points in constitutive models for K and k(a) as functions of moisture content and are, therefore, a prerequisite for predicting migration of water, air, and dissolved...... and gaseous chemicals in the vadose zone. In this study, three modeling approaches were used to identify the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-S) and air permeability at -100 cm H2O soil-water potential (k(a100)) on soil physical properties in undisturbed soil: (i) Multiple regression, (ii......) ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling, and (iii) State-space modeling. In addition to actual soil property values, ARIMA and state-space models account for effects of spatial correlation in soil properties. Measured data along two 70-m-long transects at a 20-year old constructed...

  16. State-space-based harmonic stability analysis for paralleled grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe


    This paper addresses a state-space-based harmonic stability analysis of paralleled grid-connected inverters system. A small signal model of individual inverter is developed, where LCL filter, the equivalent delay of control system, and current controller are modeled. Then, the overall small signal...... model of paralleled grid-connected inverters is built. Finally, the state space-based stability analysis approach is developed to explain the harmonic resonance phenomenon. The eigenvalue traces associated with time delay and coupled grid impedance are obtained, which accounts for how the unstable...... inverter produces the harmonic resonance and leads to the instability of whole paralleled system. The proposed approach reveals the contributions of the grid impedance as well as the coupled effect on other grid-connected inverters under different grid conditions. Simulation and experimental results...

  17. Adaptive control for space debris removal with uncertain kinematics, dynamics and states (United States)

    Huang, Panfeng; Zhang, Fan; Meng, Zhongjie; Liu, Zhengxiong


    As the Tethered Space Robot is considered to be a promising solution for the Active Debris Removal, a lot of problems arise in the approaching, capturing and removing phases. Particularly, kinematics and dynamics parameters of the debris are unknown, and parts of the states are unmeasurable according to the specifics of tether, which is a tough problem for the target retrieval/de-orbiting. This work proposes a full adaptive control strategy for the space debris removal via a Tethered Space Robot with unknown kinematics, dynamics and part of the states. First we derive a dynamics model for the retrieval by treating the base satellite (chaser) and the unknown space debris (target) as rigid bodies in the presence of offsets, and involving the flexibility and elasticity of tether. Then, a full adaptive controller is presented including a control law, a dynamic adaption law, and a kinematic adaption law. A modified controller is also presented according to the peculiarities of this system. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of two proposed controllers.

  18. Construction of rigged Hilbert spaces to describe resonances and virtual states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadella, M.


    In the present communication we present a mathematical formalism for the description of resonances and virtual states. We start by constructing rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy class functions restricted to the positive half of the real line. Then resonances and virtual states can be written as generalized eigenvectors of the total Hamiltonian. We also define time evolution on functionals. We see that the time evolution group U(t) splits into two semigroups, one for t > 0 and the other for t < 0, hence showing the irreversibility of the decaying process

  19. Surface states of topological insulators: the Dirac fermion in curved two-dimensional spaces. (United States)

    Lee, Dung-Hai


    The surface of a topological insulator is a closed two-dimensional manifold. The surface states are described by the Dirac Hamiltonian in curved two-dimensional spaces. For a slablike sample with a magnetic field perpendicular to its top and bottom surfaces, there are chiral states delocalized on the four side faces. These "chiral sheets" carry both charge and spin currents. In strong magnetic fields, the quantized charge Hall effect [sigma(xy) = (2n + 1)e2/h] will coexist with spin Hall effect.

  20. Recursive prediction error methods for online estimation in nonlinear state-space models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ljungquist


    Full Text Available Several recursive algorithms for online, combined state and parameter estimation in nonlinear state-space models are discussed in this paper. Well-known algorithms such as the extended Kalman filter and alternative formulations of the recursive prediction error method are included, as well as a new method based on a line-search strategy. A comparison of the algorithms illustrates that they are very similar although the differences can be important for the online tracking capabilities and robustness. Simulation experiments on a simple nonlinear process show that the performance under certain conditions can be improved by including a line-search strategy.

  1. Effect of stress-state and spacing on voids in a shear-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    in the overall average stress state can be prescribed. This also allows for studies of the effect of different initial void spacing in the two in-plane coordinate directions. The stress states considered are essentially simple shear, with various levels of tensile stresses or compressive stresses superposed, i.......e. low positive stress triaxiality or even negative stress triaxiality. For high aspect ratio unit cells a clear localization band is found inside the cell, which actually represents several parallel bands, due to periodicity. In the materials represented by a low aspect ratio unit cell localization...

  2. Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels


    Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila


    The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...

  3. State-space prediction of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao


    Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately predict spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be predicted and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a state-space model to predict spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a state-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best state-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, state-space modeling was a useful tool for predicting spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.

  4. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.


    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  5. State-Space Dynamic Model for Estimation of Radon Entry Rate, based on Kalman Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Jílek, K.


    Roč. 98, - (2007), s. 285-297 ISSN 0265-931X Grant - others:GA SÚJB JC_11/2006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air ventilation rate * radon entry rate * state-space modeling * extended Kalman filter * maximum likelihood estimation * prediction error decomposition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2007

  6. Inferring nonlinear lateral flow immunoassay state-space models via an unscented Kalman filter


    Zeng, N; Wang, Z; Zhang, H


    This paper is concerned with the problem of learning structure of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) devices via short but available time series of the experiment measurement. The model for the LFIA is considered as a nonlinear state-space model that includes equations describing both the biochemical reaction process of LFIA system and the observation output. Especially, the time-delays occurring among the biochemical reactions are considered in the established model. Furthermore, we utilize...

  7. Quantum limits to information about states for finite dimensional Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.R.W.


    A refined bound for the correlation information of an N-trial apparatus is developed via an heuristic argument for Hilbert spaces of arbitrary finite dimensionality. Conditional upon the proof of an easily motivated inequality it was possible to find the optimal apparatus for large ensemble quantum Inference, thereby solving the asymptotic optimal state determination problem. In this way an alternative inferential uncertainty principle, is defined which is then contrasted with the usual Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 6 refs

  8. Inclusion of the frequency effect in the lumped parameters transmission line model: State space formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Sergio; Yamanaka, Fabio N.R.; Prado, Afonso J. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Avenida Brasil Centro 56, Caixa Postal 31, Ilha Solteira, SP, CEP 15385-000 (Brazil); Pissolato, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6101, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The objective of this paper is to include the frequency dependence of the longitudinal parameters in the lumped parameters line model. The distributed nature of the transmission line was approximated by a cascade of {pi} circuits and the frequency effect was approximated by a rational function which was synthesized by an equivalent circuit. Then, the equivalent circuit was inserted in each {pi} circuit of the cascade. After that, the currents and voltages along the line were described in the form of state equations. This way, it was possible to obtain a formation rule of the state matrices lumped parameters model taking into account the frequency dependence. To confirm the validation of the state matrices obtained, the lumped parameters representation of frequency-dependent lines was used to represent a single-phase line and a three-phase line. The simulations were carried out using state space techniques and an electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) (in this case, the cascade was inserted in the EMTP). It is observed that the simulation results obtained with state space representation are in agreement with those results obtained with EMTP. (author)

  9. Probing quantum state space: does one have to learn everything to learn something? (United States)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro


    Determining the state of a quantum system is a consuming procedure. For this reason, whenever one is interested only in some particular property of a state, it would be desirable to design a measurement set-up that reveals this property with as little effort as possible. Here, we investigate whether, in order to successfully complete a given task of this kind, one needs an informationally complete measurement, or if something less demanding would suffice. The first alternative means that in order to complete the task, one needs a measurement which fully determines the state. We formulate the task as a membership problem related to a partitioning of the quantum state space and, in doing so, connect it to the geometry of the state space. For a general membership problem, we prove various sufficient criteria that force informational completeness, and we explicitly treat several physically relevant examples. For the specific cases that do not require informational completeness, we also determine bounds on the minimal number of measurement outcomes needed to ensure success in the task.

  10. Influence of Incident Polarization State on Performance of Real-time Transverse Force Sensing using Stokes Parameters in Fiber Bragg Grating (United States)

    Su, Yang; Fu, Xinhao; Zhou, Hua; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Cai, Guangyu; Guo, Yang


    Stokes parameters can be advantageously used to obtain real-time transverse force measurements with uniform FBGs. In this paper, we demonstrate here that the state of polarization (SOP) of incident light can be used to improve the performance of the sensor. The model and the simulations are presented. A 3-paddle fiber polarization controller was used to adjust the azimuth angle and ellipse angle of the light. The experimental results show the great influences of incident SOP on the sensitivity and linear range of the system, which is well agreed with the theoretical prediction. The highest sensitivity of 0.9475/kgf was obtained with good linearity.

  11. Incidence of snakebites from 2007 to 2014 in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, using a Bayesian time series model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Casale Aragon

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The monthly incidence of snakebites from 2007 to 2014 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, was assessed. METHODS: A statistical model based on the discrete double Poisson distribution was proposed, including pairs of sine and cosine functions of time to account for seasonality and autoregressive terms. RESULTS: The analysis indicated a slight increase in the incidence of snakebites. The inclusion of two pairs of trigonometric functions seemed to be relevant in the model adjustment, given the seasonal pattern of the data. CONCLUSIONS: The snakebites occurred predominantly during the warm season, from November to April.

  12. Sun-Burned: Space Weather's Impact on United States National Security (United States)

    Stebbins, B.


    The heightened media attention surrounding the 2013-14 solar maximum presented an excellent opportunity to examine the ever-increasing vulnerability of US national security and its Department of Defense to space weather. This vulnerability exists for three principal reasons: 1) a massive US space-based infrastructure; 2) an almost exclusive reliance on an aging and stressed continental US power grid; and 3) a direct dependence upon a US economy adapted to the conveniences of space and uninterrupted power. I tailored my research and work for the national security policy maker and military strategists in an endeavor to initiate and inform a substantive dialogue on America's preparation for, and response to, a major solar event that would severely degrade core national security capabilities, such as military operations. Significant risk to the Department of Defense exists from powerful events that could impact its space-based infrastructure and even the terrestrial power grid. Given this ever-present and increasing risk to the United States, my work advocates raising the issue of space weather and its impacts to the level of a national security threat. With the current solar cycle having already peaked and the next projected solar maximum just a decade away, the government has a relatively small window to make policy decisions that prepare the nation and its Defense Department to mitigate impacts from these potentially catastrophic phenomena.

  13. State-space modelling for the ejector-based refrigeration system driven by low grade energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Binqiang; Cai, Wenjian; Wang, Xinli


    This paper presents a novel global state-space model to describe the ejector-based refrigeration system, which includes the dynamics of the two heat exchangers and the static properties of ejector, compressor and expansion valve. Different from the existing methods, the proposed method introduces some intermediate variables into the dynamic modelling in developing reduced order models of the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) based on the Number of Transfer Units (NTU) method. This global model with fewer dimensions is much simpler and can be more convenient for the real-time control system design, compared with other dynamic models. Finally, the proposed state-space model has been validated by dynamic response experiments on the ejector-based refrigeration cycle with refrigerant R134a.The experimental results indicate that the proposed model can predict well the dynamics of the ejector-based refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A low-order state-space model of ejector-based refrigeration system is presented. • Reduced-order models of heat exchangers are developed based on NTU method. • The variations of mass flow rates are introduced in multiple fluid phase regions. • Experimental results show the proposed model has a good performance

  14. Ex-ante assessment of the Spanish Occupational Health and Safety Strategy (2007–2012) using a State Space framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnero, María del Carmen; Pedregal, Diego José


    Spain is above the EU-27, EU-25 and EU-15 average in the number of serious work accidents, and it is estimated that Spain is five years behind the rest of Europe in reducing such accidents. To address the problem of the high number of occupational accidents, in 2007 the Spanish Occupational Health and Safety Strategy (SOHSS, 2007–2012) was launched, with the general aim of achieving a continuous and significant reduction in work accidents, approaching the EU average in occupational accidents and illness. This article is an attempt to assess the extent to which the aims of the SOHSS have been satisfied by predicting incidence rates for different levels of accident severity (slight, serious and fatal), accidents that do not require sick leave, and commuting accidents (slight, serious and fatal). With these objectives in mind, both Univariate and Multivariate Unobserved Components models are used in an enhanced State Space framework in order to deal with the irregular sampling interval of the data from 1998 to 2010.

  15. Patterns and Trends in Age-Specific Black-White Differences in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality - United States, 1999-2014. (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa C; Henley, S Jane; Miller, Jacqueline W; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C


    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among U.S. women (1). Compared with white women, black women historically have had lower rates of breast cancer incidence and, beginning in the 1980s, higher death rates (1). This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) (2). Overall rates of breast cancer incidence were similar, but death rates remained higher for black women compared with white women. During 1999-2013, breast cancer incidence decreased among white women but increased slightly among black women resulting in a similar average incidence at the end of the period. Breast cancer incidence trends differed by race and age, particularly from 1999 to 2004-2005, when rates decreased only among white women aged ≥50 years. Breast cancer death rates decreased significantly during 2000-2014, regardless of age with patterns varying by race. For women aged ≥50 years, death rates declined significantly faster among white women compared with black women; among women aged death rates decreased at the same rate among black and white women. Although some of molecular factors that lead to more aggressive breast cancer are known, a fuller understanding of the exact mechanisms might lead to more tailored interventions that could decrease mortality disparities. When combined with population-based approaches to increase knowledge of family history of cancer, increase physical activity, promote a healthy diet to maintain a healthy bodyweight, and increase screening for breast cancer, targeted treatment interventions could reduce racial disparities in breast cancer.

  16. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with a Divided State-Space Strategy for Coupled Data Assimilation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong


    This study considers the data assimilation problem in coupled systems, which consists of two components (subsystems) interacting with each other through certain coupling terms. A straightforward way to tackle the assimilation problem in such systems is to concatenate the states of the subsystems into one augmented state vector, so that a standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be directly applied. This work presents a divided state-space estimation strategy, in which data assimilation is carried out with respect to each individual subsystem, involving quantities from the subsystem itself and correlated quantities from other coupled subsystems. On top of the divided state-space estimation strategy, the authors also consider the possibility of running the subsystems separately. Combining these two ideas, a few variants of the EnKF are derived. The introduction of these variants is mainly inspired by the current status and challenges in coupled data assimilation problems and thus might be of interest from a practical point of view. Numerical experiments with a multiscale Lorenz 96 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of these variants against that of the conventional EnKF. In addition, specific for coupled data assimilation problems, two prototypes of extensions of the presented methods are also developed in order to achieve a trade-offbetween efficiency and accuracy.

  17. A generalized free energy perturbation theory accounting for end states with differing configuration space volume. (United States)

    Ullmann, R Thomas; Ullmann, G Matthias


    We present a generalized free energy perturbation theory that is inspired by Monte Carlo techniques and based on a microstate description of a transformation between two states of a physical system. It is shown that the present free energy perturbation theory stated by the Zwanzig equation follows as a special case of our theory. Our method uses a stochastic mapping of the end states that associates a given microstate from one ensemble with a microstate from the adjacent ensemble according to a probability distribution. In contrast, previous free energy perturbation methods use a static, deterministic mapping that associates fixed pairs of microstates from the two ensembles. The advantages of our approach are that end states of differing configuration space volume can be treated easily also in the case of discrete configuration spaces and that the method does not require the potentially cumbersome search for an optimal deterministic mapping. The application of our theory is illustrated by some example problems. We discuss practical applications for which our findings could be relevant and point out perspectives for further development of the free energy perturbation theory.

  18. Completeness and orthonormality of the Volkov states and the Volkov propagator in configuration space (United States)

    Di Piazza, A.


    Volkov states and Volkov propagator are the basic analytical tools to investigate QED processes occurring in the presence of an intense plane-wave electromagnetic field. In the present paper we provide alternative and relatively simple proofs of the completeness and of the orthonormality at a fixed time of the Volkov states. Concerning the completeness, we exploit some known properties of the Green's function of the Dirac operator in a plane wave, whereas the orthonormality of the Volkov states is proved, relying only on a geometric argument based on the Gauss theorem in four dimensions. In relation with the completeness of the Volkov states, we also study some analytical properties of the Green's function of the Dirac operator in a plane wave, which we explicitly prove to coincide with the Volkov propagator in configuration space. In particular, a closed-form expression in terms of modified Bessel functions and Hankel functions is derived by means of the operator technique in a plane wave and different asymptotic forms are determined. Finally, the transformation properties of the Volkov propagator under general gauge transformations and a general gauge-invariant expression of the so-called dressed mass in configuration space are presented.

  19. Suppression of pattern complexity by discrete-space state feedback with equal intervals (United States)

    Du, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Zhongkui; Yue, Xiaole


    The suppression of the pattern complexity of spatiotemporal chaos in Coupled Acousto-optic Bistable Map Lattice system (CABMLs) is investigated. The pattern complexity of spatiotemporal dynamics is exhibited quantitatively by employing the average Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy density according to the Lyapunov exponents of lattices. By designing a global control method with periodic state feedback, we provide the stability analysis for suppressing spatiotemporal chaos to a stable state. Then, a pattern control strategy using discrete-space state feedback with equal intervals is proposed. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the pattern complexity of spatiotemporal chaos is decreased to a low level by the proposed method. Finally, the dependence of the control effect on the control interval is discussed in detail by considering the control efficiency and control cost and the optimal control interval is obtained.

  20. Optimal and unbiased FIR filtering in discrete time state space with smoothing and predictive properties (United States)

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar


    We address p-shift finite impulse response optimal (OFIR) and unbiased (UFIR) algorithms for predictive filtering ( p > 0), filtering ( p = 0), and smoothing filtering ( p designed for linear time-invariant state-space signal models with white Gaussian noise. The OFIR filter self-determines the initial mean square state function by solving the discrete algebraic Riccati equation. The UFIR one represented both in the batch and iterative Kalman-like forms does not require the noise covariances and initial errors. An example of applications is given for smoothing and predictive filtering of a two-state polynomial model. Based upon this example, we show that exact optimality is redundant when N ≫ 1 and still a nice suboptimal estimate can fairly be provided with a UFIR filter at a much lower cost.

  1. Stochastic State Space Modelling of Nonlinear systems - With application to Marine Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    of unobserved states. Based on estimation of random walk hidden states and examination of simulated distributions and stationarity characteristics, a methodological framework for structural identification based on information embedded in the observations of the system has been developed. The applicability......This thesis deals with stochastic dynamical systems in discrete and continuous time. Traditionally dynamical systems in continuous time are modelled using Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Even the most complex system of ODEs will not be able to capture every detail of a complex system like...... a natural ecosystem, and hence residual variation between the model and observations will always remain. In stochastic state-space models the residual variation is separated into observation and system noise and a main theme of the thesis is a proper description of the system noise. Additive Gaussian noise...

  2. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J.


    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS) thruster disturbances. A Kalman filter is applied to a plant model augmented with sinusoidal disturbance states used to model both the effect of the rotor imbalance and the 155 thrusters on the CR relative motion measurement. The sinusoidal disturbance states compensate for the lack of the availability of plant inputs for use in the Kalman filter. Testing confirms that complete disturbance modeling is necessary to ensure reliable estimation. Further testing goes on to show that increased estimator operational bandwidth can be achieved through the expansion of the disturbance model within the filter dynamics. In addition, Monte Carlo analysis shows the varying levels of robustness against defined plant/filter uncertainty variations.

  3. State-space dimensionality in short-memory hidden-variable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montina, Alberto


    Recently we have presented a hidden-variable model of measurements for a qubit where the hidden-variable state-space dimension is one-half the quantum-state manifold dimension. The absence of a short memory (Markov) dynamics is the price paid for this dimensional reduction. The conflict between having the Markov property and achieving the dimensional reduction was proved by Montina [A. Montina, Phys. Rev. A 77, 022104 (2008)] using an additional hypothesis of trajectory relaxation. Here we analyze in more detail this hypothesis introducing the concept of invertible process and report a proof that makes clearer the role played by the topology of the hidden-variable space. This is accomplished by requiring suitable properties of regularity of the conditional probability governing the dynamics. In the case of minimal dimension the set of continuous hidden variables is identified with an object living an N-dimensional Hilbert space whose dynamics is described by the Schroedinger equation. A method for generating the economical non-Markovian model for the qubit is also presented.

  4. Internal climate variability in a state space of statistical moments: ENSO and its asymmetry (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.


    Intrinsic climate variability (ICV) is characterized by the first and second moments of a climate variable and subjected to system analysis in (i) geographical and (ii) state space. It is based on annual surface temperature fields computed over non-overlapping 100-yr segments (equilibrium simulations of Max Planck Institute ESM): last-millennium (800-1799), future climate projection (A1B scenario 2100-99), and 3100-yr unforced control. (i) In geographical space, a linear relationship between first and second moments is noted, most pronounced in the tropics: Negative (positive) regression slopes over the western (eastern) Pacific characterize the asymmetry of surface temperature ICV representing warm and cold ENSO extremes. In A1B the linear regressions largely retain their spatial structure but change in intensity and location. (ii) In state space spanned by a parsimonious set of dominating principal components of the moment fields, cluster centroids reveal the underlying asymmetry dynamics as ENSO and MODOKI modes. (iii) Extreme value estimates are affected by this first-second moment relation accounting for clustering of extremes.

  5. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space. (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B


    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effects of climatic and social factors on dengue incidence in Mexican municipalities in the state of Veracruz. (United States)

    Moreno-Banda, Grea Litai; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hurtado-Díaz, Magali; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Rothenberg, Stephen Joel


    To assess links between the social variables and longer-term El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related weather conditions as they relate to the week-to-week changes in dengue incidence at a regional level. We collected data from 10 municipalities of the Olmeca region in México, over a 10 year period (January 1995 to December 2005). Negative binomial models with distributed lags were adjusted to look for associations between changes in the weekly incidence rate of dengue fever and climate variability. Our results show that it takes approximately six weeks for sea surface temperatures (SST -34) to affect dengue incidence adjusted by weather and social variables. Such models could be used as early as two months in advance to provide information to decision makers about potential epidemics. Elucidating the effect of climatic variability and social variables, could assist in the development of accurate early warning systems for epidemics like dengue, Chikungunya and Zika.

  7. Principle of minimum distance in space of states as new principle in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D. B.; Ion, M. L. D.


    The mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) appears to have been a philosophical optimist having written: 'Since the fabric of universe is the most perfect and is the work of the most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever take place in this universe in which some relation of maximum or minimum does not appear. Wherefore, there is absolutely no doubt that every effect in universe can be explained as satisfactory from final causes themselves the aid of the method of Maxima and Minima, as can from the effective causes'. Having in mind this kind of optimism in the papers mentioned in this work we introduced and investigated the possibility to construct a predictive analytic theory of the elementary particle interaction based on the principle of minimum distance in the space of quantum states (PMD-SQS). So, choosing the partial transition amplitudes as the system variational variables and the distance in the space of the quantum states as a measure of the system effectiveness, we obtained the results presented in this paper. These results proved that the principle of minimum distance in space of quantum states (PMD-SQS) can be chosen as variational principle by which we can find the analytic expressions of the partial transition amplitudes. In this paper we present a description of hadron-hadron scattering via principle of minimum distance PMD-SQS when the distance in space of states is minimized with two directional constraints: dσ/dΩ(±1) = fixed. Then by using the available experimental (pion-nucleon and kaon-nucleon) phase shifts we obtained not only consistent experimental tests of the PMD-SQS optimality, but also strong experimental evidences for new principles in hadronic physics such as: Principle of nonextensivity conjugation via the Riesz-Thorin relation (1/2p + 1/2q = 1) and a new Principle of limited uncertainty in nonextensive quantum physics. The strong experimental evidence obtained here for the nonextensive statistical behavior of the [J,

  8. State Space Model Predictive Control of a Multi Stage Electro-metallurgical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the proposed application of a novel technique for Model Predictive Control to a multistage electrometallurgical process. The novel control technique is based upon high speed repetitive simulation of a non-linear state space model of the process including relevant constraints, and searching in a parameterized control space by an efficient optimization routine until an optimal set of control actions has been found. This MPC-technique is not limited to linear processes with quadratic objective functionals and is therefore believed to offer a major improvement to the control of many industrial processes where the standard, linear control solutions fail because of non-linearities and constraints in the process system.

  9. Two Temperature Magneto-Thermoelasticity with Initial Stress: State Space Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Deswal


    Full Text Available Magneto-thermoelastic interactions in an initially stressed isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space with two temperatures are studied using mathematical methods under the purview of the L-S model of linear theory of generalized thermoelasticity. The formalism deals with the state space approach with the purpose of counteracting the difficulties of handling the displacement potential functions. Of specific concern here is the propagation of waves owing to ramp type increase in temperature and load. The medium is considered to be permeated by a uniform magnetic field. The expressions for different field parameters such as displacement, temperature, strain, and stress in the physical domain are obtained by applying a numerical inversion technique. Results of some earlier workers have been deduced from the present formulation. Numerical work is also performed for a suitable material with the aim of illustrating the results.

  10. Robust hierarchical state-space models reveal diel variation in travel rates of migrating leatherback turtles. (United States)

    Jonsen, Ian D; Myers, Ransom A; James, Michael C


    1. Biological and statistical complexity are features common to most ecological data that hinder our ability to extract meaningful patterns using conventional tools. Recent work on implementing modern statistical methods for analysis of such ecological data has focused primarily on population dynamics but other types of data, such as animal movement pathways obtained from satellite telemetry, can also benefit from the application of modern statistical tools. 2. We develop a robust hierarchical state-space approach for analysis of multiple satellite telemetry pathways obtained via the Argos system. State-space models are time-series methods that allow unobserved states and biological parameters to be estimated from data observed with error. We show that the approach can reveal important patterns in complex, noisy data where conventional methods cannot. 3. Using the largest Atlantic satellite telemetry data set for critically endangered leatherback turtles, we show that the diel pattern in travel rates of these turtles changes over different phases of their migratory cycle. While foraging in northern waters the turtles show similar travel rates during day and night, but on their southward migration to tropical waters travel rates are markedly faster during the day. These patterns are generally consistent with diving data, and may be related to changes in foraging behaviour. Interestingly, individuals that migrate southward to breed generally show higher daytime travel rates than individuals that migrate southward in a non-breeding year. 4. Our approach is extremely flexible and can be applied to many ecological analyses that use complex, sequential data.

  11. Generalized state spaces and nonlocality in fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanje, N.; Virmani, S.


    We develop connections between generalized notions of entanglement and quantum computational devices where the measurements available are restricted, either because they are noisy and/or because by design they are only along Pauli directions. By considering restricted measurements one can (by considering the dual positive operators) construct single-particle-state spaces that are different to the usual quantum-state space. This leads to a modified notion of entanglement that can be very different to the quantum version (for example, Bell states can become separable). We use this approach to develop alternative methods of classical simulation that have strong connections to the study of nonlocal correlations: we construct noisy quantum computers that admit operations outside the Clifford set and can generate some forms of multiparty quantum entanglement, but are otherwise classical in that they can be efficiently simulated classically and cannot generate nonlocal statistics. Although the approach provides new regimes of noisy quantum evolution that can be efficiently simulated classically, it does not appear to lead to significant reductions of existing upper bounds to fault tolerance thresholds for common noise models.

  12. State space orderings for Gauss-Seidel in Markov chains revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayar, T. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey)


    Symmetric state space orderings of a Markov chain may be used to reduce the magnitude of the subdominant eigenvalue of the (Gauss-Seidel) iteration matrix. Orderings that maximize the elemental mass or the number of nonzero elements in the dominant term of the Gauss-Seidel splitting (that is, the term approximating the coefficient matrix) do not necessarily converge faster. An ordering of a Markov chain that satisfies Property-R is semi-convergent. On the other hand, there are semi-convergent symmetric state space orderings that do not satisfy Property-R. For a given ordering, a simple approach for checking Property-R is shown. An algorithm that orders the states of a Markov chain so as to increase the likelihood of satisfying Property-R is presented. The computational complexity of the ordering algorithm is less than that of a single Gauss-Seidel iteration (for sparse matrices). In doing all this, the aim is to gain an insight for faster converging orderings. Results from a variety of applications improve the confidence in the algorithm.

  13. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.


    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  14. Trends in incidence and survival for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in the state of Victoria--Australia. (United States)

    Woodford, Richard; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Aw, Hau Choong; Sengupta, Shomik; Persad, Raj


    To investigate the incidence and mortality trends of upper tract urothelial cancers (UTUC) in Victoria over the last decade. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for UTUC. These were identified using data from the Victorian Cancer Registry from 2001 until 2011 based on histological diagnoses. Age at diagnosis, sex and demographical location were compared. The age-standardised incidence of UTUC remained stable from 2001 to 2011. There were 278 deaths from UTUC over this period with an overall 5-year survival rate of 32%. There was no significant difference in survival between 2001-06 and 2007-11 (30% vs 36%, respectively). Lower age at diagnosis was associated with a significant improvement in survival (P = 0.01). Sex and geographical location appeared to have no effect on survival. The 5-year survival rates for UTUC in Victoria are poor, particularly in comparison to worldwide data. In contrast to worldwide trends, the incidence of UTUC appears to be stable. No significant improvement in 5-year survival rates over the short study period was identified. These findings highlight the difficulties in managing this rare yet deadly malignancy. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The consciousness state space (CSS)-a unifying model for consciousness and self. (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph


    Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS) model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience. Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively). CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature. The CSS dynamics include two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlining several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  16. Full-potential multiple scattering theory with space-filling cells for bound and continuum states. (United States)

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero R


    We present a rigorous derivation of a real-space full-potential multiple scattering theory (FP-MST) that is free from the drawbacks that up to now have impaired its development (in particular the need to expand cell shape functions in spherical harmonics and rectangular matrices), valid both for continuum and bound states, under conditions for space partitioning that are not excessively restrictive and easily implemented. In this connection we give a new scheme to generate local basis functions for the truncated potential cells that is simple, fast, efficient, valid for any shape of the cell and reduces to the minimum the number of spherical harmonics in the expansion of the scattering wavefunction. The method also avoids the need for saturating 'internal sums' due to the re-expansion of the spherical Hankel functions around another point in space (usually another cell center). Thus this approach provides a straightforward extension of MST in the muffin-tin (MT) approximation, with only one truncation parameter given by the classical relation l(max) = kR(b), where k is the electron wavevector (either in the excited or ground state of the system under consideration) and R(b) is the radius of the bounding sphere of the scattering cell. Moreover, the scattering path operator of the theory can be found in terms of an absolutely convergent procedure in the l(max) --> ∞ limit. Consequently, this feature provides a firm ground for the use of FP-MST as a viable method for electronic structure calculations and makes possible the computation of x-ray spectroscopies, notably photo-electron diffraction, absorption and anomalous scattering among others, with the ease and versatility of the corresponding MT theory. Some numerical applications of the theory are presented, both for continuum and bound states.

  17. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    phase case, though, the order of the controllers can be reduced to n in all cases. The control problems corresponding to the various controller types are given as four different singular state-space problems, and the solutions are given in terms of the relevant equations and inequalities......The LTR design problem using an JC optimality criterion is presented for two types of recovery errors, the sensitivity recovery error and the input-output recovery error. For both errors two different approaches are presented. First, following the classical LTR design philosophy, a Luenberger...

  18. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ ).......We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...

  19. Conditions for extinction events in chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces. (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D; Anderson, David F; Craciun, Gheorghe; Brijder, Robert


    We study chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces and present sufficient conditions on the structure of the network that guarantee the system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions we derive involve creating a modified chemical reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network and then checking properties of this network. Unlike previous results, our analysis allows algorithmic implementation via systems of equalities and inequalities and suggests sequences of reactions which may lead to extinction events. We apply the results to several networks including an EnvZ-OmpR signaling pathway in Escherichia coli.

  20. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Simon; Coffey, Chris; Gravesen, Jens


    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state...... term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models...

  1. Equilibrium points of the tilted perfect fluid Bianchi VIh state space (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.


    We present the full set of evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous cosmologies of type VIh filled with a tilted perfect fluid and we provide the corresponding equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical state space. It is found that only when the group parameter satisfies h > -1 a self-similar solution exists. In particular we show that for h > -{1/9} there exists a self-similar equilibrium point provided that γ ∈ ({2(3+sqrt{-h})/5+3sqrt{-h}},{3/2}) whereas for h VIh.

  2. Three-body problem in d-dimensional space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability (United States)

    Turbiner, Alexander V.; Miller, Willard; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.


    As a straightforward generalization and extension of our previous paper [A. V. Turbiner et al., "Three-body problem in 3D space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50, 215201 (2017)], we study the aspects of the quantum and classical dynamics of a 3-body system with equal masses, each body with d degrees of freedom, with interaction depending only on mutual (relative) distances. The study is restricted to solutions in the space of relative motion which are functions of mutual (relative) distances only. It is shown that the ground state (and some other states) in the quantum case and the planar trajectories (which are in the interaction plane) in the classical case are of this type. The quantum (and classical) Hamiltonian for which these states are eigenfunctions is derived. It corresponds to a three-dimensional quantum particle moving in a curved space with special d-dimension-independent metric in a certain d-dependent singular potential, while at d = 1, it elegantly degenerates to a two-dimensional particle moving in flat space. It admits a description in terms of pure geometrical characteristics of the interaction triangle which is defined by the three relative distances. The kinetic energy of the system is d-independent; it has a hidden sl(4, R) Lie (Poisson) algebra structure, alternatively, the hidden algebra h(3) typical for the H3 Calogero model as in the d = 3 case. We find an exactly solvable three-body S3-permutationally invariant, generalized harmonic oscillator-type potential as well as a quasi-exactly solvable three-body sextic polynomial type potential with singular terms. For both models, an extra first order integral exists. For d = 1, the whole family of 3-body (two-dimensional) Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems as well as the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz model is reproduced. It is shown that a straightforward generalization of the 3-body (rational) Calogero model to d > 1 leads to two primitive quasi

  3. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for state-space models with point process observations. (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Girolami, Mark; Niranjan, Mahesan


    This letter considers how a number of modern Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods can be applied for parameter estimation and inference in state-space models with point process observations. We quantified the efficiencies of these MCMC methods on synthetic data, and our results suggest that the Reimannian manifold Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method offers the best performance. We further compared such a method with a previously tested variational Bayes method on two experimental data sets. Results indicate similar performance on the large data sets and superior performance on small ones. The work offers an extensive suite of MCMC algorithms evaluated on an important class of models for physiological signal analysis.

  4. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full...

  5. Independence of automorphism group, center, and state space of quantum logics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, M. [Technical Univ. of Prague (Czech Republic)


    We prove that quantum logics (-orthomodular posets) admit full independence of the attributes important within the foundations of quantum mechanics. Namely, we present the construction of quantum logics with given sublogics (=physical subsystems), automorphism groups, centers (={open_quotes}classical parts{close_quotes} of the systems), and state spaces. Thus, all these {open_quotes}parameters{close_quotes} are independent. Our result is rooted in the line of investigation carried out by Greechie; Kallus and Trnkova; Kalmbach; and Navara and Ptak; and considerably enriches the known algebraic methods in orthomodular posets. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede


    . Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory can be reduced, where this faster simulation can be an advantage of a large network simulation. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as the non-linear time-domain simulation. Furthermore, the HSS modeling can describe how...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...

  7. Extraction of Airways with Probabilistic State-Space Models and Bayesian Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    of elongated branches using probabilistic state-space models and Bayesian smoothing. Unlike most existing methods that proceed with sequential tracking of branches, we present an exploratory method, that is less sensitive to local anomalies in the data due to acquisition noise and/or interfering structures....... The evolution of individual branches is modelled using a process model and the observed data is incorporated into the update step of the Bayesian smoother using a measurement model that is based on a multi-scale blob detector. Bayesian smoothing is performed using the RTS (Rauch-Tung-Striebel) smoother, which...

  8. An optical flow-based state-space model of the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas


    High-speed movies of the vocal fold vibration are valuable data to reveal vocal fold features for voice pathology diagnosis. This work presents a suitable Bayesian model and a purely theoretical discussion for further development of a framework for continuum biomechanical features estimation....... A linear and Gaussian nonstationary state-space model is proposed and thoroughly discussed. The evolution model is based on a self-sustained three-dimensional finite element model of the vocal folds, and the observation model involves a dense optical flow algorithm. The results show that the method is able...

  9. Large-signal analysis of DC motor drive system using state-space averaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir Yildiz, Ali


    The analysis of a separately excited DC motor driven by DC-DC converter is realized by using state-space averaging technique. Firstly, a general and unified large-signal averaged circuit model for DC-DC converters is given. The method converts power electronic systems, which are periodic time-variant because of their switching operation, to unified and time independent systems. Using the averaged circuit model enables us to combine the different topologies of converters. Thus, all analysis and design processes about DC motor can be easily realized by using the unified averaged model which is valid during whole period. Some large-signal variations such as speed and current relating to DC motor, steady-state analysis, large-signal and small-signal transfer functions are easily obtained by using the averaged circuit model


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Arkhipov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Thermophysical and optical techniques of parameter regulation for diode pumped solid-state laser are studied as applied to space laser communication and laser ranging lines. Methods. The investigations are carried out on the base of the original design of diode pumped solid-state laser module that includes the following: Nd:YAG slab element, diode pumped by 400W QCW produced by NORTHROP GRUMMAN; two-pass unstable resonator with rotation of the laser beam aperture about its axis through 1800; the output mirror of the resonator with a variable reflection coefficient; hyperthermal conductive plates for thermal stabilization of the laser diode generation modes. The presence of thermal conductive plates excludes conventional running water systems applied as cooling systems for solid-state laser components. The diodes temperature stabilization is achieved by applying the algorithm of pulse-width modulation of power of auxiliary electric heaters. To compensate for non-stationary thermal distortions of the slab refractive index, the laser resonator scheme comprises a prism reflector with an apex angle of 1200. Narrow sides of the prism are covered with reflective coating, and its wide side is sprayed with antireflection coating. The beam aperture is turned around its axis through 1800 because of triple reflection of the beam inside the prism. The turning procedure leads to compensating for the output beam phase distortions in view of symmetric character of the aberrations of slab refractive index. To suppress parasitic oscillations inside the slab, dielectric coatings of wide sides of the slab are used. Main Results. We have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the usage of hyperthermal conductive plates together with the algorithm of pulse-width modulation provides stabilizing of the diode substrate temperature accurate within ± 0.1 °С and smoothing the temperature distribution along the plate surface accurate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Leonardo Guillermo Cordero


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence rate, the cumulative incidence of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS, and the frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lesions of PMWS and PDNS in pigs in a farm in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. A group of production consisting of 235 pigs was observed from 4 to 22 weeks of life to determine the number of new cases compatible with the PMWS and PDNS. In addition pigs necropsied on the farm that were discarded and with signs consistent with syndromes studied. 80 pigs were studied, the organs inspected during the necropsy were the lungs, lymphonodes, spleen, liver, tonsils, ileum, kidneys and skin, samples of all organs were obtained for histopathological studies. The results were: 14 pigs with signs consistent with syndromes mentioned, 7 with the PMWS and 7 with the PDNS. The cumulate incidence and incidence rate for both syndromes was 0.06 and 0.0034 respectively. 5 pigs died, the lethality rate calculated for PMWS y PDNS was 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. The average time elapsed since the start of the observation period until the pigs sick with the PMWS and PDNS were 13.8 and 16.8 weeks respectively. The principal organ affected were the lymphonodes (100% where the main macroscopic injury was a lymphadenomegaly with diffuse edema (56% and the microscopic was a histiocytic lymphadenitis with lymphoid atrophy (64%

  12. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.


    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data......, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach...

  13. Prevalent and incident use of androgen deprivation therapy among men with prostate cancer in the United States. (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott M; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Shahinian, Vahakn B


    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increased substantially through the 1990s, but more recent national trends regarding incident and prevalent use have been incompletely characterized. Linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data were used to study patterns of ADT utilization. Prevalence of ADT in the male Medicare population was estimated by examining a cohort of prostate cancer patients and a 5% noncancer control population, from 1991 to 2005. ADT use across different indications was examined for men with incident cancers from 2000 to 2002. Nested logit models were used to examine determinants of ADT use in men with lower risk prostate cancer not treated definitively by surgery or radiation. Prevalent ADT use increased through the 1990s, peaked in 2000 at 3.17% of all male Medicare beneficiaries, subsequently stabilized, then dropped in 2005 to 2.92%. Between 2000 and 2002, use in incident prostate cancer was stable, with 44.8% use in all cases, 15% of cases as an adjuvant with radiation, and 14% as a primary therapy. In the nested logit model, predictors of ADT use in a lower risk setting were older age, higher stage and grade, and elevated prostate-specific antigen levels. Following a period of rapid expansion during the 1990s, incident and prevalent use of ADT has leveled, and may be starting to decline. Further research is needed to monitor how reductions in reimbursement for GnRH agonists will affect appropriate use of ADT as well as use in settings where its benefits may be marginal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of climatic and social factors on dengue incidence in Mexican municipalities in the state of Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grea Litai Moreno-Banda


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess links between the social variables and longer-term El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO related weather conditions as they relate to the week-to-week changes in dengue incidence at a regional level. Materials and methods. We collected data from 10 municipalities of the Olmeca region in México, over a 10 year period (January 1995 to December 2005. Negative binomial models with distributed lags were adjusted to look for associations between changes in the weekly incidence rate of dengue fever and climate variability. Results. Our results show that it takes approximately six weeks for sea surface temperatures (SST -34 to affect dengue incidence adjusted by weather and social variables. Conclusion. Such models could be used as early as two months in advance to provide information to decision makers about potential epidemics. Elucidating the effect of climatic variability and social variables, could assist in the development of accurate early warning systems for epidemics like dengue, Chikungunya and Zika.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.


    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  16. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media. (United States)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bergmann, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik


    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states. Bacterial growth is limited by the available substrate and the inclusion of diffusion must obey this natural restriction. By inclusion of a modified logistic diffusion term it is possible to introduce a diffusion term flexible enough to capture both the growth phase and the stationary phase, while concentration is restricted to the natural state space (substrate and bacteria non-negative). The case considered is the growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus in a rich media. It is found that a hidden state is necessary to capture the lag phase of growth, and that a flexible logistic diffusion term is needed to capture the random behaviour of the growth model. Further, it is concluded that the Monod effect is not needed to capture the dynamics of bacterial growth in the data presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-space Mapping of Surface Trap States in CIGSe Nanocrystals using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya


    Surface trap states in semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystals (NCs) which serve as undesirable channels for non-radiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with sub-picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.

  18. Quantum-Enhanced Reinforcement Learning for Finite-Episode Games with Discrete State Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Neukart


    Full Text Available Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum annealing machines produced by D-Wave Systems [1], have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology's usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks [2–16]. Here, we present a way to partially embed both Monte Carlo policy iteration for finding an optimal policy on random observations, as well as how to embed n sub-optimal state-value functions for approximating an improved state-value function given a policy for finite horizon games with discrete state spaces on a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processing unit (QPU. We explain how both problems can be expressed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO problem, and show that quantum-enhanced Monte Carlo policy evaluation allows for finding equivalent or better state-value functions for a given policy with the same number episodes compared to a purely classical Monte Carlo algorithm. Additionally, we describe a quantum-classical policy learning algorithm. Our first and foremost aim is to explain how to represent and solve parts of these problems with the help of the QPU, and not to prove supremacy over every existing classical policy evaluation algorithm.

  19. Quantum-enhanced reinforcement learning for finite-episode games with discrete state spaces (United States)

    Neukart, Florian; Von Dollen, David; Seidel, Christian; Compostella, Gabriele


    Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum annealing machines produced by D-Wave Systems, have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology's usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks. Here, we present a way to partially embed both Monte Carlo policy iteration for finding an optimal policy on random observations, as well as how to embed n sub-optimal state-value functions for approximating an improved state-value function given a policy for finite horizon games with discrete state spaces on a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processing unit (QPU). We explain how both problems can be expressed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem, and show that quantum-enhanced Monte Carlo policy evaluation allows for finding equivalent or better state-value functions for a given policy with the same number episodes compared to a purely classical Monte Carlo algorithm. Additionally, we describe a quantum-classical policy learning algorithm. Our first and foremost aim is to explain how to represent and solve parts of these problems with the help of the QPU, and not to prove supremacy over every existing classical policy evaluation algorithm.

  20. Monte carlo inference for state-space models of wild animal populations. (United States)

    Newman, Ken B; Fernández, Carmen; Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T


    We compare two Monte Carlo (MC) procedures, sequential importance sampling (SIS) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), for making Bayesian inferences about the unknown states and parameters of state-space models for animal populations. The procedures were applied to both simulated and real pup count data for the British grey seal metapopulation, as well as to simulated data for a Chinook salmon population. The MCMC implementation was based on tailor-made proposal distributions combined with analytical integration of some of the states and parameters. SIS was implemented in a more generic fashion. For the same computing time MCMC tended to yield posterior distributions with less MC variation across different runs of the algorithm than the SIS implementation with the exception in the seal model of some states and one of the parameters that mixed quite slowly. The efficiency of the SIS sampler greatly increased by analytically integrating out unknown parameters in the observation model. We consider that a careful implementation of MCMC for cases where data are informative relative to the priors sets the gold standard, but that SIS samplers are a viable alternative that can be programmed more quickly. Our SIS implementation is particularly competitive in situations where the data are relatively uninformative; in other cases, SIS may require substantially more computer power than an efficient implementation of MCMC to achieve the same level of MC error.

  1. Space Weather and a State of Cardiovascular System of Human Being with a Weakened Adaptation System (United States)

    Samsonov, S. N.

    As has been shown in [Samsonov et al., 2013] even at the considerable disturbances of space weather parameters a healthy human being did not undergo painful symptoms although measurements of objective physiological indices showed their changes. At the same time the state of health of people with the weakened adaptation system under the same conditions can considerably be deteriorated up to fatal outcome. The analysis of results of the project "Heliomed" and the number of calls for the emergency medical care (EMC) around Yakutsk as to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has shown:- the total number of calls for EMC concerning myocardial infarction (MI) per year near the geomagnetic disturbance maximum (1992) exceeds the number of calls per year near the geomagnetic activity minimum (1998) by a factor of 1,5 and concerning to strokes - by a factor of 1,8.- maxima of MI are observed during spring and autumn periods coinciding with maxima of geophysical disturbance;- the coincidence of 30-32 daily periods in a power spectrum of MI with the same periods in power spectra of space weather parameters (speeds and density of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, geophysical disturbance);- the existence of 3 maxima of the number of calls for EMC: a) at the moment of disturbance on the Sun; during a geophysical disturbance (in 2-4 days after a disturbance on the Sun); in 2-4 days after a geophysical disturbance;- the availability of coincidence of insignificant disturbances of space weather parameters with changes of the functional state of cardiovascular system of a human being with the weakened adaptation system and the occurrence of MI and strokes at considerable values of such disturbances is explained by a quasi-logarithmic dependence of the response of human being organisms to the environment disturbance intensity.

  2. A state-space representation of the GR4J rainfall-runoff model (United States)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles


    In hydrology, the majority of conceptual models are available only in discrete form. This means that the formulations of the models are based on discrete equations instead of continuous ordinary differential equations (ODE) (see Clark and Kavetski, 2010). The time-step is often "hardcoded" in the model formulation. This can represent a problem in particular for creating a time step-variable model. Furthermore, the fluxes in the models are treated sequentially. For example, in the simple GR4J model, the precipitations (if any) are first added to the production store. Then, the updated level is used to compute the percolation from the store. The resulting level obtained at the end of the time step is different to the level which would be obtained if the two operations (i.e. addition of precipitation and percolation) were done simultaneously. Mathematically, this corresponds to an approximation of ODE solution which is called "operator splitting". This allows to solve an equation even if finding an exact solution is impossible but the error produced by this approximation is difficult to determine. For this reason, it is not easy to separate the numerical error of the resolution from the conceptual error. It could represent an important issue to better understand model behaviour and to identify possible improvements. The aim of this presentation is to detail a state-space representation of the simple GR4J model. The state-space representation aims to represent GR4J by an ODE system which provides the internal variables of the model at all times. We will present here the choices made to adapt GR4J to the state-space formulation and to numerically solve this system. Modifications of the model's equations were also made to adapt the model to lower time step in case it would be used for a time step-variable application. The results obtained with this state-space representation of GR4J were very similar to those of the original model in terms of performances and hydrographs

  3. Improving freight crash incident management. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  4. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  5. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry


    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  6. State-space modeling of population sizes and trends in Nihoa Finch and Millerbird (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Brinck, Kevin W.; Camp, Richard J.; Farmer, Chris; Plentovich, Sheldon M.; Banko, Paul C.


    Both of the 2 passerines endemic to Nihoa Island, Hawai‘i, USA—the Nihoa Millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Telespiza ultima)—are listed as endangered by federal and state agencies. Their abundances have been estimated by irregularly implemented fixed-width strip-transect sampling from 1967 to 2012, from which area-based extrapolation of the raw counts produced highly variable abundance estimates for both species. To evaluate an alternative survey method and improve abundance estimates, we conducted variable-distance point-transect sampling between 2010 and 2014. We compared our results to those obtained from strip-transect samples. In addition, we applied state-space models to derive improved estimates of population size and trends from the legacy time series of strip-transect counts. Both species were fairly evenly distributed across Nihoa and occurred in all or nearly all available habitat. Population trends for Nihoa Millerbird were inconclusive because of high within-year variance. Trends for Nihoa Finch were positive, particularly since the early 1990s. Distance-based analysis of point-transect counts produced mean estimates of abundance similar to those from strip-transects but was generally more precise. However, both survey methods produced biologically unrealistic variability between years. State-space modeling of the long-term time series of abundances obtained from strip-transect counts effectively reduced uncertainty in both within- and between-year estimates of population size, and allowed short-term changes in abundance trajectories to be smoothed into a long-term trend.

  7. Backwards State-space Reduction for Planning in Dynamic Knowledge Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Senni


    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of planning in rich domains, where knowledge representation is a key aspect for managing the complexity and size of the planning domain. We follow the approach of Description Logic (DL based Dynamic Knowledge Bases, where a state of the world is represented concisely by a (possibly changing ABox and a (fixed TBox containing the axioms, and actions that allow to change the content of the ABox. The plan goal is given in terms of satisfaction of a DL query. In this paper we start from a traditional forward planning algorithm and we propose a much more efficient variant by combining backward and forward search. In particular, we propose a Backward State-space Reduction technique that consists in two phases: first, an Abstract Planning Graph P is created by using the Abstract Backward Planning Algorithm (ABP, then the abstract planning graph P is instantiated into a corresponding planning graph P by using the Forward Plan Instantiation Algorithm (FPI. The advantage is that in the preliminary ABP phase we produce a symbolic plan that is a pattern to direct the search of the concrete plan. This can be seen as a kind of informed search where the preliminary backward phase is useful to discover properties of the state-space that can be used to direct the subsequent forward phase. We evaluate the effectiveness of our ABP+FPI algorithm in the reduction of the explored planning domain by comparing it to a standard forward planning algorithm and applying both of them to a concrete business case study.

  8. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece. (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George


    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumption of Lake Ontario sport fish and the incidence of colorectal cancer in the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS). (United States)

    Callahan, Catherine L; Vena, John E; Green, Joseph; Swanson, Mya; Mu, Lina; Bonner, Matthew R


    Fish consumption is hypothesized to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consuming sport fish from the Great Lakes increases exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides, which may increase the risk of cancer. Evidence that exposure to persistent organic pollutants is associated with colorectal cancer is sparse. We examined colorectal cancer incidence in the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS), a prospective cohort of 17,110 anglers and spouses age 18-40 years at enrollment. In 1991, participants completed a mailed self-administered questionnaire that ascertained the number of years that fish from Lake Ontario were consumed, as well as potential confounders. Forty-one histologically confirmed first primary incident colorectal cancers diagnosed as of December 31, 2008 were identified via the New York State Cancer Registry. Vital status was ascertained by linkage with the Social Security Administration Death File. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with Poisson regression, adjusting for age, pack-years of smoking, and sex. Compared with never consumers, colorectal cancer incidence was statistically non-significantly lower among consumers of Lake Ontario sport fish (RR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.35; 1.24). Incidence of colon cancer was lower among Lake Ontario sport fish consumers (RR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.20; 1.00). We did not observe any evidence of effect measure modification by sex or age. Although consumption of Lake Ontario sport fish may have an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, inferences are complicated by a small number of cases and a lack of information regarding potential confounders including other dietary factors. However, our results do not provide support for the hypothesis that consumption of contaminated sport fish increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Space resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the supercooled state of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Shinya; Nishida, Akira; Mina, M.F.


    In order to measure an ordering process of polymers, the supercooled state near the crystallizing surface was observed by a space resolved X-ray diffraction method at Photon Factory (PF). Using temperature slope crystallization, low density polyethylene and even-number paraffins were examined during crystallization from the melt state. The results indicate that polyethylene shows a sharp b-axis orientation where the lamellar normal and crystalline c-axis are perpendicular to the temperature slope. The crystalline lamellae are well-developed with lamellar thickness of 180 A. The supercooled melt state just above the crystallizing plane shows some diffraction in the small angle region without any crystalline reflection in the wide angle. This fact suggests that a long-range ordering (lamellar structure) appears prior to the short-range one (crystalline structure). The in-situ crystallizing surface was observed by an optical microscope connected to a TV system. The crystallizing surface of even-number paraffins moves to upwards in the temperature slope. In-situ X-ray measurements at PF revealed that the crystalline c-axis and lamellar normal of the even number paraffins are parallel to the temperature slope. From these results, the crystalline ordering and the surface movement of even number paraffins are explained using special nucleation mechanism including a screw dislocation. (author)

  11. Modal space three-state feedback control for electro-hydraulic servo plane redundant driving mechanism with eccentric load decoupling. (United States)

    Zhao, Jinsong; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chuanbi; Yang, Chifu; Bai, Wenjie; Zhao, Zining


    The shaking table based on electro-hydraulic servo parallel mechanism has the advantage of strong carrying capacity. However, the strong coupling caused by the eccentric load not only affects the degree of freedom space control precision, but also brings trouble to the system control. A novel decoupling control strategy is proposed, which is based on modal space to solve the coupling problem for parallel mechanism with eccentric load. The phenomenon of strong dynamic coupling among degree of freedom space is described by experiments, and its influence on control design is discussed. Considering the particularity of plane motion, the dynamic model is built by Lagrangian method to avoid complex calculations. The dynamic equations of the coupling physical space are transformed into the dynamic equations of the decoupling modal space by using the weighted orthogonality of the modal main mode with respect to mass matrix and stiffness matrix. In the modal space, the adjustments of the modal channels are independent of each other. Moreover, the paper discusses identical closed-loop dynamic characteristics of modal channels, which will realize decoupling for degree of freedom space, thus a modal space three-state feedback control is proposed to expand the frequency bandwidth of each modal channel for ensuring their near-identical responses in a larger frequency range. Experimental results show that the concept of modal space three-state feedback control proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the strong coupling problem of degree of freedom space channels, which verify the effectiveness of the proposed model space state feedback control strategy for improving the control performance of the electro-hydraulic servo plane redundant driving mechanism. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher


    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  13. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    ) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature......In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based...... on popular semi-empirical methods present in the literature and on zero-dimensional energy balance models. We show that some of the models developed in the literature on semi-empirical models can be analysed within this framework. We use the sea-level data reconstruction developed in Church and White (2011...

  14. Space-group approach to two-electron states in unconventional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarzhemsky, V. G.


    The direct application of the space-group representation theory, makes possible to obtain limitations for the symmetry of SOP on lines and planes of symmetry in one-electron Brillouin zone. In the case of highly symmetric UPt 3 only theoretical nodal structure of IR E 2u is in agreement with all the experimental results. On the other hand, in the case of high-T c superconductors the two electron description of Cooper pairs in D 2h symmetry is not sufficient to describe experimental nodal structure. It was shown that in this case, the nodal structure is the result of underlying interactions between two-electron states and hidden symmetry D-4 h . (author)

  15. Testing for Level Shifts in Fractionally Integrated Processes: a State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts. Once the memory parameter is correctly estimated, we use the KPSS test for presence of level shift. The Monte Carlo simulations show how this approach produces unbiased estimates of the memory parameter......Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based...... on the autocorrelation function or the periodogram. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification that allows to disentangle the level shifts from the fractionally integrated component. The estimation is carried out on the basis of a state-space methodology...

  16. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.


    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  17. A Semantic Model of Multiple Space of Role and State [Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ziyou


    Full Text Available Language artificially classifies the varied phenomena of the chaotic world into four kinds of expressions: “real displacements”, “real shifts”, “virtual displacements” and “virtual shifts”. This paper is mainly a semantic exploration of the “real displacements” and the achievement of the discussion is a foundation for the semantic study of the latter three kinds of expressions. Emphasis will be laid upon the verbs and their relationship with nouns. The “multiple space role-state-ring-chain” model designed in the paper is aimed at delving beneath the surface of a verb and studying its inner micro-world, so as to grasp the transformational rules among the surface, deep and underlying structures of a sentence and to promote the discovery of the mystery of human languages.

  18. Phase space dynamics and control of the quantum particles associated to hypergraph states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berec Vesna


    Full Text Available As today’s nanotechnology focus becomes primarily oriented toward production and manipulation of materials at the subatomic level, allowing the performance and complexity of interconnects where the device density accepts more than hundreds devices on a single chip, the manipulation of semiconductor nanostructures at the subatomic level sets its prime tasks on preserving and adequate transmission of information encoded in specified (quantum states. The presented study employs the quantum communication protocol based on the hypergraph network model where the numerical solutions of equations of motion of quantum particles are associated to vertices (assembled with device chip, which follow specific controllable paths in the phase space. We address these findings towards ultimate quest for prediction and selective control of quantum particle trajectories. In addition, presented protocols could represent valuable tool for reducing background noise and uncertainty in low-dimensional and operationally meaningful, scalable complex systems.

  19. Efficient eigenvalue assignment by state and output feedback with applications for large space structures (United States)

    Vannell, Eric C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Maghami, Peiman G.


    The erection and deployment of large flexible structures having thousands of degrees of freedom requires controllers based on new techniques of eigenvalue assignment that are computationally stable and more efficient. Scientists at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a novel and efficient algorithm for the eigenvalue assignment of large, time-invariant systems using full-state and output feedback. The objectives of this research were to improve upon the output feedback version of this algorithm, to produce a toolbox of MATLAB functions based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm, and to experimentally verify the algorithm and software by implementing controllers designed using the MATLAB toolbox on the phase 2 configuration of NASA Langley's controls-structures interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory model used to study space structures. Results from laboratory tests and computer simulations show that effective controllers can be designed using software based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm.

  20. A Beddoes-Leishman type dynamic stall model in state-space and indicial formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.H.; Gaunaa, Mac; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    This report contains a description of a Beddoes-Leishman type dynamic stall model in both a state-space and an indicial function formulation. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moment on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motionin heave, lead-lag, and pitch. The model...... features, such as overshoot of the lift, in the stall region. The linearized model is shown to give identicalresults to the full model for small amplitude oscillations. Furthermore, it is shown that the response of finite thichkness airfoils can be reproduced to a high accuracy by the use of specific...... is carried out by comparing the response of the model with inviscid solutions and observing the general behavior of the model using known airfoil data as input. Theproposed dynamic model gives results identical to inviscid solutions within the attached-flow region; and it exhibits the expected dynamic...

  1. Robustness of Operational Matrices of Differentiation for Solving State-Space Analysis and Optimal Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Tohidi


    Full Text Available The idea of approximation by monomials together with the collocation technique over a uniform mesh for solving state-space analysis and optimal control problems (OCPs has been proposed in this paper. After imposing the Pontryagins maximum principle to the main OCPs, the problems reduce to a linear or nonlinear boundary value problem. In the linear case we propose a monomial collocation matrix approach, while in the nonlinear case, the general collocation method has been applied. We also show the efficiency of the operational matrices of differentiation with respect to the operational matrices of integration in our numerical examples. These matrices of integration are related to the Bessel, Walsh, Triangular, Laguerre, and Hermite functions.

  2. A computational approach to extinction events in chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces. (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D


    Recent work of Johnston et al. has produced sufficient conditions on the structure of a chemical reaction network which guarantee that the corresponding discrete state space system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions consist of a series of systems of equalities and inequalities on the edges of a modified reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network. In this paper, we present a computational implementation of these conditions written in Python and apply the program on examples drawn from the biochemical literature. We also run the program on 458 models from the European Bioinformatics Institute's BioModels Database and report our results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncertainty evaluation for IIR (infinite impulse response) filtering using a state-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Alfred; Elster, Clemens


    A novel method is proposed for evaluating the uncertainty associated with the output of a discrete-time IIR filter when the input signal is corrupted by additive noise and the filter coefficients are uncertain. This task arises, for instance, when the noise-corrupted output of a measurement system is compensated by a digital filter which has been designed on the basis of the characteristics of the measurement system. We assume that the noise is either stationary or uncorrelated, and we presume knowledge about its autocovariance function or its time-dependent variances, respectively. Uncertainty evaluation is considered in line with the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. A state-space representation is used to derive a calculation scheme which allows the uncertainties to be evaluated in an easy way and also enables real-time applications. The proposed procedure is illustrated by an example

  4. Case Studies of Extreme Space Weather Effects on the New York State (NYS) Electric Power System (United States)

    Chantale Damas, M.; Mohamed, Ahmed; Ngwira, Chigomyezo


    New York State (NYS) is home to one of the largest urban cities in the world, New York City (NYC). Understanding and mitigating the effects of extreme space weather events are important to reduce the vulnerabilities of the NYS present bulk power system, which includes NYC. Extreme space weather events perturb Earth's magnetic field and generate geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through transmission lines, followed by transformers and ground. GICs find paths to ground through transformer grounding wires causing half-cycle saturation to their magnetic cores. This causes transformers to overheat, inject harmonics to the grid and draw more reactive power than normal. Overheating, if sustained for a long duration, may lead to transformer failure or lifetime reduction. Presented work uses results from simulations performed by the Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations. Results from computed values of simulated induced geo-electric fields at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites, combined with NYS electricity transmission network real data are used to examine the vulnerabilities of the NYS power grid. As an urban city with a large population, NYC is especially vulnerable and the results from this research can be used to model power systems for other urban cities.

  5. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Simon


    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state-space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models of residential buildings. Quantitative measures are provided of the standard deviation of concentration and exposure within a range of residential multizone buildings. Ratios of the maximum short term concentrations and exposures to single zone building estimates are also provided for the same buildings. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010. (United States)

    Gittleman, Haley R; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia D; Dowling, Jacqueline A; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol A; Elder, J Bradley; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Selman, Warren R; Sloan, Andrew E; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S


    Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010. The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status. In adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, -3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, -0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, -1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, -2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, -3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6). Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  7. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention. (United States)

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg


    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  8. Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digital...... control system, inner current and voltage control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the DG inverter model, an overall state-space model of a two-inverter-fed system is established. The eigenvalue-based stability analysis is then presented to assess the influence of controller...... parameters on the harmonic instability of the power system. Moreover, the harmonic-frequency oscillation modes are identified, where participation analysis is presented to evaluate the contributions of different states to these modes and to further reveal how the system gives rise to harmonic instability...

  9. Differences in incidence and survival of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers between Germany and the United States depend on the HPV-association of the cancer site. (United States)

    Jansen, L; Buttmann-Schweiger, N; Listl, S; Ressing, M; Holleczek, B; Katalinic, A; Luttmann, S; Kraywinkel, K; Brenner, H


    The epidemiology of squamous cell oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OCPC) has changed rapidly during the last years, possibly due to an increase of human papilloma virus (HPV) positive tumors and successes in tobacco prevention. Here, we compare incidence and survival of OCPC by HPV-relation of the site in Germany and the United States (US). Age-standardized and age-specific incidence and 5-year relative survival was estimated using data from population-based cancer registries in Germany and the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 database. Incidence was estimated for each year between 1999 and 2013. Relative survival for 2002-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013 was estimated using period analysis. The datasets included 52,787 and 48,861 cases with OCPC diagnosis between 1997 and 2013 in Germany and the US. Incidence was much higher in Germany compared to the US for HPV-unrelated OCPC and more recently also for HPV-related OCPC in women. Five-year relative survival differences between Germany and the US were small for HPV-unrelated OCPC. For HPV-related OCPC, men had higher survival in the US (62.1%) than in Germany (45.4%) in 2010-2013. These differences increased over time and were largest in younger patients and stage IV disease without metastasis. In contrast, women had comparable survival for HPV-related OCPC in both countries. Strong survival differences between Germany and the US were observed for HPV-related OCPC in men, which might be explained by differences in HPV-attributable proportions. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of OCPC in each country is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast Kalman-like filtering for large-dimensional linear and Gaussian state-space models

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa


    This paper considers the filtering problem for linear and Gaussian state-space models with large dimensions, a setup in which the optimal Kalman Filter (KF) might not be applicable owing to the excessive cost of manipulating huge covariance matrices. Among the most popular alternatives that enable cheaper and reasonable computation is the Ensemble KF (EnKF), a Monte Carlo-based approximation. In this paper, we consider a class of a posteriori distributions with diagonal covariance matrices and propose fast approximate deterministic-based algorithms based on the Variational Bayesian (VB) approach. More specifically, we derive two iterative KF-like algorithms that differ in the way they operate between two successive filtering estimates; one involves a smoothing estimate and the other involves a prediction estimate. Despite its iterative nature, the prediction-based algorithm provides a computational cost that is, on the one hand, independent of the number of iterations in the limit of very large state dimensions, and on the other hand, always much smaller than the cost of the EnKF. The cost of the smoothing-based algorithm depends on the number of iterations that may, in some situations, make this algorithm slower than the EnKF. The performances of the proposed filters are studied and compared to those of the KF and EnKF through a numerical example.

  11. Progress in Implementing and Testing State-Space Controls for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.


    Designing wind turbines with maximum energy production and longevity for minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry. Control can improve the performance of wind turbines by enhancing energy capture and reducing dynamic loads. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) we are designing state-space control algorithms for turbine speed regulation and load reduction and testing them on the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART). The CART is a test-bed especially designed to test advanced control algorithms on a two-bladed teetering hub upwind turbine. In this paper we briefly describe the design of control systems to regulate turbine speed in region 3 for the CART. These controls use rotor collective pitch to regulate speed and also enhance damping in the 1st drive-train torsion, 1st rotor symmetric flap mode, and the 1st tower fore-aft mode. We designed these controls using linear optimal control techniques using state estimation based on limited turbine measurements such as generator speed and tower fore-aft bending moment. In this paper, we describe the issues and steps involved with implementing and testing these controls on the CART, and we show simulated tests to quantify controller performance. We then present preliminary results after implementing and testing these controls on the CART. We compare results from these controls to field test results from a baseline Proportional Integral control system. Finally we report conclusions to this work and outline future studies.

  12. Fermionic bound states in Minkowski space. Light-cone singularities and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Wayne de; Frederico, Tobias; Pimentel, Rafael [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Dept. de Fisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salme, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Viviani, Michele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)


    The Bethe-Salpeter equation for two-body bound system with spin 1/2 constituent is addressed directly in the Minkowski space. In order to accomplish this aim we use the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and exploit the formal tool represented by the exact projection onto the null-plane. This formal step allows one (i) to deal with end-point singularities one meets and (ii) to find stable results, up to strongly relativistic regimes, which settle in strongly bound systems. We apply this technique to obtain the numerical dependence of the binding energies upon the coupling constants and the light-front amplitudes for a fermion-fermion 0{sup +} state with interaction kernels, in ladder approximation, corresponding to scalar-, pseudoscalar- and vector-boson exchanges, respectively. After completing the numerical survey of the previous cases, we extend our approach to a quark-antiquark system in 0{sup -} state, taking both constituent-fermion and exchanged-boson masses, from lattice calculations. Interestingly, the calculated light-front amplitudes for such a mock pion show peculiar signatures of the spin degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  13. Design of State-Space-Based Control Algorithms for Wind Turbine Speed Regulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.; Balas, M.


    Control can improve the performance of wind turbines by enhancing energy capture and reducing dynamic loads.At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are beginning to design control algorithms for regulation of turbine speed and power using state-space control designs. In this paper, we describe the design of such a control algorithm for regulation of rotor speed in full-load operation (region 3) for a two-bladed wind turbine. We base our control design on simple linear models of a turbine, which contain rotor and generator rotation, drivetrain torsion, and rotor flap degrees of freedom (first mode only). We account for wind-speed fluctuations using disturbance-accommodating control. We show the capability of these control schemes to stabilize the modeled turbine modes via pole placement while using state estimation to reduce the number of turbine measurements that are needed for these control algorithms. We incorporate these controllers into the FAST-AD code and show simulation results for various conditions. Finally, we report conclusions to this work and outline future studies.

  14. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM


    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  15. Civil liability versus state liability in case of a nuclear incident - some thoughts inspired by the Vienna Convention revision exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.


    The juridical reconstruction involved in the current work in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is not simply a matter of re-surfacing the edifice of private law liability. It has also led certain architects to draw up plans for the foundations of a regime of State responsibility in this field, based on the strict liability of States to compensate for transfrontier damage. Following the post-Chernobyl stocktaking by the author and Otto von Busckist for the Tokyo Congress in 1989, this report sets out to analyse the question of the implementation of States' liability in the case of a nuclear accident, from the viewpoints of positive law, the work of the International Law Commission and specific aspects linked to the nuclear risk. It also examines the proposals in this regard deposited with the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. (author)

  16. Blood transfusion in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: incidence, trends, and risk factors in the United States from 2000 to 2009. (United States)

    Ryan, Devon J; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Zuckerman, Joseph D


    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) may be associated with substantial blood loss, and some patients require perioperative blood transfusion. Possible blood transfusion methods include predonated autologous blood transfusion, perioperative autologous blood transfusion, and allogeneic blood transfusion (ALBT). The purposes of the present study were to assess the incidence and recent trends over time of blood transfusion in TSA and analyze patient and hospital characteristics that affect the risk of ALBT. This study used national hospital discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample between 2000 and 2009. The data were used to generate the overall blood transfusion rate, and linear regression was used to assess trends in transfusion patterns over time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze which patient and hospital characteristics independently influence the likelihood that a given patient undergoes ALBT. The overall blood transfusion rate (ie, the proportion of patients who received at least 1 transfusion of any kind) was 6.7%. This rate increased over time, from 4.9% in 2000 to 7.1% in 2009 (P blood transfusion rate in TSA found in the present study may be related to factors specific to TSA, such as the introduction of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty during the study period. A variety of patient and hospital characteristics contribute to the risk of undergoing ALBT. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Considering the unthinkable—A review and discussion of current international law and suggestions regarding how we deal with a catastrophic incident in space (United States)

    Beamer-Downie, Darcy


    It is now clear that private enterprise and not nationally funded space agencies will be the driving force behind development of space for the "benefit" of private enterprise and the general public. It is also not unreasonable to say that in the next 20-30 years we will see the public accessing space via sub-orbital flights, orbital excursions, orbiting hotels and possibly even hotels located on a celestial body. The existing principles regarding the rescue and return of "astronauts" was never fit for purpose and is certainly not appropriate for this new era of private space activity. Activities in space are dangerous and the travelling public is generally risk adverse. So how do we balance the obvious risks associated with space travel, against the societal desire to seek adventures in space and with the prevailing risk adverse culture? It is now time to seriously consider the development of international safety standards for space vehicles and habitations in order to ensure that rescue and return from a space excursion is a reality for passengers and crew. If we fail to do so then the scenario set out below may become a tragic reality. Catastrophic ScenarioConsider a scenario in which a space hotel loses a significant amount of its in-orbit life support capability. Rescue is underway but it will take time. The Captain realises that there is not enough oxygen on board for all to survive until rescue. What if anything can be done?

  18. Adaptive predictions of the euro/złoty currency exchange rate using state space wavelet networks and forecast combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdyś Mietek A.


    Full Text Available The paper considers the forecasting of the euro/Polish złoty (EUR/PLN spot exchange rate by applying state space wavelet network and econometric forecast combination models. Both prediction methods are applied to produce one-trading-day-ahead forecasts of the EUR/PLN exchange rate. The paper presents the general state space wavelet network and forecast combination models as well as their underlying principles. The state space wavelet network model is, in contrast to econometric forecast combinations, a non-parametric prediction technique which does not make any distributional assumptions regarding the underlying input variables. Both methods can be used as forecasting tools in portfolio investment management, asset valuation, IT security and integrated business risk intelligence in volatile market conditions.

  19. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rha

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking.Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations.The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326 and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105 encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646 encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others.Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  20. Novel Solid State Lasers for Space-Based Water Vapor DIAL, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program will develop novel laser transmitters needed for planned airborne and space-based active remote sensing missions. This program will build on...

  1. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices. (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel


    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On coherent-state representations of quantum mechanics: Wave mechanics in phase space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Jørgensen, Thomas Godsk; Torres-Vega, Gabino


    one wants to solve the stationary Schrodinger equation in phase space and we devise two schemes for the removal of these ambiguities. The physical interpretation of the phase-space wave functions is discussed and a procedure for computing expectation values as integrals over phase space is presented...

  3. Computational state space models for activity and intention recognition. A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krüger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Computational state space models (CSSMs enable the knowledge-based construction of Bayesian filters for recognizing intentions and reconstructing activities of human protagonists in application domains such as smart environments, assisted living, or security. Computational, i. e., algorithmic, representations allow the construction of increasingly complex human behaviour models. However, the symbolic models used in CSSMs potentially suffer from combinatorial explosion, rendering inference intractable outside of the limited experimental settings investigated in present research. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the feasibility of CSSM-based inference in domains of realistic complexity. METHODS: A typical instrumental activity of daily living was used as a trial scenario. As primary sensor modality, wearable inertial measurement units were employed. The results achievable by CSSM methods were evaluated by comparison with those obtained from established training-based methods (hidden Markov models, HMMs using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The influence of modeling factors on CSSM performance was analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The symbolic domain model was found to have more than 10(8 states, exceeding the complexity of models considered in previous research by at least three orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, if factors and procedures governing the inference process were suitably chosen, CSSMs outperformed HMMs. Specifically, inference methods used in previous studies (particle filters were found to perform substantially inferior in comparison to a marginal filtering procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the combinatorial explosion caused by rich CSSM models does not inevitably lead to intractable inference or inferior performance. This means that the potential benefits of CSSM models (knowledge-based model construction, model reusability, reduced need for training data are

  4. Particle MCMC algorithms and architectures for accelerating inference in state-space models. (United States)

    Mingas, Grigorios; Bottolo, Leonardo; Bouganis, Christos-Savvas


    Particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo (pMCMC) is a stochastic algorithm designed to generate samples from a probability distribution, when the density of the distribution does not admit a closed form expression. pMCMC is most commonly used to sample from the Bayesian posterior distribution in State-Space Models (SSMs), a class of probabilistic models used in numerous scientific applications. Nevertheless, this task is prohibitive when dealing with complex SSMs with massive data, due to the high computational cost of pMCMC and its poor performance when the posterior exhibits multi-modality. This paper aims to address both issues by: 1) Proposing a novel pMCMC algorithm (denoted ppMCMC), which uses multiple Markov chains (instead of the one used by pMCMC) to improve sampling efficiency for multi-modal posteriors, 2) Introducing custom, parallel hardware architectures, which are tailored for pMCMC and ppMCMC. The architectures are implemented on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), a type of hardware accelerator with massive parallelization capabilities. The new algorithm and the two FPGA architectures are evaluated using a large-scale case study from genetics. Results indicate that ppMCMC achieves 1.96x higher sampling efficiency than pMCMC when using sequential CPU implementations. The FPGA architecture of pMCMC is 12.1x and 10.1x faster than state-of-the-art, parallel CPU and GPU implementations of pMCMC and up to 53x more energy efficient; the FPGA architecture of ppMCMC increases these speedups to 34.9x and 41.8x respectively and is 173x more power efficient, bringing previously intractable SSM-based data analyses within reach.

  5. Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Patrick S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of an opportunistic illness (OI in a person with HIV infection is a sentinel event, indicating opportunities for improving diagnosis of HIV infection and secondary prevention efforts. In the past, rates of OIs in the United States have been calculated in observational cohorts, which may have limited representativeness. Methods We used data from a 1998 population-based survey of persons in care for HIV infection to demonstrate the utility of population-based survey data for the calculation of OI rates, with inference to populations in care for HIV infection in three geographic areas: King County Washington, selected health districts in Louisiana, and the state of Michigan. Results The overall OI rate was 13.8 per 100 persons with HIV infection in care during 1998 (95% CI, 10.2–17.3. In 1998, an estimated 11.3% of all persons with HIV in care in these areas had at least one OI diagnosis (CI, 8.8–13.9. The most commonly diagnosed OIs were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.8 and cytomegalovirus retinitis (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.7. OI diagnosis rates were higher in Michigan than in the other two geographic areas, and were different among patients who were white, black and of other races, but were not different by sex or history of injection drug use. Conclusion Data from population-based surveys – and, in the coming years, clinical outcomes surveillance systems in the United States – can be used to calculate OI rates with improved generalizability, and such rates should be used in the future as a meaningful indicator of clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection in care.

  6. Impacts of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on electricity demand in Japan. State space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Keita; Ashina, Shuichi


    Some papers report that consumers' electricity saving behavior (Setsuden) after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake resulted in the reduction of the domestic electricity demand. However, time variation of the electricity saving effect (ESE) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we develop a state space model of monthly electricity demand using long-term data, and estimate time variation of the ESE. We also estimate time variation of CO 2 emissions caused by Setsuden. Our result clearly indicates that Setsuden after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and October 2015, the ESE on power demand ranged from 2.9% to 6.9%, and the ESE on light demand ranged from 2.6% to 9.0%. The ESE on the total electricity demand was 3.2%-7.5%. Setsuden also contributed to the reduction of CO 2 emissions, but it could not offset the emissions increase caused by the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis. (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B


    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human behavior state profile mapping based on recalibrated speech affective space model. (United States)

    Kamaruddin, N; Wahab, A


    People typically associate health with only physical health. However, health is also interconnected to mental and emotional health. People who are emotionally healthy are in control of their behaviors and experience better quality of life. Hence, understanding human behavior is very important in ensuring the complete understanding of one's holistic health. In this paper, we attempt to map human behavior state (HBS) profiles onto recalibrated speech affective space model (rSASM). Such an approach is derived from hypotheses that: 1) Behavior is influenced by emotion, 2) Emotion can be quantified through speech, 3) Emotion is dynamic and changes over time and 4) the emotion conveyance is conditioned by culture. Empirical results illustrated that the proposed approach can complement other types of behavior analysis in such a way that it offers more explanatory components from the perspective of emotion primitives (valence and arousal). Four different driving HBS; namely: distracted, laughing, sleepy and normal are profiled onto the rSASM to visualize the correlation between HBS and emotion. This approach can be incorporated in the future behavior analysis to envisage better performance.

  9. Lee-Carter state space modeling: Application to the Malaysia mortality data (United States)

    Zakiyatussariroh, W. H. Wan; Said, Z. Mohammad; Norazan, M. R.


    This article presents an approach that formalizes the Lee-Carter (LC) model as a state space model. Maximum likelihood through Expectation-Maximum (EM) algorithm was used to estimate the model. The methodology is applied to Malaysia's total population mortality data. Malaysia's mortality data was modeled based on age specific death rates (ASDR) data from 1971-2009. The fitted ASDR are compared to the actual observed values. However, results from the comparison of the fitted and actual values between LC-SS model and the original LC model shows that the fitted values from the LC-SS model and original LC model are quite close. In addition, there is not much difference between the value of root mean squared error (RMSE) and Akaike information criteria (AIC) from both models. The LC-SS model estimated for this study can be extended for forecasting ASDR in Malaysia. Then, accuracy of the LC-SS compared to the original LC can be further examined by verifying the forecasting power using out-of-sample comparison.

  10. State-space dynamic model for estimation of radon entry rate, based on Kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, Marek; Jilek, Karel


    To predict the radon concentration in a house environment and to understand the role of all factors affecting its behavior, it is necessary to recognize time variation in both air exchange rate and radon entry rate into a house. This paper describes a new approach to the separation of their effects, which effectively allows continuous estimation of both radon entry rate and air exchange rate from simultaneous tracer gas (carbon monoxide) and radon gas measurement data. It is based on a state-space statistical model which permits quick and efficient calculations. Underlying computations are based on (extended) Kalman filtering, whose practical software implementation is easy. Key property is the model's flexibility, so that it can be easily adjusted to handle various artificial regimens of both radon gas and CO gas level manipulation. After introducing the statistical model formally, its performance will be demonstrated on real data from measurements conducted in our experimental, naturally ventilated and unoccupied room. To verify our method, radon entry rate calculated via proposed statistical model was compared with its known reference value. The results from several days of measurement indicated fairly good agreement (up to 5% between reference value radon entry rate and its value calculated continuously via proposed method, in average). Measured radon concentration moved around the level approximately 600 Bq m -3 , whereas the range of air exchange rate was 0.3-0.8 (h -1 )

  11. SiGN-SSM: open source parallel software for estimating gene networks with state space models. (United States)

    Tamada, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Hirose, Osamu; Yoshida, Ryo; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru


    SiGN-SSM is an open-source gene network estimation software able to run in parallel on PCs and massively parallel supercomputers. The software estimates a state space model (SSM), that is a statistical dynamic model suitable for analyzing short time and/or replicated time series gene expression profiles. SiGN-SSM implements a novel parameter constraint effective to stabilize the estimated models. Also, by using a supercomputer, it is able to determine the gene network structure by a statistical permutation test in a practical time. SiGN-SSM is applicable not only to analyzing temporal regulatory dependencies between genes, but also to extracting the differentially regulated genes from time series expression profiles. SiGN-SSM is distributed under GNU Affero General Public Licence (GNU AGPL) version 3 and can be downloaded at The pre-compiled binaries for some architectures are available in addition to the source code. The pre-installed binaries are also available on the Human Genome Center supercomputer system. The online manual and the supplementary information of SiGN-SSM is available on our web site.

  12. State-Space Analysis of Granger-Geweke Causality Measures with Application to fMRI. (United States)

    Solo, Victor


    The recent interest in the dynamics of networks and the advent, across a range of applications, of measuring modalities that operate on different temporal scales have put the spotlight on some significant gaps in the theory of multivariate time series. Fundamental to the description of network dynamics is the direction of interaction between nodes, accompanied by a measure of the strength of such interactions. Granger causality and its associated frequency domain strength measures (GEMs) (due to Geweke) provide a framework for the formulation and analysis of these issues. In pursuing this setup, three significant unresolved issues emerge. First, computing GEMs involves computing submodels of vector time series models, for which reliable methods do not exist. Second, the impact of filtering on GEMs has never been definitively established. Third, the impact of downsampling on GEMs has never been established. In this work, using state-space methods, we resolve all these issues and illustrate the results with some simulations. Our analysis is motivated by some problems in (fMRI) brain imaging, to which we apply it, but it is of general applicability.

  13. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A


    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  14. Incidência de meningite por Haemophilus influenzae no RS 1999-2010: impacto da cobertura vacinal Incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul 1999-2010: impact of vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e verificar a situação epidemiológica das meningites causadas pelo agente Haemophilus influenzae tipo b nos últimos 10 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, utilizando o sistema de dados de notificação de meningites, e cobertura vacinal, armazenados em base on line Tabnet - Tabulação de dados Epidemiológicos - CEVS/SES/RS, abrangendo o período de 1999 a 2010. Foram utilizados casos notificados e confirmados, tendo como critério de seleção o ano de inicio dos sintomas, idade, diagnostico e evolução. Foi analisado o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, representado por 19 coordenadorias de saúde. Comparações entre proporções foram avaliadas pelo teste de z. No RS foram notificados 3043 casos confirmados de meningite bacteriana, sendo 6,77% dos casos causados por H. influenzae. O coeficiente de incidência da meningite por H. influenzae, sem considerar faixa etária, caiu significativamente (95,6% após 1999, assim como a mortalidade. Crianças menores de um ano continuam sendo as mais acometidas (52%, não havendo alteração na letalidade. Os resultados apresentados revelaram um impacto positivo das estratégias de vacinação contra Hib no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos últimos dez anos.This article seeks to analyze and update the epidemiological situation of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the past 10 years in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. It is a retrospective, descriptive study, which used the data notification system of meningitis and vaccination campaign coverage, stored in the Epidemiological TABNET online database, for the period from 1999 to 2010. Cases notified and confirmed were used and the selection criteria were the year when the symptoms were detected, age, diagnosis, and evolution. Nineteen health centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. The z-test was used to evaluate comparisons between the proportions. In the

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors for Deliberate Self-harm, Mental Illness, and Suicide Following Bariatric Surgery: A State-wide Population-based Linked-data Cohort Study. (United States)

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M


    Assess the incidence and determinants of hospitalization for deliberate self-harm and mental health disorders, and suicide after bariatric surgery. Limited recent literature suggests an increase in deliberate self-harm following bariatric surgery. A state-wide, population-based, self-matched, longitudinal cohort study over a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011. Utilizing the Western Australian Department of Health Data Linkage Unit records, all patients undergoing bariatric surgery (n = 12062) in Western Australia were followed for an average 30.4 months preoperatively and 40.6 months postoperatively. There were 110 patients (0.9%) hospitalized for deliberate self-harm, which was higher than the general population [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94, P = 0.005]. Compared with before surgery, there was no significant increase in deliberate self-harm hospitalizations (IRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.54-1.16; P = 0.206) and a reduction in overall mental illness related hospitalizations (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.91; P = 0.002) after surgery. Younger age, no private-health insurance cover, a history of hospitalizations due to depression before surgery, and gastrointestinal complications after surgery were predictors for deliberate self-harm hospitalizations after bariatric surgery. Three suicides occurred during the follow-up period, a rate comparable to the general population during the same time period (IRR 0.61, 95% CI 0.11-2.27, P = 0.444). Hospitalization for deliberate self-harm in bariatric patients was more common than the general population, but an increased incidence of deliberate self-harm after bariatric surgery was not observed. Hospitalization for depression before surgery and major postoperative gastrointestinal complications after bariatric surgery are potentially modifiable risk factors for deliberate self-harm after bariatric surgery.

  16. Optimal control for wind turbine system via state-space method (United States)

    Shanoob, Mudhafar L.

    Renewable energy is becoming a fascinating research interest in future energy production because it is green and does not pollute nature. Wind energy is an excellent example of renewable resources that are evolving. Throughout the history of humanity, wind energy has been used. In ancient time, it was used to grind seeds, sailing etc. Nowadays, wind energy has been used to generate electrical power. Researchers have done a lot of research about using a wind source to generate electricity. As wind flow is not reliable, there is a challenge to get stable electricity out of this varying wind. This problem leads to the use of different control methods and the optimization of these methods to get a stable and reliable electrical energy. In this research, a wind turbine system is considered to study the transient and the steady-state stability; consisting of the aerodynamic system, drive train and generator. The Doubly Feed Induction Generator (DFIG) type generator is used in this thesis. The wind turbine system is connected to power system network. The grid is an infinite bus bar connected to a short transmission line and transformer. The generator is attached to the grid from the stator side. State-space method is used to model the wind turbine parts. The system is modeled and controlled using MATLAB/Simulation software. First, the current-mode control method (PVdq) with (PI) regulator is operated as a reference to find how the system reacts to an unexpected disturbance on the grid side or turbine side. The controller is operated with three scenarios of disruption: Disturbance-mechanical torque input, Step disturbance in the electrical torque reference and Fault Ride-through. In the simulation results, the time response and the transient stability of the system is a product of the disturbances that take a long time to settle. So, for this reason, Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR) optimal control is utilized to solve this problem. The LQR method is designed based on

  17. Racial Turmoil at San Jose State: The Incident of the 1967 University of Texas at El Paso vs. San Jose State Football Game. (United States)

    Chronopoulos, Themis

    This paper analyzes the 1967 protest by San Jose State College (California) black student athletes against racial discrimination. It claims that the discrimination they experienced was grounded in pervasive racism at that college and eventually had a long term symbolic and concrete effect on black students and higher education. Harry Edwards, a…

  18. A discrete phase-space calculus for quantum spins based on a reconstruction method using coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, S.


    To reconstruct a mixed or pure quantum state of a spin s is possible through coherent states: its density matrix is fixed by the probabilities to measure the value s along 4s(s+1) appropriately chosen directions in space. Thus, after inverting the experimental data, the statistical operator is parametrized entirely by expectation values. On this basis, a symbolic calculus for quantum spins is developed, the e xpectation-value representation . It resembles the Moyal representation for SU(2) but two important differences exist. On the one hand, the symbols take values on a discrete set of points in phase space only. On the other hand, no quasi-probabilities - that is, phase-space distributions with negative values - are encountered in this approach. (Author)

  19. Time Series Analysis of Non-Gaussian Observations Based on State Space Models from Both Classical and Bayesian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durbin, J.; Koopman, S.J.M.


    The analysis of non-Gaussian time series using state space models is considered from both classical and Bayesian perspectives. The treatment in both cases is based on simulation using importance sampling and antithetic variables; Monte Carlo Markov chain methods are not employed. Non-Gaussian

  20. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.


    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  1. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.


    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  2. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army (United States)


    Figure 3). However, a 2016 Department of Defense (DoD) report explained that in 2013 “China launched an object into space on a ballistic trajectory with...well as other non-kinetic counter- space capabilities.42 The USCC report also provided detailed analysis of Chinese developments of co-orbital...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the

  3. Time Trends in Incidence and Severity of Injury Among Collegiate Soccer Players in the United States: NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 1990-1996 and 2004-2009. (United States)

    Chandran, Avinash; Barron, Mary J; Westerman, Beverly J; DiPietro, Loretta


    A number of sociocultural and environmental changes have occurred over the past several decades that may affect the risk of injury among young athletes playing soccer. To identify trends in injury incidence and severity between 2 time periods (1990-1996 and 2004-2009) in both male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) soccer players in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. The rate ratio (RR), along with the 95% Wald CI, compared incidence density in 2004-2009 relative to that in 1990-1996. Overall sex-pooled injury rates were significantly lower in the 2004-2009 cohort compared with the 1990-1996 cohort (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.91), and this was true for almost every category of injury studied. We observed only 1 significant sex difference between the time periods with regard to noncontact injuries, as men experienced a significant increase in rate of noncontact injuries between 1990-1996 and 2004-2009 (RR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02-1.17), whereas women experienced a significant decrease (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.67-0.75). These surveillance data show decreasing trends in collegiate soccer injuries. Whether these decreases are attributable to greater resources being allocated toward athlete health, injury management, or the safety of the playing environment cannot be determined. Given the prominence of soccer play in the United States, public health efforts should promote the use of this surveillance system to better inform and evaluate injury prevention practices and policies directed toward player safety. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States. (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T


    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation (United States)

    Brainard, George C.; Coyle, William; Ayers, Melissa; Kemp, John; Warfield, Benjamin; Maida, James; Bowen, Charles; Bernecker, Craig; Lockley, Steven W.; Hanifin, John P.


    The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%-100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 μW/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0-1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and

  6. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population (United States)

    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.


    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  7. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis (United States)

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J. Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane


    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient–therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode. PMID:25932014

  8. Discourse-Voice Regulatory Strategies in the Psychotherapeutic Interaction: A State-Space Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemka eTomicic


    Full Text Available This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialogue, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  9. Five degrees of freedom linear state-space representation of electrodynamic thrust bearings (United States)

    Van Verdeghem, J.; Kluyskens, V.; Dehez, B.


    Electrodynamic bearings can provide stable and contactless levitation of rotors while operating at room temperatures. Depending solely on passive phenomena, specific models have to be developed to study the forces they exert and the resulting rotordynamics. In recent years, models allowing us to describe the axial dynamics of a large range of electrodynamic thrust bearings have been derived. However, these bearings being devised to be integrated into fully magnetic suspensions, the existing models still suffer from restrictions. Indeed, assuming the spin speed as varying slowly, a rigid rotor is characterised by five independent degrees of freedom whereas early models only considered the axial degree. This paper presents a model free of the previous limitations. It consists in a linear state-space representation describing the rotor's complete dynamics by considering the impact of the rotor axial, radial and angular displacements as well as the gyroscopic effects. This set of ten equations depends on twenty parameters whose identification can be easily performed through static finite element simulations or quasi-static experimental measurements. The model stresses the intrinsic decoupling between the axial dynamics and the other degrees of freedom as well as the existence of electrodynamic angular torques restoring the rotor to its nominal position. Finally, a stability analysis performed on the model highlights the presence of two conical whirling modes related to the angular dynamics, namely the nutation and precession motions. The former, whose intrinsic stability depends on the ratio between polar and transverse moments of inertia, can be easily stabilised through external damping whereas the latter, which is stable up to an instability threshold linked to the angular electrodynamic cross-coupling stiffness, is less impacted by that damping.

  10. State-space modelling reveals proximate causes of harbour seal population declines. (United States)

    Matthiopoulos, Jason; Cordes, Line; Mackey, Beth; Thompson, David; Duck, Callan; Smout, Sophie; Caillat, Marjolaine; Thompson, Paul


    Declines in large vertebrate populations are widespread but difficult to detect from monitoring data and hard to understand due to a multiplicity of plausible biological explanations. In parts of Scotland, harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) have been in decline for 10 years. To evaluate the contributions of different proximate causes (survival, fecundity, observation artefacts) to this decline, we collated behavioural, demographic and population data from one intensively studied population in part of the Moray Firth (north-east Scotland). To these, we fit a state-space model comprising age-structured dynamics and a detailed account of observation errors. After accounting for culling (estimated by our model as 14% of total mortality), the main driver of the historical population decline was a decreasing trend in survival of young individuals combined with (previously unrecognised) low levels of pupping success. In more recent years, the model provides evidence for considerable increases in breeding success and consistently high levels of adult survival. However, breeding success remains the most volatile demographic component of the population. Forecasts from the model indicate a slow population recovery, providing cautious support for recent management measures. Such investigations of the proximate causes of population change (survival, fecundity and observation errors) provide valuable short-term support for the management of population declines, helping to focus future data collection on those ultimate causal mechanisms that are not excluded by the demographic evidence. The contribution of specific ultimate drivers (e.g. shooting mortality or competitors) can also be quantified by including them as covariates to survival or fecundity.

  11. Localization of one-photon state in space and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, A.N.; Reutova, T.A.; Sergienko, A.V.


    An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function

  12. The morphometric and stratigraphic framework for estimates of debris flow incidence in the North Cascades foothills, Washington State, USA (United States)

    Kovanen, Dori J.; Slaymaker, Olav


    Active debris flow fans in the North Cascade Foothills of Washington State constitute a natural hazard of importance to land managers, private property owners and personal security. In the absence of measurements of the sediment fluxes involved in debris flow events, a morphological-evolutionary systems approach, emphasizing stratigraphy, dating, fan morphology and debris flow basin morphometry, was used. Using the stratigraphic framework and 47 radiocarbon dates, frequency of occurrence and relative magnitudes of debris flow events have been estimated for three spatial scales of debris flow systems: the within-fan site scale (84 observations); the fan meso-scale (six observations) and the lumped fan, regional or macro-scale (one fan average and adjacent lake sediments). In order to characterize the morphometric framework, plots of basin area v. fan area, basin area v. fan gradient and the Melton ruggedness number v. fan gradient for the 12 debris flow basins were compared with those documented for semi-arid and paraglacial fans. Basin area to fan area ratios were generally consistent with the estimated level of debris flow activity during the Holocene as reported below. Terrain analysis of three of the most active debris flow basins revealed the variety of modes of slope failure and sediment production in the region. Micro-scale debris flow event systems indicated a range of recurrence intervals for large debris flows from 106-3645 years. The spatial variation of these rates across the fans was generally consistent with previously mapped hazard zones. At the fan meso-scale, the range of recurrence intervals for large debris flows was 273-1566 years and at the regional scale, the estimated recurrence interval of large debris flows was 874 years (with undetermined error bands) during the past 7290 years. Dated lake sediments from the adjacent Lake Whatcom gave recurrence intervals for large sediment producing events ranging from 481-557 years over the past 3900

  13. The State of Play US Space Systems Competitiveness: Prices, Productivity, and Other Measures of Launchers & Spacecraft (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar


    Collects space systems cost and related data (flight rate, payload, etc.) over time. Gathers only public data. Non-recurring and recurring. Minimal data processing. Graph, visualize, add context. Focus on US space systems competitiveness. Keep fresh update as data arises, launches occur, etc. Keep fresh focus on recent data, indicative of the future.

  14. Heavy-tailed phase-space distributions beyond Boltzmann-Gibbs: Confined laser-cooled atoms in a nonthermal state. (United States)

    Dechant, Andreas; Shafier, Shalom Tzvi; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli


    The Boltzmann-Gibbs density, a central result of equilibrium statistical mechanics, relates the energy of a system in contact with a thermal bath to its equilibrium statistics. This relation is lost for nonthermal systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, where the heat bath is replaced with the laser beams of the lattice. We investigate in detail the stationary phase-space probability for Sisyphus cooling under harmonic confinement. In particular, we elucidate whether the total energy of the system still describes its stationary state statistics. We find that this is true for the center part of the phase-space density for deep lattices, where the Boltzmann-Gibbs density provides an approximate description. The relation between energy and statistics also persists for strong confinement and in the limit of high energies, where the system becomes underdamped. However, the phase-space density now exhibits heavy power-law tails. In all three cases we find expressions for the leading-order phase-space density and corrections which break the equivalence of probability and energy and violate energy equipartition. The nonequilibrium nature of the steady state is corroborated by explicit violations of detailed balance. We complement these analytical results with numerical simulations to map out the intricate structure of the phase-space density.

  15. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.


    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  16. Internet Technologies for Space-based Communications: State of the Art and Challenges (United States)

    Bhasin, K.; DePaula, R.; Edwards, C.


    The Internet is rapidly changing the ways we communicate information around the globe today. The desire to provide Internet-based services to anyone, anywhere, anytime has brought satellite communications to the forefront to become an integral part of the Internet. In spite of the distances involved, satellite links are proving to be capable of providing Internet services based on Internet protocol (TCP/IP) stack. This development has led to the question particularly at NASA; can satellites and other space platforms become an Internet-node in space? This will allow the direct transfer of information directly from space to the users on Earth and even be able to control the spacecraft and its instruments. NASA even wants to extend the near earth space Internet to deep space applications where scientists and the public here on Earth may view space exploration in real time via the Internet. NASA's future solar system exploration will involve intensive in situ investigations of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. While past missions typically involved a single fly-by or orbiting science spacecraft, future missions will begin to use fleets of small, highly intelligent robotic vehicles to carry out collaborative investigations. The resulting multi-spacecraft topologies will effectively create a wide area network spanning the solar system. However, this will require significant development in Internet technologies for space use. This paper provides the status'of the Internet for near earth applications and the potential extension of the Internet for use in deep space planetary exploration. The paper will discuss the overall challenges of implementing the space Internet and how the space Internet will integrate into the complex terrestrial systems those forms the Internet of today in a hybrid set of networks. Internet. We envision extending to the deep space environment such Internet concepts as a well-designed layered architecture. This effort will require an ability to

  17. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  18. Implementation of rigorous renormalization group method for ground space and low-energy states of local Hamiltonians (United States)

    Roberts, Brenden; Vidick, Thomas; Motrunich, Olexei I.


    The success of polynomial-time tensor network methods for computing ground states of certain quantum local Hamiltonians has recently been given a sound theoretical basis by Arad et al. [Math. Phys. 356, 65 (2017), 10.1007/s00220-017-2973-z]. The convergence proof, however, relies on "rigorous renormalization group" (RRG) techniques which differ fundamentally from existing algorithms. We introduce a practical adaptation of the RRG procedure which, while no longer theoretically guaranteed to converge, finds matrix product state ansatz approximations to the ground spaces and low-lying excited spectra of local Hamiltonians in realistic situations. In contrast to other schemes, RRG does not utilize variational methods on tensor networks. Rather, it operates on subsets of the system Hilbert space by constructing approximations to the global ground space in a treelike manner. We evaluate the algorithm numerically, finding similar performance to density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in the case of a gapped nondegenerate Hamiltonian. Even in challenging situations of criticality, large ground-state degeneracy, or long-range entanglement, RRG remains able to identify candidate states having large overlap with ground and low-energy eigenstates, outperforming DMRG in some cases.

  19. A latent low-dimensional common input drives a pool of motor neurons: a probabilistic latent state-space model. (United States)

    Feeney, Daniel F; Meyer, François G; Noone, Nicholas; Enoka, Roger M


    Motor neurons appear to be activated with a common input signal that modulates the discharge activity of all neurons in the motor nucleus. It has proven difficult for neurophysiologists to quantify the variability in a common input signal, but characterization of such a signal may improve our understanding of how the activation signal varies across motor tasks. Contemporary methods of quantifying the common input to motor neurons rely on compiling discrete action potentials into continuous time series, assuming the motor pool acts as a linear filter, and requiring signals to be of sufficient duration for frequency analysis. We introduce a space-state model in which the discharge activity of motor neurons is modeled as inhomogeneous Poisson processes and propose a method to quantify an abstract latent trajectory that represents the common input received by motor neurons. The approach also approximates the variation in synaptic noise in the common input signal. The model is validated with four data sets: a simulation of 120 motor units, a pair of integrate-and-fire neurons with a Renshaw cell providing inhibitory feedback, the discharge activity of 10 integrate-and-fire neurons, and the discharge times of concurrently active motor units during an isometric voluntary contraction. The simulations revealed that a latent state-space model is able to quantify the trajectory and variability of the common input signal across all four conditions. When compared with the cumulative spike train method of characterizing common input, the state-space approach was more sensitive to the details of the common input current and was less influenced by the duration of the signal. The state-space approach appears to be capable of detecting rather modest changes in common input signals across conditions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose a state-space model that explicitly delineates a common input signal sent to motor neurons and the physiological noise inherent in synaptic signal

  20. Assessing performance of Bayesian state-space models fit to Argos satellite telemetry locations processed with Kalman filtering. (United States)

    Silva, Mónica A; Jonsen, Ian; Russell, Deborah J F; Prieto, Rui; Thompson, Dave; Baumgartner, Mark F


    Argos recently implemented a new algorithm to calculate locations of satellite-tracked animals that uses a Kalman filter (KF). The KF algorithm is reported to increase the number and accuracy of estimated positions over the traditional Least Squares (LS) algorithm, with potential advantages to the application of state-space methods to model animal movement data. We tested the performance of two Bayesian state-space models (SSMs) fitted to satellite tracking data processed with KF algorithm. Tracks from 7 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) tagged with ARGOS satellite transmitters equipped with Fastloc GPS loggers were used to calculate the error of locations estimated from SSMs fitted to KF and LS data, by comparing those to "true" GPS locations. Data on 6 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were used to investigate consistency in movement parameters, location and behavioural states estimated by switching state-space models (SSSM) fitted to data derived from KF and LS methods. The model fit to KF locations improved the accuracy of seal trips by 27% over the LS model. 82% of locations predicted from the KF model and 73% of locations from the LS model were Argos data. On average, 88% of whale locations estimated by KF models fell within the 95% probability ellipse of paired locations from LS models. Precision of KF locations for whales was generally higher. Whales' behavioural mode inferred by KF models matched the classification from LS models in 94% of the cases. State-space models fit to KF data can improve spatial accuracy of location estimates over LS models and produce equally reliable behavioural estimates.

  1. Cancer incidence profile in sub-Saharan African-born blacks in the United States: Similarities and differences with US-born non-Hispanic blacks. (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Fedewa, Stacey A; Adissu, Hibret; DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin


    Sub-Saharan African-born blacks (ABs) are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. However, to the authors' knowledge, data regarding the cancer burden in this group are lacking, which would inform targeted cancer prevention and control. The authors calculated age-standardized proportional incidence ratios (PIRs) comparing the frequency of the top 15 cancers in ABs with that of US-born non-Hispanic blacks (USBs) by sex and region of birth using incidence data for 2000 through 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 17) program. Compared with USBs, ABs had significantly higher PIRs of infection-related cancers (liver, stomach, and Kaposi sarcoma), blood cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma), prostate cancer, and thyroid cancers (females only). For example, the PIR for Kaposi sarcoma in AB versus USB women was 12.06 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.23-18.90). In contrast, ABs had lower PIRs for smoking-related and colorectal cancers (eg, for lung cancer among men, the PIR was 0.30 [95% CI, 0.27-0.34]). Furthermore, cancer occurrence in ABs versus USBs varied by region of birth. For example, the higher PIRs for liver cancer noted among male ABs (PIR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.79-5.35) and for thyroid cancer in female ABs (PIR, 3.03; 95% CI, 2.03-4.02) were confined to Eastern African-born blacks, whereas the higher PIR for prostate cancer (PIR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.78, 2.02) was confined to Western African-born blacks. The cancer incidence profile of ABs is different from that of USBs and varies by region of birth, suggesting differences in environmental, cultural, social, and genetic factors. The findings of the current study could stimulate etiologic research and help to inform targeted interventions. Cancer 2017;123:3116-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. State-Space Modelling of the Drivers of Movement Behaviour in Sympatric Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Pérez-Barbería

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movement behaviour is key to furthering our knowledge on intra- and inter-specific competition, group cohesion, energy expenditure, habitat use, the spread of zoonotic diseases or species management. We used a radial basis function surface approximation subject to minimum description length constraint to uncover the state-space dynamical systems from time series data. This approximation allowed us to infer structure from a mathematical model of the movement behaviour of sheep and red deer, and the effect of density, thermal stress and vegetation type. Animal movement was recorded using GPS collars deployed in sheep and deer grazing a large experimental plot in winter and summer. Information on the thermal stress to which animals were exposed was estimated using the power consumption of mechanical heated models and meteorological records of a network of stations in the plot. Thermal stress was higher in deer than in sheep, with less differences between species in summer. Deer travelled more distance than sheep, and both species travelled more in summer than in winter; deer travel distance showed less seasonal differences than sheep. Animal movement was better predicted in deer than in sheep and in winter than in summer; both species showed a swarming behaviour in group cohesion, stronger in deer. At shorter separation distances swarming repulsion was stronger between species than within species. At longer separation distances inter-specific attraction was weaker than intra-specific; there was a positive density-dependent effect on swarming, and stronger in deer than in sheep. There was not clear evidence which species attracted or repelled the other; attraction between deer at long separation distances was stronger when the model accounted for thermal stress, but in general the dynamic movement behaviour was hardly affected by the thermal stress. Vegetation type affected intra-species interactions but had little effect on

  3. State-Space Modelling of the Drivers of Movement Behaviour in Sympatric Species. (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Small, M; Hooper, R J; Aldezabal, A; Soriguer-Escofet, R; Bakken, G S; Gordon, I J


    Understanding animal movement behaviour is key to furthering our knowledge on intra- and inter-specific competition, group cohesion, energy expenditure, habitat use, the spread of zoonotic diseases or species management. We used a radial basis function surface approximation subject to minimum description length constraint to uncover the state-space dynamical systems from time series data. This approximation allowed us to infer structure from a mathematical model of the movement behaviour of sheep and red deer, and the effect of density, thermal stress and vegetation type. Animal movement was recorded using GPS collars deployed in sheep and deer grazing a large experimental plot in winter and summer. Information on the thermal stress to which animals were exposed was estimated using the power consumption of mechanical heated models and meteorological records of a network of stations in the plot. Thermal stress was higher in deer than in sheep, with less differences between species in summer. Deer travelled more distance than sheep, and both species travelled more in summer than in winter; deer travel distance showed less seasonal differences than sheep. Animal movement was better predicted in deer than in sheep and in winter than in summer; both species showed a swarming behaviour in group cohesion, stronger in deer. At shorter separation distances swarming repulsion was stronger between species than within species. At longer separation distances inter-specific attraction was weaker than intra-specific; there was a positive density-dependent effect on swarming, and stronger in deer than in sheep. There was not clear evidence which species attracted or repelled the other; attraction between deer at long separation distances was stronger when the model accounted for thermal stress, but in general the dynamic movement behaviour was hardly affected by the thermal stress. Vegetation type affected intra-species interactions but had little effect on inter

  4. [The state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan: an analysis of the Japanese society of anesthesiologists survey of critical incidents in the operating room]. (United States)

    Irita, Kazuo; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Sawa, Tomohiro; Sanuki, Michiyoshi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Makita, Koshi; Morita, Kiyoshi


    The Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) survey of critical incidents in the operating room and other reports have shown that pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia are at an increased risk. Purpose was to examine the state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan. This might clarify the role of children's hospitals for pediatric anesthesia, and the relationship between critical incidents and volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures. The JSA has conducted annual surveys of critical incidents in the operating room by sending to and collecting confidential questionnaires from all JSA Certified Training Hospitals. From 1999 to 2003, 342,840 pediatric (0-5 yr) anesthetic procedures were registered. During this period, only 15 cardiac arrests and 3 deaths within 7 postoperative days totally attributable to anesthetic management were reported. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac arrests and deaths due to all etiologies. The hospitals were classified as children's hospitals, university hospitals, and other hospitals, and the incidence of cardiac arrest, the recovery rate from cardiac arrest without any sequelae, and the mortality rate were compared according to types of the hospitals. The relationship between death due to intraoperative critical incidents and the volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures was examined using data from the 2003 survey, the recovery rate of which was 85.7%. In 2003, 739 JSA Certified Training Hospitals responded to the survey: 7 children's hospitals, 109 university hospitals, and 623 other hospitals. Among these hospitals, 707 and 270 hospitals conducted pediatric and newborn (Japan. There was no significant difference between the overall mortality rate in hospitals with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of less than 200 and that in hospitals with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of more than 201 (5.46 versus 7.12/10,000 anesthetic procedures). However, the overall mortality rate was 4.87 times higher (95% confidential interval: 1

  5. Ultra High Energy Solid-State Batteries for Next Generation Space Power, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of lithium (Li) metal as an anode material has emerged as one highly attractive option for achieving high specific energy due to lithium having the highest...

  6. Ultra High Energy Solid-State Batteries for Next Generation Space Power, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of lithium (Li) metal as an anode material has emerged as one highly attractive option for achieving high specific energy due to lithium having the highest...

  7. Destination Station: Bringing The International Space Station to Communities Across the United States (United States)

    Edgington, Susan


    Today, space is no longer just a field of advanced technological development and of scientific research of excellence, but has become an essential asset for everyday life. Space has spurred countless scientific and technological achievements which are commonly used in aeronautics, medicine, material science and production, in information and communications technology. In parallel, more and more services are carried out through the use of space applications, ranging from detection of natural disasters and environmental monitoring to global navigation and telecommunication. Using space missions to build a better understanding of the universe fulfills our centuries-old curiosity and leads humanity into the future, opening up new frontiers of knowledge. The International Astronautical Congresses have always represented an arena in which issues have been discussed with friendship and among experts: scientists, technicians and managers from universities, agencies, research centres and industry. At the same time it introduces students and young professionals to the field.

  8. District space heating potential of low temperature hydrothermal geothermal resources in the southwestern United States. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, P.K.; Rao, C.R.


    A computer simulation model (GIRORA-Nonelectric) is developed to study the economics of district space heating using geothermal energy. GIRORA-Nonelectric is a discounted cashflow investment model which evaluates the financial return on investment for space heating. This model consists of two major submodels: the exploration for and development of a geothermal anomaly by a geothermal producer, and the purchase of geothermal fluid by a district heating unit. The primary output of the model is a calculated rate of return on investment earned by the geothermal producer. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the model subject to changes in physical and economic parameters are given in this report. Using the results of the economic analysis and technological screening criteria, all the low temperature geothermal sites in Southwestern United States are examined for economic viability for space heating application. The methodology adopted and the results are given.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests.

  10. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.


    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and

  11. Semantic Language and Tools for Reporting Human Factors Incidents Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incidents related to impaired human performance in space operations can be caused by environmental conditions, situational challenges, and operational deficiencies....

  12. Emotion expression of an affective state space; a humanoid robot displaying a dynamic emotional state during a soccer game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mey, A.; Smit, F; Droog, K.J.; Visser, A.


    Following a soccer game is an example where clear emotions are displayed. This example is worked out for a humanoid robot which can express emotions with body language. The emotions expressed by the robot are not just stimuli-response, but are based on an affective state which shows dynamic behavior

  13. Improved control using extended non-minimal state space MPC and modified LQR for a kind of nonlinear systems. (United States)

    Tao, Jili; Ma, Longhua; Zhu, Yong


    Inspired by the state space model based predictive control, this paper presents the combination design of extended non-minimal state space predictive control (ENMSSPC) and modified linear quadratic regulator (LQR) for a kind of nonlinear process with output feedback coupling, which shows improved control performance for both model/plant match and model/plant mismatch cases. In many previous control methods for this kind of nonlinear systems, the nonlinear part is treated in different ways such as ignored, represented as a rough linear one or assumed to be time-variant when corresponding predictive control methods are designed. However, the above methods will generally lead to information loss, resulting in the influenced control performance. This paper will show that the ENMSSPC-LQ control structure will further improve closed-loop control performance concerning tracking ability and disturbance rejection compared with previous predictive control methods. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new cyber security risk evaluation method for oil and gas SCADA based on factor state space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Cao, Xiedong; Li, Jie


    Based on comprehensive analysis of the structure and the potential safety problem of oil and gas SCADA(Supervisor control and data acquisition) network, aiming at the shortcomings of traditional evaluation methods, combining factor state space and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a new network security risk evaluation method of oil and gas SCADA is proposed. First of all, formal description of factor state space and its complete mathematical definition were presented; secondly, factor fuzzy evaluation steps were discussed; then, using analytic hierarchy method, evaluation index system for oil and gas SCADA system was established, the index weights of all factors were determined by two-two comparisons; structure design of three layers in reasoning machine was completed. Experiments and tests show that the proposed method is accurate, reliable and practical. Research results provide the template and the new method for the other industries.

  15. Superconducting states in strongly correlated systems with nonstandard quasiparticles and real space pairing: an unconventional Fermi-liquid limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Spałek


    Full Text Available We use the concept of generalized (almost localized Fermi Liquid composed of nonstandard quasiparticles with spin-dependence effective masses and the effective field induced by electron correlations. This Fermi liquid is obtained within the so-called statistically-consistent Gutzwiller approximation (SGA proposed recently [cf. J. Jędrak et al., arXiv: 1008.0021] and describes electronic states of the correlated quantum liquid. Particular emphasis is put on real space pairing driven by the electronic correlations, the Fulde-Ferrell state of the heavy-fermion liquid, and the d-wave superconducting state of high temperature curate superconductors in the overdoped limit. The appropriate phase diagrams are discussed showing in particular the limits of stability of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS type of state.

  16. Particle approximations of the score and observed information matrix for parameter estimation in state space models with linear computational cost


    Nemeth, Christopher; Fearnhead, Paul; Mihaylova, Lyudmila


    Poyiadjis et al. (2011) show how particle methods can be used to estimate both the score and the observed information matrix for state space models. These methods either suffer from a computational cost that is quadratic in the number of particles, or produce estimates whose variance increases quadratically with the amount of data. This paper introduces an alternative approach for estimating these terms at a computational cost that is linear in the number of particles. The method is derived u...

  17. Machinery running state identification based on discriminant semi-supervised local tangent space alignment for feature fusion and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Zuqiang; Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Baoping; Jiang, Yonghua


    Extraction of sensitive features is a challenging but key task in data-driven machinery running state identification. Aimed at solving this problem, a method for machinery running state identification that applies discriminant semi-supervised local tangent space alignment (DSS-LTSA) for feature fusion and extraction is proposed. Firstly, in order to extract more distinct features, the vibration signals are decomposed by wavelet packet decomposition WPD, and a mixed-domain feature set consisted of statistical features, autoregressive (AR) model coefficients, instantaneous amplitude Shannon entropy and WPD energy spectrum is extracted to comprehensively characterize the properties of machinery running state(s). Then, the mixed-dimension feature set is inputted into DSS-LTSA for feature fusion and extraction to eliminate redundant information and interference noise. The proposed DSS-LTSA can extract intrinsic structure information of both labeled and unlabeled state samples, and as a result the over-fitting problem of supervised manifold learning and blindness problem of unsupervised manifold learning are overcome. Simultaneously, class discrimination information is integrated within the dimension reduction process in a semi-supervised manner to improve sensitivity of the extracted fusion features. Lastly, the extracted fusion features are inputted into a pattern recognition algorithm to achieve the running state identification. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a running state identification case in a gearbox, and the results confirm the improved accuracy of the running state identification. (paper)

  18. State-Space Model Predictive Control Method for Core Power Control in Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxu Wang


    Full Text Available A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, the MPC model, and quadratic programming (QP. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutron dynamic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The MPC model was presented in state-space model form, and QP was introduced for optimization solution under system constraints. Simulations of the proposed state-space MPC control system in PWR were designed for control performance analysis, and the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  19. State-space model predictive control method for core power control in pressurized water reactor nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guo Xu; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Bifan; Wu, Wangqiang; Ma, Xiao Qian [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Zhibin [Electric Power Research Institute of Guangdong Power Grid Corporation, Guangzhou (China)


    A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC) method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, the MPC model, and quadratic programming (QP). The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutron dynamic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The MPC model was presented in state-space model form, and QP was introduced for optimization solution under system constraints. Simulations of the proposed state-space MPC control system in PWR were designed for control performance analysis, and the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  20. A Procedure for Identification of Appropriate State Space and ARIMA Models Based on Time-Series Cross-Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ramos


    Full Text Available In this work, a cross-validation procedure is used to identify an appropriate Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model and an appropriate state space model for a time series. A minimum size for the training set is specified. The procedure is based on one-step forecasts and uses different training sets, each containing one more observation than the previous one. All possible state space models and all ARIMA models where the orders are allowed to range reasonably are fitted considering raw data and log-transformed data with regular differencing (up to second order differences and, if the time series is seasonal, seasonal differencing (up to first order differences. The value of root mean squared error for each model is calculated averaging the one-step forecasts obtained. The model which has the lowest root mean squared error value and passes the Ljung–Box test using all of the available data with a reasonable significance level is selected among all the ARIMA and state space models considered. The procedure is exemplified in this paper with a case study of retail sales of different categories of women’s footwear from a Portuguese retailer, and its accuracy is compared with three reliable forecasting approaches. The results show that our procedure consistently forecasts more accurately than the other approaches and the improvements in the accuracy are significant.

  1. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  2. The Complex Spin State of 103P-Hartley 2: Kinematics and Orientation in Space (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Li, Jian-Yang; Williams, Jade; Carcich, Brian; A'Hearn, Michael F.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Farnham, Tony; McFadden, Lucy; Lisse, Carey M.; hide


    We derive the spin state of the nucleus of Comet 103P/Hartley 2, its orientation in space, and its short-term temporal evolution from a mixture of observations taken from the DIXI (Deep Impact Extended Investigation) spacecraft and radar observations. The nucleus is found to spin in an excited long-axis mode (LAM) with its rotational angular momentum per unit mass, M, and rotational energy per unit mass, E, slowly decreasing while the degree of excitation in the spin increases through perihelion passage. M is directed toward (RA, Dec; J2000) = 8+/-+/- 4 deg., 54 +/- 1 deg. (obliquity = 48 +/- 1 deg.). This direction is likely changing, but the change is probably <6 deg. on the sky over the approx. 81.6 days of the DIXI encounter. The magnitudes of M and E at closest approach (JD 2455505.0831866 2011-11-04 13:59:47.310) are 30.0 +/- 0.2 sq. m/s and (1.56 +/- 0.02) X 10(exp -3) sq. m /sq. s respectively. The period of rotation about the instantaneous spin vector, which points in the direction (RA, Dec; J2000) = 300 +/- 3.2deg., 67 +/- 1.3 deg. at the time of closest approach, was 14.1 +/- 0.3 h. The instantaneous spin vector circulates around M, inclined at an average angle of 33.2 +/- 1.3 deg. with an average period of 18.40 +/- 0.13 h at the time of closest approach. The period of roll around the principal axis of minimum inertia (''long'' axis) at that time is 26.72 +/- 0.06 h. The long axis is inclined to M by approx. 81.2 +/- 0.6 deg. on average, slowly decreasing through encounter. We infer that there is a periodic nodding motion of the long axis with half the roll period, i.e., 13.36+/- 0.03 h, with amplitude of 1 again decreasing through encounter. The periodic variability in the circulation and roll rates during a cycle was at the 2% and 10-14% level respectively. During the encounter there was a secular lengthening of the circulation period of the long axis by 1.3 +/- 0.2 min/d, in agreement with ground-based estimates, while the period of roll around the

  3. An Improved ``Low-Dimensional'' State-Space Model for Unsaturated Flow in Fractured Porous Catchments (United States)

    Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Wheater, H. S.


    available. We are able to demonstrate with this model that for Chalk systems which do not contain impermeable layers in the unsaturated zone, hillslope flow processes are predominantly vertical in the unsaturated zone, and (sub)horizontal in the saturated zone. Using an integral-balance method we develop a “low-dimensional” state-space model (Duffy, 1996) for quantifying recharge (i.e. the vertical outflow from the unsaturated zone) as a function of rainfall and evaporation. This model captures the behaviour of the high-dimensional finite volume model, and thereby the essential characteristics of recharge in Chalk. It is therefore superior to the Ruston approach as it explicitly accounts for storage throughout the entire unsaturated zone and represents the timing and proportion of conventional and by-pass recharge as a function of rainfall rate, unsaturated zone storage and water table depth. These properties are particularly important in order to represent the marked changes in unsaturated flow behaviour that occur during groundwater flooding.

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques (United States)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.


    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jales Henrique Freitas Curado


    Full Text Available

    Dos 2.123 soros de eqüinos, examinados pelo método de COGGINS, encontrou-se a taxa de 3,7% de reagentes positivos para a anemia infecciosa eqüina. Estes dados indicam que, nos municípios estudados no Estado de Goiás, os índices de prevalência estão dentro dos limites esperados, especialmente nos municípios localizados em áreas alagadiças, onde a veiculação da doença é mais intensa.

    From 2,123 equine serum examined by COGGINS method it was found 3.7% positive reagents for equine infections anemia. The data indicate that, for the counties studied in the State of Goiás, prevalence rates are within the expected range, especially in the counties with flooded areas where disease incidence is more intense.

  7. Sex Differences in Suicide Incident Characteristics and Circumstances among Older Adults: Surveillance Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. States, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Karch


    Full Text Available Each year in the U.S. more than 7,000 adults aged 60 years and older die of suicide and as the population ages, these numbers are expected to increase. While sex is an important predictor of older adult suicide, differences between males and females are often overlooked due to low occurrence, particularly among women. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS bridges this gap by providing detailed information on older adult suicide by sex in 17 US states (covering approximately 26% of the U.S. population. NVDRS data for 2007–2009 were used to characterize male (n = 5,004 and female (n = 1,123 suicide decedents aged 60 years and older, including incident characteristics and circumstances precipitating suicide. Stratification of NVDRS data by sex shows significant differences with regard to the presence of antidepressants (19% and 45% respectively, opiates (18%, 37%, and 14 precipitating circumstances concerning mental health, interpersonal problems, life stressors and a history of suicide attempts. No differences were found for alcohol problems, suicide/other death of family or friends, non-criminal legal problems, financial problems, or disclosure of intent to take their own life. The findings of this study demonstrate the value of using comprehensive surveillance data to understand sex-specific suicide circumstances so that opportunities for targeted prevention strategies may be considered.

  8. The War on Democratic Public Space: A Perspective from the United States (United States)

    Hill, Robert J.


    There is a crisis in democratic public space in the USA. This essay explores key areas that are either causes or effects of the present predicament: post-9-11 fear, neoliberalisation/globalisation, migrating populations, and the growing power of right-wing fundamentalism, among others. (Contains 6 notes.)

  9. On the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space: Bound states, scattering and helicity nonconservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, E.O., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil); Pereira, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil)


    In this work the bound state and scattering problems for a spin- 1/2 particle undergone to an Aharonov–Bohm potential in a conical space in the nonrelativistic limit are considered. The presence of a δ-function singularity, which comes from the Zeeman spin interaction with the magnetic flux tube, is addressed by the self-adjoint extension method. One of the advantages of the present approach is the determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter in terms of physics of the problem. Expressions for the energy bound states, phase-shift and S matrix are determined in terms of the self-adjoint extension parameter, which is explicitly determined in terms of the parameters of the problem. The relation between the bound state and zero modes and the failure of helicity conservation in the scattering problem and its relation with the gyromagnetic ratio g are discussed. Also, as an application, we consider the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space plus a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. -- Highlights: •Planar dynamics of a spin- 1/2 neutral particle. •Bound state for Aharonov–Bohm systems. •Aharonov–Bohm scattering. •Helicity nonconservation. •Determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter.

  10. Algorithms for polynomial spectral factorization and bounded-real balanced state space representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.; Minh, H.B.

    We illustrate an algorithm that starting from the image representation of a strictly bounded-real system computes a minimal balanced state variable, from which a minimal balanced state realization is readily obtained. The algorithm stems from an iterative procedure to compute a storage function,

  11. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo


    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states...

  12. Summarization of Injury and Fatality Factors Involving Children and Youth in Grain Storage and Handling Incidents. (United States)

    Issa, S F; Field, W E; Hamm, K E; Cheng, Y H; Roberts, M J; Riedel, S M


    This article summarizes data gathered on 246 documented cases of children and youth under the age of 21 involved in grain storage and handling incidents in agricultural workplaces from 1964 to 2013 in the U.S. that have been entered into the Purdue Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database. The database is the result of ongoing efforts to collect and file information on documented injuries, fatalities, and entrapments in all forms of agricultural confined spaces. While the frequency of injuries and fatalities involving children and youth in agriculture has decreased in recent years, incidents related to agricultural confined spaces, especially grain storage and handling facilities, have remained largely unchanged during the same period. Approximately 21% of all documented incidents involved children and youth (age 20 and younger), and more than 77% of all documented incidents were fatal, suggesting an under-reporting of non-fatal incidents. Findings indicate that the majority of youth incidents occurred at OSHA exempt agricultural worksites. The states reporting the most incidents were Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Minnesota. Grain transport vehicles represented a significant portion of incidents involving children under the age of 16. The overwhelming majority of victims were male, and most incidents (50%) occurred in June, October, and November. Recommendations include developing intervention strategies that target OSHA exempt farms, feedlots, and seed processing facilities; preparing engineering design and best practice standards that reduce the exposure of children and youth to agricultural confined spaces; and developing gender-specific safety resources that incorporate gender-sensitive strategies to communicate safety information to the population of young males with the greatest risk of exposure to the hazards of agricultural confined spaces.

  13. A step-indexed Kripke model of hidden state via recursive properties on recursively defined metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinghammer, Jan; Birkedal, Lars; Støvring, Kristian


    Frame and anti-frame rules have been proposed as proof rules for modular reasoning about programs. Frame rules allow one to hide irrelevant parts of the state during verification, whereas the anti-frame rule allows one to hide local state from the context. We give the first sound model for Chargu......´eraud and Pottier’s type and capability system including both frame and anti-frame rules. The model is a possible worlds model based on the operational semantics and step-indexed heap relations, and the worlds are constructed as a recursively defined predicate on a recursively defined metric space. We also extend...... the model to account for Pottier’s generalized frame and anti-frame rules, where invariants are generalized to families of invariants indexed over pre-orders. This generalization enables reasoning about some well-bracketed as well as (locally) monotonic uses of local state....

  14. On the calculation of quantum mechanical ground states from classical geodesic motion on certain spaces of constant negative curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.


    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)

  15. Development of irradiation methods and degradation modeling for state-of-the-art space solar cells (United States)

    Ohshima, Takeshi; Sato, Shin-ichiro; Sumita, Taishi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Imaizumi, Mitsuru


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) together with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed an insitu evaluation technique for understanding radiation response of space solar cells, by which the electrical characteristics of solar cells can be measured under AM0 light illumination during proton/electron irradiation experiments (Simultaneous method). Using the simultaneous method, we revealed the radiation degradation of multi-junction solar cells such as InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple junction (3J) solar cells. A modeling of the radiation degradation of 3J solar cells based on the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) concept was established. Flexible multi-junction solar cells are under development for space applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F Ghiti


    Full Text Available Using the general modified field equation, a general noncommutative Klein-Gordon equation up to the second order of the noncommutativity parameter is derived in the context of noncommutative 2D De Sitter space-time. Using Bogoliubov coefficients and a special technics called conformal time; the boson-antiboson pair creation density is determined. The Von Neumann boson-antiboson pair creation quantum entanglement entropy is presented to compute the entanglement between the modes created presented.

  17. Continuous state-space representation of a bucket-type rainfall-runoff model: a case study with the GR4 model using state-space GR4 (version 1.0) (United States)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles


    In many conceptual rainfall-runoff models, the water balance differential equations are not explicitly formulated. These differential equations are solved sequentially by splitting the equations into terms that can be solved analytically with a technique called operator splitting. As a result, only the solutions of the split equations are used to present the different models. This article provides a methodology to make the governing water balance equations of a bucket-type rainfall-runoff model explicit and to solve them continuously. This is done by setting up a comprehensive state-space representation of the model. By representing it in this way, the operator splitting, which makes the structural analysis of the model more complex, could be removed. In this state-space representation, the lag functions (unit hydrographs), which are frequent in rainfall-runoff models and make the resolution of the representation difficult, are first replaced by a so-called Nash cascade and then solved with a robust numerical integration technique. To illustrate this methodology, the GR4J model is taken as an example. The substitution of the unit hydrographs with a Nash cascade, even if it modifies the model behaviour when solved using operator splitting, does not modify it when the state-space representation is solved using an implicit integration technique. Indeed, the flow time series simulated by the new representation of the model are very similar to those simulated by the classic model. The use of a robust numerical technique that approximates a continuous-time model also improves the lag parameter consistency across time steps and provides a more time-consistent model with time-independent parameters.

  18. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate (United States)


    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  19. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Le; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan


    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. (paper)

  20. About One Approach to Determine the Weights of the State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova


    Full Text Available The article studies methods of determining weight coefficients, also called coefficients of criteria importance in multiobjective optimization (MOO. It is assumed that these coefficients indicate a degree of individual criteria influence on the final selection (final or summary assessment: the more is coefficient, the greater is contribution of its corresponding criterion.Today in the framework of modern information systems to support decision making for various purposes a number of methods for determining relative importance of criteria has been developed. Among those methods we can distinguish a utility method, method of weighted power average; weighted median; method of matching clustered rankings, method of paired comparison of importance, etc.However, it should be noted that different techniques available for calculating weights does not eliminate the main problem of multicriteria optimization namely, the inconsistency of individual criteria. The basis for solving multicriteria problems is a fundamental principle of multi-criteria selection i.e. Edgeworth - Pareto principle.Despite a large number of methods to determine the weights, the task remains relevant not only for reasons of evaluations subjectivity, but also because of the mathematical aspects. Today, recognized is the fact that, for example, such a popular method as linear convolution of private criteria, essentially, represents one of the heuristic approaches and, applying it, you can have got not the best final choice. Carlin lemma reflects the limits of the method application.The aim of this work is to offer one of the methods to calculate the weights applied to the problem of dynamic system optimization, the quality of which is determined by the criterion of a special type, namely integral quadratic quality criterion. The main challenge relates to the method of state space, which in the literature also is called the method of analytical design of optimal controllers.Despite the