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Sample records for incidence rate ir

  1. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  2. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  3. Migration and melanoma incidence rates among Washington state counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victor; Thompson, Ian; Whitney, David; Switzer, Michael; Anderson, Amy D; Smits, Shelly

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for a possible explanation for the variation in the incidence rate of melanoma among counties in Washington state. We used data from the Washington State Cancer Registry (WSCR), the Cancer Center at PeaceHealth St. Joseph Hospital in Whatcom County, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to get information on melanoma incidence. Demographic and migration records were obtained from the US Census Bureau, the Washington State Department of Licensing (DOL), and the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS). A number of different analytic techniques were used to address our research question, including a multiple regression analysis, time trend comparisons, and an analysis of birthplace data of melanoma patients in Whatcom county. We found a significant association between migration rate from the Southwest (SW) USA and melanoma incidence (PWhatcom county, almost half of all residents were born outside of Washington state, but they accounted for about 70% of all melanoma cases. Our analyses suggest that migration from the SW is an important factor in explaining the variation in melanoma rate among counties in Washington.

  4. A cohort study of incident microalbuminuria in relation to HOMA-IR in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Chun, Hyejin; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won; Cho, Choo Yon; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Ko, Taeg Su; Kim, Eugene; Park, Se-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Hong, Seok Jin; Hong, Hyun Pyo

    2015-06-15

    Despite the previous studies showing the relationship between microalbuminuria and insulin resistance, longitudinal effect of insulin resistance on development of microalbuminuria is not clearly identified in non-diabetic population. One thousand six hundred three non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 had been followed up for the development of microalbuminuria until 2010. Microalbuminuria was evaluated by urine-albumin creatinine ration, and insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk for microalbuminuria according to the tertile of HOMA-IR. During 5465.8 person-y of average follow-up, microalbuminuria developed in 76 (4.7%) participants. Incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the level of HOMA-IR (tertile 1: 3.0%, tertile 2: 4.1%, tertile 3: 7.1%, PHOMA-IR was set as reference, hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 1.15 (0.56-2.35) and 2.07 (1.05-4.09) for those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of HOMA-IR, even after adjusting multiple covariates, respectively (P for linear trend=0.054). Increased insulin resistance was a predictor of microalbuminuria in Korean men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent events in NPPs and incident reporting system (IRS) activity. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA convened the 1996 Joint Meeting to Exchange Information on Recent Events in Nuclear Power Plants and the Technical Committee-Annual Meeting of the Incident Reporting System (IRS) national co-ordinators, organized jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD in Paris, France from 22-26 April 1996. These consecutive meetings took place at the OECD Headquarters, 2 rue Andre Pascal. The main objective of the first meeting (22-24 April 1996) was to exchange and discuss information on recent events which occurred in NPPs. The second meeting (25-26 April 1996) was devoted to the IAEA and NEA activity in the framework of the IRS. The main issues of the programme at the meetings were as follows: in-depth discussion on NPP recent events, presented by the participants; panel discussion on operational safety experience issues identified by the participants; IAEA and NEA activities on IRS subjects in 1995-1996 and plans for the future; issues from the inter-agency's IRS Advisory Committee. Annexes I and II provide more information on the programme at the meetings. A list of participants is given in Annex III (50 participants from 22 countries and 3 international organization). Annexes IV and V provide information on national presentations on recent events. Figs, tabs

  6. Incidence rates and trends of hip/femur fractures in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, G; Abbing-Karahagopian, V; Huerta, C

    2014-01-01

    Hip fractures represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Multinational studies using a common methodology are scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) and trends of hip/femur fractures over the period 2003-2009 in five European countries. The study was performed using seve...

  7. Reference air kerma rate calibration system for high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy sources in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Han; Yuan, Ming-Chen; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-11-01

    Ir-192 sources are widely used in brachytherapy and the number of treatments is around seven thousand for the use of the high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy source per year in Taiwan. Due to its physical half-life of 73.8 days, the source should be replaced four times per year to maintain the HDR treatment mode (DDEP, 2005; Coursey et al., 1992). When doing this work, it must perform the source dose trace to assure the dose accuracy. To establish the primary measurement standard of reference air kerma rate(RAKR) for the HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy sources in Taiwan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) fabricated a dual spherical graphite-walled cavity ionization chambers system to directly measure the RAKR of the Ir-192 brachytherapy source. In this system, the ion-charge was accumulated by the two ionization chambers and after correction for the ion recombination, temperature, atmosphere pressure, room scattering, graphite-wall attenuation, air attenuation, source decay, stem effect, and so on. The RAKR of the Ir-192 source was obtained in the ambient conditions of 22 °C and one atmosphere. The measurement uncertainty of the system was around 0.92% in 96% confidence level (k=2.0). To verify the accuracy of the result, the source calibration comparison has been made at the National Radiation Standard Laboratory (NRSL) of INER and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) in 2015. The ratio of the measurement results between INER and PTB, INER/PTB, was 0.998±0.027 (k=2) which showed good consistency and the performance of the system was verified.

  8. Management practices associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; Schukken, Y H; Lam, T J; Beiboer, M L; Benedictus, G; Brand, A

    1999-08-01

    Risk factors for the incidence rate of clinical mastitis were studied in 274 Dutch dairy herds. Variables that were associated with resistance to disease were the feeding, housing, and milking machine factors. Variables that were associated with exposure were grazing, combined housing of dry cows and heifers, and calving area hygiene. Postmilking teat disinfection in herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count and years of practicing dry cow therapy were positively associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count and in which postmilking teat disinfection was not used had lower incidence rates of clinical mastitis than did other herds. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Escherichia coli was mostly related to housing conditions, hygiene, and machine milking. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was mostly related to factors associated with bulk milk somatic cell count and factors that might be due to cause and effect reversal. A strong positive correlation existed between the incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Staph. aureus. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae was related to nutrition, milking technique, and machine milking. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis was associated with factors related to housing, nutrition, and machine milking.

  9. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Lung Cancer Survivors May Feel Blame Women’s Perceived and Actual Risk of Getting Cancer Colorectal Cancer ... cases) and death rates by sex, racial and ethnic group, age group, U.S. Census region, state, county-level ...

  10. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  11. IAEA/NEA incident reporting system (IRS). Reporting guidelines. Feedback from safety related operating experience for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. These guidelines have been jointly developed and approved by the NEA/IAEA

  12. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...

  13. Incident IR Bandwidth Effects on Efficiency and Shaping for Third Harmonic Generation of Quasi-Rectangular UV Longitudinal Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The photocathode of the proposed LCLS RF Photoinjector will be irradiated by uv laser light which is generated as the third harmonic of incident fundamental ir laser light. We have investigated quantitatively the effect of input ir spectral bandwidth on the exiting longitudinal intensity profiles, energy conversion efficiencies and spectral bandwidths that characterize the third harmonic generation (THG) process with a pair of crystals. These profiles, efficiencies and bandwidths include the residual fundamental and residual second harmonic light exiting the second crystal. The intrinsic acceptance bandwidth for THG is determined by crystal material and thickness as well as the type of phase matching that is used. For our case of BBO material with type I phase matching these bandwidths are approximately 0.9 nm*cm and 0.1 nm*cm for second and third harmonic generation respectively. Consequently for fixed crystal thicknesses and a fixed input ir longitudinal profile, the specified input ir bandwidth will determine the profiles, efficiencies and bandwidths exiting the second crystal. The results reported here are predictions of the SNLO code that is available as 'freeware' from the Sandia National Laboratories. It has been modified for this work. It is critical to note that this modification has enabled us to generate SNLO predictions of the 'coupled' case in which the output of the first crystal is used as input to the second crystal. Our focus is the dependence of uv longitudinal intensity profile and THG efficiency on the input ir bandwidth and crystal thicknesses. We include here cases that best illustrate input bandwidth effects. The criteria for selection of reported cases are highest efficiency generation of quasi-rectangular uv profiles with proportional intensity ripple less than 5% rms on the plateau of the pulse. Maximizing THG efficiency typically amounts to maximizing the crystal thicknesses with the longitudinal profile constraint. The specified incident

  14. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  15. METS-IR, a novel score to evaluate insulin sensitivity, is predictive of visceral adiposity and incident type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Chavolla, Omar Yaxmehen; Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Gomez-Velasco, Donaji; Viveros-Ruiz, Tannia; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Romo-Romo, Alonso; Sánchez-Lázaro, Daniel; Meza-Oviedo, Dushan; Vargas-Vázquez, Arsenio; Campos, Olimpia Arellano; Sevilla-González, Magdalena Del Rocío; Martagón, Alexandro J; Hernández, Liliana Muñoz; Mehta, Roopa; Caballeros-Barragán, César Rodolfo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2018-05-01

    We developed a novel non-insulin-based fasting score to evaluate insulin sensitivity validated against the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). We also evaluated its correlation with ectopic fact accumulation and its capacity to predict incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The discovery sample was composed by 125 subjects (57 without and 68 with T2D) that underwent an EHC. We defined METS-IR as Ln((2*G 0 )+TG 0 )*BMI)/(Ln(HDL-c)) (G 0 : fasting glucose, TG 0 : fasting triglycerides, BMI: body mass index, HDL-c: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and compared its diagnostic performance against the M-value adjusted by fat-free mass (MFFM) obtained by an EHC. METS-IR was validated in a sample with EHC data, a sample with modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) data and a large cohort against HOMA-IR. We evaluated the correlation of the score with intrahepatic and intrapancreatic fat measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, we evaluated its ability to predict incident T2D cases in a prospective validation cohort of 6144 subjects. METS-IR demonstrated the better correlation with the MFFM ( ρ  = -0.622, P  index obtained from the FSIVGTT (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53-0.81). METS-IR significantly correlated with intravisceral, intrahepatic and intrapancreatic fat and fasting insulin levels ( P  50.39) had the highest adjusted risk to develop T2D (HR: 3.91, 95% CI: 2.25-6.81). Furthermore, subjects with incident T2D had higher baseline METS-IR compared to healthy controls (50.2 ± 10.2 vs 44.7 ± 9.2, P  < 0.001). METS-IR is a novel score to evaluate cardiometabolic risk in healthy and at-risk subjects and a promising tool for screening of insulin sensitivity. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Incidence and frequency rates of childhood cancer in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the extent of paediatric malignancy in an African country and to compare these findings wjth paediatric cancer rates in other countries. Design. A retrospective descriptive study which calculated incidence and frequency rates from the data obtained from a 6-year survey of childhood cancer in. Namibia.

  17. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  18. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  19. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from. August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data.

  20. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  1. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data was ...

  2. Incidence, 10-year recidivism rate and prognostic factors for cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britze, A; Møller, M L; Ovesen, T

    2017-04-01

    Cholesteatoma patients have a high risk of recurrence with complications, and knowledge exchange is a prerequisite for improving treatment. This study aimed to apply appropriate statistics to provide meaningful and transferable results from cholesteatoma surgery, to highlight independent prognostic factors, and to assess the incidence rate. Incidence rates were assessed for the district of Aarhus, Denmark. From 147 patients operated on mainly with canal wall up mastoidectomies for debuting cholesteatomas, 10-year Kaplan-Meier recidivism rates were calculated and independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were identified by Cox multivariate regression analyses. Incidence rate was 6.8 per 100 000 per year. The 10-year cumulative recidivism rate was 0.44 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.37-0.53). Independent prognostic factors for the recidivism were: age below 15 years (hazard ratio = 2.2; p > z = 0.002), cholesteatoma localised to the mastoid (hazard ratio = 1.7; p > z = 0.04), stapes erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.02) and incus erosion (hazard ratio = 1.9; p > z = 0.04). The recidivism rate is influenced by several factors that are important to observe, both in the clinic and when comparing results from surgery.

  3. Incidence and vertical transmission rate of Neospora caninum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Paulo César G A; Oliveira, Júnior M B; Andrade, Muller R; Silva, José G; Kim, Pomy C P; Almeida, Jonatas C; Porto, Wagnner J N; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2017-06-01

    The infection by Neospora caninum in sheep can lead to abortion and the birth of weak and debilitated lambs. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of natural infection by Neospora caninum and the vertical transmission rate among sheep. A flock of 50 sheep was monitored for serum antibody titres against N. caninum and seroconversion over a period of six months using an indirect ELISA technique. The offspring of the herd was also investigated regarding anti-N. caninum antibodies to determine the vertical transmission rate through the indirect immunofluorescence technique. The initial and final prevalences of infection by N. caninum were 26.0% (13/50) and 72.0% (36/50), respectively, and the incidence of infection by N. caninum in the present study was 62.2% (23/37). The vertical transmission rate found was 15.4% (2/13). A high incidence of infection by N. caninum in sheep was observed, and this is the first report assessing the incidence of N. caninum among naturally infected sheep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.

  5. Incidence rate of anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuğ, Özlen; Kani, Haluk Tarık; Banzragch, Munkhtsetseg; İmeryüz, Neşe; Akın, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    To determine the incidence rate and distribution of anemia types over time from an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patient cohort spanning 18 years. Between January 1995 and November 2013, the University Hospital digital databases as well as hard copies of patients' files were reviewed retrospectively. IBD patients with at least one complete blood count (CBC) report were included in this study. We obtained 941 IBD patients' records; 375 (39.9%) patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD), and 566 (60.1%) patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). Anemia was detected in 548 (58.2%) patients. Female patients were more frequently anemic than male patients (68.4% vs. 49.7%, p=0.001). The frequency of anemia was slightly higher in patients with CD (62.1%) than in patients with UC (55.7%) (p=0.04). The incidence rate of anemia for the entire IBD patient cohort was calculated as 103.45 per 1,000 patient-years. The correlation between the age of the IBD disease and the presence of anemia exhibited a high correlation coefficient of Pearson's r=0.702. This is the first study to report the incidence rate of anemia (103.45 per 1,000 patient-years) in a long-term cohort of IBD patients.

  6. Cumulative incidence rates of the mucopolysaccharidoses in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehner, F; Schmiedeskamp, C; Krummenauer, F; Miebach, E; Bajbouj, M; Whybra, C; Kohlschütter, A; Kampmann, C; Beck, M

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the cumulative incidence rates of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in Germany, a retrospective epidemiological survey covering the period between 1980 and 1995 was implemented. Multiple ascertainment sources were used to identify affected patients. A prevalence of approximately 0.69 cases per 100,000 births was obtained for MPS I (Hurler phenotype). Within the study period, 4 patients with Hurler/Scheie phenotype and 7 cases with Scheie disease were detected. The cumulative incidence for MPS II (Hunter syndrome) was estimated as 0.64 cases per 100,000 births (1.3 cases per 100,000 male live births); that for MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome types A, B and C) as 1.57 cases in 100,000 births; that for MPS IV A (Morquio syndrome) as 0.38 cases in 100,000; and that for MPS VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) as 0.23 cases per 100,000 births. Two cases of MPS IVB (beta-galactosidase deficiency) have been identified, but no patients with MPS VII or MPS IX. A relatively high number of patients with MPS IIIB, MPS IVA and MPS VI were of Turkish origin. The crude rate for all types of mucopolysaccharidoses is approximately 3.53 cases in 100,000 live births. The cumulative incidence pattern of MPS in Germany was compared with the corresponding rates among other industrial nations obtained from recent literature: the crude cumulative rates for all types of mucopolysaccharidoses (3.4-4.5 in 100,000 live births) were similar among all published populations; however, different frequencies of the various forms of MPS were observed.

  7. Monte Carlo dosimetry of the IRAsource high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabiasl, Akbar; Ayoobian, Navid; Jabbari, Iraj; Poorbaygi, Hossein; Javanshir, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a common method for cancer treatment in clinical brachytherapy. Because of the different source designs, there is a need for specific dosimetry data set for each HDR model. The purpose of this study is to obtain detailed dose rate distributions in water phantom for a first prototype HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source model, IRAsource, and compare with the other published works. In this study, Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP version 4C) code was used to simulate the dose rate distributions around the HDR source. A full set of dosimetry parameters reported by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43U1 was evaluated. Also, the absorbed dose rate distributions in water, were obtained in an along-away look-up table. The dose rate constant, Λ, of the IRAsource was evaluated to be equal to 1.112 ± 0.005 cGy h −1 U −1 . The results of dosimetry parameters are presented in tabulated and graphical formats and compared with those reported from other commercially available HDR 192 Ir sources, which are in good agreement. This justifies the use of specific data sets for this new source. The results obtained in this study can be used as input data in the conventional treatment planning systems.

  8. Evaluation of performance and quality control of high dose rate Ir-192 remote afterloading brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. A. M.

    2005-09-01

    Brachytherapy is the use of encapsulated radioactive sources to deliver a radiation dose at a short distance over a short time for treatment of malignant tumors. In Sudan, mainly in Radiation and Isotopes Center Khartoum (RICK) brachytherapy was introduced in 1989 using manual afterloading low dose rate 137 Cs for treatment of carcinoma of the cervix, but for safety reasons now it replace by high dose rate 192 Ir afterloading system (HDR) with remotely controlled device to deliver controlled radiation dose for treatment of carcinoma of cervix, esophagus and nasopharynx. This study was carried out in high dose rate 192 Ir afterloading brachytherapy equipment (Gamma Med 12i unit) located at RICK to evaluate the performance and to perform comprehensive quality control of the treatment unit with respect to three poles: safety systems, physical parameters and calibration of Ir-192 source through some quality control checks, so as to ensure that the equipment meets the safety standard. The study shows that all the safety systems which include the mechanical checks are work properly, the average of the dose rate measured at different positions from the treatment unit which represent the leakage radiation by using RDS-120 universal survey meter is less than 10μSv/h. The physical parameters which include the check of a source position accuracy by using x-OMAT ready pack film and catheter guide tube is I mm. The source strength that was obtained from the calibration procedures following the IAEA-TECDOC 1274 protocol by using HDR 1000 plus well type ionization chamber is different from the value of International Standard Laboratory by 1.5%. It was found that the brachytherapy equipment and the source used in brachytherapy meets the users requirements except some necessary requirements, so some recommendations was putted include these requirements.(Author)

  9. Modeling a SI epidemic with stochastic transmission: hyperbolic incidence rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Alejandra; Maulén-Yañez, M Angélica; González-Olivares, Eduardo; Curé, Michel

    2018-03-01

    In this paper a stochastic susceptible-infectious (SI) epidemic model is analysed, which is based on the model proposed by Roberts and Saha (Appl Math Lett 12: 37-41, 1999), considering a hyperbolic type nonlinear incidence rate. Assuming the proportion of infected population varies with time, our new model is described by an ordinary differential equation, which is analogous to the equation that describes the double Allee effect. The limit of the solution of this equation (deterministic model) is found when time tends to infinity. Then, the asymptotic behaviour of a stochastic fluctuation due to the environmental variation in the coefficient of disease transmission is studied. Thus a stochastic differential equation (SDE) is obtained and the existence of a unique solution is proved. Moreover, the SDE is analysed through the associated Fokker-Planck equation to obtain the invariant measure when the proportion of the infected population reaches steady state. An explicit expression for invariant measure is found and we study some of its properties. The long time behaviour of deterministic and stochastic models are compared by simulations. According to our knowledge this incidence rate has not been previously used for this type of epidemic models.

  10. Determination of the reference air kerma rate for 192Ir brachytherapy sources and the related uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Eduard van; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Damen, Patricia M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods exist to determine the air kerma calibration factor of an ionization chamber for the spectrum of a 192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) source. An analysis of two methods to obtain such a calibration factor was performed: (i) the method recommended by [Goetsch et al., Med. Phys. 18, 462-467 (1991)] and (ii) the method employed by the Dutch national standards institute NMi [Petersen et al., Report S-EI-94.01 (NMi, Delft, The Netherlands, 1994)]. This analysis showed a systematic difference on the order of 1% in the determination of the strength of 192 Ir HDR and PDR sources depending on the method used for determining the air kerma calibration factor. The definitive significance of the difference between these methods can only be addressed after performing an accurate analysis of the associated uncertainties. For an NE 2561 (or equivalent) ionization chamber and an in-air jig, a typical uncertainty budget of 0.94% was found with the NMi method. The largest contribution in the type-B uncertainty is the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factor for isotope i, N k i , as determined by the primary or secondary standards laboratories. This uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainties in the physical constants for the average mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio and the stopping power ratios. This means that it is not foreseeable that the standards laboratories can decrease the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factors for ionization chambers in the short term. When the results of the determination of the 192 Ir reference air kerma rates in, e.g., different institutes are compared, the uncertainties in the physical constants are the same. To compare the applied techniques, the ratio of the results can be judged by leaving out the uncertainties due to these physical constants. In that case an uncertainty budget of 0.40% (coverage factor=2) should be taken into account. Due to the differences in approach between the

  11. The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, A.M.; Lohse, N.; Obel, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Population-based data...

  12. Compensation claims for occupational noise induced hearing loss between 1998 and 2008: yearly incidence rates and trends in older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Samia; Benke, Geza; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Sim, Malcolm

    2016-04-01

    To estimate yearly incidence rates for occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) claims and to describe occupational factors in relation to age for incident cases in Victoria, Australia, between 1998 and 2008. All compensation claims lodged for deafness between 1 July 1998 and 30 June 2008 in the working population covered by the Victorian compensation scheme were analysed. Denominators were provided from 1999-2000 and incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 workers for each financial year. Overall, 81.2% of the 4,518 claims lodged were accepted. Successful claimants were predominantly males (96.5%) and claimants aged 56 to 65 years formed half the overall claims. The number of accepted claims was almost five times higher in 2007-08 than 1998-99. The highest rise was in claimants aged 56 years and above, particularly in those after retirement age. The number of claims and yearly incidence rates (IR) more than doubled over the period (240 claims and IR of 15.1 per 100,000 workers in 1999-2000 versus 669 claims and IR of 34.2 in 2007-08) with a sharp increase from 2004-05 to almost double within one single year and remained at high levels afterwards. The dramatic increase in eligible claims may reflect an increase in awareness of entitlements among workers eligible to make a successful claim. This awareness may be the result of increased opportunities for screening coinciding with changes in regulations. Older workers who worked in smaller workplaces may also be targeted by services providers as they combine occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and presbycusis (hearing loss due to age), but this hypothesis needs further evaluation. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. 76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2011, the interest rates for...

  14. 77 FR 2308 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  15. 78 FR 63238 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  16. 78 FR 1222 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  17. 78 FR 37839 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  18. 78 FR 20349 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  19. 75 FR 37823 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent. This notice is published for the convenience of the...

  20. 75 FR 20373 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning April 1, 2010, the interest rates for...

  1. 76 FR 41283 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  2. 76 FR 2404 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Customs And Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning January 1, 2011, the interest rates for...

  3. 77 FR 38076 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  4. 76 FR 20697 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  5. 75 FR 59279 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On Overdue Accounts and Refunds On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent. This notice is published for the convenience of the...

  6. 77 FR 18256 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  7. 77 FR 59411 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties...: This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to... calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2 percent for...

  8. Dosimetric advancement of high-dose-rate after-loading 192Ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxu; Li Wenhua; Xu Hairong

    2004-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) 192 Ir source is a nuclide commonly used in the brachytherapy system. The basic dosimetry data of the near source area is usually measured by pin ion chambers or TLD techniques, but these methods have a lower spatial resolution than Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry which has a spatial resolution of 156 μm, and the Monte Carlo photon transport simulations are taken as the golden standard of those measures. The precision in two-dimensional dose distribution measured by GafChromic film is reported to be 1.0%. In vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR intracavitary after-loading brachytherapy is a good predictor of late rectal complications. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Fricke-gel dosimetry for three-dimensional dose distribution is about 2.5% with a spatial resolution of 1.56 mm. The optical computed tomography polymer gel dosimetry has a unique advance than MRI gel dosimetry

  9. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  10. Minimal and maximal incidence rates of skin cancer in Caucasians estimated by use of sigmoidal UV dose-incidence curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Moan, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose-cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. We studied the incidence rate-annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Segmented polynomials for incidence rate estimation from prevalence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiané, Severin Guy; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2017-01-30

    The study considers the problem of estimating incidence of a non remissible infection (or disease) with possibly differential mortality using data from a(several) cross-sectional prevalence survey(s). Fitting segmented polynomial models is proposed to estimate the incidence as a function of age, using the maximum likelihood method. The approach allows automatic search for optimal position of knots, and model selection is performed using the Akaike information criterion. The method is applied to simulated data and to estimate HIV incidence among men in Zimbabwe using data from both the NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) and Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (2005-2006). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load glucose (2hPG), HbA 1c , fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population included 1349 participants aged 50-75 years without diabetes at baseline (1989) from a population-based cohort in Hoorn, the Netherlands. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by the WHO 2011 criteria or known diabetes at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations of the glycaemic markers, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes. Restricted cubic spline logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the shape of the associations. After a mean follow-up duration of 6.4 (SD 0.5) years, 152 participants developed diabetes (11.3%); the majority were screen detected by high FPG. In multivariate adjusted models, ORs (95% CI) for incident type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile in comparison with the lowest quintile were 9.0 (4.4, 18.5) for FPG, 6.1 (2.9, 12.7) for 2hPG, 3.8 (2.0, 7.2) for HbA 1c , 1.9 (0.9, 3.6) for fasting insulin and 2.8 (1.4, 5.6) for HOMA-IR. The associations of FPG and HbA 1c with incident diabetes were non-linear, rising more steeply at higher values. FPG was most strongly associated with incident diabetes, followed by 2hPG, HbA 1c , HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. The strong association with FPG is probably because FPG is the most frequent marker for diabetes diagnosis. Non-linearity of associations between glycaemic markers and incident type 2 diabetes should be taken into account when estimating future risk of type 2 diabetes based on glycaemic markers.

  13. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the VSL and the BIPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, J.T.; De Pooter, J.A.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2014-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources of the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), The Netherlands, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the VSL in November 2009. The comparison resu...

  14. Dosimetry of indigenously developed 192Ir high-dose rate brachytherapy source: An EGSnrc Monte Carlo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application using high-dose rate (HDR 192Ir sources in remote afterloading technique is a well-established treatment method. In this direction, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, jointly indigenously developed a remote afterloading machine and 192Ir HDR source. The two-dimensional (2D dose distribution and dosimetric parameters of the BRIT 192Ir HDR source are generated using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system in a 40 cm dia × 40 cm height cylindrical water phantom. The values of air-kerma strength and dose rate constant for BRIT 192Ir HDR source are 9.894 × 10−8 ± 0.06% UBq−1 and 1.112 ± 0.11% cGyh−1U−1, respectively. The values of radial dose function (gL(r of this source compare well with the corresponding values of BEBIG, Flexisource, and GammaMed 12i source models. This is because of identical active lengths of the sources (3.5 mm and the comparable phantom dimensions. A comparison of gL(r values of BRIT source with microSelectron-v1 show differences about 2% at r = 6 cm and up to 13% at r = 12 cm, which is due to differences in phantom dimensions involved in the calculations. The anisotropy function of BRIT 192Ir HDR source is comparable with the corresponding values of microSelectron-v1 (classic HDR source.

  15. Dose volume assessment of high dose rate 192IR endobronchial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B. Saw; Korb, Leroy J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Wu, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the dose distributions of high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR) and three volumetric irradiation indices. Methods and Materials: Multiple implants were configured by allowing a single HDR 192 Ir source to step through a length of 6 cm along an endobronchial catheter. Dwell times were computed to deliver a dose of 5 Gy to points 1 cm away from the catheter axis. Five sets of source configurations, each with different dwell position spacings from 0.5 to 3.0 cm, were evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions were then generated for each source configuration. Differential and cumulative dose-volume curves were generated to quantify the degree of target volume coverage, dose nonuniformity within the target volume, and irradiation of tissues outside the target volume. Evaluation of the implants were made using the DNR and three volumetric irradiation indices. Results: The observed isodose distributions were not able to satisfy all the dose constraints. The ability to optimally satisfy the dose constraints depended on the choice of dwell position spacing and the specification of the dose constraint points. The DNR and irradiation indices suggest that small dwell position spacing does not result in a more homogeneous dose distribution for the implant. This study supports the existence of a relationship between the dwell position spacing and the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points. Better dose homogeneity for an implant can be obtained if the spacing of the dwell positions are about twice the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points

  16. Delayed heart rate recovery after exercise as a risk factor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for glycometabolic parameters in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tae Yang; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hong, Won-Jung; Jin, Sang-Man; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have reported that delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of delayed HRR following a graded exercise treadmill test (GTX) with the development of T2DM including glucose-associated parameters as an adjusting factor in healthy Korean men. Analyses including fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c as confounding factors and known confounders were performed. HRR was calculated as peak heart rate minus heart rate after a 1-min rest (HRR 1). Cox proportional hazards model was used to quantify the independent association between HRR and incident T2DM. During 9082 person-years of follow-up between 2006 and 2012, there were 180 (10.1%) incident cases of T2DM. After adjustment for age, BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, smoking status, peak heart rate, peak oxygen uptake, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c, the hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of incident T2DM comparing the second and third tertiles to the first tertile of HRR 1 were 0.867 (0.609-1.235) and 0.624 (0.426-0.915), respectively (p for trend=0.017). As a continuous variable, in the fully-adjusted model, the HR (95% CI) of incident T2DM associated with each 1 beat increase in HRR 1 was 0.980 (0.960-1.000) (p=0.048). This study demonstrated that delayed HRR after exercise predicts incident T2DM in men, even after adjusting for fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c. However, only HRR 1 had clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: the importance of early detection of insulin resistance using homeostatic indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastucha, D; Filipčíková, R; Horáková, D; Radová, L; Marinov, Z; Malinčíková, J; Kocvrlich, M; Horák, S; Bezdičková, M; Dobiáš, M

    2013-01-01

    Common alimentary obesity frequently occurs on a polygenic basis as a typical lifestyle disorder in the developed countries. It is associated with characteristic complex metabolic changes, which are the cornerstones for future metabolic syndrome development. The aims of our study were 1) to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome (based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents) in Czech obese children, 2) to evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR and QUICKI homeostatic indexes in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome, and 3) to consider the diagnostic value of these indexes for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in obese children. We therefore performed anthropometric and laboratory examinations to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the group of 274 children with obesity (128 boys and 146 girls) aged 9-17 years. Metabolic syndrome was found in 102 subjects (37 %). On the other hand, the presence of insulin resistance according to QUICKI HOMA-IR >3.16 in 53 % of obese subjects. This HOMA-IR limit was exceeded by 70 % children in the MS(+) group, but only by 43 % children in the MS(-) group (p<0.0001). However, a relatively high incidence of insulin resistance in obese children without metabolic syndrome raises a question whether the existing diagnostic criteria do not falsely exclude some cases of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of our results we suggest to pay a preventive attention also to obese children with insulin resistance even if they do not fulfill the actual diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  18. The Incidence Rate of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Urban Area of Iran: A Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Dehghani, Masood; Shafiei pour, Sara; Zydabady nejad, Hamideh; Broumand, Kiekam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies among different societies. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of IBD in Kerman, a city in Southeast Iran. METHODS All medical records that indicated a new diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) were retrieved from the gastrointestinal endoscopy and pathology departments of 12 centers from October 2011 to September 2012. RESULTS The incidence rate of UC in Kerman was estimated at 4.9...

  19. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  20. Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance. PMID:24655615

  1. Urological complications after radical hysterectomy: Incidence rates and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Radical hysterectomy is a surgical approach for stage Ib and IIa of cervical cancer. The incidence of intraoperative injuries of the bladder during radical hysterectomy ranges from 0.4-3.7%. The ureter can be crushed, caught in sutures, transsected, obstructed by angulation, or ischemic by the stippling or periureteric fascia. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistuls are reported to develop in 0.9-2% of patients after radical abdominal hysterectomy. Fistulas usually become manifested or visible at speculum examination within 14 days following the surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and predisposing factor of urological complications after radical hysterectomy. Methods. The study included a total of 536 patients with invasive stage Ib to IIb cancer of the cervix uteri who had underwent radical hysterectomy. The special elements considered were: the patient’s age; the International Federation of Ginecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage after pathohistology; duration of operation; the result of preoperative laboratory tests for diabetes, anemia, hypoproteinemia, or disorders of liver or kidney function; ASA status; postoperative surgical infection. Results. The average age of the patients with complications was 48.68 years. All patients with intraoperative ureteric and bladder injuries had statisticaly significant higher stage of disease and operation lasted more than in others without injury. We noticed 1.3% ureteral injuries and 1.49% bladder injuries, more than 50% of the patients with a previously mentioned injuries were operated on more than 3 hours. We found 2.61% vesicovaginal and 2.43% ureterovaginal fistuls. A total of 50% of the patients with bladder injury and vesicovaginal fistuls and 70% of the patients with ureterovaginal fistuls had diabetes mellitus. Postoperative infection of surgical site is a very important factor for the development of fistule. Half of the patients with vesicovaginal

  2. Comparison of192Ir,169Yb, and60Co high-dose rate brachytherapy sources for skin cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safigholi, Habib; Meigooni, Ali S; Song, William Y

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing the high-dose rate (HDR) 169 Yb and 60 Co sources, in addition to 192 Ir, for the treatment of skin malignancies with conical applicators. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to benchmark the dosimetric parameters of single 169 Yb (4140), 60 Co (Co0.A86), and 192 Ir (mHDR-V2) brachytherapy sources in a water phantom and compared their results against published data. A standard conical tungsten alloy Leipzig-style applicator (Stand.Appl) was used for determination of the dose distributions at various depths with a single dwell position of the HDR sources. The HDR sources were modeled with its long axis parallel to the treatment plane within the opening section of the applicator. The source-to-surface distance (SSD) was 1.6 cm, which included a 0.1 cm thick removable plastic end-cap used for clinical applications. The prescription depth was considered to be 0.3 cm in a water phantom following the definitions in the literature for this treatment technique. Dose distributions generated with the Stand.Appl and the 169 Yb and 60 Co sources have been compared with those of the 192 Ir source, for the same geometry. Then, applicator wall thickness for the 60 Co source was increased (doubled) in MC simulations in order to minimize the leakage dose and penumbra to levels that were comparable to that from the 192 Ir source. For each source-applicator combination, the optimized plastic end-cap dimensions were determined in order to avoid over-dosage to the skin surface. The normalized dose profiles at the prescription depth for the 169 Yb-Stand.Appl and the 60 Co-double-wall applicator were found to be similar to that of the 192 Ir-Stand.Appl, with differences Ir-, 169 Yb- and 60 Co-Stand.Appl were found to be comparable to the values with the 60 Co-double-walled applicator, with differences Ir-, 169 Yb-Stand.Appl, and 60 Co-double-wall applicators respectively. The leakage dose around the Stand.Appl for distance > 2 cm from the

  3. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  4. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  5. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  6. Head injuries in professional male football (soccer) over 13 years: 29% lower incidence rates after a rule change (red card).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudouin, Florian; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Tröß, Tobias; Reinsberger, Claus; Meyer, Tim

    2017-06-23

    Absolute numbers of head injuries in football (soccer) are considerable because of its high popularity and the large number of players. In 2006 a rule was changed to reduce head injuries. Players were given a red card (sent off) for intentional elbow-head contact. To describe the head injury mechanism and examine the effect of the rule change. Based on continuously recorded data from the German football magazine "kicker", a database of all head injuries in the 1 st German Male Bundesliga was generated comprising seasons 2000/01-2012/13. Injury mechanisms were analysed from video recordings. Injury incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as well as incidence rate ratios (IRR) to assess differences before and after the rule change were calculated. 356 head injuries were recorded (IR 2.22, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.46 per 1000 match hours). Contact with another player caused most head injuries, more specifically because of head-head (34%) or elbow-head (17%) contacts. After the rule change, head injuries were reduced by 29% (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86, p=0.002). Lacerations/abrasions declined by 42% (95% CI 0.39 to 0.85), concussions by 29% (95% CI 0.46 to 1.09), contusions by 18% (95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and facial fractures by 16% (95% CI 0.55 to 1.28). This rule change appeared to reduce the risk of head injuries in men's professional football. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995-2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-11-17

    Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men.

  8. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Hageman, Ida

    2017-01-01

    : Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted...... trend in the incidence rate. Results: The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes......Background: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...

  9. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates by county and year, 1999-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains age-adjusted incidence rates for 26 malignancy/age group/gender combinations for the years 1999-2009. These data are stratified by year and...

  10. Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Znaor, Ariana; Holcatova, Ivana; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Ferlay, Jacques; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    Marked unexplained national variations in incidence rates of kidney cancer have been observed for decades in Europe. To investigate geographic variations at the regional level and identify European regions with high incidence rates of kidney cancer. Regional- and national-level incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents databases, local cancer registry databases, and local published reports. World population age-standardised rates (ASRs) were calculated for the periods 2003-2007 and 1988-1992. Rates by period and sex were compared using map visualisation. During 2003-2007, the highest ASR was found in the Plzen region, Czech Republic (31.4/100,000 person-years in men). Other regions of the Czech Republic had ASRs of 18.6-27.5/100,000 in men, with a tendency for higher rates in regions south of Prague. Surrounding regions, including eastern Germany and regions of Slovakia and Austria, had medium-to-high incidence rates (13.0-16.8/100,000 in men). Three other areas in Europe showed higher incidence rates in men compared with the rest of the continent: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus (15.0-17.6/100,000); Iceland (13.5/100,000), and northern Italy (up to 16.0/100,000). Similar regional differences were observed among women, with rates approximately half of those observed in men in the same region. In general, these regional geographic variations remained stable over the periods 1988-1992 and 2003-2007, although higher incidence rates were detected in the Baltic countries in 2003-2007. Several European regions show particularly high rates of kidney cancer incidence. Large variations were observed within countries covered by national health-care systems, implying that overdetection is not the major factor. We present regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in Europe. We highlight several regions with high incidence rates where further studies should be conducted for cancer control and prevention. Copyright

  11. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-05-01

    Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted trend in the incidence rate. The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes that dissipated over approximately 10 weeks. The transition from standard time to summer time was not associated with a parallel change in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. This study shows that the transition from summer time to standard time was associated with an increase in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Distress associated with the sudden advancement of sunset, marking the coming of a long period of short days, may explain this finding. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B179.

  12. Gender-age interaction in incidence rates of childhood emotional disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, R; Mortensen, P B; Mors, O

    2014-01-01

    .24-2.43) for boys and 3.77% (95% CI 3.64-3.90) for girls. The pre-pubertal male preponderance was also significant for depressive disorders (F32-F33, p = 0.00144) and anxiety disorders (F40-F42, F93, p separately. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional disorders seem to display a male preponderance before the age of 12...... were incidence rates and cumulative incidences for unipolar depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32-F33), anxiety disorders (ICD-10: F40-F42), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (ICD-10: F93). RESULTS: Pre-pubertal incidence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were higher for boys......BACKGROUND: The post-pubertal association of female gender with emotional disorder is a robust finding. However, studies exploring the association of gender and emotional disorders before puberty are few and present diverging results. The aim of this study was to present gender-specific incidence...

  13. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  14. An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin C; Mitchell, Janeil M; Jeon, Heedo D; Vasilottos, Nektarios; Grogan, Raymon H; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis

    2018-04-05

    Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007. We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide. The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report. Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.

  15. Rain rate measurements over global oceans from IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This algorithm explained about 82 per cent correlation (r) with rain rate, and 1.61 mm h−1 of error of estimation. ... MSMR derived monthly averaged rain rates are compared with similar estimates from. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), and it .... A second order polynomial fit explains corre- lation for 10 GHz vertically polarized ...

  16. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  17. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Incidence rates of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Danish and Swedish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lonny; Simonsen, Jacob; Haerskjold, Ann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the prevalence of the frequent chronic conditions of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergy has increased substantially for reasons not fully understood. Atopic diseases affect quality of life in both children and their family members. OBJECTIVE: Using...... national registers, we sought to establish up-to-date incidence rates of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the Danish and Swedish child populations. METHODS: Children born in Denmark from 1997 to 2011 or born in Sweden from 2006 to 2010 participated in this cross......-national, population-based cohort study. Incidence rates of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the Danish and Swedish child cohorts were ascertained through disease-specific dispensed prescribed medication, specific hospital contacts, or both. RESULTS: In both countries the incidence rate...

  19. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age...... of 5.4% (95% CI 3.2-7.5%). Age-specific incidence rates were at maximum around the age of 9 years during the whole period. The estimated cumulative incidence proportion at age 16 years based on the 2010 age-specific incidence rates was 0.16% (95% CI 0.09-0.32%) compared with 0.20% (95% CI 0.11-0......-standardized incidence rates for first-time surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma increased from 8 to 15 per 100,000 person-years with an estimated annual increase of 1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.2%). From 2002 to 2010 the rates decreased from 15 to 10 per 100,000 person-years with an annual decrease...

  20. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  1. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  3. Incidence rates and risk factors for owner-reported adverse events following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng Ju; Stephenson, Nicole; Foley, Janet E; Toussieng, Chuck R; Farver, Thomas B; Sykes, Jane E; Fleer, Katryna A

    2015-11-15

    To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine. Observational, retrospective cohort study. 130,557 dogs. Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit. Signalment data, vaccinations received, medications administered, and owner-reported clinical signs consistent with AEs that developed ≤ 5 days after vaccination were recorded. Associations between potential risk factors and owner-reported AEs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The IR/10,000 dogs for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was 26.3 (95% CI, 23.6 to 29.2), whereas that for dogs that received a Leptospira vaccine alone or with other vaccines was 53.0 (95% CI, 42.8 to 64.9). Significant factors for increasing or decreasing risk of AEs were as follows: receiving a Leptospira vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13), age at vaccination 1 to dogs), and IRs for these events did not differ significantly between dogs vaccinated with or without a Leptospira component. The overall IR for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was low. Results suggested vaccination against Leptospira (an organism that can cause fatal disease) is safe in the majority of cases, slightly increasing the risk of owner-reported AEs but not associated with a significant increase in hypersensitivity reactions, compared with other vaccinations administered.

  4. Incidence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms and influential factors in young children in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, M.; Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.

    2008-01-01

    questionnaire based on an ISAAC protocol to all children in the age of 1-6 years. Five years later a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the children that were 1-3 years at baseline. In total, 4779 children (response rate = 73%) participated in both surveys and constitute the study population in this cohort...... period of breast-feeding. Allergic symptoms in parents were also a strong risk factor for incident asthma, as well as for rhinitis and eczema. Conclusion: When comparing incident rates of asthma between different studies it is important to realize that different definitions of the healthy baseline...

  5. Rain rate measurements over global oceans from IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    (GHRC), NASA on exabytes. These data contain. TMI derived global oceanic measurements of wind speed (with and without use of 10.65GHz chan- nel), integrated water vapour, cloud liquid water, sea surface temperature and rain rate (with and without use of 10.65 GHz channel). This product is used to find algorithm for ...

  6. Sex-specific incidence rates and risk factors of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: a decade follow-up in a Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, A; Tohidi, M; Hajebrahimi, M A; Saadat, N; Azizi, F; Hadaegh, F

    2017-02-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in a representative Iranian population over a median follow-up of 9.2 years. In total, 3662 people (1528 men) without known diabetes with a baseline homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level HOMA-IR HOMA-IR < 2.39 and HOMA-β ≥ 81.7 among women). The incidence rates of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction were 56.3 and 33.6/1000 person-years among men and 48.6 and 50.3/1000 person-years among women, respectively. Applying multivariable Cox regression in both sexes, fasting insulin, triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower education were positive predictors of insulin resistance, whereas age was a negative predictor. Moreover, fasting plasma glucose, waist-to-height ratio, wrist circumference and lower hip circumference were significantly associated with incident insulin resistance only among women (all P < 0.05). Considering β-cell dysfunction in both sexes, age and fasting plasma glucose increased the risk, whereas 2-h post-challenge plasma glucose was a positive predictor only among men, and waist-to-height ratio and triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio were negative predictors only among women (all P < 0.05). Modifiable risk factors are related to the incidence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, which can be prevented with proper strategies although the difference between men and women should be taken into account. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  7. Determination of air kerma standard of high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source; Determinacao da taxa de kerma no ar de referencia para {sup 192}Ir de alta taxa de dose para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, E.J.; Alves, C.F.E.; Leite, S.P.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas and presently in use for determining of the air kerma standard of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate sources to calibrate well-type chambers. Uncertainty analysis involving the measurements procedure are presented. (author)

  8. Risk-adjusted melanoma skin cancer incidence rates in Whites (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray Martell

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a better population-based measure of risk for melanoma skin cancer. A method has been previously proposed for estimating cancer incidence rates for data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Unlike conventionally reported incidence rates in the USA, this method uses the first primary cancer and adjusts for population-based cancer prevalence to obtain a better measure of cancer risk. The study involves SEER data for white men and women. Conventional melanoma incidence rates overestimate risk for men, increasingly so from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 11.3% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation in risk for women ranged from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 8.9% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation of risk was more pronounced when both in-situ and malignant melanomas were considered. Increasing trends in conventional rates were slightly greater than trends in risk-adjusted incidence rates (RAIRs). In 2007, the estimated number of cases with malignant melanoma among the white population based on conventional cancer incidence rates is 37 636 (64 125 including in-situ cases) for men and 28 935 (49 361 including in-situ cases) for women. The estimated number of cases in the USA based on RAIRS is 34 652 [(7.9%); 55 413 (13.6%) including in-situ cases] for male and 27 178 [(6.1%); 44 467 (9.9%) including in-situ cases] for women. We concluded that RAIRs are a better measure of melanoma skin cancer risk and should be used for estimating the number of cancer patients in the USA.

  9. Incidence rate of lung cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 with prevention implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Denggui; Li, Shumei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Fen, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Shan, Baoen

    2016-03-01

    Pollution has been established as an environmental factor in the development of lung cancer; however, the incidence rate in Shijiazhuang, one of China's most heavily polluted cities, is unknown. As Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, we estimated the lung cancer incidence rate among registered citizens of urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. In Shijiazhuang, lung cancer was the most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women. The age standardized world incidence rate (ASRW) was 46.42 and 19.14/100 000, respectively, compared with 51.05 and 22.24/100 000, respectively, reported for 63 Chinese tumor registration cities in 2010 (the national level). However, age-specific rates for the 55-70 range in men and the 25-55 range in women were higher in Shijiazhuang than nationally. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the lung cancer ASRW in Shijiazhuang was comparable to that of all industrialized countries (44.7 and 19.6/100 000), but higher than all developing countries (30.0 and 11.1/100 000), Japan (38.8 and 12.9/100 000), and Korea (45.5 and 16.2/100 000). The lung cancer incidence rate in Shijiazhuang matched the world's highest level in 2012. According to the experience of western countries, the incidence rate in China is expected to continue to rise over the next 40 years. Intervention is urgently required in order to reduce smoking prevalence by a third by 2025 and to take concrete legal action to reduce air pollution.

  10. Accuracy of applicator tip reconstruction in MRI-guided interstitial 192Ir-high-dose-rate brachytherapy of liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wybranski, Christian; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Fischbach, Katharina; Fischbach, Frank; Walke, Mathias; Hass, Peter; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Kosiek, Ortrud; Kaiser, Mandy; Pech, Maciej; Lüdemann, Lutz; Ricke, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy of brachytherapy (BT) applicators tips in vitro and in vivo in MRI-guided 192 Ir-high-dose-rate (HDR)-BT of inoperable liver tumors. Materials and methods: Reconstruction accuracy of plastic BT applicators, visualized by nitinol inserts, was assessed in MRI phantom measurements and in MRI 192 Ir-HDR-BT treatment planning datasets of 45 patients employing CT co-registration and vector decomposition. Conspicuity, short-term dislocation, and reconstruction errors were assessed in the clinical data. The clinical effect of applicator reconstruction accuracy was determined in follow-up MRI data. Results: Applicator reconstruction accuracy was 1.6 ± 0.5 mm in the phantom measurements. In the clinical MRI datasets applicator conspicuity was rated good/optimal in ⩾72% of cases. 16/129 applicators showed not time dependent deviation in between MRI/CT acquisition (p > 0.1). Reconstruction accuracy was 5.5 ± 2.8 mm, and the average image co-registration error was 3.1 ± 0.9 mm. Vector decomposition revealed no preferred direction of reconstruction errors. In the follow-up data deviation of planned dose distribution and irradiation effect was 6.9 ± 3.3 mm matching the mean co-registration error (6.5 ± 2.5 mm; p > 0.1). Conclusion: Applicator reconstruction accuracy in vitro conforms to AAPM TG 56 standard. Nitinol-inserts are feasible for applicator visualization and yield good conspicuity in MRI treatment planning data. No preferred direction of reconstruction errors were found in vivo

  11. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.; Egenvall, A.; Hagman, R.; Gustas, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Meij, B.P.; Lagerstedt, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2012, Vol. 240, No. 11, Pages 1300-1309 doi: 10.2460/javma.240.11.1300 Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration–related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs Niklas Bergknut, Dr med vet, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, Dr

  12. Extinction and Ergodic Property of Stochastic SIS Epidemic Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixing Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a stochastic SIS model with nonlinear incidence rate. We show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution to the system, and condition for the infectious individuals I(t to be extinct is given. Moreover, we prove that the system has ergodic property. Finally, computer simulations are carried out to verify our results.

  13. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  14. Association Between Heart Rate at Rest and Incident Atrial Fibrillation (from the Copenhagen Electrocardiographic Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Morten W; Bachmann, Troels N; Rasmussen, Peter V.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) at rest is a well-known marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results on the association between HR and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) have, however, been conflicting. Using digital electrocardiograms from 281,451 primary care patients, we aimed to describe...

  15. Monitoring viral incidence rates: tools for the implementation of European Union regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M. P.; Cator, E. A.; van der Poel, C. L.; Schaasberg, W. P.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Hout, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: European legislation requires manufacturers of plasma products to report epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in donor populations. The incidence rates of such infections are directly related to the risk of infection

  16. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  17. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.; McClure, Laura A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Cockburn, Myles G.; John, Esther M.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-H...

  18. Dynamic Behavior for an SIRS Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an SIRS model with nonlinear incidence rate and treatment. It is assumed that susceptible and infectious individuals have constant immigration rates. We investigate the existence of equilibrium and prove the global asymptotical stable results of the endemic equilibrium. We then obtained that the model undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and existences a limit cycle. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.

  19. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  20. Sex differences in the association of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates and geographic ultraviolet light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Smith, Feng; Farhat, Ahmed Majid; Arce, Anthony; Ziogas, Argyrios; Taylor, Thomas; Wang, Zi; Yourk, Vandy; Liu, Jing; Wu, Jun; McEligot, Archana J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Meyskens, Frank L

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) incidence rates continue to increase, and the reasons are unknown. Previously, we reported a unique age-specific sex difference in melanoma that suggested additional causes other than solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This study attempted to understand whether and how UV radiation differentially impacts the CM incidence in men and women. CM data and daily UV index (UVI) from 31 cancer registries were collected for association analysis. A second dataset from 42 US states was used for validation. There was no association between log-transformed female CM rates and levels of UVI, but there was a significant association between male rates and UVI and a significant association between overall rates and UVI. The 5-year age-specific rate-UVI association levels (represented by Pearson's coefficient ρ) increased with age in men, but age-specific ρ levels remained low and unchanged in women. The significant rate-UVI association in men and nonassociation in women was validated in a population of white residents of the United States. Confounders, including temperature and latitude, are difficult to separate from UVI. Ambient UVI appears to be associated with melanoma incidence in males but not in females. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-04-29

    This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26%-36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985-88, 20% in 1989-92, 15% in 1993-1996, and 13% in 1997-99); age (13% in ages 50-59, 48% in ages 60-69, 28% in ages 70-79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  2. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021). Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  3. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  4. A review of fatal accident incidence rate trends in fishing international

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Pétursdóttir, G; Abrahamsen, Annbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background. Injury prevention in fishing is one of the most important occupational health challenges. The aim was to describe and compare internationally the trends of the fatal injury incidence rates and to discuss the impact of the implemented safety programs. Methods. The review is based...... on journal articles and reports from the maritime authorities in Poland, UK, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, US and Alaska and Canada. The original incidence rates were recalculated as per 1000 person-years for international comparison of the trends. Results. The risk of fatal accidents in fishing in the northern...... countries has been reduced by around 50% to an average of about 1 per 1000 person-years. Norway and Canada keep the lowest rates with around 0.5 and 0.25 per 1000 person-years. About half of the fatal injuries are related to vessel disasters and drowning. The safety programs seem to have good effects still...

  5. A nationwide survey of incidence rates and risk factors of inguinal hernia in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu-Wei; Pan, Mei-Lien; Hsu, Yao-Jen; Chin, Tai-Wai

    2018-01-01

    Clinical observations showed a higher incidence rate of inguinal hernia (IH) in preterm infants. In this study, we calculated the incidence rate of preterm IH from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. From NHIRD, 92,308 subjects born in the year of 1997-2005 were randomly selected as the study cohort. The medical claims of these subjects from birth to 6th year of age were analyzed. Preterm births were defined using ICD code 765.1*. Risk factors such as birth weight, lung disorders, and ventilator supports before IH repairs were investigated. The risk of incarceration and bowel resection were also evaluated. From 92,308 subjects, 2560 preterm births were identified. IH was repaired in 231 preterm (9.02%) and 3650 term subjects (4.07%). Male (preterm 13.3% and non-preterm 6.3%) had more hernia repairs than female (preterm 3.8% and non-preterm 1.6%). The incidence rate of IH is 13.7% for those under 1500 g, 8.2% for those 1500-1999 g, 7.7% for those 2000-2499 g, and 6.3% for those above 2500 g. The incidence rate of IH in preterms with past history of lung disorders and ventilation supports is 8.7 and 13.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidences of incarceration and bowel resection between preterms and non-preterms. Birth weight under 2500 g is a significant risk factor for IH repairs. Other risk factors are male gender, past history of lung diseases, and ventilator supports.

  6. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  7. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. The application of a high pulse repetition rate CO2 laser with high average power for isotope separation by molecular dissociation in a strong IR field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V.N.; Kolomisky, Y.R.; Letokhov, V.S.; Ryabov, E.A.; Baranov, V.Y.; Kazakov, S.A.; Nizjev, V.G.; Pismenny, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.I.; Velikhov, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    Considering a SF 6 molecule we demonstrate feasibility of using high pulse repetition rate CO 2 laser for isotope separation by selective molecular dissociation in a strong IR field. Dependences of dissociation efficiency as well as separation selectivity on pulse repetition rate up to 150 Hz are investigated. The inherent thermal effects are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  10. Characteristics, rates, and trends of melanoma incidence among Hispanics in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Erin; Townsend, Julie; Steele, Brooke; Watson, Meg

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology of melanoma among Hispanics using data that cover nearly 100 % of the US population. The study used population-based cancer incidence data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program to examine melanoma incidence rates and trends among Hispanics by sex, age, race, histology, anatomic location, stage, and tumor thickness. From 2008 to 2012, 6,623 cases of melanoma were diagnosed among Hispanics. Rates were higher among males (4.6) than among females (4.0), but females younger than age 55 had higher rates than males. The most common histologic subtype was superficial spreading melanoma (23 %). Melanomas with poorer outcomes, such as nodular (NM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), were more common among males. Hispanic females had the highest proportion of melanoma on the lower limb and hip (33.7 %), while Hispanic males had the highest proportion on the trunk (29.9 %). Incidence rates for later-stage diagnosis and thicker tumors were significantly higher among Hispanic men than among women. Incidence rates decreased significantly during 2003-2012 (AAPC = -1.4). Clinicians and public health practitioners will need to reach the growing Hispanic population in the USA with strategies for primary prevention and early diagnosis of melanoma. Results suggest Hispanics and providers need education to increase awareness about the characteristics of melanoma among Hispanics, including types that occur on non-sun-exposed areas (ALM and NM). Skin cancer prevention and awareness interventions targeting Hispanics should be culturally relevant.

  11. Histologic Lung Cancer Incidence Rates and Trends vary by Race/Ethnicity and Residential County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Keisha A; Mitchell, Khadijah A; King, Jessica; White, Arica; Ryan, Bríd M

    2018-01-19

    Lung cancer incidence is higher among NH blacks compared with NH white and Hispanic populations in the U.S. However, national cancer estimates may not always reflect the cancer burden in terms of disparities and incidence in small geographic areas, especially urban-rural disparities. Moreover, there is a gap in the literature regarding rural-urban disparities in terms of cancer histology. Using population-based cancer registry data-Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)-we present age-adjusted histologic rates and trends by race/ethnicity, and residential county location at the time of first cancer diagnosis. Rate ratios were calculated to examine racial/ethnic differences in rates. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to measure changes in rates over time. We find that declines in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are occurring fastest in metropolitan counties, while rates of adenocarcinoma increased fastest in counties non-adjacent to metropolitan areas. Further, while NH black men have increased lung cancer incidence compared with NH white and Hispanic men in all geographic locations, we find that the degree of the disparity increases with increasing rurality of residence. Finally, we report that among women diagnosed at less than 55 years of age, the incidence of SCC and adenocarcinoma was higher for NH blacks compared with NH whites. Our results highlight disparities among NH blacks in non-adjacent rural areas. These findings may have significant impact for the implementation of smoking cessation and lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nuclear medicine incident reporting in Australia: control charts and notification rates inform quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcos, G; Collins, L T; Georgiou, A; Westbrook, J I

    2015-06-01

    Australia has a statutory incident reporting system for radiopharmaceutical maladministrations, but additional research into registry data is required for the purpose of quality improvement in nuclear medicine. We (i) used control charts to identify factors contributing to special cause variation (indicating higher than expected rates) in maladministrations and (ii) evaluated the impact of heterogeneous notification criteria and extent of underreporting among jurisdictions and individual facilities, respectively. Anonymised summaries of Australian Radiation Incident Register reports permitted calculation of national monthly maladministration notification rates for 2007-2012 and preparation of control charts. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of population, insurance and regulatory characteristics with maladministration notifications in each Australian State and Territory. Maladministration notification rates from two facilities with familiarity of notification processes and commitment to radiation protection were compared with those elsewhere. Special cause variation occurred in only 3 months, but contributed to 21% of all incidents (42 of 197 patients), mainly because of 'clusters' of maladministrations (n = 24) arising from errors in bulk radiopharmaceutical dispensing. Maladministration notification rates varied significantly between jurisdictions (0 to 12.2 maladministrations per 100 000 procedures (P < 0.05)) and individual facilities (31.7 vs 5.8 per 100 000; χ(2) = 40; 1 degree of freedom, P < 0.001). Unexpected increases in maladministration notifications predominantly relate to incident 'clusters' affecting multiple patients. The bulk preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is a vulnerable process and merits additional safeguards. Maladministration notification rates in Australia are heterogeneous. Adopting uniform maladministration notification criteria among States and Territories and methods to overcome underreporting are

  13. The Impact of Changes to the Unemployment Rate on Australian Disability Income Insurance Claim Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khemka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the extent to which claim incidence in Disability Income Insurance (DII is affected by changes in the unemployment rate in Australia. Using data from 1986 to 2001, we fit a hurdle model to explore the presence and magnitude of the effect of changes in unemployment rate on the incidence of DII claims, controlling for policy holder characteristics and seasonality. We find a clear positive association between unemployment and claim incidence, and we explore this further by gender, age, deferment period, and occupation. A multinomial logistic regression model is fitted to cause of claim data in order to explore the relationship further, and it is shown that the proportion of claims due to accident increases markedly with rising unemployment. The results suggest that during periods of rising unemployment, insurers may face increased claims from policy holders with shorter deferment periods for white-collar workers and for medium and heavy manual workers. Our findings indicate that moral hazard may have a material impact on DII claim incidence and insurer business in periods of declining economic conditions.

  14. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. The effect of a workflow-based response system on hospital-wide voluntary incident reporting rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Chang; Li, Ying-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chi

    2013-02-01

    Hospital incident reporting systems are usually evaluated on their theoretical benefit to the hospital or increase in reporting rates alone. To evaluate a workflow-based response system on staff incident reporting rates. A prospective cohort study of incident reports made by staff members before (2006-2007) and after (2008-2009) the system was implemented on 1 January 2008 at a medical center in southern Taiwan. Pre-system and post-system data were based on 713 129 and 730 176 inpatient days and 160 692 and 168 850 emergency department visits. The addition of a workflow-based response system to a reporting system processing incident reports and intra-hospital responses. Voluntary incident reporting rates and distribution of incident severities. Inpatient reports [9.9 vs. 28.8 per 10 000 patient days; rate ratio (RR): 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.2, P reports (5.9 vs. 19.2 per 10 000 visits, RR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.6-4.1, P system reported incidents were more evenly distributed over five severity levels than pre-sytem incidents, moving more toward the very severe level (RR: 17.6, 95% CI: 8.4-37.0, P system to the hospital incident reporting system significantly increased hospital-wide voluntary incident report rates at all incident injury levels.

  16. Global stability of a network-based SIS epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouying; Jiang, Jifa

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we develop and analyze an SIS epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate, as well as degree-dependent birth and natural death, on heterogeneous networks. We analytically derive the epidemic threshold R0 which completely governs the disease dynamics: when R0 1, the disease is permanent. It is interesting that the threshold value R0 bears no relation to the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate and degree-dependent birth. Furthermore, by applying an iteration scheme and the theory of cooperative system respectively, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Our results improve and generalize some known results. To illustrate the theoretical results, the corresponding numerical simulations are also given.

  17. Trends in the incidence rate, type and treatment of surgically verified endometriosis - a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Liisu; Tikka, Tuulia; But, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Tiitinen, Aila; Härkki, Päivi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2018-01-01

    To study the trends in incidence rate, type and surgical treatment, and patient characteristics of surgically verified endometriosis during 1987-2012. This is a register-based cohort study. We identified women receiving their first diagnosis of endometriosis in surgery from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Quality of the FHDR records was assessed bidirectionally. The age-standardized incidence rates of the first surgically verified endometriosis was assessed by calendar year. The cohort comprises 49 956 women. The quality assessment suggested the FHDR data to be of good quality. The most common diagnosis, ovarian endometriosis (46%), was associated with highest median age 38.5 years (interquartile range 31.0-44.8) and the second most common diagnosis, peritoneal endometriosis (40%), with median age 34.9 years (28.6-41.7). Between 1987 and 2012, a decrease was observed in the median age, from 38.8 (32.3-43.6) to 34.0 (28.9-41.0) years, and in the age-standardized incidence rate from 116 [95% confidence interval (CI) 112-121] to 45 (42-48) per 100 000 women. The proportion of hysterectomy as a first surgical treatment decreased from 38 to 19%, whereas that of laparoscopy increased from 42 to 73% when comparing 1987-1995 with 1996-2012. This nationwide cohort of surgically verified endometriosis showed a decrease in the incidence rate and in the patient age at the time of first diagnosis, even though the proportion of laparoscopy has increased. The number of hysterectomies has decreased. These changes are likely to reflect the evolving diagnostics, increasing awareness of endometriosis, and effective use of medical treatment before surgery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Brain Death in Children: Incidence, Donation Rates, and the Occurrence of Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Nazik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain death is currently defined as the loss of full brain function including the brainstem. The diagnosis and its subsequent management in the pediatric population are still controversial. The aim of this study was to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of patients with brain death and determine the incidence of brain death, donation rates and occurrence of central diabetes insipidus accompanying brain death in children.

  19. A class of stochastic delayed SIR epidemic models with generalized nonlinear incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuangang; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Shujing; Wei, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A class of SIR epidemic model with generalized nonlinear incidence rate is presented in this paper. Temporary immunity and stochastic perturbation are also considered. The existence and uniqueness of the global positive solution is achieved. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the extinction and persistence of the epidemic disease are established. Moreover, the threshold behavior is discussed, and the threshold value R0 is obtained. We show that if R0 1, then the system remains permanent in the mean.

  20. New onset of insomnia in hospitalized patients in general medical wards: incidence, causes, and resolution rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, An; Raja, Bronson; Waldhorn, Richard; Baez, Valentina; Mohammed, Idiris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Insomnia is common in hospitalized patients. However, no study has examined new onset of insomnia in patients without a prior history of insomnia. Objectives: Incidence of new onset of insomnia in inpatients, associated factors and resolution rate after 2 weeks. Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a community hospital. We used the Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire to screen for insomnia in all patients located in the general medical floors f...

  1. Regional variation in incidence of primary total hip arthroplasties and revisions in Denmark, 1996-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    We examined incidence rates (IR) of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark according to county and type of hospital, and investigated possible factors associated with any variations.......We examined incidence rates (IR) of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark according to county and type of hospital, and investigated possible factors associated with any variations....

  2. [Cesarean section incidence and vaginal birth success rate at term pregnancy after myomectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekiňová, L; Janků, P; Filipinská, E; Kadlecová, J; Ventruba, P

    To compare the incidence of primary and acute cesarean section (CS) and to compare success rate of vaginal delivery. To determine the frequency of maternal complications and evaluation of post-partum condition of the newborn. Prospective, pilot, cohort study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. Analysis of patients with physiologically ongoing singleton pregnancy and term delivery, vertex presentation. Women from the study group (n = 67) underwent myomectomy because of symptomatic, solitary uterine fibroid. Women from the control group (n = 4079) had no history of myomectomy. Analysis was aimed at comparing the incidence of primary and acute CS and comparing success rate of vaginal delivery in both groups and determing the frequency of maternal complications and evaluation of post-partum condition of the newborn. A significantly higher incidence of primary cesarean section was observed in the study group with a history of myomectomy compared to the control group (n = 20, 29.9%; versus n = 396, 9.7 %, p cesarean section in both groups was recorded (n = 7, 10.4%; versus n = 570, 14.0%, p = 0.079). No statistically significant difference in the success of vaginal delivery in both groups was recorded (n = 40, 85.1%; versus n = 3113, 84.5%, p = 0.079). The excessive blood loss was the most frequent complication in both group (n = 9, 13.4%; versus n = 214, 5.2%, p = 0.057). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of uterine rupture and postpartum hysterectomy was recorded. No maternal or fetal death related to childbirth was observed. The history of myomectomy does not increase the incidence of acute cesarean section in the group of strictly selected patients suitable for vaginal birth and has no impact on the success of vaginal delivery. Careful management of labor is a prerequisite for a low risk of maternal complications and good perinatal outcomes.

  3. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  4. Fitted dosimetric parameters of high dose-rate 192Ir sources according to the AAPM TG43 formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lliso, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Carmona, V.; Ballester, F.; Lluch, J.L.; Serrano, M. A.; Limami, Y.; Casal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find fitted functional forms to the anisotropy function, F(r,θ), and the radial dose function, g(r), in order to characterize dose-rate distributions around all the high-intensity 192 Ir sources currently in use. Dosimetry data are at present available as tables for: the microSelectron HDR ('classic' and 'new' design models), the PDR source, and the VariSource HDR source, expressed in terms of the AAPM Task Group No. 43 recommendations. There is only one paper out which introduces a functional form to fit the anisotropy function, but only for symmetric sources with respect to the transverse axis. However, dosimetric data of the HDR and PDR sources mentioned above cannot be reproduced with these functional forms. In our study F(r,θ) and g(r) published data are fitted with functional forms in such a way that appropriate limits are reached for both functions and the maximum fit error approaches the data uncertainty. The average fit error is less than 1% in all cases. These functional forms make handling data easier within the treatment planning system, avoiding the use of tabulated data

  5. Global stability and attractivity of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the global stability and attractivity of the endemic equilibrium for a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. The model was introduced in Li (2015). We prove that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if α (a parameter of this model) is sufficiently large, and is globally attractive if the transmission rate λ satisfies λ/λc ∈(1 , 2 ] , where λc is the epidemic threshold. Some numerical experiments are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  6. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10 6 J.m -3 (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author)

  7. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Technique; Pineau, J.F. [ALGADE, Bessines (France); Chameaud, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 87 - Razes (France)

    1994-12-31

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10{sup 6} J.m{sup -3} (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author).

  8. The association between patient-reported incidents in hospitals and estimated rates of patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertnaes, Oyvind; Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Skudal, Kjersti Eeg; Iversen, Hilde Hestad; Bjerkan, Anne Mette

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the association between the rates of patient-reported incidents and patient harm documented in the patient record. The study was a secondary analysis of two national hospital assessments conducted in 2011. Hospital services in Norway. The patient survey was a standard national patient-experience survey conducted at the hospital level for all 63 hospitals in Norway. The medical record review was performed by 47 Global Trigger Tools (GTTs) in all 19 hospital trusts and 4 private hospitals. The two data sets were matched at the unit level, yielding comparable patient experiences and GTT data for 7 departments, 16 hospitals and 11 hospital trusts. No intervention. The correlation at the unit level between the patient-reported incident in hospital instrument (PRIH-I) and estimated rates of patient harm from the GTT. The PRIH-I index was significantly correlated with all patient-reported experience indicators at the individual level, with estimates for all patient harm events (Categories E-I) at the unit level (r = 0.62, P < 0.01), and with estimates of more serious harm events in Categories F-I (r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Patient-reported incidents in hospitals, as measured by the PRIH-I, are strongly correlated with patient harm rates based on the GTT. This indicates that patient-reported incidents are related to patient safety, but more research is needed to confirm the usefulness of patient reporting in the evaluation of patient safety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  9. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  10. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1-100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9-139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1-51.0). We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population.

  11. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  12. Prevalence of human endogenous retroviral element associates with Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Hong Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retrovirus-H (HERV-H is implicated in leukaemias and lymphomas, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying HERV-mediated carcinogenesis remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of HERV-H in a cross-section of the Singapore population and explored the relationship between HERV-H positivity and incidence rates for Hodgkin's lymphoma in three major ethnic groups of Singapore. We observed that Malays were 1.11 times likely (95% CI=1.05–1.17; P<0.01, and Indians 1.12 times likely (95% CI=1.07–1.18; P<0.01 to be HERV-H positive when compared to Chinese. Interestingly, the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma for the three races positively correlated to the respective prevalence rate for HERV-H positivity (r=0.9921 for male; r=0.9801 for female, suggesting that viral inheritance in human may predispose certain racial origin unfavourably to malignancy.

  13. Data study of death rate and cancer incidence among Thule workers, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juel, K.; Engholm, G.; Storm, H.

    2005-12-01

    January 21st, 1968, an American B52 bomber with nuclear weapons aboard crashed close to the Thule air-base in Greenland. In 1986 suspicions arose that there might be increased disease incidences and death rate among the employees at the base that were involved in the clearing operations. During 1986 - 1995, several health studies were made of the Thule workers. These studies of death rate, cancer, hospitalization, and fertility did not show any differences between the Thule workers from the clearing operations and those not involved in the clearing. The present study shows no difference in total death rate among the clearing workers compared to other workers. The same results were found for cancer mortality, circulatory diseases, pulmonary diseases, natural causes, and accidents. As the previous studies showed, the present study shows that there were a slightly less number of suicides among the clearing workers. The data analyses show with great certainty that the Thule workers as a group do not have a great excessive mortality or an increased cancer incidence caused by the aircraft crash. Thus, the present results fall in line with the previous investigations. (ln)

  14. Disease control of delay SEIR model with nonlinear incidence rate and vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Pan, Qiuhui; He, Mingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop two delayed SEIR epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate, continuous treatment, and impulsive vaccination for a class of epidemic with latent period and vertical transition. For continuous treatment, we obtain a basic reproductive number ℜ0 and prove the global stability by using the Lyapunov functional method. We obtain two thresholds ℜ* and ℜ∗ for impulsive vaccination and prove that if ℜ* 1, then the disease is permanent by using the comparison theorem of impulsive differential equation. Numerical simulations indicate that pulse vaccination strategy or a longer latent period will make the population size infected by a disease decrease.

  15. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sarah M; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished.

  16. Usefulness of direct-conversion flat-panel detector system as a quality assurance tool for high-dose-rate 192Ir source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Kitagaki, Hajime; Nishimura, Tomonori; Itakura, Kanae; Takahashi, Shinobu; Yokokawa, Masaki; Uchida, Nobue; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-01-08

    The routine quality assurance (QA) procedure for a high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir radioactive source is an important task to provide appropriate brachytherapy. Traditionally, it has been difficult to obtain good quality images using the 192Ir source due to irradiation from the high-energy gamma rays. However, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) has made it possible to confirm the localization and configuration of the 192Ir source. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate positional and temporal accuracy of the 192Ir source using a d-FPD system, and the usefulness of d-FPD as a QA tool. As a weekly verification of source positional accuracy test, we obtained 192Ir core imaging by single-shot radiography for three different positions (1300/1400/1500 mm) of a check ruler. To acquire images for measurement of the 192Ir source movement distance with varying interval steps (2.5/5.0/10.0 mm) and temporal accuracy, we used the high-speed image acquisition technique and digital subtraction. For accuracy of the 192Ir source dwell time, sequential images were obtained using various dwell times ranging from 0.5 to 30.0 sec, and the acquired number of image frames was assessed. Analysis of the data was performed using the measurement analysis function of the d-FPD system. Although there were slight weekly variations in source positional accuracy, the measured positional errors were less than 1.0 mm. For source temporal accuracy, the temporal errors were less than 1.0%, and the correlation between acquired frames and programmed time showed excellent linearity (R2 = 1). All 192Ir core images were acquired clearly without image halation, and the data were obtained quantitatively. All data were successfully stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for time-series analysis. The d-FPD is considered useful as the QA tool for the 192Ir source.

  17. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  18. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  19. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  20. Mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarises the outcome of follow-up surveys on mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 1791 A-bomb survivors, and 1534 (85.7%) of these came from Hiroshima. According to uterus absorption doses, these A-bomb survivors could be divided into the 0 Gy exposed group (n=772) and the ≥0.01 Gy (a mean, 0.302 Gy) exposed group (n=1019). The number of proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (2,000 m or less) was approximately 3 times larger in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, probably due to various socioeconomical factors. When the mortality rate was examined according to uterus absorption doses, it was higher at infancy and at the age of 15-39 in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. For infants, it was 3 times higher in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. The 1950-1984 survey on cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors have revealed that cancer incidence tended to increase among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors with increasing uterus absorption doses in their mothers. Since A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or younger at the time of A-bombing are characterized by developing leukemia 5-10 years after A-bombing, leukemia is unlikely to be increased among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  1. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  2. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  4. Incidence rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Li, Lin; Peng, Michael; Shah, Kamal; Paris, Maria; Jick, Susan

    2016-09-01

    To estimate rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison to non-PsA patients. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study of patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. Patients with codes for suicidal behaviors (ideation, attempts, and suicide) and treated depression (diagnosis plus anti-depressant prescription) recorded during follow-up were identified as cases. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and stratified results in the PsA cohort by receipt of systemic PsA drugs. The rates of suicide ideation, attempt, and suicide were similar for PsA and non-PsA patients [IRR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.67-1.47), IRR = 1.07 (95%CI: 0.86-1.34), and 0.34 (95%CI: 0.05-2.48), respectively] and rates of suicidal behaviors were slightly higher among PsA patients who received PsA drugs compared to those who did not. PsA patients had slightly higher rate of treated depression compared to non-PsA patients [IRR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.27-1.49)] and were significantly higher in PsA patients who received drugs [IRR = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.35-1.86)]. Rate of depression was higher in patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. The rate of suicidal behaviors was similar between the two cohorts.

  5. Comparison of the cost between 60Co and 192Ir, as the sources for high-dose-rate remote control afterloading systems (HDR-RALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    High-Dose-Rate remote control afterloading systems (HDR-RALS) installing 60 Co sources have been prevailing currently in Japan. The survey conducted by Japan Isotope Association (JIA) reports that 180 machines are at working condition. Although the wide prevalence of the HDR-RALS, the stable supply of 60 Co is becoming difficult because of the short availability of raw materials. The supply of 60 Co is planned to be terminated in March 1996. In place of 60 Co, 192 Ir is going to be produced in 1996. The size of 192 Ir, which is much smaller than that of 60 Co, may facilitate broader clinical usability. On the other hand, for the reason that the half life of 192 Ir (73.8 days) is much shorter than that of 60 Co (5.27 years), several exchanges of the sources in a year are necessary. This report analyses the difference of the cost between 60 Co and 192 Ir as the sources for HDR-RALS. As the cost of the 60 Co sources is dependent on the distance from Tokyo. Radiation activity, etc., the cost-calculation was done on the basis the 60 Co sources were installed for the HDR-RALS systems in Yamanashi Central Hospital. The total cost of 60 Co is 3,377,000 yen on the data from JIA. According to the half life of 5.27 years, the available duration can be thought as 7 years and the monthly cost be calculated as about 40,000 yen. In case of 192 Ir, the prices for Buchler' system and Nucletron's system are 800,000 yen and 990,000 yen respectively. Concerning the shortness of the half life, an exchange in every 3 months is ideal. Therefore the monthly cost of 192 Ir would be 260,000-330,000 yen. Consequently the cost-ratio for 192 Ir and 60 Co would become 6.7-8.3. The cost of intracavitary irradiation is controlled by the government as 10,000 yen per treatment in Japan. If this setting remains the same for HDR-RALS installing 192 Ir, almost all the facilities of radiation therapy would suffer from the cost-income inbalance in the near future. (author)

  6. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  7. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajahram, Giri S.; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J.; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012–2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010–2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed “P. malariae” [1]) were reported during 2012–2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons >15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010–2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi–associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi–associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate. PMID:26690736

  8. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  9. Monthly Incidence Rates of Abusive Encounters for Canadian Family Physicians by Patients and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baukje (Bo Miedema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N=720, 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy.

  10. Chaos induced by breakup of waves in a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Quan-Xing; Li, Li

    2008-01-01

    Spatial epidemiology is the study of spatial variation in disease risk or incidence, including the spatial patterns of the population. The spread of diseases in human populations can exhibit large scale patterns, underlining the need for spatially explicit approaches. In this paper, the spatiotemporal complexity of a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate, which includes the behavioral changes and crowding effect of the infective individuals, is investigated. Based on both theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we find out when, under the parameters which can guarantee a stable limit cycle in the non-spatial model, spiral and target waves can emerge. Moreover, two different kinds of breakup of waves are shown. Specifically, the breakup of spiral waves is from the core and the breakup of target waves is from the far-field, and both kinds of waves become irregular patterns at last. Our results reveal that the spatiotemporal chaos is induced by the breakup of waves. The results obtained confirm that diffusion can form spiral waves, target waves or spatial chaos of high population density, which enrich the findings of spatiotemporal dynamics in the epidemic model

  11. Intercomparison of calibration procedures of high dose rate 192 Ir sources in Brazil and a proposal of a new methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results of an intercomparison of the calibration procedures for 192 Ir sources presently in use in Brazil and to proposal a calibration procedure to derive the N k for a Farmer type ionization chamber for 192 Ir energy by interpolating from a 60 Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. the intercomparison results were all within ± 3.0 % except one case where 4.6 % was observed and latter identified as a problem with N-k value for X-rays. The method proposed by the present work make possible the improvement of the metrological coherence among the calibration laboratories and their users once the N k values could then provided by any of the members of SSDL network. (Author)

  12. Computational Modelling and Optimal Control of Ebola Virus Disease with non-Linear Incidence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaidza, I.; Makinde, O. D.; Okosun, O. K.

    2017-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed the need to connect modellers and those with relevant data as pivotal to better understanding of how the disease spreads and quantifying the effects of possible interventions. In this paper, we model and analyse the Ebola virus disease with non-linear incidence rate. The epidemic model created is used to describe how the Ebola virus could potentially evolve in a population. We perform an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproductive number R 0 to quantify its sensitivity to other disease-related parameters. We also analyse the sensitivity of the final epidemic size to the time control interventions (education, vaccination, quarantine and safe handling) and provide the cost effective combination of the interventions.

  13. The role of climate on Malaria Incidence Rate in four governorates of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoob, M A K; Al-Mazzah, M M

    2005-08-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the role of climate on the Malaria Incidence Rates (MIR) in some regions in of Yemen. For such purpose, the monthly (MIR) were calculated from the records of the hospitals' laboratories and centers of the Malaria Rollback centers in the main cities of the governorates Hudeidah, Taiz, Sana'a and Hadramout for the period 1989-1998. The readings of the climatic factors (CF) particularly the average monthly temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), volume of rain fall (RF) and wind speed (WS) for the same period of time were also collected from different weather and climatic information resources. Descriptive statistics, simple linear regression and multiple linear regression techniques were used to analyse the relationship between MIR and CF. The analysis shows highly significant relationship between MIR and the CF in these regions of Yemen (p-value 0.001).

  14. An SIRS Epidemic Model with Vital Dynamics and a Ratio-Dependent Saturation Incidence Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the dynamics of an epidemic model with vital dynamics and a nonlinear incidence rate of saturated mass action as a function of the ratio of the number of the infectives to that of the susceptibles. The stabilities of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium are first studied. Under the assumption of nonexistence of periodic solution, the global dynamics of the model is established: either the number of infective individuals tends to zero as time evolves or it produces bistability in which there is a region such that the disease will persist if the initial position lies in the region and disappears if the initial position lies outside this region. Computer simulation shows such results.

  15. Community-based incidence rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality in 50-75 year old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, A; Bascuñana-Quirell, A; Elvira-González, J; Beltrán-Robles, M; Aboza-Lobatón, A; Solís-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    Updated information on the incidence of the principal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality is not available in Spain. We have studied the incidence rate of new cases of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the adult population in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain). A community-based prospective follow-up study was conducted. The study enrolled 858 participants aged 50-75 years who were randomly selected from the population and followed-up for 5 years. Age and gender-adjusted incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality were calculated, obtaining complete information for 855 participants. Prognostic risk factors of new cases of cardiovascular disease were obtained using Cox proportional hazard modeling. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure was 455/100.000 persons-year. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality (506, 216 and 225/100.000 persons-year, respectively) was also very elevated. Male gender, family history of early cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and sedentary life style were independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain) is very high, and it is the first to be reported in Spain. The incidence of myocardial infarction is among the highest in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  17. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  18. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Low incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in an area with moderately low iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Bülow Pedersen, I; Pedersen, K M

    1999-01-01

    In areas with relatively high iodine intake, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism is several-fold higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Recently, we found a similarly high prevalence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in a high iodine intake area, while a relatively low...... prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in a low iodine intake area. In the present study we compared the incidence rate (newly diagnosed in primary care and at hospital) of overt hypothyroidism with that of hyperthyroidism in a well-defined geographical area in Jutland, Denmark, with an iodine...... intake around 60 microg/day. The number of personsxyears studied was 569,108. Data on hyperthyroidism have been published previously. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.5/100,000 per year (F/M 22.9/3.6), hyperthyroidism 38.7/100.000 per year (F/M 63.0/13.0). The incidence of hypothyroidism...

  20. Fruits and vegetables intake differentially affects estrogen receptor negative and positive breast cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe L; Loft, Steffen; Stripp, Connie; Overvad, Kim; Møller, Susanne; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2003-07-01

    Despite intensive research, the evidence for a protective effect of fruits and vegetables on breast cancer risk remains inconclusive. Other risk factors for breast cancer seem to vary with the estrogen receptor status of the breast tumor, and it is thus possible that the inconsistent results regarding a preventive effect of fruits and vegetables are due to lack of controlling for estrogen receptor status. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on postmenopausal breast cancer and explore whether the estrogen receptor status of the tumor modifies this relation. Postmenopausal women (n = 23,798; aged 50-64 y) provided information about diet and established risk factors for breast cancer in the cohort "Diet, Cancer and Health." During follow-up, 425 cases were diagnosed with breast cancer. Associations between intake of fruits and vegetables and the breast cancer rate were analyzed using Cox's regression model. The association for all breast cancers was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06) per 100 g/d increment of total intake of fruits, vegetables and juice. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, a borderline significant increase in the rate was seen, IRR: 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10), whereas a preventive effect was seen for estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancers, IRR: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99). In conclusion, we did not find the overall breast cancer rate to be associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables, but there seemed to be different effects for ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer.

  1. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  2. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrensch, Margaret; Peskin-Mentzer, Roni; Quesenberry, Charles P Jr; Souders-Mason, Virginia; Spence, Linda; Suzuki, Marisa; Gould, Mary; Chew, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Barlow, Janice; Belli, Flavia; Clarke, Christina; Erdmann, Christine A; Lee, Marion; Moghadassi, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  3. Spatio-seasonal modeling of the incidence rate of malaria in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhalungo Delino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the seasonal effect on the spatial distribution of the incidence of malaria in children under 10 years old living in the Manhiça district, Mozambique. Methods The data of the clinical malaria incidence were obtained from a study of two cohorts of children followed from December 1996 to July 1999. The cases were obtained by the active detection method. Hierarchical Bayesian models were used to model the incidence of malaria, including spatial correlation nested to climatic season. The models were compared with the deviance information criterion. The age and gender of the children were also taken into account. Results The incidence of malaria is associated with age, period and climate season. The incidence presents a clear spatial pattern, with a higher incidence in the neighbourhoods situated in the north and northeast of the Manhiça area. The transmission of malaria is highest during the wet season but the spatial pattern of malaria does not differ from that during the dry season. Conclusion The incidence of malaria in Manhiça presents a spatial pattern which is independent of the seasonal climatic conditions. The climate modifies the incidence of malaria in the entire region but does not change the spatial pattern of the incidence of this disease. These findings may be useful for the planning of malaria control activities. These activities can be performed taking account that the neighbourhoods with more incidence of malaria do not change over the annual climate seasons.

  4. Elevated incidence rates of diabetes in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo Nicolas; Rosas, Moises Ernesto; Arias, Arturo Jaime; Medina, Cecilia Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    A recent report from a non-nationally representative, geographically diverse sample in four separate communities in Peru suggests an unusually high diabetes incidence. We aimed to estimate the national diabetes incidence rate using PERUDIAB, a probabilistic, national urban population-based longitudinal study. 662 subjects without diabetes, selected by multistage, cluster, random sampling of households, representing the 24 administrative and the 3 (coast, highlands and jungle) natural regions across the country, from both sexes, aged 25+ years at baseline, enrolled in 2010-2012, were followed for 3.8 years. New diabetes cases were defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL or on medical diabetes treatment. There were 49 cases of diabetes in 2408 person-years follow-up. The weighted cumulative incidence of diabetes was 7.2% while the weighted incidence rate was estimated at 19.5 (95% CI 13.9 to 28.3) new cases per 1000 person-years. Older age, obesity and technical or higher education were statistically associated with the incidence of diabetes. Our results confirm that the incidence of diabetes in Peru is among the highest reported globally. The fast economic growth in the last 20 years, high overweight and obesity rates may have triggered this phenomenon.

  5. Dynamics of a Delayed HIV-1 Infection Model with Saturation Incidence Rate and CTL Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Liu, Haihong; Xu, Chenglin; Yan, Fang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a five-dimensional virus model incorporating saturation incidence rate, CTL immune response and three time delays which represent the latent period, virus production period and immune response delay, respectively. We begin this model by proving the positivity and boundedness of the solutions. Our model admits three possible equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium E0, the infectious equilibrium without immune response E1 and the infectious equilibrium with immune response E2. Moreover, by analyzing corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of each of the feasible equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium point E2 are established, respectively. Further, by using fluctuation lemma and suitable Lyapunov functionals, it is shown that E0 is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive numbers for viral infection R0 is less than unity. When the basic reproductive numbers for immune response R1 is less than unity and R0 is greater than unity, the equilibrium point E1 is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  6. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...... of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100...

  7. Incidence rates of occupational diseases in the Dutch construction sector, 2010-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; de Vries, Sanne C.; Stocks, S. Jill; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    To estimate incidence and trends in incidence of occupational diseases (ODs) in the Dutch construction sector. In a dynamic prospective cohort over a 5-year period (2010-2014), ODs assessed by occupational physicians (OPs) participating in a voluntary construction workers health surveillance (WHS)

  8. 75 FR 419 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY... notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate... quarter beginning January 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3 percent for corporations...

  9. Incidence Rate of Community-Acquired Sepsis Among Hospitalized Acute Medical Patients-A Population-Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Jensen, Thøger Gorm

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Sepsis is a frequent cause of admission, but incidence rates based on administrative data have previously produced large differences in estimates. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of community-acquired sepsis based on patients' symptoms and clinical findings at arrival...... to define the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunction. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Incidence rate of sepsis of any severity. Among 8,358 admissions to the medical emergency department, 1,713 patients presented with an incident admission of sepsis of any severity, median...... age 72 years (5-95%; range, 26-91 yr), 793 (46.3%) were men, 728 (42.5%) presented with a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 2,621 (36.3%) were admitted with sepsis, 1,071 (62.5%) with severe sepsis, and 21 (1.2%) with septic shock. Incidence rate was 731/100,000 person-years at risk (95% CI, 697...

  10. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  11. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae; Ryu, Young Hwan; Lim, Hwan Yeal

    2017-01-01

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ 2 =0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ 2 =9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration

  12. An investigation of the dose distribution from low dose rate Ir-192 Wires in the triangular implants of the paris system using polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, A.; Hashemi, B.; Zahmatkesh, M. H.; Jaberi, R.; Sheibani, Sh.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer gels are modern dosimeters providing three dimensional dose distributions. These dosimeters can be used in brachytherapy in which the tumor dimension is relatively small and the dose gradient is high. In this study, the ability of the MAGICA polymer gel was investigated for assessing the absolute dose values as well as the dose distribution of low dose rate Ir-192 wires in interstitial brachytherapy based in triangular implants of the Paris system. Material and Methods: A suitable phantom was made from Perspex. Glass tubes were used as the external tubes for holding the Ir-192 wires in the phantom. The MAGICA polymer gel was made and placed in the phantom. The phantom and the calibration tubes were irradiated using low dose rate Ir-192 wires and a Co-60 teletherapy unit respectively. They were subsequently imaged using an MRI scanner. The R2 (=1/T 2) maps were extracted from several sequential T 2-weighted MRI images. The dose values resulting from the polymer gel measurements at the reference points were compared with those from the common calculation method at the same points. In addition, the isodose curves resulting from gel dosimetry were compared with those from a brachytherapy treatment planning system (Flexiplan). Results: The average of the dose values measured with the gel at the reference points was 62.75% higher than those calculated at the same points. Investigating the isodose curves revealed that the maximum distance to agreement (DTAmax) between the isodoses resulting from the gel and those obtained from the treatment planning system was less than 3 mm at different dose levels. Discussion and Conclusion: Although the MAGICA gel indicates a higher absolute dose value than those calculated commonly, it can give the relative dose values accurately. Therefore, it can be recommended to be used for the assessment of dose distributions for the treatment of tissues as well as quality control of the treatment planning systems.

  13. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes : the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h

  14. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Carla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  15. A rapidly-tuned, short-pulse-length, high-repetition-rate CO{sub 2} laser for IR dial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaugg, T.; Thompson, D.; Leland, W.T.; Busch, G.

    1997-08-01

    Analysis of noise sources in Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) in the infrared region of the spectrum indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio for direct detection can be improved if multiple-wavelength, short-pulse-length beams are transmitted and received at high repetition rates. Atmospheric effects can be minimized, albedo can be rapidly scanned, and uncorrelated speckle can be acquired at the maximum possible rate. A compact, rugged, RF-excited waveguide laser can produce 15 nanosecond pulses at a 100 kHz rate with sufficient energy per pulse to reach the speckle limit of the signal-to-noise ratio. A high-repetition-rate laser has been procured and will be used to verify these signal and noise scaling relationships at high repetition rates. Current line-tuning devices are mechanical and are capable of switching lines at a rate up to a few hundred Hertz. Acousto-optic modulators, deflectors or tunable filters can be substituted for these mechanical devices in the resonator of a CO{sub 2} laser and used to rapidly line-tune the laser across the 9 and 10 micron bands at a rate as high as 100 kHz. Several configurations for line tuning using acousto-optic and electro-optic devices with and without gratings are presented. The merits of and constraints on each design are also discussed. A pair of large aperture, acousto-optic deflectors has been purchased and the various line-tuning designs will be evaluated in a conventional, glass tube, CO{sub 2} laser, with a view to incorporation into the high-repetition-rate, waveguide laser. A computer model of the dynamics of an RF-excited, short-pulse-length, high-repetition-rate waveguide laser has been developed. The model will be used to test the consequences of various line-tuning designs.

  16. Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available Although antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be associated with time-dependent reductions in tuberculosis (TB incidence, the long-term impact of ART on incidence remains imprecisely defined due to limited duration of follow-up and incomplete CD4 cell count recovery in existing studies. We determined TB incidence in a South African ART cohort with up to 8 years of follow-up and stratified rates according to CD4 cell count recovery. We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community.Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART in a community-based cohort in Cape Town were analysed. 1544 patients with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR 2.4-5.8 were included in the analysis. 484 episodes of incident TB (73.6% culture-confirmed were diagnosed in 424 patients during 6506 person-years (PYs of follow-up. The TB incidence rate during the first year of ART was 12.4 (95% CI 10.8-14.4 cases/100PYs and decreased to 4.92 (95% CI 3.64-8.62 cases/100PYs between 5 and 8 years of ART. During person-time accrued within CD4 cell strata 0-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-700 and ≥700 cells/µL, TB incidence rates (95% CI were 25.5 (21.6-30.3, 11.2 (9.4-13.5, 7.9 (6.4-9.7, 5.0 (3.9-6.6, 5.1 (3.8-6.8, 4.1 (3.1-5.4 and 2.7 (1.7-4.5 cases/100PYs, respectively. Overall, 75% (95% CI 70.9-78.8 of TB episodes were recurrent cases. Updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were independently associated with long-term TB risk. TB rates during person-time accrued in the highest CD4 cell count stratum (>700 cells/µL were 4.4-fold higher that the rate in HIV uninfected individuals living in the same community (2.7 versus 0.62 cases/100PYs; 95%CI 0.58-0.65.TB rates during long-term ART remained substantially greater than rates in the local HIV uninfected populations regardless of duration of ART or attainment of CD4 cell counts exceeding 700 cells/µL.

  17. Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Wood, Robin; Kaplan, Richard; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to be associated with time-dependent reductions in tuberculosis (TB) incidence, the long-term impact of ART on incidence remains imprecisely defined due to limited duration of follow-up and incomplete CD4 cell count recovery in existing studies. We determined TB incidence in a South African ART cohort with up to 8 years of follow-up and stratified rates according to CD4 cell count recovery. We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community. Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART in a community-based cohort in Cape Town were analysed. 1544 patients with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR 2.4-5.8) were included in the analysis. 484 episodes of incident TB (73.6% culture-confirmed) were diagnosed in 424 patients during 6506 person-years (PYs) of follow-up. The TB incidence rate during the first year of ART was 12.4 (95% CI 10.8-14.4) cases/100PYs and decreased to 4.92 (95% CI 3.64-8.62) cases/100PYs between 5 and 8 years of ART. During person-time accrued within CD4 cell strata 0-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-700 and ≥700 cells/µL, TB incidence rates (95% CI) were 25.5 (21.6-30.3), 11.2 (9.4-13.5), 7.9 (6.4-9.7), 5.0 (3.9-6.6), 5.1 (3.8-6.8), 4.1 (3.1-5.4) and 2.7 (1.7-4.5) cases/100PYs, respectively. Overall, 75% (95% CI 70.9-78.8) of TB episodes were recurrent cases. Updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were independently associated with long-term TB risk. TB rates during person-time accrued in the highest CD4 cell count stratum (>700 cells/µL) were 4.4-fold higher that the rate in HIV uninfected individuals living in the same community (2.7 versus 0.62 cases/100PYs; 95%CI 0.58-0.65). TB rates during long-term ART remained substantially greater than rates in the local HIV uninfected populations regardless of duration of ART or attainment of CD4 cell counts exceeding 700 cells/µL.

  18. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  19. Le Fort I osteotomy and low-dose rate Ir192 brachytherapy for treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Charles E.J.; Harris, Robert; A'Hern, Roger; Archer, Daniel J.; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Henk, J. Michael; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a difficult clinical problem. External beam re-irradiation is associated with a long-term cure in a proportion of cases but this may be associated with severe radiation injury. Methods: Eighteen patients with post-nasal space tumours were treated between 1986 and 2001 with surgical excision and nasopharyngeal brachytherapy via a Le Fort I osteotomy approach. Low-dose rate (LDR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy was used. Data was prospectively collected. Local control and overall survival were measured. Acute and late complications were assessed using the RTOG system. Results: The overall survival was 67% at 2 years and 33.5% at 5 years. The corresponding local control rates were 42 and 31.5%, respectively. The T stage at relapse was a significant prognostic factor for local control (P=0.004) but not overall survival. Acute toxicity was mild. RTOG grade ≥3 late complications occurred in 40% of patients treated with the HDR, and 0% treated with LDR. Conclusions: The results of the Le Fort osteotomy, tumour debulking and post-operative brachytherapy gives local control rates similar to those achieved with wide-field re-irradiation. Complication rates are acceptable and are lower than that reported with other methods of radiation therapy. The surgical technique was well tolerated. HDR brachytherapy with this technique had a high complication rate. This approach is a viable option in the treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal tumours

  20. Incidence rates of enterovirus 71 infections in young children during a nationwide epidemic in Taiwan, 2008-09.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shi Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is causing life-threatening outbreaks in tropical Asia. In Taiwan and other tropical Asian countries, although nationwide EV71 epidemics occur cyclically, age-specific incidence rates of EV71 infections that are critical to estimate disease burden and design vaccine trials are not clear. A nationwide EV71 epidemic occurred in 2008-09 in Taiwan, which provided a unique opportunity to estimate age-specific incidence rates of EV71 infections. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively recruited 749 healthy neonates and conducted follow-ups from June 2006 to December 2009. Sera were obtained from participants at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age for measuring EV71 neutralizing antibody titers. If the participants developed suspected enterovirus illnesses, throat swabs were collected for virus isolation. RESULTS: We detected 28 EV71 infections including 20 symptomatic and 8 asymptomatic infections. Age-specific incidence rates of EV71 infection increased from 1.71 per 100 person-years at 0-6 months of age to 4.09, 5.74, and 4.97 per 100 person-years at 7-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months of age, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate was 15.15 per 100 persons by 36 months of age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of EV71 infections in Taiwan increased after 6 months of age during EV71 epidemics. The cumulative incidence rate was 15% by 36 months of age, and 29% of EV71 infections were asymptomatic in young children.

  1. A generic high-dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by

  2. Incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark (n = 189) and estimated world incidence of craniopharyngioma in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We studied the incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark during the period 1985-2004 and estimated worldwide incidence rates (IR) of craniopharyngioma based on a literature review. Craniopharyngioma patients diagnosed during the period 1985-2004 were identified from the Danish National Patient...

  3. Surgical site infection incidence after a clean-contaminated surgery in Yasuj Shahid Beheshti hospital, Iran Incidencia de infección de herida por cirugía limpia contaminada en el hospital Yasuj Shahid Beheshti, Irán Incidência de infecção de ferida depois de cirurgia limpa-contaminada em hospital Yasuj Shahid Beheshti, Irã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebbi Nobandegani Zinat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the incidence rate of infection after a clean-contaminated surgery and its relationship with some risk factors. Methodology. Cross sectional study, in a convenience sample of 300 patients who underwent surgery classified as clean-contaminated in a hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Samples were taken directly from the wound at the first dressing change to all the patients. They were studied to determine bacteria growth. Results. The rate of infection after a clean-contaminated surgery was 53%. The most common gram positive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (22%, and among gram negative: Escherichia coli (26%, Klebsiella sp (26% and Pseudomonas sp (25%. Significant correlation between the type of surgery and surgical site infection was found, it was not seen with the variables sex and surgical procedure. Conclusion. This study shows important problems regarding patient’s safety. Protocols should be reviewed to control infections.Objetivo. Determinar la tasa de incidencia por infección de herida por cirugía limpia-contaminada y su relación con algunos factores de riesgo. Metodología. Estudio de corte transversal en una muestra por conveniencia de 300 pacientes sometidos a cirugía clasificada como limpia-contaminada. A todos los pacientes les tomaron una muestra para cultivo directamente de la herida en el primer cambio del apósito, la cual se estudió para determinar el crecimiento de bacterias. Resultados. La tasa de infección en heridas quirúrgicas limpias-contaminadas fue del 53%. El microorganismo gram positivo más frecuente fue Staphylococcus aureus (22%, y dentro de los gram negatives fueron: Escherichia coli (26%, Klebsiella sp (26% y Pseudomonas sp (25%. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el tipo de cirugía y la infección de la herida quirúrgica, lo que no se observó con las variables sexo y el procedimiento quirúrgico. Conclusión. Este estudio muestra problemas importantes en el aseguramiento

  4. Development and implementation of a remote audit tool for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy using optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Kevin E.; Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Alvarez, Paola; Lawyer, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to create a mailable phantom with measurement accuracy suitable for Radiological Physics Center (RPC) audits of high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources at institutions participating in National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative clinical trials. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) were chosen as the dosimeter to be used with the phantom.Methods: The authors designed and built an 8 × 8 × 10 cm 3 prototype phantom that had two slots capable of holding Al 2 O 3 :C OSLDs (nanoDots; Landauer, Glenwood, IL) and a single channel capable of accepting all 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy sources in current clinical use in the United States. The authors irradiated the phantom with Nucletron and Varian 192 Ir HDR sources in order to determine correction factors for linearity with dose and the combined effects of irradiation energy and phantom characteristics. The phantom was then sent to eight institutions which volunteered to perform trial remote audits.Results: The linearity correction factor was k L = (−9.43 × 10 −5 × dose) + 1.009, where dose is in cGy, which differed from that determined by the RPC for the same batch of dosimeters using 60 Co irradiation. Separate block correction factors were determined for current versions of both Nucletron and Varian 192 Ir HDR sources and these vendor-specific correction factors differed by almost 2.6%. For the Nucletron source, the correction factor was 1.026 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.023–1.028], and for the Varian source, it was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.995–1.005). Variations in lateral source positioning up to 0.8 mm and distal/proximal source positioning up to 10 mm had minimal effect on dose measurement accuracy. The overall dose measurement uncertainty of the system was estimated to be 2.4% and 2.5% for the Nucletron and Varian sources, respectively (95% CI). This uncertainty was sufficient to establish a ±5% acceptance criterion for source strength audits under a

  5. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

    2014-05-01

    During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.

  6. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters; Proposta de um sistema postal para a calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir, utilizadas em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose, com dosimetros termoluminescentes de LiF: Mn: Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. CNEN Caixa Postal 37750, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  7. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  8. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarajan, Badri N.; Faber, Kelley M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Bennett, David A.; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Goate, Alison M.; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A.; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z.; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0

  9. Inyang, IR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inyang, IR. Vol 5, No 4 (2009) - Articles Changes in Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias Gariepinus Exposed to Diazinon Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  10. Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in Neuquén (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Sabban, Marcos Alejandro; Palmero, Cintia; Bertrand, Beatriz; Aiello, Ana; Ghiglioni, Amalia; Mac Donell, Maria Celina; Croci, Cecilia; Cabaeiro, Patricia; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan

    2014-11-01

    During the past decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported worldwide. In Argentina there is no national cancer registry, and its incidence has therefore not been established. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of TC in the province of Neuquén and to compare it to that reported in the literature. The medical records of 229 patients admitted over a period of 12 years (2001 to 2012) were used for data analysis. Tumor size, age, sex, and histological type were evaluated. The study period was divided into four three-year periods, and differences in each of these features were analyzed. We found an incidence of 4.72/100,000 inhabitants/year, and almost all patients had papillary TC. TC was five times more common in females as compared to males (7.78 and 1.55 respectively). Mean tumor size was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. Tumor size was significantly greater in men (31.8 ± 3.7 mm) than in women (20.4 ± 1.0 mm). When grouped by three-year periods, a higher number of cases was found in the last one (47, 49, 49 and 84 respectively). As regards tumor distribution by size, there was a significant decrease in mean tumor size in the fourth period and an increase in the proportion of tumors <10mm. We report an increase in TC incidence in the Argentinean province of Neuquén which is similar to the overall increase reported in the international literature. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of effect of blood pressure and heart rate changes in different positions (lying and sitting on hypotension incidence rate after spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Manouchehrian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively high prevalence of hypotension (20% -40% after spinal anesthesia as well as the adverse effects of hypotension on mother and baby, it is better to prevent hypotension as much as possible. Therefore, this study is aimed to determine the relationship between postural blood pressure and heart rate changes and hypotension incidence rate after spinal anesthesia in cesarean section.63 women aging18 to 45years old with fullterm pregnancy, who were candidate for caesarean section with spinal anesthesia, entered the study. Afterwards, the diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressures as well as the heart rate (pulse in different positions (sitting, lying, and left lateral were measured. After spinal anesthesia, the patients' blood pressure was measured and recorded every minute until the10thmin, then every 3 minute until the15thmin, and then every 5 minute until the end of cesarean section. Data analysis was performed using SPSS (ver. 19 software, descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Bonferroni test. In this study, the hypotension incidence rate was 30% and the orthostatic variation rate of the systolic blood pressure in more than half of the people was between 4.39 to 13.49psi, which showed the highest variation compared to the diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (or: mean arterial pressure [MAP], and heart(pulse. Considering the correlation coefficient of 0.27, the systolic blood pressure in the lateral position has the highest relationship with the incidence of hypotension. The postural systolic blood pressure changes in patients prior to the spinal anesthesia can be a predictive factor for the post-spinal hypotension incidence.

  12. Age-period cohort analysis of AIDS incidence rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cristina Pinheiro Nádia

    2013-11-26

    The long average incubation time from HIV infection to AIDS makes it difficult to estimate the recent tendencies of HIV from AIDS incidence data. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three temporal components in AIDS incidence in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - age, period, and cohort. Age-specific AIDS incidence rates per 100,000 from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were calculated for both sexes using five-year age classes from 1985 to 2009 based on reported data from the Notifiable Disease Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and from census population counts. Multivariate negative binomial models were used to analyze the risk of AIDS by age, period, and birth cohort. From 1985 to 2009, AIDS incidence initially increased with age in each birth cohort and then decreased (except for individuals born from 1971-1979 to 1986-1994). High peaks in the rates in each birth cohort were detected in 1995-1999 for males and in 2000-2004 for females. Multivariate analysis showed the maximum risk of AIDS in the 30-34 age group and 1958-1962 birth cohort. Age, birth cohort, and period effects all may have influenced the AIDS incidence rates over the period investigated. From 1985 to 1999, comparison of the tendencies (by age) of the period with the birth cohort revealed opposing tendencies in individuals older than 29 years and in the youngest age groups (0 to 14 years). From 2000 to 2009, a strong age effect can be observed in both sexes. Consistent changes in period tendency curves suggest the occurrence of period effects. A reduction in the intensity of the risk of AIDS can be observed after 2000-2004.

  13. Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, E; Preston, D L; Ron, E; Krestinina, L; Davis, F G; Kossenko, M; Akleyev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10 000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external γ-exposure and 137Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose–response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation. PMID:19002173

  14. High-accuracy measurements of OH reaction rate constants and IR absorption spectra: CH2=CF-CF3 and trans-CHF=CH-CF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Vladimir L; Martynova, Larissa E; Ilichev, Alexander N

    2010-05-20

    Rate constants for the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with two isomers of tetrafluoropropene, CH(2)=CF-CF(3) (k(1)) and trans-CHF=CH-CF(3) (k(2)); were measured using a flash photolysis resonance-fluorescence technique over the temperature range 220 to 370 K. The Arrhenius plots were found to exhibit a noticeable curvature. The temperature dependences of the rate constants are very weak and can be represented by the following expressions over the indicated temperature intervals: k(1)(220-298 K) = 1.145 x 10(-12) x exp{13/T} cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(1)(298-370 K) = 4.06 x 10(-13) x (T/298)(1.17) x exp{+296/T} cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2)(220-370 K) = 1.115 x 10(-13) x (T/298)(2.03) x exp{+522/T} cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The overall accuracy of the rate constant measurements is estimated to be ca. 2% to 2.5% at the 95% confidence level. The uncertainty of the measured reaction rate constants is discussed in detail. The atmospheric lifetimes due to reactions with tropospheric OH were estimated to be 12 and 19 days respectively under the assumption of a well mixed atmosphere. IR absorption cross-sections were measured for both compounds and their global warming potentials were estimated.

  15. Application of experimental design in examination of the dissolution rate of carbamazepine from formulations: Characterization of the optimal formulation by DSC, TGA, FT-IR and PXRD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solubility is one of the key reasons for the poor bioavailability of these drugs. This paper displays a formulation of a solid surfactant system with carbamazepine, in order to increase its dissolution rate. Solid state surfactant systems are formed by application of fractal experimental design. Poloxamer 237 and Poloxamer 338 were used as surfactants and Brij® 35 was used as the co-surfactant. The ratios of the excipients and carbamazepine were varied and their effects on the dissolution rate of carbamazepine were examined. Moreover, the effects of the addition of natural (diatomite and a synthetic adsorbent carrier (Neusiline UFL2 on the dissolution rate of carbamazepine were also tested. The prepared surfactant systems were characterized and the influence of the excipients on possible changes of the polymorphous form of carbamazepine examined by application of analytical techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, PXRD. It was determined that an appropriate selection of the excipient type and ratio could provide a significant increase in the carbamazepine dissolution rate. By application of analytical techniques, it was found that that the employed excipients induce a transition of carbamazepine into the amorphous form and that the selected sample was stable for three months, when kept under ambient conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34007

  16. Incidence rate and prevalence of major risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in the Pakistani population: mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabira Sultana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is the complication of pregnancy in which the product of conception implants outside the uterine cavity i.e. in the uterine tubes, cervix, ovaries and abdomen. It is lifethreatening emergency and a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The incidence rate is 0.5%-1.5% of all pregnancies. Even though its incidence rate is drop off when compared with earlier decades, it is still the foremost causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy, especially in developing countries. In Pakistan, it varies from 1:1 124 to 1:130 pregnancies. Risk factors associated to ectopic pregnancy are pelvic inflammatory disease, past history of miscarriages, age, parity, infertility, previous ectopic pregnancy, induction of ovulation and intrauterine device usage. The aim of this study is to review the published literature concerning the disease knowledge and major risk factors associated to ectopic pregnancy in Pakistan.

  17. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of 192 Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza C, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water D w for the energy of: 60 Co, 137C s, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the 192 Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of 192 Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the 60 Co for D w , using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in D w by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for D w in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the 137 Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for D w start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: R TLD vs D w : For the energy of 60 Co, 137 Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (F s ) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The F s for the two 192 Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of capsules were sent to two hospitals that have the HDR Brachytherapy with sources of 192

  18. Global Stability of Delayed Viral Infection Models with Nonlinear Antibody and CTL Immune Responses and General Incidence Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Hui; Teng, Zhidong; Li, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors for a five-dimensional viral infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses, and nonlinear incidence rate are investigated. The threshold values for viral infection, antibody response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition, and antibody competition, respectively, are established. Under certain assumptions, the threshold value conditions on the global stability of the infection-free, im...

  19. Incidence of atrial fibrillation in relation to changing heart rate over time in hypertensive patients: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2008-01-01

    Onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to changes in autonomic tone, with increasing heart rate (HR) immediately before AF onset in some patients suggesting a possible role of acute increases in sympathetic activity in AF onset. Although losartan therapy and decreasing ECG left...... ventricular hypertrophy are associated with decreased AF incidence, the relationship of HR changes over time to development of AF has not been examined....

  20. Comparing geographic area-based and classical population-based incidence and prevalence rates, and their confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Geng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the HIV epidemic, the classical population-based prevalence and incidence rates (P rates are the two most commonly used measures used for policy interventions. However, these P rates ignore the heterogeneity of the size of geographic region where the population resides. It is intuitive that with the same P rates, the likelihood for HIV can be much greater to spread in a population residing in a crowed small urban area than the same number of population residing in a large rural area. With this limitation, Chen and Wang (2017 proposed the geographic area-based rates (G rates to complement the classical P rates. They analyzed the 2000–2012 US data on new HIV infections and persons living with HIV and found, as compared with other methods, using G rates enables researchers to more quickly detect increases in HIV rates. This capacity to reveal increasing rates in a more efficient and timely manner is a crucial methodological contribution to HIV research. To enhance this newly proposed concept of G rates, this article presents a discussion of 3 areas for further development of this important concept: (1 analysis of global HIV epidemic data using the newly proposed G rates to capture the changes globally; (2 development of the associated population density-based rates (D rates to incorporate the heterogeneities from both geographical area and total population-at-risk; and (3 development of methods to calculate variances and confidence intervals for the P rates, G rates, and D rates to capture the variability of these indices.

  1. Influence of occupational safety management on the incidence rate of occupational accidents in the Spanish industrial and ornamental stone mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Rossell, Josep M; Vintró, Carla; Freijo, Modesto

    2014-01-01

    Mines are hazardous and workers can suffer many types of accidents caused by fire, flood, explosion or collapse. Injury incidence rates in mining are considerably higher than those registered by other economic sectors. One of the main reasons for this high-level incidence rate is the existence of a large number of dangerous workplaces. This work analyzes the influence that occupational safety management had on the accidents that took place in Spanish mining of industrial and ornamental stone during the period 2007-2008. Primary data sources are: (a) Results from a statistical study of the occupational health and safety management practices of 71 quarries defined by a questionnaire of 41 items; and (b) Occupational accidents registered in the Spanish industrial and ornamental stone mining throughout the period 2007-2008. The obtained results indicate that workplaces with a low average score in the analysis of occupational safety management have a higher incidence rate of accidents. Studies on mining workplaces are very important to help detect occupational safety concerns. Results from this study help raise awareness and will encourage the adoption of appropriate measures to improve safety.

  2. Studies on Lyme disease incidence rates in selected groups of forestry workers in West Pomerania, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data collected by sanitary-epidemiological stations in 2005–2014 were analyzed to determine the incidence rates of borreliosis Lyme disease in the West Pomerania group of workers exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: It was assumed that an adequate comparison of official epidemiological data with the data concerning the number of exposed people, is an indispensable condition for assessing properly the trend in Lyme disease incidence rates, concerning at the same time a real scale of occupational exposure. The study covered a selected group of forestry workers, i.e., white-collar staff employed in different units of the State Forests National Forest Holding with their seats in West Pomerania. The aim of the research was to process and analyze the data on workers employed in the forest sector and their positions, requested from district sanitary-epidemiological stations. Results: In the years concerned 282 cases of the occupational disease were recorded mainly in the groups of forest rangers, junior foresters and forest service inspectors. The values of the incidence factor exhibit high variability with the major share of cases recorded in the years 2008–2010 that accounted for 61.8% of the total occurrences concerned. The incidence in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 amounted to 2418, 2828 and 2646 cases per 100 000 employees, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that previously published information about the incidence of Lyme disease in the agriculture, forestry and hunting sector, did not fully illustrate a real scale of occupational risk. Med Pr 2017;68(2:211–220

  3. Volume and dose rate dependent (MDR-LDR Ir-192 afterloading interstitial brachytherapy) treatment optimisation, for squamouscell carcinoma of the lip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, Nathalie; Goncalves, Julieta; Pinho, Eliana; Trigo, Lurdes; Fernandes, Tome; Vieira, Elio

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: From 1/1/90 to 1/1/95, 53 patients with squamouscell carcinoma of the lip were treated by MDR or LDR Ir-192 afterloading interstitital brachytherapy. We compare the oncological and aesthetical results and sequelae depending on the volume and the dose rate. Material and methods: 53 patients, 41 men and 12 women, median age = 66y; 48 primary tumors (T1 = 26; T2 = 16; T3 = 6; N0 = 47; N1 = 1; M0 = 48) and 5 recurrencies; squamouscell carcinoma (grade 1 =45, g2 =6, g3 =2); clinical extension: buccal comissure=3, check =2, muscular =15, skin =7, lower and upper lip =1. Before radiotherapy, 28 biopsies and 25 excisional surgeries (19 with positive margins, 6 with negative margins) were performed. Brachytherapy was performed alone (dose 60-75 Gy BD85%) or as a boost (dose 10-30 Gy BD85%) associated with external beam (dose 46-50 Gy). MDR or LDR microselectron's afterloading was done after a computerised dosimetry (Paris System): treatment mean time = 30, 98 hours; mean volume = 10,2 cc (T1-T2 8, 61cc); Ir - 192 activity = range 0,7 - 4,792 mCi/cm; reference dose rate 45,6 - 290, 1 cGy/h. Results: 46 patients are alive without cancer, 1 died without responding, 6 died from non oncological diseases; 8 patients had recurrences (5 local, 3 nodal) but are alive. Mean follow-up 30,83 months (range 3-60m), mean DFS = 22,49 m (range 5-57m). Acute secondary effects: 30 radioepithelyties (grade 1 = 7, g2=23, g3=14), and 39 radiomucitis (g1=3; g2=23; g3=13); mean time for complete healing = 21, 66 days. Sequelae: moderate sclerosis of the skin =11, skin retraction = 1, hyperpigmentation2, depigmentation= 10, edema= 6, gingivitis= 7. Aesthetical results: good32; moderate= 18; bad= 2, very bad= 1 (uncontrolled tumor). Conclusions: The sequelae and aesthetical results are closely dependent on the treated volume and the dose rate, less dependent on the total dose, and independent on the Iridium activity. Complete healing time does not influence the late aesthetical results

  4. Incidence Rate of Concomitant Systemic Diseases in the Aging Population with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sayılır

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the concomitant systemic diseases with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to investigate the points to be considered in treatment approach of patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 110 female patients admitted to our clinic and followed up after postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis. Besides the demographic data; the concomitant diseases of the patients such as hypertension, hypo-hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, malignancy, osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal system diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD- asthma and depression were also recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients included in our study was 65.9±9.8 years. When the concomitant systemic diseases were examined; 40 patients had hypertension, 32 patients had osteoarthritis, 24 patients had gastrointestinal tract problems, 22 patients had thyroid disease, 21 patients had depression, 15 patients had hyperlipidemia, 12 patients had diabetes mellitus, 10 patients had COPD - asthma, 7 patients had cardiac diseases, 5 patients had malignancy and 2 patients had Alzheimer disease. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease in the geriatric population. As a chronic disease with an increasing incidence with aging; it can cause many health problems, prevalently pathological bone fractures, in our country and all over the world. Constitutively, prophylaxis of osteoporosis should be the first step. Because systemic diseases with increasing incidence with aging may affect the severity of osteoporosis and impair the treatment; it is important for both clinicians and the society to have sufficient information about osteoporosis.

  5. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; R Degano, Irene; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-21

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Intersystem-crossing and phosphorescence rates in fac-Ir(III)(ppy)3: a theoretical study involving multi-reference configuration interaction wavefunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; van Wüllen, Christoph; Marian, Christel M

    2015-03-07

    We have employed combined density functional theory and multi-reference configuration interaction methods including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects to investigate the photophysics of the green phosphorescent emitter fac-tris-(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (fac-Ir(ppy)3). A critical evaluation of our quantum chemical approaches shows that a perturbational treatment of SOC is the method of choice for computing the UV/Vis spectrum of this heavy transition metal complex while multi-reference spin-orbit configuration interaction is preferable for calculating the phosphorescence rates. The particular choice of the spin-orbit interaction operator is found to be of minor importance. Intersystem crossing (ISC) rates have been determined by Fourier transformation of the time correlation function of the transition including Dushinsky rotations. In the electronic ground state, fac-Ir(ppy)3 is C3 symmetric. The calculated UV/Vis spectrum is in excellent agreement with experiment. The effect of SOC is particularly pronounced for the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band in the visible region of the absorption spectrum which does not only extend its spectral onset towards longer wavelengths but also experiences a blue shift of its maximum. Pseudo-Jahn-Teller interaction leads to asymmetric coordinate displacements in the lowest MLCT states. Substantial electronic SOC and a small energy gap make ISC an ultrafast process in fac-Ir(ppy)3. For the S1↝T1 non-radiative transition, we compute a rate constant of kISC = 6.9 × 10(12) s(-1) which exceeds the rate constant of radiative decay to the electronic ground state by more than six orders of magnitude, in agreement with the experimental observation of a subpicosecond ISC process and a triplet quantum yield close to unity. As a consequence of the geometric distortion in the T1 state, the T1 → S0 transition densities are localized on one of the phenylpyridyl moieties. In our best quantum chemical model, we obtain phosphorescence

  7. Intersystem-crossing and phosphorescence rates in fac-Ir{sup III}(ppy){sub 3}: A theoretical study involving multi-reference configuration interaction wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M., E-mail: Christel.Marian@hhu.de [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Wüllen, Christoph van [Fachbereich Chemie and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 52, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We have employed combined density functional theory and multi-reference configuration interaction methods including spin–orbit coupling (SOC) effects to investigate the photophysics of the green phosphorescent emitter fac-tris-(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3}). A critical evaluation of our quantum chemical approaches shows that a perturbational treatment of SOC is the method of choice for computing the UV/Vis spectrum of this heavy transition metal complex while multi-reference spin–orbit configuration interaction is preferable for calculating the phosphorescence rates. The particular choice of the spin–orbit interaction operator is found to be of minor importance. Intersystem crossing (ISC) rates have been determined by Fourier transformation of the time correlation function of the transition including Dushinsky rotations. In the electronic ground state, fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3} is C{sub 3} symmetric. The calculated UV/Vis spectrum is in excellent agreement with experiment. The effect of SOC is particularly pronounced for the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band in the visible region of the absorption spectrum which does not only extend its spectral onset towards longer wavelengths but also experiences a blue shift of its maximum. Pseudo-Jahn-Teller interaction leads to asymmetric coordinate displacements in the lowest MLCT states. Substantial electronic SOC and a small energy gap make ISC an ultrafast process in fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3}. For the S{sub 1}↝T{sub 1} non-radiative transition, we compute a rate constant of k{sub ISC} = 6.9 × 10{sup 12} s{sup −1} which exceeds the rate constant of radiative decay to the electronic ground state by more than six orders of magnitude, in agreement with the experimental observation of a subpicosecond ISC process and a triplet quantum yield close to unity. As a consequence of the geometric distortion in the T{sub 1} state, the T{sub 1} → S{sub 0} transition densities are localized on one of the

  8. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  9. Combined effects of family history of CVD and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yipeng; Tian, Yunfan; Zhong, Chongke; Batu, Buren; Xu, Tian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Aili; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of family history of cardiovascular diseases (FHCVD) and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 2589 participants aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. The participants were divided into four groups according to status of FHCVD and heart rate and followed up from June 2002 to July 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the combined effects of FHCVD and heart rate on the incidence of ischemic stroke. A total of 76 ischemic stroke occurred during the follow-up period. The observed ischemic stroke cases tended to be older and male, and had higher prevalence of smoking, drinking, hypertension and FHCVD as well as higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at baseline compared with those who did not experience ischemic stroke. Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of ischemic stroke in the participants with both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 were 2.89 (1.51-5.53), compared with those without FHCVD and heart rate < 80. After multiple adjustment, the association between ischemic stroke risk and both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 remained statistically significant (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-5.01). Our main finding that participants with both FHCVD and faster heart rate have the highest risk of ischemic stroke suggests that faster heart rate may increase the risk of ischemic stroke among people with FHCVD.

  10. Sports members' participation in assessment of incidence rate of injuries in five sports from records of hospital-based clinical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate

  11. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  12. Risk factors and their combined effects on the incidence rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage--a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miikka Korja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective studies on the risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH are limited. Moreover, the effect of risk factors on the incidence rates of SAH is not well known about. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors for SAH and characterize subgroups in a population with a high incidence of SAH. METHODS: After recording multiple potential risk factors for SAH at the time of enrollment, first ever SAH events between 1972 and 2009 were recorded through the nationwide Causes of Death Register and Hospital Discharge Register for the population-based cohort of 64 349 participants, who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1972 and 2007 in Finland. RESULTS: During the follow-up time of 1.26 million person-years (median 17.9 years, range 0 to 37.9 years, 437 persons experienced fatal or non-fatal SAH. Crude SAH incidence was 34.8 (95% confidence interval: 31.7-38.2 per 100 000 person-years among ≥ 25-year-old persons. Female sex, high blood pressure values and current smoking were confirmed as risk factors for SAH. Previous myocardial infarction, history of premature stroke (any kind in mother and elevated cholesterol levels in men were identified as new risk factors for SAH. Depending on the combination of risk factors, SAH incidence varied between 8 and 171 per 100 000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS: New and previously reported risk factors appear to have a much stronger association with the incidence of SAH than is ordinarily seen in cardiovascular diseases. Risk factor assessments may facilitate the identification of high-risk persons who should be the focus of preventive interventions.

  13. Risk Factors and Their Combined Effects on the Incidence Rate of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Miikka; Silventoinen, Karri; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies on the risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are limited. Moreover, the effect of risk factors on the incidence rates of SAH is not well known about. Aims In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors for SAH and characterize subgroups in a population with a high incidence of SAH. Methods After recording multiple potential risk factors for SAH at the time of enrolment, first ever SAH events between 1972 and 2009 were recorded through the nationwide Causes of Death Register and Hospital Discharge Register for the population-based cohort of 64 349 participants, who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1972 and 2007 in Finland. Results During the follow-up time of 1.26 million person-years (median 17.9 years, range 0 to 37.9 years), 437 persons experienced fatal or non-fatal SAH. Crude SAH incidence was 34.8 (95% confidence interval: 31.7–38.2) per 100 000 person-years among ≥25-year-old persons. Female sex, high blood pressure values and current smoking were confirmed as risk factors for SAH. Previous myocardial infarction, history of premature stroke (any kind) in mother and elevated cholesterol levels in men were identified as new risk factors for SAH. Depending on the combination of risk factors, SAH incidence varied between 8 and 171 per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions New and previously reported risk factors appear to have a much stronger association with the incidence of SAH than is ordinarily seen in cardiovascular diseases. Risk factor assessments may facilitate the identification of high-risk persons who should be the focus of preventive interventions. PMID:24040058

  14. Reduced rate of human papillomavirus infection and genetic overtransmission of TP53 72C polymorphic variant lower cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbeih, Ghazi A; Al-Harbi, Najla M; Bin Judia, Sara S; Khoja, Hatim A; Shoukri, Mohamed M; Tulbah, Asma M

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a predominantly human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven disease worldwide. However, its incidence is unexplainably low in western Asia, including Saudi Arabia. Using this paradigm, we investigated the role of HPV infection rate and host genetic predisposition in TP53 G72C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) presumed to affect cancer incidence. Patients treated between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed, and a series of 232 invasive cervical cancer cases were studied and compared with 313 matched controls without cancer. SNP was genotyped by way of direct sequencing. HPV linear array analysis was used to detect and genotype HPV in tumor samples. The incidence of cervical cancer revealed bimodal peaks at 42.5 years, with a slighter rebound at 60.8 years. Among all cases, 77% were HPV-positive and 16 HPV genotypes were detected-mostly genotypes 16 (75%) and 18 (9%)-with no difference by age, histology, or geographical region. Although the TP53 G72C genotype was not associated with overall cervical cancer risk, it was significantly associated with HPV positivity (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.90; P = .016). Furthermore, the variant C allele was significantly overtransmitted in the population (P Cervical cancer incidence displays bimodal curve peaking at a young age with secondary rebound at older age. The combination of relative low HPV infection and variant TP53 72C allele overtransmission provide a plausible explanation for the low incidence of cervical cancer in our population. Therefore, HPV screening and host SNP genotyping may provide more relevant biomarkers to gauge the risk of developing cervical cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2459-66. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  15. Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Duarte Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine incidence, mortality, and clinical status of youth with diabetes at the Centro Vivir con Diabetes, Cochabamba, Bolivia, with support from International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. Methods. Incidence/mortality data analysis of all cases (<25 year (y diagnosed January 2005–February 2017 and cross-sectional data (December 2015. Results. Over 12.2 years, 144 cases with type 1 diabetes (T1D were diagnosed; 43.1% were male. Diagnosis age was 0.3–22.2 y; peak was 11-12 y. 11.1% were <5 y; 29.2%, 5–<10 y; 43.1%, 10–<15 y; 13.2%, 15–<20 y; and 3.5%, 20–<25 y. The youngest is being investigated for monogenic diabetes. Measured incidence in Cercado Province (Cochabamba Department was 2.2/100,000 children < 15 y/y, with ≈80% ascertainment, giving total incidence of 2.7/100,000 children < 15 y/y. Two had died. Crude mortality rate was 2.3/1000 patient years. Clinical data on 141 cases <35 y: mean/median HbA1c was 8.5/8.2% (69/62 mmol/mol, levels higher in adolescents. Three were on renal replacement therapy; four others had substantial renal impairment. Elevated BMI, triglycerides, and cholesterol were common: 19.1%, 18.3%, and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Bolivia has low T1D incidence. Reasonable glycemic control is being achieved despite limited resources; however, some have serious complications and adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Further attention is needed for complications.

  16. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagebiel Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas

  17. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Gushulak, Brian; Abu Rumman, Khaled; Altpeter, Ekkehardt; Chemtob, Daniel; Douglas, Paul; Erkens, Connie; Helbling, Peter; Hamilton, Ingrid; Jones, Jane; Matteelli, Alberto; Paty, Marie-Claire; Posey, Drew L; Sagebiel, Daniel; Slump, Erika; Tegnell, Anders; Valín, Elena Rodríguez; Winje, Brita Askeland; Ellis, Edward

    2011-01-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs. 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should facilitate the development of improved

  18. Oral primary care: an analysis of its impact on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Staton, Catherine Ann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-10-30

    Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease, especially when diagnosed in advanced stages. In Brazil, the primary health care (PHC) system is responsible for promoting oral health in order to prevent oral diseases. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess whether actions of the PHC system have some effect on the morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PHC structure and work processes on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer after adjusting for contextual variables. An ecological, longitudinal and analytical study was carried out. Data were obtained from different secondary data sources, including three surveys that were nationally representative of Brazilian PHC and carried out over the course of 10 years (2002-2012). Data were aggregated at the state level at different times. Oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, standardized by age and gender, served as the dependent variables. Covariables (sociodemographic, structure of basic health units, and work process in oral health) were entered in the regression models using a hierarchical approach based on a theoretical model. Analysis of mixed effects with random intercept model was also conducted (alpha = 5%). The oral cancer incidence rate was positively association with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.59; p = 0.010) and adult smokers (β = 0.29; p = 0.010). The oral cancer related mortality rate was positively associated with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.24; p oral cancer (β = 0.02; p = 0.002). Mortality was inversely associated with the coverage of primary care teams (β = -0.01; p work processes have been shown to help reduce the mortality rate of oral cancer, but not the incidence rate of the disease. We recommend expanding investments in PHC in order to prevent oral cancer related deaths.

  19. Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on- and off-road incident rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman-Hall, L; Hall, F L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis overcomes the known limitations of police and emergency room bicycle accident databases through use of a survey that asked cyclists to indicate their accident history as well as their regular commute route to work or school. By relating the route information of the 1604 respondents (52.5% of the distributed questionnaires) to facility attributes in a Geographic Information System, defensible estimates of travel exposure on roads, off-road paths and sidewalks were developed. The relative rates of collisions on the three different facility types were not statistically different from 1.0. The relative rates for falls and injuries suggest it is safest to cycle on-road followed by off-road paths and trails, and finally least safe on sidewalks. While there were no major injuries reported on sidewalks, the relative rate for these events on paths was greater than the rate for roads. The absolute event rates per bicycle kilometre were found to be between 10 and 41 times higher than similar rates for automobile travel. Results suggest a need to discourage sidewalk cycling, and to further investigate the safety of off-road paths/trails. The analysis also demonstrates the need for bicycle travel exposure information and the use of more than just collision databases for bicycle safety analysis.

  20. High incidence of hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis in older people associated with poor self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Bette C; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn D

    2015-12-30

    To estimate the incidence and risk factors for gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations in older adults. Longitudinal cohort study. The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale Australian prospective study of adults aged ≥ 45 years (mean 62.7 years) at recruitment in 2006-2009. Self-reported demographic, health and dietary information at recruitment from 265,440 participants were linked to infectious gastroenteritis hospitalisation data. We estimated the incidence of hospitalisation for infectious gastroenteritis, and calculated HRs using Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic, health and behavioural variables, with age as the underlying time variable. There were 6077 incident infectious gastroenteritis admissions over 1,111,000 person-years. Incidence increased exponentially with increasing age; from 2.4 per 1000 (95% CI 2.2 to 2.5) in individuals aged 45-54 years to 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.8) in those aged 65+ years. After adjustment, hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis was significantly more common in those reporting use of proton pump inhibitors (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7), and those with poorer self-rated health (HR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6 to 4.9). Infectious gastroenteritis results in hospitalisation of approximately 1% of people ≥ 65 years old each year. Early recognition and supportive treatment of diarrhoea in older patients with poorer self-rated health may prevent subsequent hospitalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Investigating the impact of blood culture bundles on the incidence of blood culture contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Theresa; Maile, Deborah; Barsch, Tara; Jerdan, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Blood cultures are integral diagnostic procedures for identifying serious infections and selecting antimicrobials. Positive blood cultures are the initial step in attaining a conclusive diagnosis of sepsis. Relative risk is blood culture contamination, false-positive blood culture results, diagnostic error delays, treatment errors, excessive lab testing, and increased length of stay. A complicating issue is the increased use of central venous access devices (CVADs). The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study is to evaluate the effectiveness of blood culture bundles on blood cultures drawn through a CVAD and contamination rates. The study revealed a decrease in blood culture contamination rates by 61%.

  2. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975-2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-11-05

    Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Cancer incidence data for 1975-2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975-2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975-2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%-1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  3. Incident rate and risk factors for tuberculosis among patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hanbo; Shi, Yan; Li, Yanyun; Shen, Xin; Li, Rui; Yang, Qundi; Pan, Qichao; Yan, Fei

    2017-07-01

    To examine the incident rate of tuberculosis (TB) and its associates among adults with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 170 399 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years who were registered in Shanghai community-based diabetes management system between 2004 and 2009. Their TB status was tracked until 31 December 2014. Cox regression was performed to identify the risk factors for TB. We documented 785 new TB cases during 654 977 person-years of follow-up. The incident rate of TB was 224.20 (206.69, 243.16) per 100 000 person-years among men and 51.34 (44.75, 58.92) per 100 000 person-years among women. A 1-unit increase of BMI was associated with a risk reduction in 16% (P < 0.01) for men and a 14% (P < 0.01) reduction for women. TB cases were more likely to be insulin-dependent [men: hazard ratio = 2.13 (1.29, 3.53); women: 3.28 (1.28, 8.39)] and had a poor glucose level initially [men: 1.21 (1.15, 1.27); women: 1.27 (1.18, 1.37)]. The risk factor for TB specific to men was a young age at diagnosis of diabetes, and the protective factor specific to women was actively engaging in physical activity. TB incident rate among patients with type 2 diabetes was substantially higher among men than among women. The risk of TB was reversely associated with initial BMI. The severity of poor glucose control among patients with diabetes was also linearly associated with the risk of TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Candidemia: incidence rates, type of species, and risk factors at a tertiary care academic hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zengbin; Liu, Yingbin; Feng, Xiaobo; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shuyun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Qiqi; Pan, Shuming

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the incidence rates of candidemia in hospitalized patients and to identify differences in risk factors of patients with Candida albicans and non-C. albicans and with Candida guilliermondii and non-C. guilliermondii candidemia. Non-immunosuppressed, non-neutropenic inpatients with candidemia diagnosed after admission were included in this retrospective observational study at a tertiary academic hospital in China. During the study period (January 2009 to December 2011), 238 eligible patients had candidemia episodes with an incidence rate 5.4%. Of these patients, 29.8% had candidemia due to C. albicans, 27.7% due to C. parapsilosis, and 16.4% due to C. guilliermondii. Diabetes was a significant risk factor for patients with candidemia due to C. albicans (35.2%, 25/71) compared to candidemia due to non-C. albicans spp (13.2%, 22/167) (odds ratio (OR) 0.2792, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.144-0.5412; p candidemia due to non-C. guilliermondii spp, preterm birth with low birth weight (OR 0.0887, 95% CI 0.0398-0.1977; p candidemia due to C. guilliermondii. Furthermore, compared to patients with candidemia due to C. albicans, patients with candidemia due to C. guilliermondii had markedly higher rates of central venous catheterization (85.9%, 61/71 vs. C. guilliermondii: 100%, 39/39; p = 0.013) and intravenous nutrition (89.7%, 35/39 vs. C. albicans: 42.2%, 30/71; p Candidemia due to C. albicans ranks first in incidence, and candidemia due to C. guilliermondii occurs in a significant proportion of our hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. [Lung cancer in Avila province, Spain. Incidence rates, epidemiolgy of the year 2012 and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, J R; Moreno de Vega-Herrero, M B; Iglesias-Heras, M; García-García, R; Hernández-Terciado, F; Celdrán-Gil, J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the extent of lung cancer in Alvila. Its incidence rates and significant epidemiological aspects of the year 2012 were recorded, and the results of each 5-year period (up to 20 years) were compared with those of known studies conducted using the same methodology. A prospective study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the Province of Avila throughout the year 2012. A total of 81 patients were diagnosed, of whom 70 were males and 11 females, with a mean age of 72.1 years (range: 44-91), and was higher than that found in previous studies. This gave gross, and adjusted to the standard world population, incidence rates in 2012 of 80.99 and 31.23 per 100,000, respectively, in males, and 12.97 and 5.68 per 100,000, respectively in females. These rates are lower in both sexes than those found in Alvila in 2002. In 2012, 80.25% had been smokers (90% of males and 18.18% of the women), although, on diagnosis, 68.75% had quit smoking. A clinical-radiological diagnosis was made in 9 (11.1%), with a histocytological diagnosis in 72 (88.9%). The histological types were: adenocarcinomas in 37.5%; squamous in 33.3%; microcytic in 13.8%; undifferentiated non-small cell in 11.1%; large cell in 2.77%, and carcinoid in 1.38%. The most frequent treatments were chemotherapy (50.6%), symptomatic (23.4%), and surgery (12.3%). The incidence of lung cancer in Avila has decreased in both sexes in the last 10 years. In 2012, the patients have been older, the majority with adenocarcinoma histology, and receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cardiovascular prevention strategies on incident coronary disease hospitalisation rates in Spain; an ecological time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, María José; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Ortíz, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-02-17

    To assess the overall population impact of primary prevention strategies (promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention of smoking and use of vascular risk drug therapy) of coronary disease in Spain. Ecological time series analysis, 1982-2009. All public and private hospitals in Spain. General population. Incident coronary disease hospitalisation as derived from official hospital discharge data. Annual hospitalisation rates were modelled according to nationwide use of statins, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs, and prevalences of smoking, obesity and overweight. Additive generalised models and mixed Poisson regression models were used for the purpose, taking year as the random-effect variable and adjusting for age, sex, prevalence of vascular risk factors and the number of hospital beds in intensive and coronary care units. Across 28 years and 671.5 million person-years of observation, there were 2 986 834 hospitalisations due to coronary disease; of these, 1 441 980 (48.28%) were classified as incident. Hospitalisation rates increased from 1982 to 1996, with an inflection point in 1997 and a subsequent 52% decrease until 2009. Prevalences of smoking, obesity, overweight and use of vascular risk drug therapy were significantly associated with hospitalisation rates (pstress on excessive body weight prevention.

  7. Data study of death rate and cancer incidence among Thule workers, 2005; Registerundersoegelse af doedelighed og kraeftforekomst blandt Thulearbejdere, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juel, K. [Statens Insti. for Folkesundhed, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engholm, G.; Storm, H. [Kraeftens Bekaempelse, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2005-12-01

    January 21st, 1968, an American B52 bomber with nuclear weapons aboard crashed close to the Thule air-base in Greenland. In 1986 suspicions arose that there might be increased disease incidences and death rate among the employees at the base that were involved in the clearing operations. During 1986 - 1995, several health studies were made of the Thule workers. These studies of death rate, cancer, hospitalization, and fertility did not show any differences between the Thule workers from the clearing operations and those not involved in the clearing. The present study shows no difference in total death rate among the clearing workers compared to other workers. The same results were found for cancer mortality, circulatory diseases, pulmonary diseases, natural causes, and accidents. As the previous studies showed, the present study shows that there were a slightly less number of suicides among the clearing workers. The data analyses show with great certainty that the Thule workers as a group do not have a great excessive mortality or an increased cancer incidence caused by the aircraft crash. Thus, the present results fall in line with the previous investigations. (ln)

  8. Estimating Incidence Rate of Hospital-Treated Self-Harm in Hong Kong Using Capture-Recapture Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Kwok, Chi; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-12-08

    A surveillance system for self-harm has not been established in Hong Kong. The existing data source has an unknown degree of underreporting, and therefore a capture-recapture method has been proposed to correct for the incompleteness. To assess the underestimation of the incidence of self-harm cases presenting to hospital in Hong Kong using a capture and recapture method. Two different yet overlapping hospital administrative datasets of self-harm were obtained from all public hospitals in Hong Kong. From 2002 to 2011, 59,473 distinct episodes involving 36,411 patients were identified. A capture-recapture model considering heterogeneous capture probabilities was applied to estimate the number of self-harm episodes. The estimated number of self-harm incidence was 79,923, equally shared by females and males. Cases of self-harm by females were more likely to be ascertained than those by males. The estimated annual incidence rate of self-harm in Hong Kong from 2002 to 2011 ranged from 96.4 in 2010 to 132.7 in 2002. The proposed method does not include patients who required no medical attention and those where the patient consulted private doctors. The capture-recapture model is a useful method for adjusting the underestimation of self-harm cases from existing databases when surveillance system is not available and to reveal some hidden patterns.

  9. Incidence Rates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Denmark 1994–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Soegaard, Bodil; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    .  Method: A register study based on all individuals recorded with an episode of deliberate self-harm or probable deliberate selfharm in nationwide registers during 1994-2011.  Results: A substantial difference in the rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm was noted for both genders.......8-157.5) in 2011. For a subgroup of younger women aged 15-24 years, an almost threefold increase was observed, IRR = 2.5 (95% CI = 2.4-2.7). The most frequently used method was self-poisoning.  Conclusion: The rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm differed significantly. An increased...

  10. [Project to Reduce the Incidence Rate of Nasogastric Tube Slippage in the Rehabilitation Ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Chu; Su, Wei-Ling; Li, Ai-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tubes are used for providing nutrition to patients who have difficulties swallowing. However, the difficult process of repeatedly inserting NG tubes may lead to gastric erosions. The rehabilitation ward in this study had an NG tube slippage rate of 2.26% in 2012, significantly higher than the same rate in 2011. A proposal was developed to design better techniques for nurses to perform NG tube insertions in order to decrease the rate of NG tube slippage. The following were identified as the major causes of NG tube slippage: (1) caretaker is unfamiliar with NG tube care instructions, (2) caretaker disengages NG tube constraints, and (3) improper rotation of patients or carelessness when turning patients. Therefore, the following solutions were proposed: (1) establish an NG tube safety standard operating procedure, (2) publish bilingual (English and Bahasa Indonesia) pamphlets providing instructions on the correct method of securing and placing the NG tubes, (3) make bilingual (English and Bahasa Indonesia) instructional videos showing the correct method for securing and placing the NG tubes, (4) fabricate a novel tube constraint tool (the constraint ball) that is easy to use, (5) install creative bedside NG tube warning signs, and (6) reinforce the importance of NG tube constraint and placement among caretakers. The NG tube slippage rate was reduced from 2.26% to 0.77%, and was maintained at 0.75% during the follow-up period. The caretaker assessment further showed 100% understanding of the implemented NG tube safety procedures. This proposal was established using literature research, problem identification, and creative problem solving to achieve an effective reduction in NG tube slippage as well as to enhance nursing quality.

  11. Dynamics of synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general incidence rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Xiang, Hong; Li, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic drugs are replacing traditional ones and becoming the main popular ones gradually, which have given rise to serious social issues in recent years. In this paper, a synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general contact rate is proposed. The local and global stabilities are decided by the basic reproduction number R0. By analyzing the sensitivity of parameters, we obtain that controlling psychological addiction is better than drugs treatment. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  12. Radiological protection on interstitial brachytherapy and dose determination and exposure rate of an Ir-192 source through the MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the Neurological Sciences Institute having as objective to determine the dose and the rate of exhibition of the sources of Iridium 192, Iodine 125 and Palladium 103; which are used to carry out implant in the Interstitial Brachytherapy according to the TG43. For it we carry out a theoretical calculation, its are defined in the enter file: the geometry, materials of the problem and the radiation source, etc; in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code, considering a punctual source and for the dose determination we simulate thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD): at 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 200 cm of the source. Our purpose is to analyze the radioprotection measures that should take into account in this Institute in which are carried out brain biopsies using a Micro mar stereotactic mark, and in a near future with the collaboration of a doctor and a cuban physique seeks to be carried out the Interstitial Brachytherapy technique with sources of Ir-192 for patient with tumors like glioblastoma, astrocytoma, etc. (Author)

  13. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  14. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  15. Repeat HIV Testing and Incident Rates among Individuals Attending Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinics in Wuxi, China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao Jun; Grulich, Andrew; Wang, Xu Wen; Yin, Han Lu; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Gu, Jing; Zou, Hua Chun

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the rates of repeat HIV testing and incident HIV diagnosis, and baseline CD4+ T cell count among individuals attending HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Wuxi, China. A repeat HIV testing within 12 months was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2014 and retested within 12 months. An incident HIV diagnosis was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2015 and had a subsequent positive result at any point by the end of 2015. Data on HIV testing and diagnosis among individuals attending 32 VCT clinics from 2013 to 2015 and HIV diagnosis from other clinical services in Wuxi, China, were retrieved. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with repeat HIV testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with incident HIV diagnosis. From 2013 to 2014, 11,504 individuals tested HIV negative at their first recorded test, with 655 (5.7%) retesting within 12 months. Higher repeat HIV testing within 12 months was associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-2.2], risk behaviors [commercial heterosexual behaviors (aOR = 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.6), male-male sexual behaviors (aOR = 3.7, CI: 2.7-4.9)], injection drug use (aOR = 9.9, CI: 6.5-15.1), and having taken HIV tests previously (aOR = 2.0, CI: 1.6-2.4). From 2013 to 2015, 1,088 individuals tested negative on HIV test at their visit and at ⋝ 2 subsequent tests; of them 30 had incident HIV diagnosis. The overall rate of incident HIV diagnosis among all VCT individuals was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) per 100 person-years. Incident HIV diagnosis was associated with male gender [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 8.5, 95% CI: 1.9-38.1], attending hospital-based VCT clinics (aHR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.1-58.3), and male-male sexual behavior (aHR = 8.4, 95% CI: 1.5-46.7). Individuals diagnosed at VCT clinics had higher CD4+ T

  16. Dose specification for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Nilsson, Josef; Persson, Maria; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with 192 Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (D m,m ) and dose-to-water-in-medium (D w,m ). The relation between D m,m and D w,m for 192 Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of D w,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: D m,m, D w,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. D w,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between D m,m and D w,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between D w,m (SCT) and D w,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222 keV up to 356 keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between D m,m and D w,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between D m,m and D w,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources. (paper)

  17. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  18. Global stability analysis of two-strain epidemic model with bilinear and non-monotone incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Isa Abdullahi; Hincal, Evren

    2017-05-01

    In this article we studied an epidemic model consisting of two strains with different types of incidence rates; bilinear and non-monotone. The model consists of four equilibrium points: disease-free equilibrium, endemic with respect to strain 1, endemic with respect to strain 2, and endemic with respect to both strains. The global stability analysis of the equilibrium points was carried out through the use of Lyapunov functions. Two basic reproduction ratios R 1 0 and R 2 0 are found, and we have shown that if both are less than one, the disease dies out, and if both are greater than one epidemic occurs. Furthermore, epidemics occur with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio greater than one and disease dies out with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio less than one. It was also shown that any strain with highest basic reproduction ratio will automatically outperform the other strain, thereby eliminating it. Numerical simulations were carried out to support the analytic result and to show the effect of the parameter k in the non-monotone incidence rate, which describes the psychological effect of general public towards infection.

  19. [The Nordic cervical screening programmes through 1995. Evaluation of incidence and mortality rates, targeted age groups and screening intervals.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-11-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. The Nordic countries have a long experience in cervical cancer screening. Based on this experience this study evaluates the UICC and EC guidelines regarding the effectiveness of organized vs. spontaneous screening, targeted age groups and screening intervals. The study analyses the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programmes and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. It also analyses the trends for cytologic preinvasive lesions at first visit and at second and later visits after a normal test(s). The frequency of histologic lesions was calculated for the birth cohort 1920-1926 from the age of 60 and among women referred for colposcopic examination in 1994. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries except Norway soon after 1960. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland. All countries intensified the screening intervals after 1985. The reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland and Finland, intermediate in Sweden and Denmark, and lowest in Norway but in that country organized screening started in 1994. The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno-and adenosquamous carcinomas. The prevalence of preinvasive disease has increased significantly since 1980. The rate of moderate to high-grade cytologic changes begins increasing as early as at 20 years of age and moderate to high-grade histologic lesions start to accumulate at 24 to 36 months after a normal smear. The rate of these lesions decreases with the number of negative smears taken. Moderate to high-grade histologic lesions and invasive cancer are

  20. A systematic review describing incidence rate and prevalence of dysvascular partial foot amputation; how both have changed over time and compare to transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Dillon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial foot amputation (PFA is a common consequence of advanced peripheral vascular disease. Given the different ways incidence rate and prevalence data have been measured and reported, it is difficult to synthesize data and reconcile variation between studies. As such, there is uncertainty in whether the incidence rates and prevalence of PFA have increased over time compared to the decline in transtibial amputation (TTA. The aims of this systematic review were to describe the incidence rate and prevalence of dysvascular PFA over time, and how these compare to TTA. Method Databases (i.e., MEDLINE, EMBASE, psychINFO, AMED, CINAHL, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health were searched using MeSH terms and keywords related to amputation level and incidence rate or prevalence. Original research published in English from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015 were independently appraised, and data extracted, by two reviewers. The McMaster Critical Review Forms were used to assess methodological quality and bias. Results were reported as narrative summaries given heterogeneity of the literature and included the weighted mean annual incidence rate and 95% confidence interval. Results Twenty two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty one reported incidence rate data for some level of PFA; four also included a TTA cohort. One study reported prevalence data for a cohort with toe(s amputation. Samples were typically older, male and included people with diabetes among other comorbidities. Incidence rates were reported using a myriad of denominators and strata such as diabetes type or initial/recurrent amputation. Conclusion When appropriately grouped by denominator and strata, incidence rates were more homogenous than might be expected. Variation between studies did not necessarily reduce confidence in the conclusion; for example, incidence rate of PFA were many times larger in cohorts with diabetes (94.24 per 100,000 people with

  1. Placenta accreta: incidence and risk factors in an area with a particularly high rate of cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlando, Maddalena; Sarno, Laura; Napolitano, Raffaele; Capone, Angela; Tessitore, Giovanni; Maruotti, Giuseppe M; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Placenta accreta is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy characterized by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall. A previously scarred uterus or an abnormal site of placentation in the lower segment is a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the incidence of placenta accreta and associated risk factors along four decades, from the 1970s to 2000s, in a tertiary south Italian center. We analyzed all cases of placenta accreta in a sample triennium for each decade. The incidence increased from 0.12% during the 1970s, to 0.31% during the 2000s. During the same period, cesarean section rates increased from 17 to 64%. Prior cesarean section was the only risk factor showing a significant concomitant rise. Our results reinforce cesarean section as the most significant predisposing condition for placenta accreta. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a Population-Based Registry in the United States, 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    later in life, especially among those with fair skin pigmentation, light eye and hair color, and propensity to freckle.’*"^ Studies comparing melanoma ...Naval Health Research Center Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active-Duty Military Personnel Compared With A Population-based Registry in the United...San Diego, California 92106-3521 MILITARY MEDICINE, 179, 3:247, 2014 Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a

  3. Effective treatment of Stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma with high dose-rate vaginal apex radiation (192Ir) and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Bruce C.; Knisely, Jonathan P. S.; Kacinski, Barry M.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Frank, Alex H.; Peschel, Richard E.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Edraki, Babak; Kohorn, Ernest I.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Schwartz, Peter E.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a morphologically distinct variant of endometrial carcinoma that is associated with a poor prognosis, high recurrence rate, frequent clinical understaging, and poor response to salvage treatment. We retrospectively analyzed local control, actuarial overall survival (OS), actuarial disease-free survival (DFS), salvage rate, and complications for patients with Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (1988) Stage I UPSC. Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis describes 38 patients with FIGO Stage I UPSC who were treated with the combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO), with or without a surgical staging procedure. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with a combination of low dose-rate (LDR) uterine/vaginal brachytherapy using 226 Ra or 137 Cs and conventional whole-abdomen radiation therapy (WART) or whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Of 20 patients (10%) in this treatment group, 2 received cisplatin chemotherapy. Eighteen patients were treated with high dose-rate (HDR) vaginal apex brachytherapy using 192 Ir with an afterloading device and cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) chemotherapy (5 of 18 patients). Only 6 of 20 UPSC patients treated with combination LDR uterine/vaginal brachytherapy and conventional external beam radiotherapy underwent complete surgical staging, consisting of TAH/BSO, pelvic/para-aortic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, and peritoneal fluid analysis, compared to 15 of 18 patients treated with HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy. Results: The 5-year actuarial OS for patients with complete surgical staging and adjuvant radiation/chemotherapy treatment was 100% vs. 61% for patients without complete staging (p = 0.002). The 5-year actuarial OS for all Stage I UPSC patients treated with postoperative HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy and systemic chemotherapy was 94

  4. The analysis of hyper-homocysteine incidence rate and multi-risk factors in 200 patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiudong; Yang Jianghui; Huo Aimei; Wang Yan; Chu Yanchuang; Dong Mei

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the hyperhomocysteine incidence rate and clinical significance in 200 patients with cerebral stroke, the serum homocysteine, fibrinogen, C-reaction protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in 200 patients with cerebral stroke and 100 normal healthy controls were detected. The results showed that both serum homocysteine and plasma FIB levels in patients with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral stoke, and hyperhomocysteine may lead to the increase of Fibrinogen level, which is one of the important reasons for the high blood viscosity in the cerebral infarction patients. (authors)

  5. Global stability and Hopf bifurcation of a delayed computer virus propagation model with saturation incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunxian; Lin, Yiping; Zhao, Huitao; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a delayed computer virus propagation model with a saturation incidence rate and a time delay describing temporary immune period is proposed and its dynamical behaviors are studied. The threshold value ℜ0 is given to determine whether the virus dies out completely. By comparison arguments and iteration technique, sufficient conditions are obtained for the global asymptotic stabilities of the virus-free equilibrium and the virus equilibrium. Taking the delay as a parameter, local Hopf bifurcations are demonstrated. Furthermore, the direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stabilities of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem for functional differential equations (FDEs). Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main theoretical results.

  6. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  7. Increased incidence rates of trauma and stressor related disorders in Denmark following the 9/11 attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...... for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental...... the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks...

  8. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral.

  9. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoung Park

    Full Text Available Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru.Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02.Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05% were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1-1:1024 with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001 and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001 were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001, not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035, higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001, unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003, HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001 and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003 were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR 6.18; P <0.001, men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001, and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008 were significantly associated.We report a high rate of syphilis

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Kelika A.; Roberts, Chelsea P.; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Leon, Segundo R.; Clark, Jesse L.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru. Methods Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02). Results Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05%) were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1–1:1024) with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR) 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001) and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001) were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001), not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035), higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001), unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003), HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001) and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003) were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR) 6.18; P <0.001), men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001), and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008) were significantly associated

  11. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  12. First-Ever Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Incidence and 30-Day Case-Fatality Rates in a Population-Based Study in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahit, M Cecilia; Coppola, Mariano L; Riccio, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological data about stroke are scarce in low- and middle-income Latin-American countries. We investigated annual incidence of first-ever stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 30-day case-fatality rates in a population-based setting in Tandil, Argentina....... METHODS: We prospectively identified all first-ever stroke and TIA cases from overlapping sources between January 5, 2013, and April 30, 2015, in Tandil, Argentina. We calculated crude and standardized incidence rates. We estimated 30-day case-fatality rates. RESULTS: We identified 334 first-ever strokes.......1% (95% CI, 14.2-36.6) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.8) for TIA. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first prospective population-based stroke and TIA incidence and case-fatality estimate in Argentina. First-ever stroke incidence was lower than that reported in previous Latin...

  13. Time trends in lifetime incidence rates of first-time diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa across 16 years in a Danish nationwide psychiatric registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jensen, Christina Mohr

    2015-11-01

    To study recent time trends in the incidence of diagnosed anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) based on nationwide psychiatric register data. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry was used to identify the incidence of diagnosed cases with AN and BN at the ages of 4-65 years from 1995 to 2010. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated and were adjusted for time trends in the total number of people diagnosed in psychiatry. Time trends were analyzed using JoinPoint regression analysis. A total of N = 5,902 persons had a first-time incidence of AN, and a total of N = 5,113 had first-time incidence of BN. Incidence rates increased for AN from 6.4 to 12.6 per 100,000 person-years, and for BN from 6.3 to 7.2 per 100,000 person-years. In 2010, the male-to-female ratio was 1:8 for AN, and 1:20 for BN. There was an earlier onset for AN than for BN, and age at incidence decreased during the observation period for AN but not for BN. A sizeable part of the increasing incidence rates for AN and in particular, the younger AN age groups, could be attributed to an increase in the total number of N = 249,607 persons with first-time diagnoses in psychiatry. Incidence rates had increased slightly for AN, but were stable for BN across 16 years in this nationwide study and to a large extent were reflective of a general increase in diagnosed mental disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Performance evaluation of a direct-conversion flat-panel detector system in imaging and quality assurance for a high-dose-rate 192Ir source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Hara, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroto; Nishimura, Tomonori; Itakura, Kanae; Inomata, Taisuke; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2018-03-01

    In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) clearly depicts a 192Ir source without image halation, even under the emission of high-energy gamma rays. However, it was unknown why iridium is visible when using a d-FPD. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons for visibility of the source core based on physical imaging characteristics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTF), noise power spectral (NPS), contrast transfer functions, and linearity of d-FPD to high-energy gamma rays. The acquired data included: x-rays, [X]; gamma rays, [γ] dual rays (X  +  γ), [D], and subtracted data for depicting the source ([D]  -  [γ]). In the quality assurance (QA) test for the positional accuracy of a source core, the coordinates of each dwelling point were compared between the planned and actual source core positions using a CT/MR-compatible ovoid applicator and a Fletcher-Williamson applicator. The profile curves of [X] and ([D]  -  [γ]) matched well on MTF and NPS. The contrast resolutions of [D] and [X] were equivalent. A strongly positive linear correlation was found between the output data of [γ] and source strength (r 2  >  0.99). With regard to the accuracy of the source core position, the largest coordinate difference (3D distance) was noted at the maximum curvature of the CT/MR-compatible ovoid and Fletcher-Williamson applicators, showing 1.74  ±  0.02 mm and 1.01  ±  0.01 mm, respectively. A d-FPD system provides high-quality images of a source, even when high-energy gamma rays are emitted to the detector, and positional accuracy tests with clinical applicators are useful in identifying source positions (source movements) within the applicator for QA.

  15. Effect of inhomogeneities and source position on dose distribution of nucletron high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source by Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandola R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of least dense dry air and highly dense cortical bone in the path of radiation and the position of source, near or far from the surface of patient, affects the exact dose delivery like in breast brachytherapy. Aim: This study aims to find out the dose difference in the presence of inhomogenieties like cortical bone and dry air as well as to find out difference of dose due to position of source in water phantom of high dose rate (HDR 192 Ir nucletron microselectron v2 (mHDRv2 brachytherapy source using Monte Carlo (MC simulation EGSnrc code, so that the results could be used in Treatment Planning System (TPS for more precise brachytherapy treatment. Settings and Design: The settings and design are done using different software of the computer. Methods and Materials: For this study, the said source, water phantom of volume 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , inhomogeneities each of volume 1 x 2 x 2 cm 3 with their position, water of water phantom and position of source are modeled using three-dimensional MC EGSnrc code. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and probability are used for results and discussion. Results : The % relative dose difference is calculated here as 5.5 to 6.5% higher and 4.5 to 5% lower in the presence of air and cortical bone respectively at transverse axis of the source, which may be due to difference of linear attenuation coefficients of the inhomogeneities. However, when the source was positioned at 1 cm distance from the surface of water phantom, the near points between 1 to 2 cm and 3 to 8 cm. from the source, at its transverse axis, were 2 to 3.5% and 4 to 16% underdose to the dose when the source was positioned at mid-point of water phantom. This may be due to lack of back scatter material when the source was positioned very near to the surface of said water phantom and overlap of the additional cause of missing scatter component with the primary dose for near points from the source. These results were found in

  16. Performance evaluation of a direct-conversion flat-panel detector system in imaging and quality assurance for a high-dose-rate 192Ir source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Hara, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroto; Nishimura, Tomonori; Itakura, Kanae; Inomata, Taisuke; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2018-03-08

    In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) clearly depicts a 192 Ir source without image halation, even under the emission of high-energy gamma rays. However, it was unknown why iridium is visible when using a d-FPD. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons for visibility of the source core based on physical imaging characteristics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTF), noise power spectral (NPS), contrast transfer functions, and linearity of d-FPD to high-energy gamma rays. The acquired data included: x-rays, [X]; gamma rays, [γ]; dual rays (X  +  γ), [D], and subtracted data for depicting the source ([D]  -  [γ]). In the quality assurance (QA) test for the positional accuracy of a source core, the coordinates of each dwelling point were compared between the planned and actual source core positions using a CT/MR-compatible ovoid applicator and a Fletcher-Williamson applicator. The profile curves of [X] and ([D]  -  [γ]) matched well on MTF and NPS. The contrast resolutions of [D] and [X] were equivalent. A strongly positive linear correlation was found between the output data of [γ] and source strength (r 2   >  0.99). With regard to the accuracy of the source core position, the largest coordinate difference (3D distance) was noted at the maximum curvature of the CT/MR-compatible ovoid and Fletcher-Williamson applicators, showing 1.74  ±  0.02 mm and 1.01  ±  0.01 mm, respectively. A d-FPD system provides high-quality images of a source, even when high-energy gamma rays are emitted to the detector, and positional accuracy tests with clinical applicators are useful in identifying source positions (source movements) within the applicator for QA.

  17. Incidence rates and risk factor analyses for owner reported vomiting and diarrhoea in Labrador Retrievers - findings from the Dogslife Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carys A; Bronsvoort, B Mark de C; Handel, Ian G; Querry, Damon; Rose, Erica; Summers, Kim M; Clements, Dylan N

    2017-05-01

    Dogslife collects data directly from owners of Labrador Retrievers across the UK including information regarding signs of illness irrespective of whether the signs precipitated a veterinary visit. In December 2015, the cohort comprised 6084 dogs aged up to six years and their owners had made 2687 and 2601 reports of diarrhoea and vomiting respectively. The co-occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea with other signs was described and the frequencies and durations of the two signs were examined with reference to veterinary visitation. Age-specific illness rates were described and Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate risk factors. Just 37% of diarrhoea reports were associated with a veterinary visit and the proportion was even lower for vomiting at 28%; indicating that studies of veterinary practice data miss the majority of signs of gastrointestinal upset. In terms of frequency and duration, diarrhoea typically needed to last two days before the dog would be taken to the vet but if the dog vomited at least every six hours, the owner would be more likely to take the dog to the vet after one day. The illness rates of both signs peaked when the dogs were aged between three and six months. There was also a seasonal pattern to the incidents with the lowest hazards for both in May. Diarrhoea incidents peaked in August-September each year but, while vomiting appeared to be higher in September, it peaked in February. Having another dog in the household was associated with a lower hazard for both vomiting and diarrhoea but having a cat was only associated with a reduced hazard of vomiting. In addition to the distinct seasonal patterns of reporting, there were clear differences in the geographic risks for the two signs. The hazard of diarrhoea was positively associated with human population density within Great Britain (according to home post code) whereas no significant geographical association was found with vomiting. This study is particularly relevant for dog

  18. Incidence and hospitalization rates of varicella and herpes zoster before varicella vaccine introduction: a baseline assessment of the shifting epidemiology of varicella disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, P; Black, S; Rojas, C; Shinefield, H; Ray, P; Lewis, E; Guess, H

    2001-07-01

    A 15-year postmarketing evaluation of the impact of varicella vaccine on the age distribution of varicella disease is being conducted at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Northern California (KPMCP). We report on a baseline assessment of the age-specific incidence and hospitalization rates of varicella and herpes zoster that was conducted before vaccine introduction. To assess the annual incidence of varicella, a telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of approximately 8,000 youths 5 to 19 years of age. The annual incidence of hospitalizations for varicella and herpes zoster in 1994 was assessed with the use of the computerized database at KPMCP. Varicella annual incidence was 10.3% in 5- to 9-year-olds, 1.9% in 10- to 14-year-olds and 1.2% in the 15- to 19-year age groups, respectively. Hospitalization rates among the entire KPMCP membership were 2.6 and 2.1 per 100,000 person years for varicella and zoster, respectively. Varicella incidence in the 15- to 19-year age group was higher among African-Americans than among Caucasians. Varicella rates were similar in the 5- to 9- and 10- to 14-year age groups to rates from other published studies conducted in 1972 to 1978, 1980 to 1988 and 1990 to 1992; however, the rate in 15- to 19-year-olds was 2 to 4 times higher than published rates in the same age category.

  19. Hospitalization Rate and Population-Based Incidence of Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Children in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Shi, Ting; Zhang, Xiyan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yin; Yu, Jia; Huang, Yukai; Lin, Sheng; Zhao, Genming; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-03-22

    Data on hospitalization burden of CAP in children is very limited in China. This study aimed to estimate the hospitalization rate and population-based incidence of hospitalization of CAP for children <15 years of age in Suzhou, China. This was a retrospective study of children hospitalized in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 2010 to December 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <15 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) including J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included. All-cause clinical community-acquired pneumonia (CCAP) and radiographically confirmed pneumonia (RCAP) were identified based on individual medical chart review. The hospitalization rate (HR) and population-based cumulative incidence of hospitalization (HI) were calculated. Among 184,734 children <15 years old admitted to SCH during the study period, 31,302 children were identified as having CCAP, and 24,218 (77.4%) children confirmed as having RCAP. CCAP hospitalization occurred year round and peaked during winter and early spring. The overall HRs for CCAP and RCAP were 189.0 (95%CI, 187.1-190.9) and 146.2 (95%CI, 144-148) per 1,000 hospitalizations respectively, and the HIs per 100,000 children annually were CCAP, 3,235.8 (95%CI, 3207.3-3264.2) and RCAP, 2,503.5 (95%CI, 2,478.3-2,528.6). For children <5 years old, the HR for CCAP was 248.4 (95%CI, 245.9-250.9) and RCAP 194.0 (95%CI, 191.4-196.3) per 1,000 hospitalizations; the HI for CCAP was 6,956.2 (95%CI: 6,892.8-7,019.6) and 5,431.9 (95%CI: 5,375.4-5,488.4) per 100,000 children for RCAP. The highest HR and HI were observed in children 29 days to <6 months old: HR for CCAP was 407.4 (95%CI: 400.9-413.9) per 1,000 hospitalizations and HI for CCAP was 11,203.7 (95%CI: 11,026.8-11,380.6) per 100,000 children annually. There is a considerable burden of CAP among children <15 years of age in Suzhou, particularly among children 29 days to <6 months of age and during winter

  20. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Saadi Ossama

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to the incidence of schizophrenia, to describe the key features of these studies, and to explore the distribution of rates derived from these studies. Methods Studies with original data related to the incidence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2001 were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations and writing to authors. These studies were divided into core studies, migrant studies, cohort studies and studies based on Other Special Groups. Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete rates. Cumulative plots of these rates were made and these distributions were compared when the underlying rates were sorted according to sex, urbanicity, migrant status and various methodological features. Results We identified 100 core studies, 24 migrant studies, 23 cohort studies and 14 studies based on Other Special Groups. These studies, which were drawn from 33 countries, generated a total of 1,458 rates. Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates, the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%–90% quantile of 15.2 (7.7–43.0 per 100,000. The distribution of rates was significantly higher in males compared to females; the male/female rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile was 1.40 (0.9–2.4. Those studies conducted in urban versus mixed urban-rural catchment areas generated significantly higher rate distributions. The distribution of rates in migrants was significantly higher compared to native-born; the migrant/native-born rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile was 4.6 (1.0–12.8. Apart from the finding that older studies reported higher rates, other study features were not associated with significantly different rate distributions (e

  2. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John; Saha, Sukanta; Welham, Joy; El Saadi, Ossama; MacCauley, Clare; Chant, David

    2004-04-28

    Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to the incidence of schizophrenia, to describe the key features of these studies, and to explore the distribution of rates derived from these studies. Studies with original data related to the incidence of schizophrenia (published 1965-2001) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations and writing to authors. These studies were divided into core studies, migrant studies, cohort studies and studies based on Other Special Groups. Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete rates. Cumulative plots of these rates were made and these distributions were compared when the underlying rates were sorted according to sex, urbanicity, migrant status and various methodological features. We identified 100 core studies, 24 migrant studies, 23 cohort studies and 14 studies based on Other Special Groups. These studies, which were drawn from 33 countries, generated a total of 1,458 rates. Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates), the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%-90% quantile) of 15.2 (7.7-43.0) per 100,000. The distribution of rates was significantly higher in males compared to females; the male/female rate ratio median (10%-90% quantile) was 1.40 (0.9-2.4). Those studies conducted in urban versus mixed urban-rural catchment areas generated significantly higher rate distributions. The distribution of rates in migrants was significantly higher compared to native-born; the migrant/native-born rate ratio median (10%-90% quantile) was 4.6 (1.0-12.8). Apart from the finding that older studies reported higher rates, other study features were not associated with significantly different rate distributions (e.g. overall quality, methods related to case finding

  3. An evaluation of rabies vaccination rates among canines and felines involved in biting incidents within the Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, K; Trotz-Williams, L; Hutchison, S; MacLeod, J; Dixon, J; Berke, O; Poljak, Z

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of animal bite incidents occurring in the human population of a local health department, and to determine the proportion of these canines and felines that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination at the time the incident occurred. Data were obtained from animal bite incidents reported to Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health during 2010 and 2011. Descriptive statistics of 718 eligible reports revealed the average rate of animal biting was 1.55 bites per 1000 residents per year. Approximately 54% of these animals were vaccinated against rabies, 32% were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and the remaining 14.5% were of unknown status. The unit of analysis was the municipality, and the four outcomes of interest were: (i) number of animal bite incidents per 1000 residents, (ii) number of dog bite incidents per 1000 residents, (iii) proportion of animals involved in bite incidents that were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and (iv) proportion of dogs that were not up to date. Associations between the outcomes and selected demographic variables were investigated using regression analysis. The number of veterinary clinics per 10,000 residents, and whether the municipality was urban or rural were identified as significant predictors for the number of animal bites per 1000 residents, and the number of dog bites. There were no significant predictors for the proportion of unvaccinated animals or dogs. Spatial clustering and the location of spatial clusters were assessed using the empirical Bayes index and spatial scan test. This analysis identified five municipalities within the health department that have a high rate of biting incidents and a high proportion of animals that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination. Such municipalities are ideal for targeted educational campaigns regarding the importance of vaccination in pets. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Time Trends over 16 Years in Incidence-Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan Based on Nationwide Danish Register Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…

  5. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR education into the gross anatomy course proved to be a highly effective way of teaching preclinical students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  6. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer 
Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin ZHANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05. Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.

  7. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Renteria, Elisenda; Sharp, Linda; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Comber, Harry; Baas, Paul; Bray, Freddie; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Smoking prevalence has been declining in men all over Europe, while the trend varies in European regions among women. To study the impact of past smoking prevalence, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent trends in incidence, during 1988-2010, in 26 countries, of four of the major cancers in the respiratory and upper gastro-intestinal tract associated with tobacco smoking. Data from 47 population-based cancer registries for lung, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancer cases were obtained from the newly developed data repository within the European Cancer Observatory (http://eco.iarc.fr/). Truncated age-standardised incidence rates (35-74 years) by calendar year, average annual percentage change in incidence over 1998-2007 were calculated. Smoking prevalence in selected countries was extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organization databases. There remained great but changing variation in the incidence rates of tobacco-related cancers by European region. Generally, the high rates among men have been declining, while the lower rates among women are increasing, resulting in convergence of the rates. Female lung cancer rates were above male rates in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden (35-64 years). In lung and laryngeal cancers, where smoking is the main risk factor, rates were highest in central and eastern Europe, southern Europe and the Baltic countries. Despite a lowering of female smoking prevalence, female incidence rates of lung, laryngeal and oral cavity cancers increased in most parts of Europe, but were stable in the Baltic countries. Mixed trends emerged in oesophageal cancer, probably explained by differing risk factors for the two main histological subtypes. This data repository offers the opportunity to show the variety of incidence trends by sex among European countries. The diverse patterns of trends reflect varied exposure to risk factors. Given the heavy cancer

  8. Time trends in incidence rates of diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across 16 years in a nationwide Danish registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr Jensen, Christina; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-03-01

    To investigate time trends in incidence rates of first-time diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a nationwide sample aged 4-65 years across 16 years and identify potential contributing factors to these time trends. Incidence rates of first-time diagnosed ADHD based on ICD-10 criteria in Danish psychiatric hospitals per 100,000 person years (PY) were calculated for the total population, the 2 sexes, and 4 age groups using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry and annual census data. Time trends and the role of contributing factors were analyzed and identified using joinpoint regression procedures by calculating annual percent changes for the time period 1995-2010. A total of 20,281 patients were diagnosed with ADHD and incidence rates increased from 7.3 to 91.2 per 100,000 PY during the study period. Joinpoint analysis suggested that incidence rates for diagnosed ADHD rapidly increased from 1998 to 2002, peaked from 2002 to 2008, and slowed down from 2008 to 2010. Contributing factors to the observed time trends were a general increase in patients seen in psychiatry for any mental disorder and an increased awareness and recognition of ADHD in females, adolescents, and adults. These results provide empirical data needed in the public and professional debate often based on theoretical rather than empirical arguments. Results support the notion of increasing incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD and identify that contributing factors are a general increase in the number of patients assessed in psychiatry and an increased recognition of females, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. HIV and Hepatitis B and C incidence rates in US correctional populations and high risk groups: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hook Edward W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevalence and high risk behaviors have been well documented within United States (US correctional systems. However, uncertainty remains regarding the extent to which placing people in prison or jail increases their risk of HIV infection, and regarding which inmate populations experience an increased incidence of HIV. Describing these dynamics more clearly is essential to understanding how inmates and former detainees may be a source for further spread of HIV to the general US population. Methods The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies describing HIV incidence in US correctional facility residents and, for comparison, in high risk groups for HIV infection, such as non-incarcerated intravenous drug users (IVDU and men who have sex with men (MSM in the US. HIV incidence rates were further compared with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus rates in these same populations. Results Thirty-six predominantly prospective cohort studies were included. Across all infection outcomes, continuously incarcerated inmates and treatment recruited IVDU showed the lowest incidence, while MSM and street recruited IVDU showed the highest. HIV incidence was highest among inmates released and re-incarcerated. Possible sources of heterogeneity identified among HIV studies were risk population and race. Conclusions Although important literature gaps were found, current evidence suggests that policies and interventions for HIV prevention in correctional populations should prioritize curtailing risk of infection during the post-release period. Future research should evaluate HIV incidence rates in inmate populations, accounting for proportion of high risk sub-groups.

  10. Typology and description of the endemic areas with a long-time biggest and smallest colorectal incidence rates in the Silesia voivodeship populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The colorectal cancers (C18–C21, by ICD – X revision = RJG, it a big social-clinical problem. The high level differentiation (dependent of particular countries and regions within them; for example: Silesia voivodeship common for frequency of incidence. Therefore an attempt looking for an endemic area with a longtime biggest and smallest incidence rates in the smaller population scale, what a make easy fight against cancers. Materials and methods: In the years 1999–2009 20682 persons were diagnosed for RJG. Basing on the data (as above and demographic data, the different type of rates were calculated. All statistic procedures were in detail described anywhere [4–6]. Results: In the years 1999– 2009, in Silesia voivodeship, 20 682 cases of RJG were diagnosed, i.e. 53.5% among males and 46.5% among females. Age-adjusted rate for the whole Silesia voivodeship is 31.4 per 100 thousands to men and 19.5/100 thousands to women. In comparison between two extremely periods (1999–2009 : 2006–2009, age – adjusted incidence rates among men increased about 2.9%, and among women decreased about 6.5%. The distribution of age-standardized colorectal cancer rates within Silesia voivodeship, in the years 1999–2009, taking into account 36 counties – was very unequal so among males and at the same among females. But the most important epidemiological problem was the endemic areas with significantly biggest incidence rates among males: towns on the law of county: Częstochowa, Katowice, Bielsko-Biała and counties: mikołowski and wodzisławski; among females the endemic areas of this type were Bielsko-Biała town and his county. Conclusions: 1 Within Silesia voivodeship were revealed the endemic areas at statistically significantly high or low (in a long-time then the overall incidence rate for the colorectal cancer among men and women. 2 The endemic areas with the biggest incidence colorectal rates (fig. 1D and 2D, it indications to

  11. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah

  12. Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    count 350/μl. We investigated what would be required to reduce HIV incidence in MSM to below 1 per 1000 person-years (i.e. new infections per year) by 2030, and whether this is likely to be cost-effective. METHODS: A dynamic, individual-based simulation model was calibrated to multiple data sources...

  13. Epidemiological study of paediatric germ cell tumours revealed the incidence and distribution that was expected, but a low mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Madeline; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Graem, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous tumour group derived from primordial germ cells, which can be benign or malignant and occur in the gonads or extragonadally. This study mapped the paediatric GCTs in Denmark from 1984 to 2013 to study the incidence and outcome. Methods: We id...

  14. DNA repair and damage pathway related cancer suppressor genes in low-dose-rate irradiated AKR/J an IR mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Hyun Soon; Bong, Jin Jong; Kang, Yumi; Choi, Moo Hyun; Lee, Hae Un; Yoo, Jae Young; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    It has been reported that low-dose-rate radiation stimulates the immune response, prolongs life span and inhibits carcinogenesis. The high dose-rate radiation influences the expression of DNA repair and damage-related genes. In contrast, DNA repair and damage signaling triggered by low-dose-rate irradiation remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression of DNA repair and damage pathway related genes in the thymus of AKR/J and ICR mice after 100th day low-dose-rate irradiation. Our findings demonstrated that low-dose-rate γ -radiation suppressed tumorigenesis.

  15. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001-2008. A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001-December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001-December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (PSaudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93-6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001-2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.

  16. Comparison of annual percentage change in breast cancer incidence rate between Taiwan and the United States-A smoothed Lexis diagram approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Li-Hsin; Tseng, Tzu-Jui; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Jiang, Hsin-Fang; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Hsiung, Chao A; Chang, I-Shou

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies compared the age effects and birth cohort effects on female invasive breast cancer (FIBC) incidence in Asian populations with those in the US white population. They were based on age-period-cohort model extrapolation and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in the age-standardized incidence rates (ASR). It is of interest to examine these results based on cohort-specific annual percentage change in rate (APCR) by age and without age-period-cohort model extrapolation. FIBC data (1991-2010) were obtained from the Taiwan Cancer Registry and the U.S. SEER 9 registries. APCR based on smoothed Lexis diagrams were constructed to study the age, period, and cohort effects on FIBC incidence. The patterns of age-specific rates by birth cohort are similar between Taiwan and the US. Given any age-at-diagnosis group, cohort-specific rates increased overtime in Taiwan but not in the US; cohort-specific APCR by age decreased with birth year in both Taiwan and the US but was always positive and large in Taiwan. Given a diagnosis year, APCR decreased as birth year increased in Taiwan but not in the US. In Taiwan, the proportion of APCR attributable to cohort effect was substantial and that due to case ascertainment was becoming smaller. Although our study shows that incidence rates of FIBC have increased rapidly in Taiwan, thereby confirming previous results, the rate of increase over time is slowing. Continued monitoring of APCR and further investigation of the cause of the APCR decrease in Taiwan are warranted. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of low-intensity low-dose rate irradiation on the incidence and the development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Erokhin, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice is accelerated by irradiation with low doses of 1.2-2.4 cGy and low dose rate 0.06 cGy/day. The leukoses incidence rate increases. Deaths of the animals from leukosis occurs earlier, shortening the average and maximum life-spans of the animals. The dynamics of changes in the mass of organs of the immune systems (thymus and spleen) shows extrema. The moment of reaching the extremum correlates with the maximum rate of animals' deaths [ru

  18. Outcomes and Direct Costs of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement and Retrieval within the IR and Surgical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Mina S; Kapke, Jordan; Yildiz, Vedat; Pan, Xueliang; Dowell, Joshua D

    2018-02-01

    To compare the outcomes and costs of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and retrieval in the interventional radiology (IR) and surgical departments at a tertiary-care center. Retrospective review was performed of 142 sequential outpatient IVC filter placements and 244 retrievals performed in the IR suite and operating room (OR) from 2013 to 2016. Patient demographic data, procedural characteristics, outcomes, and direct costs were compared between cohorts. Technical success rates of 100% were achieved for both IR and OR filter placements, and 98% of filters were successfully retrieved by IR means, compared with 83% in the OR (P IR and OR filter insertions, but IR retrievals required half the fluoroscopy time, with an average of 9 minutes vs 18 minutes in the OR (P = .02). There was no significant difference between cohorts in the incidences of complications for filter retrievals, but more postprocedural complications were observed for OR placements (8%) vs IR placements (1%; P = .05). The most severe complication occurred during an OR filter retrieval, resulting in entanglement of the snare device and conversion to an emergent open filter removal by vascular surgery. Direct costs were approximately 20% higher for OR vs IR IVC filter placements ($2,246 vs $2,671; P = .01). Filter placements are equally successfully performed in IR and OR settings, but OR patients experienced significantly higher postprocedural complication rates and incurred higher costs. In contrast, higher technical success rates and shorter fluoroscopy times were observed for IR filter retrievals compared with those performed in the OR. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Monte Carlo dosimetry of the most commonly used {sup 1}92Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources; Dosimetria Monte Carlo de las fuentes de {sup 1}92Ir de uso mas comun en braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa Lopez, J. F.; Torres Donaire, J.; Guerrero Alcalde, R.

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 1}92Ir sources are the most commonly used in high dose rate brachytherapy treatments. The aim of this paper is to provide the characteristic functions established by AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) using PENELOPE 2008.1 simulation code for the most widespread {sup 1}92Ir sources in Spain: the Gammamed Plus and Varisource 2000 sources distributed by Varian Medical Systems and the MicroSelectron source distributed by Nucletron BV. Also the new model, mHDR-v2r, has been characterized for MicroSelectron source, including some changes from the previous design, mHDR-v2. The radial dose function, anisotropy function, air-kerma strength, dose rate constant and absorbed dose rate in water tables are in good agreement with available data from other calculations. The obtained values for the dose rate constant have been 1.111 {+-} 0.002 cGy/hU for the Gammamed Plus source, 1.111{+-}0.002 cGy/hU for the MicroSelectron mHDR-v2 source, 1.112 {+-} 0,002 cGy/hU for the MicroSelectron mHDR-v2r source and 1.096 {+-} 0.002 cGy/hU for the Varisource 2000 source. Complete dosimetric results are available in http://bqseeds.sarh.es In this work, results have been obtained for the studied sources with the same calculation conditions and simulations that meet current recommendations. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Trends in the incidence rate of device-associated infections in intensive care units after the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, S-O; Kim, H B; Han, S H; Choi, H J; Kim, Y K; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Eun, B W; Kim, D W; Koo, H-S; Bae, G-R; Lee, K

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of continuous nationwide surveillance on healthcare-associated infections should be investigated in each country. To assess the rate of device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) since the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS). Nationwide data were obtained on the incidence rate of DAI in ICUs reported to KONIS by all participating hospitals. The three major DAIs were studied: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The pooled and year-wise incidence rates (cases per 1000 device-days) of these DAIs were determined for the period 2006 and 2012. In addition, data from institutions that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years were analysed separately. The number of ICUs participating in KONIS gradually increased from 76 in 2006 to 162 in 2012. Between 2006 and 2012, the incidence rate per 1000 device-days for VAP decreased significantly from 3.48 to 1.64 (F = 11, P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography of persistent primitive olfactory artery: Incidence and association rate with aneurysm in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Bo Ra; Yeo, Soo Hyun; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Ealmaan; Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Ho Chan; Kim, Hye Soon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Japanese data indicates an incidence of persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) of 0.14%. We studied the incidence of PPOA and associated cerebral vascular variation or anomalies in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed cranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) images of a total of 9841 patients of our institution. The diagnostic criterion of PPOA is extreme anterioinferior course of the proximal anterior cerebral artery, with a hairpin turn of the lateral projection. We found 29 cases (0.29%) with PPOA. The PPOA location was on the left in 19 cases, bilateral in 3 cases, and on the right in 7 cases. An aneurysm was found at the hairpin turn in 2 patients. There were aneurysms in other sites in 3 cases. There were hypoplasia of anterior cerebral artery in 3 cases, and fenestration of intracranial artery in 1 case. In Korean populations, the incidence of PPOA found in MRA and CTA was twice as high as that shown in the previous Japanese data. Within Korea, left side laterality is more common than right side or bilalterality. Aneurysmal dilatations at the hairpin turning point and aneurysms at other sites were found, and other vascular variations were observed in several cases.

  2. Cholestasis sepsis at neonatology ward and neonatal Intensive Care Unit Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital 2007 : incidence, mortality rate and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadim S. Bachtiar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholestatic jaundice represents serious pathological condition. Septic-cholestasis is a kind of hepato-cellular cholestasis that occured during or after sepsis caused by biliary flow obstruction. This is a cohort study from February to June 2007 on neonatal sepsis patients at Neonatology ward Department of Child Health Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo General National Hospital. Aim of this study is to find out the incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis in neonatal sepsis, associated risk factors, and mortality rate in neonatal cholestasis-sepsis. From 138 neonatal sepsis patients, the incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis is 65.9%. None of the risk factors tested in this study showed statistically significant result. Mortality rate of neonatal cholestasis-sepsis is 52.8%. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 107-13Keywords: cholestasis intrahepatic, neonatal sepsis, cholestasis sepsis, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

  3. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact al...... the most common contact allergen, and new sensitizations occurred despite the European Union nickel regulation. Fragrance mix I was a poor marker for history of eczematous skin reaction to perfumed products.......-phenylenediamine (1.1%). Most nickel reactions were persistent, and a significant number of new nickel sensitizations were found. Fragrance mix I reactions from adolescence could not be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: From adolescence to adulthood the incidence rates of contact allergy and ACD were high. Nickel was still...

  4. Second primary pancreatic ductal carcinoma in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal carcinoma: High cumulative incidence rates at 5 years after pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Jun; Toyama, Hirochika; Matsumoto, Ippei; Asari, Sadaki; Goto, Tadahiro; Terai, Sachio; Nanno, Yoshihide; Yamashita, Azusa; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ueda, Yuki; Kido, Masahiro; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate and clinical features of second primary pancreatic ductal carcinoma (SPPDC) in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC). Data of patients undergoing R0 resection for PDC at a single high-volume center were reviewed. SPPDC was defined as a tumor in the remnant pancreas after R0 resection for PDC, and SPPDC met at least one of the following conditions: 1) the time interval between initial pancreatectomy and development of a new tumor was 3 years or more; 2) the new tumor was not located in contact with the pancreatic stump. We investigated the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with SPPDC. This study included 130 patients who underwent surgical resection for PDC between 2005 and 2014. Six (4.6%) patients developed SPPDC. The cumulative 3- and 5-year incidence rates were 3.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Four patients underwent remnant pancreatectomy for SPPDC. They were diagnosed with the disease in stage IIA or higher and developed recurrence within 6 months after remnant pancreatectomy. One patient received carbon ion radiotherapy and survived 45 months. One patient refused treatment and died 19 months after the diagnosis of SPPDC. The incidence rate of SPPDC is not negligible, and the cumulative 5-year incidence rate of SPPDC is markedly high. Post-operative surveillance of the remnant pancreas is critical for the early detection of SPPDC, even in long-term survivors after PDC resection. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of a change in mutation rate on the incidence of dominant and X-linked recessive disorders in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the impact on man of a sustained change in mutation rate that might be caused by ionizing radiation or a chemical mutagen in the environment, it is important to determine the current incidence of genetic disease, the rate at which deleterious mutations arise and the number of generations that mutations persist before eliminated by selection. From these data it should be possible to estimate both the increase in genetic disease in the first generation following the increase in mutation rate, and the rate at which a new equilibrium between mutation and selection would occur. In this paper the results of a survey to determine birth frequency, mutation rate and reproductive fitness for each of the important dominant and X-linked recessive disorders are described. It is estimated that these disorders affect about 0.6% of live-born individuals, including 0.1% of live-borns who carry a newly-arising mutation. (orig.)

  6. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  7. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Twenty-three, elite professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age, 25.6 ± 4.6 years; stature, 181.8 ± 6.8 cm; and body mass, 79.3 ± 8.1 kg) were studied throughout the 2-years span of the investigation. The results showed a mean total injury incidence of 18.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7-22.9) injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. Significant correlations were found between training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.

  8. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Jiang, Wei Ning [Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lapointe, Vince [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kahnamelli, Adam [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Miller, Stacy [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Centre for the North, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  9. Erythema nodosum and the risk of tuberculosis in a high incidence setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Simonsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    incidence rate ratios (IRRs) among participants with or without EN were estimated with the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: We identified 38 EN cases corresponding to an IR of 500/100,000 inhabitants/year. All cases were among individuals with MTI. The EN IR was 11.79 (95% CI 5.73-24.27) times higher...... for BCG-unvaccinated compared with BCG-vaccinated individuals. The TB IRR was 25 (95% CI 11-60) within 1 month of EN compared to individuals without EN. CONCLUSION: This study documents a high EN incidence in a TB endemic region. EN occurred only in individuals with MTI, and predominantly among BCG...

  10. Association between community socioeconomic factors, animal feeding operations, and campylobacteriosis incidence rates: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; White, Benjamin; Dunn, John R; Libby, Tanya; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Huang, Jennifer Y; McGuire, Suzanne; Scherzinger, Karen; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-07-22

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Campylobacter infections have been associated with individual risk factors, such as the consumption of poultry and raw milk. Recently, a Maryland-based study identified community socioeconomic and environmental factors that are also associated with campylobacteriosis rates. However, no previous studies have evaluated the association between community risk factors and campylobacteriosis rates across multiple U.S. states. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2004-2010; n = 40,768) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) and socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regression models. Community socioeconomic and environmental factors were associated with both lower and higher campylobacteriosis rates. Zip codes with higher percentages of African Americans had lower rates of campylobacteriosis (incidence rate ratio [IRR]) = 0.972; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.970,0.974). In Georgia, Maryland, and Tennessee, three leading broiler chicken producing states, zip codes with broiler operations had incidence rates that were 22 % (IRR = 1.22; 95 % CI = 1.03,1.43), 16 % (IRR = 1.16; 95 % CI = 0.99,1.37), and 35 % (IRR = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.18,1.53) higher, respectively, than those of zip codes without broiler operations. In Minnesota and New York FoodNet counties, two top dairy producing areas, zip codes with dairy operations had significantly higher campylobacteriosis incidence rates (IRR = 1.37; 95 % CI = 1.22, 1.55; IRR = 1.19; 95 % CI = 1.04,1.36). Community socioeconomic and environmental factors are important to consider when evaluating the relationship between possible risk factors and Campylobacter infection.

  11. The role of persistent and incident major depression on rate of cognitive deterioration in newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Girardi, Paolo; Gianni, Walter; Casini, Anna Rosa; Palmer, Katie

    2012-07-30

    Depression may potentially impair the clinical course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate cognitive progression of AD patients with or without major depressive episode (MDE). In this 1-year longitudinal follow-up study conducted in three Italian memory clinics, 119 newly diagnosed probable AD patients of mild severity, who were not undergoing treatment with an acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), and had not been treated with psychotropic drugs in the last 2 years, were included. Patients were assessed to investigate the effect of baseline and 1-year follow-up MDE (using modified DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for MDE in AD) on progression of global cognitive deterioration (using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)), adjusted for confounding factors. Never being depressed was associated with a 3.1 (95%CI 1.0-10.1) increased risk of MMSE decline compared to recovered depression. Six times more patients with persistent depression had MMSE decline compared to patients with recovered depression. However, the largest odds (7.3; 95%CI 1.4-38.1) of cognitive decline was observed in patients who developed incident depression over follow-up. In conclusion, persistent or incident depression worsens cognitive outcome while no or recovered depression does not affect it in early AD patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SU-F-T-32: Evaluation of the Performance of a Multiple-Array-Diode Detector for Quality Assurance Tests in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with Ir-192 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpool, K; De La Fuente Herman, T; Ahmad, S; Ali, I [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode- detector for geometric and dosimetric quality assurance (QA) tests of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an Ir-192-source. Methods: A phantom setup was designed that encapsulated a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode-detector (MapCheck2) and a catheter for the HDR brachytherapy Ir-192 source. This setup was used to perform both geometric and dosimetric quality assurance for the HDR-Ir192 source. The geometric tests included: (a) measurement of the position of the source and (b) spacing between different dwell positions. The dosimteric tests include: (a) linearity of output with time, (b) end effect and (c) relative dose verification. The 2D-dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 was used to perform the previous tests. The results of MapCheck2 were compared with the corresponding quality assurance testes performed with Gafchromic-film and well-ionization-chamber. Results: The position of the source and the spacing between different dwell-positions were reproducible within 1 mm accuracy by measuring the position of maximal dose using MapCheck2 in contrast to the film which showed a blurred image of the dwell positions due to limited film sensitivity to irradiation. The linearity of the dose with dwell times measured from MapCheck2 was superior to the linearity measured with ionization chamber due to higher signal-to-noise ratio of the diode readings. MapCheck2 provided more accurate measurement of the end effect with uncertainty < 1.5% in comparison with the ionization chamber uncertainty of 3%. Although MapCheck2 did not provide absolute calibration dosimeter for the activity of the source, it provided accurate tool for relative dose verification in HDR-brachytherapy. Conclusion: The 2D-array-diode-detector provides a practical, compact and accurate tool to perform quality assurance for HDR-brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source. The diodes in MapCheck2 have high radiation sensitivity and

  13. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Smieszek

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (reinfection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity. In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80 p.a. (mean duration 15 months, with incidence 1.31%-3.93% p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44 p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months and 58% p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28% p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required.

  14. Trauma centers with higher rates of angiography have a lesser incidence of splenectomy in the management of blunt splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of {sup 192} Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate; Caracterizacion de TLD-100 en polvo para control de calidad dosimetrico de fuentes de Ir{sup 192} usadas en braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza C, S.P

    2007-07-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water D{sub w} for the energy of: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137C}s, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the {sup 192}Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of {sup 192}Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the {sup 60}Co for D{sub w}, using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in D{sub w} by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for D{sub w} in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the {sup 137}Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for D{sub w} start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: R{sub TLD} vs D{sub w}: For the energy of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (F{sub s}) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The F{sub s} for the two {sup 192}Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of

  16. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  17. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Hirko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009–2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%. Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30–39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1% and among women aged 40–49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%. Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions.

  18. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  19. Implementing powered stretcher and load systems was a cost effective intervention to reduce the incidence rates of stretcher related injuries in a paramedic service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Daniel P; Ferron, Richard; Taylor, Cindi; McLeod, Brent; Fletcher, Steve; MacPhee, Renée S; Fischer, Steven L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic services are considering moving towards the use of powered stretcher and load systems to reduce stretcher related injuries, but cost is perceived as a barrier. This study compared injury incidence rates, days lost, and compensation costs between Niagara Emergency Medical Service (NEMS) and Hamilton Paramedic Service (HPS) pre- (four years) and post- (one year) implementation of powered stretcher and load systems in NEMS. Prior to the intervention stretcher related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence rates averaged 20.0 (±6.8) and 17.9 (±6.4) per 100 full time equivalent (FTE), in NEMS and HPS respectively. One-year post intervention rates decreased to 4.3 per 100 FTE in NEMS, a 78% reduction. Rates modestly increased to 24.6 per 100 FTE in HPS in same period. Cost-benefit analysis estimated that the added cost to purchase powered stretcher and load systems would be recovered within their expected 7-year service life due to the reduction in compensation costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of low 60Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to 60 Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates

  1. The evolution of the star formation rate function in the EAGLE simulations: a comparison with UV, IR and Hα observations from z ∼ 8 to z ∼ 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsianis, A.; Blanc, G.; Lagos, C. P.; Tejos, N.; Bower, R. G.; Alavi, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Theuns, T.; Schaller, M.; Lopez, S.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy star formation rate function (SFRF) and cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD) of z ∼ 0-8 galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations. In addition, we present a compilation of ultraviolet, infrared and H α SFRFs and compare these with the predictions from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the constraints implied by different indicators are inconsistent with each other for the highest star-forming objects at z EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce realistic galaxy sizes and stellar masses at z = 0.1. In this work we test if and why those choices yield realistic star formation rates (SFRs) for z ∼ 0-8 as well. We demonstrate that supernovae feedback plays a major role at setting the abundance of galaxies at all star-forming regimes, especially at high redshifts. On the contrary, active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback becomes more prominent at lower redshifts and is a major mechanism that affects only the highest star-forming systems. Furthermore, we find that galaxies with SFR ∼1-10 M⊙ yr-1 dominate the CSFRD at redshifts z ≤ 5, while rare high star-forming galaxies (SFR ∼10-100 M⊙ yr-1) contribute significantly only briefly around the peak era (z ∼ 2) and then are quenched by AGN feedback. In the absence of this prescription objects with SFR ∼10-100 M⊙ yr-1 would dominate the CSFRD, while the cosmic budget of star formation would be extremely high. Finally, we demonstrate that the majority of the cosmic star formation occurs in relatively rare high-mass haloes (MHalo ∼ 1011-13 M⊙) even at the earliest epochs.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in a Danish nationwide study whether the incidence rate (IR) of thyrotoxicosis in children below 15 years of age has increased between 1998 and 2012 and to compare the results with previously published national data from 1982 to 1988. Furthermore, we...... intended to conduct a descriptive study of children diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) between 2008 and 2012. Methods: Children diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis between 1998 and 2012 were identified through the Danish National Patient Registry. All medical records were reviewed to verify the diagnosis....... Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  3. Incidence of Concussion in Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Elbin, R J; Sufrinko, Alicia; Dakan, Scott; Bookwalter, Kylie; Price, Ali; Meehan, William P; Collins, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Ice hockey is a fast-paced collision sport that entails both intentional (ie, body checking) and incidental contact that may involve the head. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of concussions in relation to games/practices and age among competition-level youth ice hockey players (ages 12-18 years). Participants included 397 youth ice hockey players from Western Pennsylvania; Boston, Massachusetts; and Birmingham, Alabama, during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 youth ice hockey seasons. Incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of concussion were calculated for games/practices and age groups. A total of 23 369 (12 784 practice/10 585 game) athletic exposures (AEs) involving 37 medically diagnosed concussions occurred. More than 40% of concussions involved illegal contact. The combined IR for games and practices was 1.58 concussions per 1000 AEs. The IRR was 2.86 times (95% confidence interval 0.68-4.42) higher during games (2.49 per 1000 AEs) than practices (1.04 per 1000 AEs). The overall IR for concussion in youth ice hockey was comparable to those reported in other youth collision sports. The game-to-practice IRR was lower than previously reported in ice hockey and other youth sports, although more concussions per exposure occurred in games compared with practices. Younger players had a higher rate of concussions than older players. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Incidence of Concussion in Youth Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R.J.; Sufrinko, Alicia; Dakan, Scott; Bookwalter, Kylie; Price, Ali; Meehan, William P.; Collins, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ice hockey is a fast-paced collision sport that entails both intentional (ie, body checking) and incidental contact that may involve the head. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of concussions in relation to games/practices and age among competition-level youth ice hockey players (ages 12–18 years). METHODS: Participants included 397 youth ice hockey players from Western Pennsylvania; Boston, Massachusetts; and Birmingham, Alabama, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 youth ice hockey seasons. Incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of concussion were calculated for games/practices and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 23 369 (12 784 practice/10 585 game) athletic exposures (AEs) involving 37 medically diagnosed concussions occurred. More than 40% of concussions involved illegal contact. The combined IR for games and practices was 1.58 concussions per 1000 AEs. The IRR was 2.86 times (95% confidence interval 0.68–4.42) higher during games (2.49 per 1000 AEs) than practices (1.04 per 1000 AEs). CONCLUSIONS: The overall IR for concussion in youth ice hockey was comparable to those reported in other youth collision sports. The game-to-practice IRR was lower than previously reported in ice hockey and other youth sports, although more concussions per exposure occurred in games compared with practices. Younger players had a higher rate of concussions than older players. PMID:26746405

  5. Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus Narrowly Correlates with Unemployment Rate during 2000–2012 in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Brabec, Marek; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Novotná, M.; Kvapil, M.

    č. 1 (2016), s. 86-87 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : diabetes mellitus * unemployment rate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016 http://apps.szu.cz/svi/cejph/show_en.php?kat=archiv/2016-1-13

  6. Incidence of atrial fibrillation in relation to changing heart rate over time in hypertensive patients: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2008-01-01

    Onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to changes in autonomic tone, with increasing heart rate (HR) immediately before AF onset in some patients suggesting a possible role of acute increases in sympathetic activity in AF onset. Although losartan therapy and decreasing ECG left ventric...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahvijou, Azin; Daroudi, Rajabali; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Barati Marenani, Ahmad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. Methods We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. Results We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran. Conclusion We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer. PMID:27276093

  8. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil...... xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater...

  9. Intravitreal injection analysis at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute: evaluation of clinical indications for the treatment and incidence rates of endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila L Cavalcante

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ludimila L Cavalcante, Milena L Cavalcante, Timothy G Murray, Michael M Vigoda, Yolanda Piña, Christina L Decatur, R Prince Davis, Lisa C Olmos, Amy C Schefler, Michael B Parrott, Kyle J Alliman, Harry W Flynn, Andrew A MoshfeghiBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAObjective: To report the incidence of endophthalmitis, in addition to its clinical and microbiological aspects, after intravitreal injection of vascular-targeting agents.Methods: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 10,142 intravitreal injections of vascular targeting agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide between June 1, 2007 and January 31, 2010, performed by a single service (TGM at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute.Results: One case of clinically-suspected endophthalmitis was identified out of a total of 10,142 injections (0.009%, presenting within three days of injection of bevacizumab. The case was culture-positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. Final visual acuity was 20/40 after pars plana vitrectomy surgery.Conclusions: In this series, the incidence of culture-positive endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of vascular agents in an outpatient setting was very low. We believe that following a standardized injection protocol, adherence to sterile techniques and proper patient follow-up are determining factors for low incidence rates.Keywords: endophthalmitis, intravitreal injections, vascular targeting agents 

  10. Trends in primary total hip arthroplasty in Spain from 2001 to 2008: Evaluating changes in demographics, comorbidity, incidence rates, length of stay, costs and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Trujillo Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip arthroplasties is one of the most frequent surgical procedures in Spain and are conducted mainly in elderly subjects. We aim to analyze changes in incidence, co-morbidity profile, length of hospital stay (LOHS, costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM of patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA over an 8-year study period in Spain. Methods We selected all surgical admissions in individuals aged ≥40 years who had received a primary THA (ICD-9-CM procedure code 81.51 between 2001 and 2008 from the National Hospital Discharge Database. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates, LOHS, costs and IHM were estimated for each year. Co-morbidity was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index. Multivariate analysis of time trends was conducted using Poisson regression. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze IHM. Results We identified a total of 161,791 discharges of patients having undergone THA from 2001 to 2008. Overall crude incidence had increased from 99 to 105 THA per 100.000 inhabitants from 2001 to 2008 (p 2 and in 2008, the prevalence of 1-2 or >2 had increased to 20.4% and 1.1% respectively (p Conclusions The current study provides clear and valid data indicating increased incidence of primary THA in Spain from 2001 to 2008 with concomitant reductions in LOHS, slight reduction IHM, but a significant increase in cost per patient. The health profile of the patient undergoing a THA seems to be worsening in Spain.

  11. Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of malaria in Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015: analysis of the global burden of diseases 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Dejene, Tariku; Kebede, Biruck; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Misganaw, Awoke; Gebre, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Shafi, Oumer; Abera, Semaw F; Negussu, Nebiyu; Mengistu, Belete; Amare, Azmeraw T; Mulugeta, Abate; Mengistu, Birhan; Tadesse, Zerihun; Sileshi, Mesfin; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Glenn, Scott D; Deribe, Kebede; Stanaway, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-04

    In Ethiopia there is no complete registration system to measure disease burden and risk factors accurately. In this study, the 2015 global burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors (GBD) data were used to analyse the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of malaria in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 used verbal autopsy surveys, reports, and published scientific articles to estimate the burden of malaria in Ethiopia. Age and gender-specific causes of death for malaria were estimated using cause of death ensemble modelling. The number of new cases of malaria declined from 2.8 million [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 1.4-4.5 million] in 1990 to 621,345 (95% UI 462,230-797,442) in 2015. Malaria caused an estimated 30,323 deaths (95% UI 11,533.3-61,215.3) in 1990 and 1561 deaths (95% UI 752.8-2660.5) in 2015, a 94.8% reduction over the 25 years. Age-standardized mortality rate of malaria has declined by 96.5% between 1990 and 2015 with an annual rate of change of 13.4%. Age-standardized malaria incidence rate among all ages and gender declined by 88.7% between 1990 and 2015. The number of disability-adjusted life years lost (DALY) due to malaria decreased from 2.2 million (95% UI 0.76-4.7 million) in 1990 to 0.18 million (95% UI 0.12-0.26 million) in 2015, with a total reduction 91.7%. Similarly, age-standardized DALY rate declined by 94.8% during the same period. Ethiopia has achieved a 50% reduction target of malaria of the millennium development goals. The country should strengthen its malaria control and treatment strategies to achieve the sustainable development goals.

  12. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  13. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate 192Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hualin; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Qi, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0)4 to (13.4)4 for the

  14. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate (192)Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hualin; Donnelly, Eric D; Strauss, Jonathan B; Qi, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0)(4) to (13.4)(4) for the radiosensitive normal

  15. Incidence rate and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions in a large outpatient population of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine incidence rate, type, and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a large outpatient population of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients' prescriptions in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, over 12 months. A list of 25 clinically relevant DDIs, which are likely to occur in the outpatient setting, was used as the reference. Most frequent clinically relevant pDDIs, most common drugs contributing to the pDDIs, and the pattern of pDDIs for each medical specialty were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. In total, out of 8,169,142 prescriptions, 6,096 clinically relevant pDDIs were identified. The most common identified pDDIs were theophyllines-quinolones, warfarin-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines-azole antifungal agents, and anticoagulants-thyroid hormones. The most common drugs contributing to the identified pDDIs were ciprofloxacin, theophylline, warfarin, aminophylline, alprazolam, levothyroxine, and selegiline. While the incidence rate of clinically relevant pDDIs in prescriptions of general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists was the highest, the average pDDI incidence per 10,000 prescriptions of pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and cardiologists was highest. Although a small proportion of the analyzed prescriptions contained drug pairs with potential for clinically relevant DDIs, a significant number of outpatients have been exposed to the adverse effects associated with these interactions. It is recommended that in addition to training physicians and pharmacists, other effective interventions such as computerized alerting systems and electronic prescribing systems be designed and implemented.

  16. Incidence, causative factors and mortality rates of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in northern Italy: data from the REACT registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphoorn, Janouk; Cazzaniga, Simone; Gamba, Chiara; Schroeder, Jan; Citterio, Antonella; Rivolta, Alma Lisa; Vighi, Giuseppe Danilo; Naldi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. We assessed incidence, drug exposure and mortality, analysing data obtained from the Lombardy Registry of Severe Cutaneous Reactions (REACT). Data were collected from hospitals in the Italian Lombardy region (9,502,272 people). A trained monitor was sent to the reporting hospital to collect data on drug exposure and clinical features. The algorithm for drug causality for epidermal necrolysis algorithm was applied to assess drug causality. Defined Daily Dose (DDD) was used to express drug consumption. From April 2009 to November 2014, 17 cases of TEN and 59 cases of SJS were collected. The overall incidence rate was 1.40 cases (95%CI, 1.12-1.76) per million people per year. A total of 15 cases died during hospitalization with a mortality rate of 16.9% for SJS and 29.4% for TEN. Overall, 55.4% of cases had a probable or very probable relation with drug exposure. In a total of five patients (6.6%), no causative drug for the reaction was identifiable. Allopurinol contributed to the highest number of cases (23 cases), while the highest incidence based on more than one case reported was observed for cotrimoxazole and lamotrigine, with 5.37 cases (95%CI, 2.09-13.80) and 3.54 (95%CI, 1.21-10.42) per 10 million DDD/year, respectively. We confirmed that SJS and TEN are rare adverse cutaneous reactions. As expected, mortality was influenced by the degree of skin detachment. The profile of drugs associated with the reactions was in agreement with data from other surveillance systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  18. Incidence rate of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a prospective multi-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Eliane; Valeri, Fabio; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Garone, Daniela; Dickinson, Diana; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Lumano-Mulenga, Priscilla; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wyss, Natascha; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.; Bohlius, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined in resource-limited settings. We studied KS incidence rates and associated risk factors in children and adults on ART in Southern Africa. Methods We included patient data of six ART programs in Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We estimated KS incidence rates in patients on ART measuring time from 30 days after ART initiation to KS diagnosis, last follow-up visit, or death. We assessed risk factors (age, sex, calendar year, WHO stage, tuberculosis, and CD4 counts) using Cox models. Findings We analyzed data from 173,245 patients (61% female, 8% children aged 2 years after ART initiation). Male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.12–1.61), low current CD4 counts (≥500 cells/µL versus <50 cells/µL, adjusted HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23–0.55) and age (5 to 9 years versus 30 to 39 years, adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05–0.79) were relevant risk factors for developing KS. Interpretation Despite ART, KS risk in HIV-infected persons in Southern Africa remains high. Early HIV testing and maintaining high CD4 counts is needed to further reduce KS-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25393941

  19. MRI-detection rate and incidence of lumbar bleeding sources in 190 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Kashefiolasl

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH have a non-aneurysmal SAH (NASAH. The evaluation of SAH patients with negative digital subtraction angiography (DSA is sometimes a diagnostic challenge. Our goal in this study was to reassess the yield of standard MR-imaging of the complete spinal axis to rule out spinal bleeding sources in patients with NASAH.We retrospectively analyzed the spinal MRI findings in 190 patients with spontaneous NASAH, containing perimesencephalic (PM and non-perimesencephalic (NPM SAH, diagnosed by computer tomography (CT and/or lumbar puncture (LP, and negative 2nd DSA.190 NASAH patients were included in the study, divided into PM-SAH (n = 87; 46% and NPM-SAH (n = 103; 54%. Overall, 23 (22% patients had a CT negative SAH, diagnosed by positive LP. MR-imaging of the spinal axis detected two patients with lumbar ependymoma (n = 2; 1,05%. Both patients complained of radicular sciatic pain. The detection rate raised up to 25%, if only patients with radicular sciatic pain received an MRI.Routine radiological investigation of the complete spinal axis in NASAH patients is expensive and can not be recommended for standard procedure. However, patients with clinical signs of low-back/sciatic pain should be worked up for a spinal pathology.

  20. Incidence, hospital costs and in-hospital mortality rates of surgically treated patients with traumatic cranial epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atci Ibrahim Burak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the patients who were operated in two clinics due to traumatic cranial epidural hematoma (EDH were assessed retrospectively and the factors that increase the costs were tried to be revealed through conducting cost analyses. Methods: The patients who were operated between 2010 and 2016 with the diagnosis of EDH were assessed in terms of age, sex, trauma etiology, Glasgow coma scale (GCS at admission, the period from trauma to hospital arrival, trauma-related injury in other organs, the localization of hematoma, the size of hematoma, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, length of antibiotherapy administration, number of consultations conducted, total cost of in-hospital treatments of the patients and prognosis. Results: Distribution of GCS were, between 13-15 in 18 (36% patients, 9-13 in 23 (46% patients and 3-8 in 9 (18% patients. The reasons for emergency department admissions were fall from high in 29 (58% patients, assault in 11 (22% patients and motor vehicle accident in 10 (20% patients. The average cost per ICU stay was 2838 $ (range=343-20571 $. The average cost per surgical treatment was 314 $. ICU care was approximately 9 times more expensive than surgical treatment costs. The mortality rate of the study cohort was 14% (7 patients. Conclusion: The prolonged period of stay in the ICU, antibiotherapy and repeat head CTs increase the costs for patients who are surgically treated for EDH.

  1. Radiological protection on interstitial brachytherapy and dose determination and exposure rate of an Ir-192 source through the MCNP-4B; Proteccion radiologica en braquiterapia intersticial y determinacion de la dosis y tasa de exposicion de una fuente de Ir-192 mediante el MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales L, M.E. [INEN, Av. Angamos Este 2520- Surquillo, Lima (Peru)

    2006-07-01

    The present work was carried out in the Neurological Sciences Institute having as objective to determine the dose and the rate of exhibition of the sources of Iridium 192, Iodine 125 and Palladium 103; which are used to carry out implant in the Interstitial Brachytherapy according to the TG43. For it we carry out a theoretical calculation, its are defined in the enter file: the geometry, materials of the problem and the radiation source, etc; in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code, considering a punctual source and for the dose determination we simulate thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD): at 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 200 cm of the source. Our purpose is to analyze the radioprotection measures that should take into account in this Institute in which are carried out brain biopsies using a Micro mar stereotactic mark, and in a near future with the collaboration of a doctor and a cuban physique seeks to be carried out the Interstitial Brachytherapy technique with sources of Ir-192 for patient with tumors like glioblastoma, astrocytoma, etc. (Author)

  2. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  3. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women.

  4. Intraarterial 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prophylaxis of restenosis after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: the prospective randomized Vienna-2-trial radiotherapy parameters and risk factors analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrajac, Boris; Poetter, Richard; Maca, Thomas; Fellner, Claudia; Mittlboeck, Martina; Ahmadi, Ramazanali; Seitz, Wolfgang; Minar, Erich

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the Vienna-2-trial was to compare the restenosis rate of femoropopliteal arteries after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without intraarterial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) using an 192 Ir source. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized trial was conducted from 11/96 to 8/98. A total of 113 patients (63 men, 50 women), with a mean age of 71 years (range, 43-89 years) were included. Inclusion criteria were (1) claudication or critical limb ischemia, (2) de-novo stenosis of 5 cm or more, (3) restenosis after former PTA of any length, and (4) no stent implantation. Patients were randomized after successful PTA for BT vs. no further treatment. A well-balanced patient distribution was achieved for the criteria used for stratification, as there were 'de-novo stenosis vs. restenosis after former PTA', 'stenosis vs. occlusion', 'claudication vs. critical limb ischemia' and above these for 'diabetes vs. nondiabetes'. PTA length was not well balanced between the treatment arms: a PTA length of 4-10 cm was seen in 19 patients in the PTA alone group and in 11 patients in the PTA+BT group, whereas a PTA length of greater than10 cm was seen in 35 patients and 42 patients, respectively. A dose of 12 Gy was prescribed in 3-mm distance from the source axis. According to AAPM recommendations, the dose was 6.8 Gy in 5-mm distance (vessel radius + 2 mm). Primary endpoint of the study was femoropopliteal patency after 6 months. Results: PTA and additional BT were feasible and well tolerated by all 57 pts in this treatment arm. No acute, subacute, and late adverse side effects related to BT were seen after a mean follow up of 12 months (6-24 months) in 107 patients (PTA n = 54; PTA+ BT n = 53). Crude restenosis rate at 6 months was in the PTA arm 54% vs. 28% in the PTA + BT arm (χ 2 test; p 10 cm) showed significant decrease of the restenosis rate, if BT was added. Significant reduction was not achieved in diabetes patients

  5. Age-specific bone tumour incidence rates are governed by stem cell exhaustion influencing the supply and demand of progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    Knudson's carcinogenic model, which simulates incidence rates for retinoblastoma, provides compelling evidence for a two-stage mutational process. However, for more complex cancers, existing multistage models are less convincing. To fill this gap, I hypothesize that neoplasms preferentially arise when stem cell exhaustion creates a short supply of progenitor cells at ages of high proliferative demand. To test this hypothesis, published datasets were employed to model the age distribution of osteochondroma, a benign lesion, and osteosarcoma, a malignant one. The supply of chondrogenic stem-like cells in femur growth plates of children and adolescents was evaluated and compared with the progenitor cell demand of longitudinal bone growth. Similarly, the supply of osteoprogenitor cells from birth to old age was compared with the demands of bone formation. Results show that progenitor cell demand-to-supply ratios are a good risk indicator, exhibiting similar trends to the unimodal and bimodal age distributions of osteochondroma and osteosarcoma, respectively. The hypothesis also helps explain Peto's paradox and the finding that taller individuals are more prone to cancers and have shorter lifespans. The hypothesis was tested, in the manner of Knudson, by its ability to convincingly explain and demonstrate, for the first time, a bone tumour's bimodal age-incidence curve. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Long-term course of Crohn's disease in Japan: Incidence of complications, cumulative rate of initial surgery, and risk factors at diagnosis for initial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuho; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Yano, Yutaka; Tsurumi, Kozue; Okado, Yuki; Matsushima, Yu; Koga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Haruhiko; Ninomiya, Kazeo; Ono, Yoichiro; Takatsu, Noritaka; Beppu, Takahiro; Nagahama, Takashi; Hisabe, Takashi; Takaki, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Fumihito; Yao, Kenshi; Higashi, Daijiro; Futami, Kitaro; Washio, Masakazu

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal complications of stenosis or fistula may occur during the course of Crohn's disease (CD), and surgery is performed in a fair number of patients. The risk factors for initial surgery in a Japanese hospital-based cohort of CD patients were evaluated. This study was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study. The subjects were 520 patients who underwent inpatient and outpatient treatment at our hospital, had a definitive diagnosis of CD, and no previous surgery. Three parameters were investigated: (i) cumulative incidence of stenosis and fistula; (ii) cumulative rate of initial surgery for each disease type; and (iii) risk factors at diagnosis for initial surgery. (i) Stenosis and fistula increased with time, with stenosis or fistula appearing in about half of the patients after 5 years. (ii) The cumulative rate of initial surgery was about 50% after 10 years. (iii) The patient factors at diagnosis of current smoker, upper gastrointestinal disease, stricturing, penetrating, moderate to severe stenosis of the jejunum, moderate to severe stenosis of the ileum, and moderate to severe stenosis of the terminal ileum were risk factors for initial surgery. Stenosis or fistula appeared in about half of the patients after 5 years from diagnosis. When upper gastrointestinal disease or complicated small intestinal lesions are seen at the time of diagnosis, the cumulative rate of initial surgery is significantly higher. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a

  9. NEA incident reporting system: Three years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Y.; Haeussermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) which was set up to collect, assess and disseminate on safety-related incidents in nuclear power plants. The IRS information exchange is significant in two senses. First, it enables regulatory authorities and utilities in participating countries to take appropriate action to prevent the reported mishaps occurring again elsewhere. Secondly, the continuous collection and systematic analysis of such information allows identification of areas of concern where safety research should be strengthened. There are two stages in the IRS information exchange. First, the national IRS Co-ordinator selects information on significant incidents, in accordance with a common reporting threshold, from the abnormal occurrences reported to the regulatory body, to be distributed through the NEA Secretariat. This screening is intended to exclude minor events, so that only significant information is sent to participating countries. Secondly, a group of experts periodically reviews the incidents reported during the preceding twelve months to identify major areas of concern. To assist this process, a computer-based data retrieval system is being developed for IRS incident reports. The paper gives some details of the IRS mechanism and discusses reporting criteria and the information included in a report. Areas of concern derived from reported incidents, an outline of the data retrieval system, and examples of feedback of lessons learned and possibilities for international co-operation are also discussed. (author)

  10. Subcutaneous bortezomib in multiple myeloma patients induces similar therapeutic response rates as intravenous application but it does not reduce the incidence of peripheral neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Minarik

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous (SC application of bortezomib has been recently introduced as a new application route in multiple myeloma (MM patients. We performed an analysis to compare the outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma (MM patients treated using either intravenous (IV or subcutaneous (SC route of administration.During January 2012 through December 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 446 patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimens (either once weekly - 63% or twice weekly - 27% in both, the first line setting, and in relapse, with separate analysis of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. We assessed the response rates and toxicity profiles in both, IV and SC route of bortezomib administration.The response rates in both IV and SC arm were similar with overall response rate 71.7% vs 70.7%, complete remissions in 13.9% vs 8.6%, very good partial remissions in 30.8% vs 34.5% and partial remissions in 27% vs 27.6%. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 toxicities were anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, with no significant differences between IV and SC group. There were no significant differences in the rate of peripheral neuropathy (PN. PN of any grade was present in 48% in the IV arm and in 41% in the SC arm. PN grade ≥ 2 was present in 20% vs 18% and PN grade ≥ 3 was present in 6% vs 4%.We conclude that subcutaneous application of bortezomib has similar therapeutic outcomes and toxicity profile as intravenous route of application. In our cohort there was no difference in the incidence of PN, suggesting that PN is dose dependent and might be reduced by lower intensity schemes rather than by the route of administration.

  11. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Background This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan, and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women

  12. Addition of 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability Parameters to the Cardiovascular Health Study Stroke Risk Score and Prediction of Incident Stroke: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodapati, Rohan K.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Kop, Willem J.; Kamel, Hooman; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) characterizes cardiac autonomic functioning. The association of HRV with stroke is uncertain. We examined whether 24-hour HRV added predictive value to the Cardiovascular Health Study clinical stroke risk score (CHS-SCORE), previously developed at the baseline examination. Methods and Results N=884 stroke-free CHS participants (age 75.3 ± 4.6), with 24-hour Holters adequate for HRV analysis at the 1994–1995 examination, had 68 strokes over ≤8 year follow-up (median 7.3 [interquartile range 7.1–7.6] years). The value of adding HRV to the CHS-SCORE was assessed with stepwise Cox regression analysis. The CHS-SCORE predicted incident stroke (HR=1.06 per unit increment, P=0.005). Two HRV parameters, decreased coefficient of variance of NN intervals (CV%, P=0.031) and decreased power law slope (SLOPE, P=0.033) also entered the model, but these did not significantly improve the c-statistic (P=0.47). In a secondary analysis, dichotomization of CV% (LOWCV% ≤12.8%) was found to maximally stratify higher-risk participants after adjustment for CHS-SCORE. Similarly, dichotomizing SLOPE (LOWSLOPE <− 1.4) maximally stratified higher-risk participants. When these HRV categories were combined (eg, HIGHCV% with HIGHSLOPE), the c-statistic for the model with the CHS-SCORE and combined HRV categories was 0.68, significantly higher than 0.61 for the CHS-SCORE alone (P=0.02). Conclusions In this sample of older adults, 2 HRV parameters, CV% and power law slope, emerged as significantly associated with incident stroke when added to a validated clinical risk score. After each parameter was dichotomized based on its optimal cut point in this sample, their composite significantly improved prediction of incident stroke during ≤8-year follow-up. These findings will require validation in separate, larger cohorts. PMID:28396041

  13. A cross-national comparison of incident reporting systems implemented in German and Swiss hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Tanja; Imhof, Michael; Lessing, Constanze; Briner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to empirically compare incident reporting systems (IRS) in two European countries and to explore the relationship of IRS characteristics with context factors such as hospital characteristics and characteristics of clinical risk management (CRM). We performed exploratory, secondary analyses of data on characteristics of IRS from nationwide surveys of CRM practices. The survey was originally sent to 2136 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Persons responsible for CRM in 622 hospitals completed the survey (response rate 29%). None. Differences between IRS in German and Swiss hospitals were assessed using Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Freeman-Halton-Tests, as appropriate. To explore interrelations between IRS characteristics and context factors (i.e. hospital and CRM characteristics) we computed Cramer's V. Comparing participating hospitals across countries, Swiss hospitals had implemented IRS earlier, more frequently and more often provided introductory IRS training systematically. German hospitals had more frequently systematically implemented standardized procedures for event analyses. IRS characteristics were significantly associated with hospital characteristics such as hospital type as well as with CRM characteristics such as existence of strategic CRM objectives and of a dedicated position for central CRM coordination. This study contributes to an improved understanding of differences in the way IRS are set up in two European countries and explores related context factors. This opens up new possibilities for empirically informed, strategic interventions to further improve dissemination of IRS and thus support hospitals in their efforts to move patient safety forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Patient Safety in Interventional Radiology: A CIRSE IR Checklist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is an invasive speciality with the potential for complications as with other invasive specialities. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a surgical safety checklist to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. The Cardiovascular and Interventional Society of Europe (CIRSE) set up a task force to produce a checklist for IR. Use of the checklist will, we hope, reduce the incidence of complications after IR procedures. It has been modified from the WHO surgical safety checklist and the RAD PASS from Holland.

  15. Baseline incidence and severity of renal insufficiency evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yanaga, Yumi; Oda, Seitaro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)), email: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Awai, Kazuo (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Funama, Yoshinori (Dept. of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan))

    2011-06-15

    Background Although pre-existing renal insufficiency (RI) is the most important risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the background distribution of baseline renal function has not been investigated thoroughly in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT. Purpose To investigate the incidence and severity of baseline RI evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT at an academic center. Material and Methods A total of 6586 patients (3630 men and 2956 women; mean age 57.0 +- 11.9 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced CT between January and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. Of these, 829 had cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 5116 had oncologic diseases, 178 had diabetes mellitus (DM), and 1572 had chronic liver disease (CLD). The eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) was calculated from their serum creatinine level. Mild, moderate-a, moderate-b, and severe RI were recorded at 60 < =eGFR < 90, 45 < =eGFR < 60, 30 < =eGFR < 45 and eGFR < 30, respectively. Results Of the 6586 patients, 1.6%, 3.7%, 13.7%, and 54.2% were judged to present with severe, moderate-b, moderate-a, and mild RI, respectively. While moderate-b-to-severe RI was recorded in 133 (3.2%) of 4161 patients aged 70 years or less, it was observed in 218 (9.0%) of the 2425 patients who were 71 years or older. Among the 829 CVD patients, 9.9% manifested moderate-b-to-severe- and 73.0% mild-to-moderate-a RI. The corresponding rates were 4.4% and 68.9% for oncologic disease, 16.9% and 61.2% for DM, and 4.8% and 71.5% for CLD patients. By univariate analysis, there was a significant association between moderate-b-to-severe RI and the advanced age, CVD, DM, and non-oncologic disease. Multivariate analysis showed that the advanced age, DM, and non-oncologic disease were statistically associated with moderate-b-to-severe RI. Conclusion The incidence of RI of eGFR < 45mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline was high in patients with advanced age, CVD and DM and

  16. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banas T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  17. Towards gene-and gender-based risk estimates in Lynch syndrome; Age-specific incidences for 13 extra-colorectal cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Ladelund, Steen; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background:In Lynch syndrome, inherited mismatch repair (MMR) defects predispose to colorectal cancer and to a wide spectrum of extra-colorectal tumours. Utilising a cohort study design, we aimed to determine the risk of extra-colorectal cancer and to identify yet unrecognised tumour types...... were identified for 13 cancer types with differences related to gender, age and disease-predisposing gene. The different cancer types showed variable peak age incidence rates (IRs) with the highest IRs for ovarian cancer at age 30-49 years, for endometrial cancer, breast cancer, renal cell cancer...... incidences in relation to age, gender and gene suggest a need for individualised surveillance....

  18. Baseline incidence and severity of renal insufficiency evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yanaga, Yumi; Oda, Seitaro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo; Funama, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Background Although pre-existing renal insufficiency (RI) is the most important risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the background distribution of baseline renal function has not been investigated thoroughly in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT. Purpose To investigate the incidence and severity of baseline RI evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT at an academic center. Material and Methods A total of 6586 patients (3630 men and 2956 women; mean age 57.0 ± 11.9 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced CT between January and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. Of these, 829 had cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 5116 had oncologic diseases, 178 had diabetes mellitus (DM), and 1572 had chronic liver disease (CLD). The eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) was calculated from their serum creatinine level. Mild, moderate-a, moderate-b, and severe RI were recorded at 60 2 at baseline was high in patients with advanced age, CVD and DM and in patients without oncologic disease

  19. Designed Incident Reporting System in P2TKN BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriatna, Piping; Sudarsyamsu S; Bambang S; Karyana, Edy

    2000-01-01

    Incident Reporting System is a routine activating for record all incident of Nuclear Plant Characteristic of the incident Reporting System (IRS) recording can be made locally, regionally or national scope. IRS recording of nuclear activity responsible to Nuclear Safety Technology Development Center (NSTDC). In this report has been designed IRS for nuclear incident in Batan, which the socialization in the field will be done step by step. The first step will be applied in NSTCD scope, the second step will be applied in PPTA Serpong area, and the third step will be applied in Batan area

  20. Operational experience - Lessons learned from IRS-reports in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Maqua, M.

    2005-01-01

    The international Incident Reporting System (IRS), jointly operated by IAEA and OECD-NEA, is a main source of safety significant findings and lessons learned of nuclear operating experience. GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH) is a scientific-technical expert and research organisation. On Behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), GRS provides the IRS officer. The evaluation of IRS-Reports and the dissemination of the main findings including the assessment of the relevance for German NPPs is task of GRS. The value of IRS is among experts undoubted. But nevertheless, the reporting to IRS decreases since some years. This presentation is aimed to show the support of IRS in strengthening the safety of German NPPs. The evaluation of IRS-Reports at GRS is three-fold. It comprises initial screening, quarterly and yearly reporting and the development of specific German Information Notices on safety significant events with direct applicability to German NPPs. Some examples of lessons learned from recent international events are discussed below. These examples shall demonstrate that the use of the IRS enhances significantly the knowledge on operational events. (author)

  1. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    politics and offers an account of how this builds on older ways in which the natural world has made up part of the stuff of international politics. Second, it surveys the main traditions and approaches to studying International Relations of the environment, painting a picture of diversification in two......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  2. Trends in breast cancer incidence rates by age and tumor characteristics of women in the city of Isfahan for the period 2001-2010: An application of joinpoint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tazhibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer incidence trends use by health officials in order to program evaluations and development of cancer control strategies. The trends of cancer incidence have used to evaluate programs and develop the cancer control strategies. The aim of this study is to analyze changes of breast cancer incidence trends in Isfahan city using joinpoint regression models. Materials and Methods: The study was based on all cases of breast cancer reported among women residing in the city of Isfahan for the period 2001-2010. Age-standardized rates were calculated for each tumor characteristics, using the direct method. Joinpoint regression was used to provide estimated annual percentage change. Results: A plot of the age-specific rates of breast cancer showed an increase in all age groups from 30 to 69 years and sharp increase in the incidence of breast cancer confined to estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors and the significant change (2003 by progesterone receptor− tumors. The analysis by tumor size and grade, incidence rates decreased for tumors >5 cm by 10.6% since 2006.7 and for poorly differentiated tumor by 26.1% since 2007.8. No decrease in incidence was observed for group of proportion of positive lymph nodes to lymph node surgery ≥25%. The proportion of positive lymph node to surgery node ≤25% (nonsignificant was upward. Conclusion: The trend of incidence rates with tumor size ≤2, well-differentiated tumor grade, moderately differentiated tumor grade, positive estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors was upward. The pattern of breast cancer can help to cancer prevention and prognosis, selecting the best type of surgery.

  3. Intercomparison of calibration procedures of high dose rate {sup 192} Ir sources in Brazil and a proposal of a new methodology; Intercomparacao de procedimientos de calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir de alta taxa de dose no Brasil e proposta de uma nova metodologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M.H.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes IRD/CNEN. Caixa Postal 37750 CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to report the results of an intercomparison of the calibration procedures for {sup 192} Ir sources presently in use in Brazil and to proposal a calibration procedure to derive the N{sub k} for a Farmer type ionization chamber for {sup 192} Ir energy by interpolating from a {sup 60} Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. the intercomparison results were all within {+-} 3.0 % except one case where 4.6 % was observed and latter identified as a problem with N-k value for X-rays. The method proposed by the present work make possible the improvement of the metrological coherence among the calibration laboratories and their users once the N{sub k} values could then provided by any of the members of SSDL network. (Author)

  4. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  5. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 110μm. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed

  6. Nadir CD4+, religion, antiretroviral therapy, incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increasing rates of obesity among black Africans with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbungu Fuele S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Madone Mandina Ndona,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Roger Wumba,3 Barthelemy Tandu Umba,4 Baudouin Buassa-bu-Tsumbu,5 Marcel Mbula Mambimbi,1 Thaddée Odio Wobin,1 Simon Mbungu Fuele61Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Walter Sisulu University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Tropical Medicine Department, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, University Clinic of Kinshasa and University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 4Department of Gynecology, 5Department of Biochemistry, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 6Biostatistics Unit of Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the cross-sectional association between some sociodemographic factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART, as well as the incidence and predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Central Africans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease.Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design and was a prospective analysis of 102 patients with HIV disease (49 on ART versus 53 not on ART in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2008. A Cox regression model was used to assess for any relationship between type 2 diabetes and exposure to combination ART without protease inhibitors, after adjusting for known risk factors for type 2 diabetes, nadir CD4 and CD8 levels, viral load, marital status, and religion.Results: Unexpectedly elevated rates of smoking, excess alcohol intake, and ART-related total, abdominal, and peripheral obesity were observed in our study group of HIV patients. At the end of follow-up, five patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (incidence rate 4.9%, 9.8 per 1000 person-years. Univariate risk factors for type 2 diabetes were male gender (relative risk [RR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1

  7. ABDOMINAL CLOSURE WITH ANTI BACTERIAL COATED SUTURE MATERIALS AND ITS RELATION TO THE INCIDENCE OF POST OPERATIVE SUPERFICIAL SURGICAL SITE INFECTION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Pudumai Selvi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgical site infection (SSI is an immense burden on healthcare resources even in the modern era of immaculate sterilization approaches and highly effective antibiotics. An estimated 234 million various surgical procedures, involving skin incisions requiring various types of wound closure techniques, are performed in the world, with the majority resulting in a wound healing by primary intention. Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy phenol is a broad-spectrum bactericidal agent that has been used for more than 40 years in various products, such as toothpaste and soaps. Higher concentrations of Triclosan work as a bactericide by attacking different structures in the bacterial cytoplasm and cell membrane. Use of Triclosan-coated sutures should theoretically result in the reduction of SSI. The aim of the study is to assess the abdominal closure with antibacterial coated suture materials and its relation to the incidence of post-operative superficial surgical site infection rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS The data will be collected from hospital records of surgery performed, post-operative daily progress notes and outpatient folders and telephonic conversations with patients after discharge. All patients undergoing laparotomy procedure for any cause. 100 patients divided as 50 in each group. RESULTS The positive outcome of infection (21.5% in patients using ordinary sutures was significantly differed with the positive outcome of infection (11.4% of Triclosan coated sutures. CONCLUSION In conclusion since there was a definite advantage inferred to the patients by using Triclosan coated polyglactin 910, it is the opinion of the researcher that Triclosan coated sutures has a role to play in reducing SSI in clean wounds and its use should be confined to areas where its application has proven benefits. However more studies should be done to clearly define its role and indications in surgery.

  8. Increasing incidence of hypotension in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Henriksen, Daniel P; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    at an University Hospital ED in Denmark from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011. Patients aged ≥18 years living in the hospital catchment area with a first time presentation to the ED with hypotension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤100 mm Hg) were included. Outcomes were annual incidence rates (IRs) per 100......,000 person years at risk (pyar) and etiological characteristics by means of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), as well as 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 3,268 of 438,198 (1 %) cases with a mean overall IR of 125/100,000 pyar (95 % CI...

  9. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  10. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  11. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  12. Uma metodologia para estimar a incidência a partir de prevalências obtidas em Pesquisas Nacionais por Amostra de Domicílios: o exemplo da alfabetização A methodology to estimate incidence from prevalence rates in household surveys: the example of literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Maria Silva da Conceição

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer a incidência de algum evento por idade e tempo é sem dúvida um dos maiores interesses da epidemiologia. Devido à relação matemática que existe entre as medidas de incidência e prevalência, alguns métodos foram desenvolvidos com o objetivo de obter a incidência a partir da prevalência. Este estudo descreve, de forma tutorial, um método que fornece estimativas de incidências por idade e tempo desde que existam prevalências repetidas de um evento, que a ocorrência do mesmo esteja relacionada à idade do indivíduo e que este possua características de uma doença crônica. O estudo foi realizado para a alfabetização da população brasileira, utilizando as prevalências por idade obtidas na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 1981, 1985, 1989, 1992, 1995 e 2001, e permitiu recuperar as estimativas da incidência de alfabetização nas idades entre 5 e 20 anos entre os anos de 1960 a 2000. O método ajusta os parâmetros de incidência para idade e tempo com o auxílio de um modelo linear generalizado para dados categóricos e utiliza o algoritmo EM para obter os dados não observados.Age and time-specific incidence rates are highly relevant to epidemiologists. Due to the mathematical relationship between incidence and prevalence, several methods have been developed to obtain incidence based on prevalence. The present study didactically describes a method to estimate age and time incidence, based on: repeated measurements of prevalence for an event; events related to the individual's age; and events with the characteristics of a chronic disease. The method was used to analyze literacy in the Brazilian population, using prevalence by age obtained from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD for 1981, 1985, 1989, 1992, 1995, and 2001, and allowed obtaining literacy incidence estimates for ages 5 to 20 years, for the years 1960 through 2001. The method adjusts incidence parameters for age and time with the

  13. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. [Hyponatremia associated with SSRI/NRSI: Descriptive and comparative epidemiological study of the incidence rates of the notified cases from the data of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database and the French National Health Insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, R; Rault, C; Polard, E; Bellet, F; Guy, C

    2017-12-14

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) are frequently prescribed. These antidepressants can potentially induce serious hyponatremia through the SIADH syndrome. That seems to concern all molecules of these classes but the individual risk of each molecule is not well known. The aims of the study were to compare the incidence rate of each molecule in order to identify the existence of molecules more at risk of inducing hyponatremia and to characterize a profile of patients at risk for hyponatremia during a treatment with a SSRI or a SNRI. The cases of hyponatremia under SSRI/SNRI were extracted from the French pharmacovigilance database (BPNV). The exposition to the different SSRIs/SNRIs in the French population was estimated from the French National Health Insurance database (SNIIRAM) using a sampled database (Echantillon Généralistes des Bénéficiaires). The study ran from 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2013. The primary study endpoint was the incidence rate of notifications of the hyponatremia cases in patients treated by SSRI/SNRI and recorded into the BNPV database, related to the average annual number of corresponding treatments initiated during the same period. The number of cases of hyponatremia included in the study was 169 for 3 749 800 adult patients initiating treatment. The incidence rate of cases was 1.64 for 100 000 persons per year (PY). The standardized incidence rates between the different molecules showed no difference except for duloxetine (2.79/100 000 PY p > 0.03). Identified risk factors were age, with a large increase of incidence rate from 75 years old (incidence 12.5 higher) and female gender. Comparison of the incidence rates from spontaneous reports indicates a greater risk of hyponatremia for duloxetine for 2011-2013. This result needs to be confirmed by other studies. The advanced age and female sex are risk factors, irrespective of the molecule. Copyright © 2017 L

  15. Concussion in field hockey: a retrospective analysis into the incidence rates, mechanisms, symptoms and recovery of concussive injuries sustained by elite field hockey players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Michael; Challis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence and mechanisms of concussion in elite Field Hockey in different age groups and also the postconcussion symptoms and recovery times. Methods Data was collected retrospectively, for both training and matches, over a 12-month period from national level Field Hockey players across under-16, under-18, under-21, Development and Senior players. Mechanism of injury (including player role and field position), postconcussive symptoms and recovery times were recorded following a semistructured interview with each player. Additional information on training hours, matches and squad size were also recorded in order to calculate the incidence per 1000 match hours. Results Of the 28 recorded cases, only 11 could be included in the study. Women had the highest incidence of concussion, with the majority being in the under-21 age group. Overall incidence varied from 3/1000 match hours in training to 0.02/1000 match hours in matches, with an overall incidence of 0–0.02/1000 match hours across all age groups. The most common mechanism of injury was collision with another player, followed by impact from a stick or ball Midfield and attacking forwards sustained the highest incidence of concussion. None of the concussed athletes wore protective headgear (there were no cases of concussion in goal keepers) and all occurred in open play rather than a penalty corner (when protective headgear is often worn). Postconcussion headaches and difficulty concentrating were the most commonly reported postconcussion symptoms. Average recovery time and return-to-play was 2–4 weeks. Conclusions Due to the low numbers, only limited conclusions can be made, but it would appear that the risk of concussion in elite Field Hockey is low. As age and skill increases, the risk decreases. Postconcussion symptoms and average return-to-play times are similar to other sports. From this study, no conclusions can be made as to the role of protective headgear to reduce the risk

  16. High incidence of injury at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26.5 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 22.7% to 30.8%). There was a significantly higher IR recorded in alpine skiing/snowboarding (IR of 41.1 (95% CI 33.7% to 49.6%) p=0.0001) compared to cross-country skiing/biathlon, ice sledge hockey or wheelchair curling. Injuries in the shoulder region were the highest single-joint IR (IR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6% to 8.6%)), although total upper and lower body IR were similar (IR 8.5 vs 8.4 (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%)). Furthermore, the IR of acute injuries was significantly higher than other types of injury onset (IR of 17.8 (95% CI 14.7% to 21.4%)). In a Winter Paralympic Games setting, athletes report higher injury incidence than do Olympic athletes or athletes in a Summer Paralympic Games setting. The highest incidence of injury was reported in the alpine skiing/snowboarding sporting category. There was a similar incidence of injury in the upper and lower limbs. The joint with the greatest rate of injury reported was the shoulder joint. Our data can inform injury prevention programmes and policy considerations regarding athlete safety in future Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.A. Lortet-Tieulent (Joannie); E. Renteria (Elisenda); L. Sharp (Linda); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); H. Comber; P. Baas (Paul); F. Bray (Freddie); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Smoking prevalence has been declining in men all over Europe, while the trend varies in European regions among women. To study the impact of past smoking prevalence, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent trends in incidence, during 1988-2010, in 26

  18. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Sumelahti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89% RRMS and 198 (11% PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9 to 9,7 (2.3, while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6 to 0,7 (1.2. The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies.

  19. IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness; 2005BU1-EO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Dam, F.A.M.; Kunz, G.J.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have

  20. A situação do câncer de mama em Goiás, no Brasil e no mundo: tendências atuais para a incidência e a mortalidade Breast cancer in Goiás, in Brazil and in the World: current incidence and mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Resende Paulinelli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama apresenta elevada incidência e mortalidade em todo o mundo, representando um grave problema de saúde pública. A incidência dessa neoplasia vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, mesmo em áreas de tradicional baixa incidência, em grande parte devido às mudanças nos hábitos de vida e no perfil epidemiológico da população. Vários países desenvolvidos têm conseguido, apesar desse aumento na incidência, reduzir a sua mortalidade, através de um diagnóstico mais precoce e de um tratamento mais eficaz. Nesse artigo comentamos as tendências atuais para o câncer de mama em vários locais do mundo, de forma comparativa, bem como os possíveis fatores envolvidos nessas mudanças. Dispensamos particular atenção à situação do Brasil, e da cidade de Goiânia.Breast cancer has the highest incidence and mortality rates in the whole World, and is a severe public health issue. This type of neoplasia has been increasing in the last decades, even in areas of traditional low incidence in part due to changes in the lifestyle and epidemiological profile of the population. Various developed countries, notwithstanding this incidence increase, have succeeded to reduce mortality through early diagnosis and more efficacious treatment. This paper compares current breast cancer trend in various parts of World, as well as the possible factors involved in this change of pattern. Especial emphasis is placed on the problem in our country Brazil, and in our city, Goiânia.

  1. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  2. An 'epidemic' of multiple sclerosis and falling infection rates? Reflecting on comparisons made and the rising multiple sclerosis incidence in Bach's 2002 New England Journal of Medicine figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlett, H; Lucas, R

    2018-01-01

    We set out to revisit and comment on the evidence surrounding a popular figure published in the New England Journal of Medicine (2002), which suggests that the incidence of immune-mediated diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), is increased by reduced exposure to infections. Commentary. We found that, to date (May 2017), this influential article has been cited >2000 times. However, on close investigation of the figure, we noticed some problems. Specifically, we observed several challenges inherent in using ecological data from disparate studies and countries to make conclusions surrounding the temporal patterns and relationships between diseases. For example, the figure depicts incidence data for MS based solely on a limited group of individuals with MS (n = 637; 455 women and 182 men) living within the region of Sassari on the island of Sardinia, known for its unique genealogy and risk of MS. However, the infectious-related data were based primarily on large population studies from the USA, with one derived from army recruits in France. We encourage the scientific community to apply rigorous, consistent methods in order to confirm or refute whether a strong, direct relationship does or does not exist between the incidence of MS and infectious diseases. Further, our article highlights a major knowledge gap that would benefit from a thorough review of the temporal trends related to MS incidence. Collation of this wide body of knowledge may provide a balanced understanding of this important topic and would best serve the progress of MS research. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiz, Carlos R; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-28

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear "one beam" geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments.

  4. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  5. The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  7. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  8. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Harris, Kendra M.; Ford, Eric; Michalski, Jeff; DeWeese, Theodore; Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement

  9. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Kendra M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement.

  10. A meta-analysis for the effect of prophylactic GTN on the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis and on the successful rate of cannulation of bile ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun-hui

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN has been shown to be able to relax the sphincter of Oddi (SO both in animals and humans. Theoretically, the use of these compounds during and after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatgraphy (ERCP could relax the biliary and pancreatic sphincters, facilitating cannulation of common bile duct (CBD during the procedure, or minimizing potential pancreatic outflow obstruction after the procedure. However, clinical trials evaluating the protective effect of GTN on the post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatgraphy pancreatitis (PEP have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis is to systematically assess the effect of prophylactic administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN on the prevention of PEP and the effect on the cannulation of bile ducts. Methods By searching PubMed (1966 to September 2009, CENTRAL (Cochrane Controlled trials Register; issue 3, 2009 and EMBASE.com (1984 to September 2009, two independent reviewers systematically identified prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs detecting the effect of prophylactic GTN on the incidence of PEP and on the cannulation of bile ducts. A meta-analysis of these clinical trials was then performed. Results There are 55/899(6.1% patients suffering PEP in the treatment group versus 95/915(10.4% patients in the placebo group. The overall pooled risk of PEP was significantly lower in the GTN group than in the placebo group (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.79, p = 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested that GTN administered by the sublingual form (OR 0.34,95% CI:0.16 to 0.75, p = 0.007 is more effective than transdermal route(OR 0.64,95% CI:0.40 to 1.01, p = 0.05, and the protective effect of GTN was far more obvious in the centers with high incidence of PEP (OR 0.40, 95% CI:0.24 to 0.67, p = 0.0006 than those centers with a low incidence of PEP (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.20, p = 0.22. Additionally, the meta-analysis suggests that GTN was not

  11. Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African

  12. Dynamic IR scene projector using the digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, JiaoBo; Wang, Jun; Yang, Bin; Wang, JiLong; Wang, WeiNa; Xie, JunHu; Hu, Yu

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new dynamic infrared scene projector using the Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) which has been modified to project images which are suitable for testing sensor and seekers operating in the UV, visible, and IR wavebands. This paper provides an overview of the design and performance of the projection system, as well as example imagery from prototype projector systems. The dynamic IR scene contains 1024×768 pixels and can be updated at a rate of approximately 85 Hz.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC spirometry within the Rotterdam Study, cases were defined as having COPD diagnosed by a physician on the basis of clinical presentation and obstructive lung function measured by the general practitioner or respiratory physician. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of incident cases by the total number of person years of subjects at risk. In this cohort of 14,619 participants, 1993 subjects with COPD were identified of whom 689 as prevalent ones and 1304 cases as incident ones. The overall incidence rate (IR) of COPD was 8.9/1000 person-years (PY); 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 8.4-9.4. The IR was higher in males and in smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  14. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Wurden, G. A.

    2010-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  15. Incidence and types of adverse events during mass vaccination campaign with the meningococcal a conjugate vaccine (MENAFRIVAC™) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateudjieu, Jerome; Stoll, Beat; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Mengouo, Marcellin Nimpa; Genton, Blaise

    2016-10-01

    A new vaccine against meningitis A was introduced in Africa meningitis belt in 2010. This study was planned to describe the incidence and types of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with a new conjugate vaccine against meningitis A (MenAfrivac™) in a Cameroonian vaccination campaign. The campaign was conducted in Adamawa and North West regions in December 2012 and the AEFIs enhanced surveillance from December 2012 to January 2013. Incidence rates (IR) of overall and serious AEFIs were estimated as well as AEFI incidence rates by type, age group and region. AEFI symptoms were aggregated in System Organ Class (SOC). Of 2 093 381 persons vaccinated, 1352 AEFIs were reported. Of these, 228 (16.9%) were excluded because of not meeting inclusion criteria and 1124 (83.1%) included (IR: 53.7/100 000 doses administered/8 weeks). Of the 82 serious AEFIs reported, 52 (63.2%) met the case definition. 23 (28.1%) were investigated, of which 4 (17.4%) were probably vaccine product-related reactions (IR: 0.2/100 000 doses administered/8 weeks). Fever was the most common reported AEFI with 626 cases (IR: 31.4/100 000 doses administered/8 weeks). The proportion of people with the SOC "Gastrointestinal disorders" was significantly lower in ages 5-15 and 16-29 years than 1-4 years [aRR = 0.63(0.42-0.93) and 0.54(0.36-0.81) respectively]. Incidence and types of AEFI reported during MenAfriVac TM vaccination campaign organized in Cameroon in 2012 did not suggest concern regarding the vaccine safety. Differences in frequency of AEFIs types per age group could guide the monitoring of AEFIs frequency in future campaigns. Efforts are needed to improve the investigation rate of serious AEFIs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T

    2006-01-01

    incidence rates and patient characteristics in Copenhagen County and City. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with IBD during 2003-2005 were followed prospectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as disease extent, extraintestinal manifestations, smoking habits, medical treatment, surgical...... interventions, cancer, and death, were registered. RESULTS: Five-hundred sixty-two patients were diagnosed with IBD, resulting in mean annual incidences of 8.6/10(5) for CD, 13.4/10(5) for UC, and 1.1/10(5) for IC. Time from onset to diagnosis was 8.3 months in CD and 4.5 months in UC patients. A family history...... of IBD, smoking, and extraintestinal manifestations was significantly more common in CD than in UC patients. Only 0.6% of UC patients had primary sclerosing cholangitis. In CD, old age at diagnosis was related to pure colonic disease, whereas children significantly more often had proximal and extensive...

  17. The incidence and patterns of illness at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days over the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Illness data were obtained daily from teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) and teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. The total number of illnesses reported was 123, with an illness incidence rate (IR) of 18.7 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 15.1% to 23.2%). The highest IR was reported for wheelchair curling (IR of 20.0 (95% CI 10.1% to 39.6%)). Illnesses in the respiratory system (IR of 5.6 (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%)), eye and adnexa (IR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.7% to 4.4%)) and digestive system (IR of 2.4 (95% CI 1.4% to 4.2%)) were the most common. Older athletes (35-63 years) had a significantly higher IR than younger athletes (14-25 years, p=0.049). The results of this study indicate that Paralympic athletes report higher illness incidence rates compared to Olympic athletes at similar competitions. The highest rates of illness were reported for the respiratory and digestive systems, eye and adnexa, respectively. Thus, the results of this study form a basis for the identification of physiological systems at higher risk of illness, which can in turn inform illness prevention and management programmes with eventual policy change to promote athlete safety in future editions of the Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Towards gene- and gender-based risk estimates in Lynch syndrome; age-specific incidences for 13 extra-colorectal cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Ladelund, Steen; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    increased IRRs were identified for 13 cancer types with differences related to gender, age and disease-predisposing gene. The different cancer types showed variable peak age incidence rates (IRs) with the highest IRs for ovarian cancer at age 30-49 years, for endometrial cancer, breast cancer, renal cell...... cancer and brain tumours at age 50-69 years, and for urothelial cancer, small bowel cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and skin tumours after age 70. CONCLUSIONS: The broad spectrum of tumour types that develop at an increased incidence defines Lynch syndrome as a multi-tumour syndrome....... The variable incidences in relation to age, gender and gene suggest a need for individualised surveillance.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.348 www.bjcancer.com....

  19. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birukov A.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

  20. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manokha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by this crisis. More precisely, we argue that the dominant academic orthodoxy, via a series of continuously reproduced dichotomies, has rendered IR/IPE incapable of dealing with a phenomenon as complex as the financial crisis...

  1. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  2. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/--IRS-1+/-Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Andras; Kunze, Alexander; Böse, Marlen; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Paulsson, Mats; Hartmann, Ursula; Wiesner, Rudolf J

    2017-05-30

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR) +/- -insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) +/- double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  3. PERBEDAAN LAJU KECEPATAN TERJADINYA HIPERTENSI MENURUT KONSUMSI NATRIUM [STUDI KOHORT PROSPEKTIF DI KOTA BOGOR, JAWA BARAT, INDONESIA] (THE INCIDENCE RATE DIFFERENCE OF HYPERTENSION ACCORDING TO SODIUM CONSUMPTION [A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY IN BOGOR CIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekowati Rahajeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHypertension is one of the leading causes of death in the world.The amount of dietary of salt or sodium consumed is important determinant of hypertension. The purpose of analysis is to identify the differences between incidence rate of hypertension according to sodium cosumption.The study is part of a prospective cohort study of Non Communicable Diseases conducted since 2011, in Bogor City West Java, Indonesia. Data were collected by interview and blood pressure measurement. Event of hypertension was defined when in the 1-year of follow-up, participant had a high blood pressure in at least 2 of the 3 measurements. The consumption of sodium was collected through 24-hour dietary recall. The analysis conducted in 2561 participants were do not have hypertension, consist of 94 people with high sodium consumption and 2467 people with low sodium consumption . Data were analyzed by Life Table Survival to calculate the incidence rate of hypertension, with statistical test Wilcoxon (Gehan to determine incidence rate difference of hypertension according to risk factors. The incidence rate of hypertension in 4-years observations was 58 per 1000 person-year. Adjusted by age and gender, fat and sugar consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and smoking(AHR 71 vs 22 per 1000 person-years, shown that the incidence rate of hypertension in people who consume high sodium, significantly faster than people who consume low-sodium. The incidence rate difference of hypertension between the high and low sodium consumption was 49 per 1,000 person-years.  ABSTRAK Hipertensi merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian di dunia. Jumlah garam atau natrium yang dikonsumsi merupakan determinan penting terjadinya hipertensi. Tujuan analisis ini untuk mengidentifikasi perbedaan laju kecepatan terjadinya hipertensi pada orang dewasa, menurut jumlah natrium yang dikonsumsi. Studi ini merupakan bagian dari Studi Kohort Penyakit Tidak Menular yang

  4. Major but differential decline in the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in HIV-infected individuals from 1995 to 2007: a nationwide cohort study(*)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mv; Harboe, Zb; Ladelund, S

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Incidence rates (IRs) of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) are known to be higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the general population, but have not been assessed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: From 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2007, all Dani...... and the smallest decline in IR, while men who have sex with men (MSM) had the largest decline over time. Among HIV-infected individuals, a latest CD4 count MSM). Low CD4 cell count and IDU were strong predictors of SAB among HIV-infected individuals....

  5. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  6. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...... pattern, dimers tend to destroy the periodicity. Our data reveal distinctive growth rates and stability of both types of structures, thereby allowing one to obtain well-defined patterns of hydrogen clusters. The ability to control and manipulate the formation and size of hydrogen structures on graphene...... facilitates tailoring of its properties for a wide range of applications by means of covalent functionalization....

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.; Mazurek-Przybylik, E.

    1996-01-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Incidence, malignancy rates of diagnoses and cyto-histological correlations in the new Italian Reporting System for Thyroid Cytology: An institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straccia, P; Santoro, A; Rossi, E D; Brunelli, C; Mosseri, C; Musarra, T; Pontecorvi, A; Lombardi, C P; Fadda, G

    2017-12-01

    FNA biopsy is considered as the most accurate method for the selection of patients with thyroid nodules that need for surgery or for the wait and see management. The aim of the present study is to clarify the risk of malignancy for the cytological data classified according to the 2014 Italian reporting system. We report a retrospective analysis of 4043 patients in our institution's experience during the period April 2014 through December 2016 with the Italian reporting system for thyroid cytology. The diagnostic incidences of the 4043 cases were as follows: 9.8% TIR1; 1.3% TIR1C; 70% TIR2; 6.6% TIR3A; 4.5% TIR3B; 2.4% TIR4; 5.2% TIR5. A repeated aspiration was carried out in 68 out of 269 cases (25%) classified as TIR3A. A total of 407 cases with cytology underwent surgical resection. A malignant neoplasm was detected in 261 out of 407 (64%) cases. Regarding TIR3B, surgical excision was undertaken in 109 cases, which included 42 high-risk lesions and 67 Hürthle cell neoplasms. The risk of malignancy was significantly higher in the former compared to the latter (50% vs 9%; PReporting System concerning the mutual frequency of the diagnostic categories. The risk of malignancy is perfectly within the range of the estimated values. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Addition of 24 hour heart rate variability parameters to the cardiovascular health study stroke risk score and prediction of incident stroke : The cardiovascular health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodapati, R.K.; Kizer, J.R.; Kop, W.J.; Stein, P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) characterizes cardiac autonomic functioning. The association of HRV with stroke is uncertain. We examined whether 24‐hour HRV added predictive value to the Cardiovascular Health Study clinical stroke risk score (CHS‐SCORE), previously developed at the baseline

  10. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades - A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stynke Castelein

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S. A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973-1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years; 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis.

  11. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  12. Incidence, determinants and the transient impact of cancer treatments on venous thromboembolism risk among lymphoma patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jennifer L; Østgård, Lene Sofie; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    - and 2-year incidence accounting for competing risks. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we identified factors associated with VTE risk. In a nested self-controlled design, we evaluated the transient effect of chemotherapy, radiation, central venous catheter use and rituximab on VTE risk using......BACKGROUND: Valid estimation of the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) among lymphoma patients has been limited by small studies focused on selected lymphoma subtypes and failure to account for death as a competing risk. Using a nationwide cohort of Danish lymphoma patients...... diagnosed from 2000 to 2010, we examined the incidence and risk factors for VTE and evaluated the transient impact of cancer treatments on VTE risk. METHODS: Medical databases contained cancer, comorbidity, treatment, and VTE information. We computed VTE incidence rates (IRs) per 1000person-years and 1...

  13. Do neighborhood demographics, crime rates, and alcohol outlet density predict incidence, severity, and outcome of hospitalization for traumatic injury? A cross-sectional study of Dallas County, Texas, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alan; Gonzalez, Jennifer Reingle; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2014-12-01

    Unintentional injury leads all other causes of death for those 1 to 45 years old. The expense of medical care for injured people is estimated to exceed $406 billion annually. Given this burden on the population, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consistently refers to injury prevention as a national priority. We postulated that exposure to crime and the density of alcohol outlets in one's neighborhood will be positively associated with the incidence of hospitalization for and mortality from traumatic injuries, independent of other neighborhood characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study with ecological and individual analyses. Patient-level data for traumatic injury, injury severity, and hospital mortality due to traumatic injury in 2010 were gathered from the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council Foundation. Each case of traumatic injury or death was geospatially linked with neighborhood of origin information from the 2010 U.S. Census within Dallas County, Texas. This information was subsequently linked with crime data gathered from 20 local police departments and the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission alcohol outlet dataset. The crime data are the Part One crimes reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The proportion of persons 65 years old or older was the strongest predictor of the incidence of hospitalization for traumatic injury (b = 12.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.73 to 16.55). In turn, the incidence of traumatic injury most strongly predicted the severity of traumatic injury (b = 0.008, 95% CI 0.0003 - 0.0012). The tract-level unemployment rate was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of hospital mortality among hospitalized trauma patients. Several neighborhood characteristics were associated with the incidence, severity, and hospital mortality from traumatic injury. However, crime rates and alcohol outlet density carried no such association. Prevention efforts should focus on neighborhood characteristics such

  14. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence of the geometric parameters and of flow in the primary ventilation rate and of carbon monoxide emissions in burning atmospherics of medium and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amell A, Andres; Hernandez V, Jaime; Cortes T, Jaime

    2000-01-01

    In this kind of atmospheric burners, high-pressure gas supply and Venturi geometry guarantee a good primary air entrance for combustion. In this project we analyze the most important burner geometric parameters (outlet diameter, injection diameter and mixer geometry) and gas flux conditions (supply pressure) that have an influence over primary aeration rate. The results of this investigation will contribute with the methodology design improvement, focused to use this kind of burners in our country

  16. Rate of ectasia and incidence of irregular topography in patients with unidentified preoperative risk factors undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Jared G Smedley,2 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Allison Jarsted,3 Erik M Ostler1 1John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA Purpose: To report the rate of postoperative ectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation, in a population of patients with no identified preoperative risk factors. Methods: A retrospective case review of 1,992 eyes (1,364 patients treated between March 2007 and January 2009 was conducted, with a follow up of over 4 years. After identifying cases of ectasia, all the patient charts were examined retrospectively for preoperative findings suggestive of forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC. Results: Five eyes of four patients with post-LASIK ectasia were identified. All eyes passed preoperative screening and received bilateral LASIK. One of the five patients developed ectasia in both eyes. Three patients retrospectively revealed preoperative topography suggestive of FFKC, while one patient had no identifiable preoperative risk factors. Upon review of all the charts, a total 69 eyes, including four of the five eyes with ectasia, were retrospectively found to have topographies suggestive of FFKC. Conclusion: We identified four cases of post-LASIK ectasia that had risk factors for FFKC on reexamination of the chart and one case of post-LASIK ectasia with no identifiable preoperative risk factors. The most conservative screening recommendations would not have precluded this patient from LASIK. The rate of purely iatrogenic post-LASIK ectasia at our center was 0.05% (1/1,992, and the total rate of post-LASIK ectasia for our entire study was 0.25% (1/398. The rate of eyes with unrecognized preoperative FFKC that developed post-LASIK ectasia was 5.8% (1/17. Keywords

  17. Qualification tests for 192Ir sealed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancso, Georgeta; Iliescu, Elena; Iancu, Rodica

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the results of qualification tests for 192Ir sealed sources, available in Testing and Nuclear Expertise Laboratory of National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering "Horia Hulubei" (I.F.I.N.-HH), Romania. These sources had to be produced in I.F.I.N.-HH and were tested in order to obtain the authorization from The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). The sources are used for gammagraphy procedures or in gammadefectoscopy equipments. Tests, measurement methods and equipments used, comply with CNCAN, AIEA and International Quality Standards and regulations. The qualification tests are: 1. Radiological tests and measurements: dose equivalent rate at 1 m; tightness; dose equivalent rate at the surface of the transport and storage container; external unfixed contamination of the container surface. 2. Mechanical and climatic tests: thermal shock; external pressure; mechanic shock; vibrations; boring; thermal conditions for storage and transportation. Passing all tests, it was obtained the Radiological Security Authorization for producing the 192Ir sealed sources. Now IFIN-HH can meet many demands for this sealed sources, as the only manufacturer in Romania.

  18. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  19. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  20. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-15

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  1. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Quinlan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  2. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify incidence of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls selling at auction during 2 seasons in 2008. Twenty-three BQA-related traits were evaluated by 9 trained personnel during sales at 10 livestock auction markets in Idaho (n = 5; beef and dairy), California, (n = 4; dairy only), and Utah (n = 1; beef and dairy). Overall, 18,949 unique lots (8,213 beef cows, 1,036 beef bulls, 9,177 dairy cows, and 523 dairy bulls,) consisting of 23,479 animals (9,299 beef cows, 1,091 beef bulls, 12,429 dairy cows, and 660 dairy bulls) were evaluated during 125 sales (64 spring, 61 fall) for dairy and 79 sales (40 spring, 39 fall) for beef. The majority of market beef cows and bulls (60.9 and 71.3%, respectively) were predominantly black-hided, and the Holstein hide pattern was observed in 95.4 and 93.6% of market dairy cows and bulls, respectively. Market cattle weighed 548 ± 103.6 kg (beef cows), 751 ± 176.1 kg (beef bulls), 658 ± 129.7 kg (dairy cows), and 731 ± 150.8 kg (dairy bulls). Most beef cows (79.6%) weighed 455 to 726 kg, and most beef bulls (73.8%) weighed 545 to 954 kg, respectively. Among market beef cattle, 16.0% of cows and 14.5% of bulls weighed less than 455 and 545 kg, respectively, and 63.7% of dairy cows and 81.5% of dairy bulls weighed 545 to 817 kg or 545 to 954 kg, respectively. However, 19.5% of dairy cows and 13.1% of dairy bulls weighed less than 545 kg. Mean BCS for beef cattle (9-point scale) was 4.7 ± 1.2 (cows) and 5.3 ± 0.9 (bulls), and for dairy cattle (5-point scale) was 2.6 ± 0.8 (cows) and 2.9 ± 0.6 (bulls). Some 16.5% of beef cows and 4.1% of beef bulls had a BCS of 1 to 3, whereas 34.8% of dairy cows and 10.4% of dairy bulls had a BCS of 2 or less. Emaciation (beef BCS = 1, dairy BCS = 1.0) or near-emaciation (beef BCS = 2, dairy BCS = 1.5) was observed in 13.3% of dairy cows and 3.9% of beef cows. Among beef cattle, 15.1% of cows and 15.4% of bulls were

  3. Using the PDSA Cycle for the Evaluation of Pointing and Calling Implementation to Reduce the Rate of High-Alert Medication Administration Incidents in the United Christian Hospital of Hong Kong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lap Fung Tsang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to adopt a Plan-do-Study-Act (PDSA cycle to monitor the implementation of Pointing and Calling (P&C in the United Christian Hospital of Hong Kong, China. Materials and Methods: A workgroup was formed to evaluate the approaches to apply P&C in high-alert medication administration using infusion and syringe devices. A series of promulgations and strategies were implemented to increase the probability of its success and sustainability. In addition, pretest and posttest evaluation was performed to monitor the incident rate associated with high-alert medication administration using infusion and syringe devices. Results:Over 100 briefing sessions were conducted in the hospital wards, and 145 senior managers, ward managers, and advanced practice nurses completed the training and assessment. In total, 217 questionnaires, which were scored based on a six-point Likert scale, were collected from 21 wards, with the response rate estimated at 26.53%. Moreover, an audit was performed to obtain 98.1-100% of the compliance rate of using the P&C for evaluation. Since June 2016, the incident rate due to inaccurate device setting decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 after the P&C implementation. Conclusion: According to the results, P&C is a simple method to facilitate the meticulous assessment of high-alert medication administration by nurses. It is recommended that further improvement be made in this regard in order to address the unidentified other areas. Of note, counter measures were proposed to strengthen P&C compliance.

  4. WFC3 IR subarray anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Certain combinations of WFC3 IR subarray size and sample sequence yield images that show a sharp change in background level that exactly bi-sects each detector amplifier quadrant. The change in level has an amplitude of a few DN per pixel. The cause of this anomaly and its apparent correlation with subarray size and sample sequence is not understood. Given the 4 available subarray sizes and 11 available readout sample sequences, there are a total of 44 possible subarray mode readout combinations. To date, 14 of those combinations have been used on-orbit in either calibration and GO programs. Of those, 3 combinations show the anomaly. This program will obtain IR dark exposures in the remaining 30 readout combinations that have not yet been explored. This will add to our knowledge of which combinations show the anomaly and will therefore help us to understand its origin.

  5. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  6. Hidroenergijos panaudojimo raida ir perspektyvos

    OpenAIRE

    Vizbaras, Andrius

    2008-01-01

    Ilgą laiko tarpą hidroenergetika vertinta kaip sėkminga žmonijos vystimosi ir akivaizdžios naudos išraiška, pastaruoju metu siejama su reikšmingu poveikiu gamtinei aplinkai bei įtaka klimato kaitai. Lygumų šalyse, net ir mažos galios hidroelektrinių statyba pareikalauja didelių užliejamų žemės plotų. Šiame darbe atlikome aštuoniasdešimties iki 2007 metų pastatytų hidroelektrinių poveikio aplinkai analizę bei aptarėme galimą „Lietuvos hidroenergetinių išteklių schemoje„ numatytų statyti HE pov...

  7. Updated canine infection rates for Dirofilaria immitis in areas of Brazil previously identified as having a high incidence of heartworm-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Norma Vollmer; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Reifur, Larissa; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Merlo, Alexandre; Carvalho Pinto, Carlos Jose; Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2014-11-07

    Canine heartworm infections were frequently diagnosed in Brazil before the new millennium. After the year 2000, the frequency of diagnosis showed a sharp decline; however, a few years later, new evidence indicated that the parasite was still present and that canine infection rates seemed to be increasing. Therefore, an updated survey of canine heartworm prevalence was conducted in several locations in south, southeast, and northeast Brazil. Dogs from 15 locations having previously reported a high prevalence of heartworm infection were included in the survey according to defined criteria, including the absence of treatment with a macrocyclic lactone for at least 1 year. Blood samples from 1531 dogs were evaluated by an in-clinic immunochromatography test kit (Witness® Heartworm, Zoetis, USA) for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. At each location, epidemiologic data, including physical characteristics and clinical signs reported by owners or observed by veterinarians, were recorded on prepared forms for tabulation of results by location, clinical signs, and physical characteristics. The overall prevalence of canine heartworm infection was 23.1%, with evidence of heartworm-infected dogs detected in all 15 locations studied. There was a tendency for higher prevalence rates in environmentally protected areas, despite some locations having less-than-ideal environmental temperatures for survival of vector mosquitoes. Among physical characteristics, it was noted that dogs with predominantly white hair coats and residing in areas with a high (≥20%) prevalence of heartworm were less likely to have heartworm infection detected by a commercial heartworm antigen test kit than were dogs with other coat colors. In general, dogs older than 2 years were more frequently positive for D. immitis antigen than were younger dogs. Clinical signs of heartworm infections were rare or owners were unable to detect them, and could not be used for reliable prediction of the

  8. Prognostic value of interferon-γ release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas Stig; Lillebaek, Troels; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. For the QFT-positive cases, coprevalent TB was more frequent among persons 35  years (19.3% vs 7.2%, pperson-years, median follow-up time was 3.36 years. For incident TB, the positive and negative predictive values (PPV...... individuals and data on all TB cases in Denmark from 2005 to 2012 and determined the predictive value of the QFT for coprevalent TB (0-90 days after testing) and incident TB (>90 days). RESULTS: Coprevalent TB was diagnosed in 10.7% (183/1703) and 0.3% (38/13 463) cases with a positive and negative QFT...... and NPV) were 1.32% and 99.85%, respectively. Incidence rates (IR) for incident TB among QFT-positives and QFT-negatives were 383 per 10(5) and 45 per 10(5) person-years, respectively. Among cases with a positive QFT, IR for incident TB was associated with time interval since QFT (

  9. Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminato Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of death in domestic animals. Furthermore, many forms of pet neoplasm resemble that of their human counterparts in biologic behaviour, pathologic expression, and recognised risk factors. In April 2005, a pilot project was activated so as to establish a dog and cat tumour registry living in the Venice and Vicenza provinces (Veneto Region, north-eastern Italy, with the aim of estimating the incidence of spontaneous tumours. Results Through a telephone survey, the estimates of canine and feline populations of the catchment area turned out to be of 296,318 (CI +/- 30,201 and 214,683 (CI +/- 21,755 subjects, respectively. During the first three years, overall 2,509 canine and 494 feline cases of neoplasia were diagnosed. In dogs, the estimated annual incidence rate (IR per 100,000 dogs for all tumours was 282 in all the catchment area, whereas in cats the IR was much lower (IR = 77. Malignant and benign tumours were equally distributed in male and female dogs, whereas cats had a 4.6-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than benign. In both dogs and cats, purebreds had an almost 2-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than mixed breeds. Tumour incidence increased with age in both dog and cat populations. Conclusion This study has provided estimates of incidence of spontaneous neoplasm in companion animals. Further attempts will be made to increase the accuracy in the population size assessment and to ascertain the real gap with the official regional canine demographic registry. Veterinary practitioners may also benefit from the tumour registry insofar they may obtain data for specific breeds, age groups or geographical areas.

  10. A nine-year prospective study on the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Li, T L; Yang, Z; Liu, Z Y; Wei, Y D; Jin, S X; Hong, C; Qin, R L; Li, Y Q; Dorman, J S; Laporte, R E; Wang, K A

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in China, newly diagnosed cases of type 1 diabetes with an onset age under 15 years were retrospectively registered by 23 local centers in China following a standardized protocol on the basis of the nationwide registry established by the WHO DiaMond Project China Participating Center, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM). A population of about 24 million children were covered in the defined areas. A two-sample capture-recapture method was used to estimate case ascertainment. Between 1988 and 1996, 903 diabetic cases were registered in 9 ethnic groups. The overall ascertainment corrected incidence rate (IR) was 0.59 per 100,000 person-year. The IR was 0.52/100,000 (95% CI: 0.50-0.54) for males and 0.66/100,000 (95% CI: 0.64-0.68) for females. The standardized ascertainment corrected IR by the national age-specific population in 1990 was 0.57 per 100,000 person-year. The incidence among various ethnic groups ranged from 0.25/100,000 to 3. 06/100,000. The IRs increased with northern latitude, and the IR of Han population was significantly higher in North China compared with South China (0.67 versus 0.53 per 100,000 respectively, P < 0.01). A correlation model of incidence and calendar time showed that the IR increased significantly between 1988 and 1996 (r = 0.86, P = 0.0027). The relative risk (RR) of type 1 diabetes mellitus for different age-groups estimated by a Poisson regression model showed that taking RR as 1.00 for age-group from 0 to 4 years, the RR for age-group from 5 to 9 year and from 10 to 14 year was 2.30 and 3.60 respectively. The standardized ascertainment corrected IR of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in China in much lower than in other countries. The geographic and ethnic variability of the incidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of childhood diabetes in China.

  11. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth [Department of Psychology, Sigmund Freud Private University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore [Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Management, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Sturdza, Alina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dimopoulos, Johannes C. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Nout, Remi A.; Sturdza, Alina; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful

  14. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO(2)max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2...

  15. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  16. Diffraction-limited IR Microspectroscopy with IRENI

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Sedlmair; B. Illman; M. Unger; C. Hirschmugl

    2012-01-01

    In a unique way, IRENI (Infrared environmental Imaging), operated at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Madison, combines IR spectroscopy and IR imaging, revealing the chemical morphology of a sample. Most storage ring based IR confocal microscopes have to overcome a trade-off between spatial resolution versus...

  17. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM. In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  18. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  19. IR-ATR investigation of surface anisotropy in silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Kriltz, Antje; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Several samples of flat soda-lime silicate glass were investigated by the Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy technique. The specular reflectance spectra together with the results of the performed dispersion analysis and the generated reflectance spectra, using Fresnel equations, suggest that the samples are isotropic. In contrast, spectra recorded by the ATR technique suggest an anisotropic structure on the surface of the specimen different from that in the bulk. This is established through differences in the s- and p-polarized IR-ATR spectra, which cannot be simply transformed into one another employing Fresnel formula for an isotropic case. It appears that this thin film having a structure different from the bulk is larger than the ATR effective penetration depth of the evanescent ray for each incidence angle above the critical one. The investigation suggests C2 symmetry of the SiO4 unit.

  20. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its' relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1-1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8-1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9-1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6-1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5-2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6-2.1)). Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future.

  1. Sustained p16INK4aexpression is required to prevent IR-induced tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, L; Krishnan, V; Le, N L O; Sharpless, N E; Beauséjour, C M

    2017-03-02

    Exposure of murine and human tissues to ionizing radiation (IR) induces the expression of p16 INK4a , a tumor suppressor gene and senescence/aging biomarker. Increased p16 INK4a expression is often delayed several weeks post exposure to IR. In this context, it remains unclear if it occurs to suppress aberrant cellular growth of potentially transformed cells or is simply a result of IR-induced loss of tissue homeostasis. To address this question, we used a conditional p16 INK4a null mouse model and determined the impact of p16 INK4a inactivation long-term post exposure to IR. We found that, in vitro, bone marrow stromal cells exposed to IR enter DNA replication following p16 INK4a inactivation. However, these cells did not resume growth; instead, they mostly underwent cell cycle arrest in G2. Similarly, delayed inactivation of p16 INK4a in mice several weeks post exposure to IR resulted in increased BrdU incorporation and cancer incidence. In fact, we found that the onset of tumorigenesis was similar whether p16 INK4a was inactivated before or after exposure to IR. Overall, our results suggest that IR-induced p16 INK4a dependent growth arrest is reversible in mice and that sustained p16 INK4a expression is necessary to protect against tumorigenesis.

  2. Practice Guideline Summary: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Incidence Rates and Risk Factors: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia; Tomson, Torbjörn; Gloss, David; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Cross, J. Helen; Donner, Elizabeth; French, Jacqueline A.; Gil-Nagel, Anthony; Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Smithson, W. Henry; Spitz, Mark C.; Walczak, Thaddeus S.; Sander, Josemir W.; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in different epilepsy populations and address the question of whether risk factors for SUDEP have been identified. Methods: Systematic review of evidence; modified Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process for developing conclusions; recommendations developed by consensus. Results: Findings for incidence rates based on 12 Class I studies include the following: SUDEP risk in children with epilepsy (aged 0–17 years) is 0.22/1,000 patient-years (95% CI 0.16–0.31) (high confidence in evidence). SUDEP risk increases in adults to 1.2/1,000 patient-years (95% CI 0.64–2.32) (low confidence in evidence). The major risk factor for SUDEP is the occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS); the SUDEP risk increases in association with increasing frequency of GTCS occurrence (high confidence in evidence). Recommendations: Level B: Clinicians caring for young children with epilepsy should inform parents/guardians that in 1 year, SUDEP typically affects 1 in 4,500 children; therefore, 4,499 of 4,500 children will not be affected. Clinicians should inform adult patients with epilepsy that SUDEP typically affects 1 in 1,000 adults with epilepsy per year; therefore, annually 999 of 1,000 adults will not be affected. For persons with epilepsy who continue to experience GTCS, clinicians should continue to actively manage epilepsy therapies to reduce seizures and SUDEP risk while incorporating patient preferences and weighing the risks and benefits of any new approach. Clinicians should inform persons with epilepsy that seizure freedom, particularly freedom from GTCS, is strongly associated with decreased SUDEP risk. ABBREVIATIONS AAN: American Academy of Neurology AED: antiepileptic drug GTCS: generalized tonic-clonic seizures SUDEP: sudden unexpected death in epilepsy PMID:28684957

  3. The effect of periodontal therapy on the survival rate and incidence of complications of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement after an observation period of at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Ba, Guy; Kuonen, Patrick; Hofer, Dominik; Schmid, Jürg; Lang, Niklaus P; Salvi, Giovanni E

    2009-02-01

    To systematically review the survival rate and incidence of complications of furcation-involved multirooted teeth following periodontal therapy after at least 5 years. Electronic and manual searches were performed up to and including January 2008. Publication selection, data extraction and validity assessment were performed independently by three reviewers. Twenty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Because of the heterogeneity of the data, a meta-analysis could not be performed. The survival rate of molars treated non-surgically was >90% after 5-9 years. The corresponding values for the different surgical procedures were: Surgical therapy: 43.1% to 96%, observation period: 5-53 years. Tunnelling procedures: 42.9% to 92.9%, observation period: 5-8 years. Surgical resective procedures including amputation(s) and hemisections: 62% to 100%, observation period: 5-13 years. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR): 83.3% to 100%, observation period: 5-12 years. The most frequent complications included caries in the furcation area after tunnelling procedures and root fractures after root-resective procedures. Good long-term survival rates (up to 100%) of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement were obtained following various therapeutic approaches. Initial furcation involvement (Degree I) could be successfully managed by non-surgical mechanical debridement. Vertical root fractures and endodontic failures were the most frequent complications observed following resective procedures.

  4. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  5. Marked socioeconomic inequalities in hip fracture incidence rates during the Bone and Joint Decade (2000-2010) in Portugal: age and sex temporal trends in a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Alves, Sandra Maria; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2016-08-01

    Socioeconomic factors may influence changes in hip fracture (HF) incidence over time. We analysed HF temporal trends during the Bone and Joint Decade in Portugal (BJD-Portugal), 2000-2010, by regional socioeconomic status (SES), sex and age. We selected registers of patients aged 50+ years with HF (International Classification of Diseases, V.9-Clinical Modification, ICD9-CM) caused by traumas of low/moderate energy, from the National Hospital Discharge Database. Annual time series of age-specific incidence rates were calculated by sex and regional SES (deprived, medium, affluent). Generalised additive models were fitted to identify shape/turning points in temporal trends. We selected 96 905 HF (77.3% in women). Women were older than men at admission (81.2±8.5 vs 78.2±10.1 years-old, ptrend (1.7%/year) only in affluent and increasing trends (3.3-3.4%/year) after 2006/2007 in medium and deprived was observed. For men, trends were stable or increased in almost all age/SES groups (only two decreasing periods). For the oldest women, all SES present similar trends: turning points around 2003 (initiating decreasing periods: 1.8-2.9%/year) and around 2007 (initiating increasing periods: 3.7-3.3%/year). There were SES-sex-age inequalities in temporal trends during BJD-Portugal: marked SES inequalities among women aged 65-79 years (a persistent, decreasing trend only in the affluent) vanished among the oldest women; the same was not observed in men, for them, there were almost no declining periods; women aged ≥80 years, presented increasing trends around 2007, as in most deprived/age/sex groups. Despite some successful periods of decreasing trends, incidence rates did not improve overall in almost all age groups and both sexes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Collaborative Student Laboratory Exercise Using FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Kinetics Study of a Biotin Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jhaque; Ackroyd, Nathan C.; Ho, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of N-methoxycarbonyl-2-imidazolidone, an analogue of biotin, was conducted by organic chemistry students and confirmed using FT-IR and H NMR. Spectroscopy students used FT-IR to measure the rate of hydrolysis of the product and determined the rate constant for the reaction using the integrated rate law. From the magnitude of the rate…

  8. Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Genital Warts in Young Men 5 Years into the Danish Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program for Girls and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Signe; Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Blomberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Denmark introduced the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine into the vaccination program for 12- to 15-year-old girls in 2008 to 2009. In 2012, the program was supplemented with a catch-up program for women aged up to 27 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Danish...... vaccination program on the nationwide incidence of genital warts (GWs), after the second catch-up by including information on both hospital treatments and on self-administered treatment with podophyllotoxin. Genital wart incidence was investigated in both sexes; however, the main focus was on potential herd...... protection of men. METHODS: Incident cases of GWs were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and through redemptions of prescription for podophyllotoxin in the Danish National Prescription Registry in 2006 to 2013. Age-specific incidence rates (IRs) were assessed, and estimated annual...

  9. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  10. Incidence of craniopharyngioma in Denmark (n = 189) and estimated world incidence of craniopharyngioma in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Poulsgaard, L

    2011-01-01

    PubMed and, if appropriate, were included in a weighted analysis estimating overall and children's IRs of craniopharyngioma. IRs are given as new cases per million per year. We identified 189 patients with new verified (162) or probable craniopharyngioma. The overall WHO World-standardised incidence...... Registry, the Danish Cancer Registry and regional registries. Medical records were reviewed. Danish population data were obtained from Statistics Denmark. European and World population data were obtained from EU and WHO homepages. Prior studies providing data on craniopharyngioma IRs were identified via...

  11. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  12. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  13. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  14. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Feminist Challenge to the Mainstream IR

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the Feminist challenge to the Mainstream International Relations Discipline (IR) - rationalist theories, especially Realism - and the mainstream's responses to this challenge. It addresses the issue in five steps. Firstly, it sheds light on how Feminism is related to International Relations. Secondly, it examines how Feminist IR theorists criticize the Mainstream IR due to its state-centric approach and argue that being obsessed with anarchic international system prevent...

  16. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED ( IR ) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared ( IR ) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L...release; distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Several Infrared ( IR ) imaging systems have been measured

  17. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myths...... helps us recognize what is missing from IR theorizing - conceptions of the international by 'others' who also constitute the international. I illustrate this point by focussing on a landmark text on Ottoman history, Ortayll's The Longest Century of the Empire....

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  19. Produção de biomassa e rizomas e incidência de "Metsubure" em taro submetido a doses de potássio com e sem adição de cálcio Biomass accumulation, yield and "Metsubure" incidence in taro corms submitted to potassium rates, with and without calcium application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco HF Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes de potássio (K, em solo com e sem aplicação de cálcio (Ca, na produção de biomassa, produção de rizomas, teores de K e Ca e incidência de "Metsubure" em rizomas de taro. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos contendo 10 L de solo, em casa de vegetação, de 19/10/2002 a 20/07/2003, com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. Foram avaliadas cinco doses de K (0; 150; 300; 600 e 1.200 mg K2O kg-1 de solo, sem e com adição de Ca (0 e 232 mg Ca kg-1 de solo, dispostas no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Produções de biomassa e de rizomas apresentaram comportamento semelhante em resposta às doses de K, em presença e ausência da adição do Ca. Valores máximos de biomassa seca e produção de rizomas foram verificados com a adição de Ca nas doses de 794 e 760 mg K2O kg-1 de solo, respectivamente. Sob baixa dose de K, as massas secas de rizomas e totais, a produção de massa fresca e o número de rizomas-filho por planta foram maiores na ausência do que presença de Ca, sendo esse comportamento invertido a partir das doses de K2O de 85; 46; 202 e 578 mg kg-1 de solo, respectivamente. Na ausência da adição de Ca incrementos na dose de K promoveram redução da concentração de Ca nos rizomas-filho; a concentração de K nesses rizomas aumentou com o incremento na dose de K, independentemente da adição de Ca. Na ausência de adição de Ca e nas doses de 600 e 1.200 mg K2O kg-1 de solo constatou-se a incidência do sintoma de "Metsubure" em 6,56 e 9,84% dos rizomas-filho, respectivamente.The biomass accumulation (cormels and total plant dry weight, yield (fresh weight and number of cormels and "Metsubure" incidence in taro cormels was evaluated on plants submitted to distinct potassium (K fertilizer rates, with and without calcium (Ca application. The experiment was conduced in a glasshouse from 10/19/2002 to 07/20/2003, with the taro 'Chin

  20. Silver electrodeposition over an Ir/Ir oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezna, R.O.; Tacconi, N.R. de; Arvia, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in electrochemical response brought about by the electrodeposition of small amounts of silver on oxide covered iridium electrodes are examined in relation to the semiconducting properties of the oxide. The charge involved in both silver and hydrogen atoms was found to remain practically constant and independent of the oxide thickness which was gradually increased by potentiodynamic cycling up to greater anodic switching potentials. This result suggests that the charge transfer for both processes takes place at the bare metal. The considerable increase in the film conductivity when the potential is above ductivity when the potential is above oV (MSE) is shown by the fact that under certain controlled conditions the silver electroreduction/ electroxidation reactions are shifted to a more anodic potential region where the oxide becomes conductor and participates in the charge transfer process. Silver loading increases the electrical conductivity of the oxide providing a large cross section for the electroxidation of Ir, particularly in a region where the oxide conductivity is poor (E [pt

  1. Galaxy Evolution Studies with the SPace IR Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA): The Power of IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Bianchi, S.; Bocchio, M.; Bolatto, A.; Bradford, C.; Braine, J.; Carrera, F. J.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Doi, Y.; Efstathiou, A.; Egami, E.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Ferrara, A.; Fischer, J.; Franceschini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giard, M.; González-Alfonso, E.; Gruppioni, C.; Guillard, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Imanishi, M.; Ishihara, D.; Isobe, N.; Kaneda, H.; Kawada, M.; Kohno, K.; Kwon, J.; Madden, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Marassi, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuura, M.; Miniutti, G.; Nagamine, K.; Nagao, T.; Najarro, F.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Oyabu, S.; Pallottini, A.; Piro, L.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Roelfsema, P.; Sakon, I.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schneider, R.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Shibai, H.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Sobacchi, E.; Sturm, E.; Suzuki, T.; Vallini, L.; van der Tak, F.; Vignali, C.; Yamada, T.; Wada, T.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    IR spectroscopy in the range 12-230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA's large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z 6.

  2. An Evaluation of Trends in Patient and Public Awareness of IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, David; Jackson, Susan; Doherty-Simor, Margaret; Newton, Isabel

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate patient and public awareness of interventional radiology (IR). This single-center study prospectively administered voluntary paper surveys to 80 patients in an academic hospital radiology waiting room. Separate, Internet-based surveys were administered to the general public. Additionally, Internet metadata were used to evaluate relative search engine activity and IR-related news coverage compared with similar procedural specialties. 65% of radiology department outpatients had no prior knowledge of IR. Of the general population surveyed, 72% could not identify an interventional radiologist as a physician. Relative annual IR-related Google search volumes peaked in 2004 and were at their nadir in 2011. After normalizing for number of practicing physicians, IR was the subject of substantially fewer Google searches than similar specialties (15.9% of urology volumes, 27.9% of cardiology volumes, and 39.0% of vascular surgery volumes). Between 2006 and 2016, IR had a similar rate of annual increase in the volume of Internet news results as similar medical specialties, although the volumes reached by IR in 2016 were obtained by more established fields, such as cardiology, in 2011. These data provide metrics of current and historical awareness trends in IR, which demonstrate low patient and public awareness. The findings of this study may help guide future efforts to promote patient and public awareness of IR. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  4. Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleman, Haley R; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia D; Dowling, Jacqueline A; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol A; Elder, J Bradley; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Selman, Warren R; Sloan, Andrew E; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010. The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status. In adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, -3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, -0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, -1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, -2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, -3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6). Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  5. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  6. Photochemical Properties of CH2═CH-CFCl-CF2Br (4-Bromo-3-chloro-3,4,4-trifluoro-1-butene) and CH3-O-CH(CF3)2(Methyl Hexafluoroisopropyl Ether): OH Reaction Rate Constants and UV and IR Absorption Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Vladimir L; Martynova, Larissa E; Kurylo, Michael J

    2017-08-03

    Rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropyl methyl ether (CH 3 -O-CH(CF 3 ) 2 ) and 4-bromo-3-chloro-3,4,4-trifluoro-1-butene (CH 2 ═CH-CFCl-CF 2 Br) have been measured over the temperature range 230-370 K to give the following Arrhenius expressions: k CH3OCH(CF3)2 (T) = 7.69 × 10 -14 × (T/298) 2.99 × exp(+342/T), cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , and k CH2CHCFClCF2Br (T) = (6.45 ± 0.72) × 10 -13 × exp{+(424 ± 32)/T}, cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . Atmospheric lifetimes of compounds were estimated to be 67 days and 4.5 days, respectively. UV absorption spectrum of CH 2 ═CH-CFCl-CF 2 Br between 164 and 260 nm and IR absorption spectra of both compounds between 450 and 1600 cm -1 were measured at room temperature.

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania over the period of 1978-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakiene, I.; Kuprionis, G.; Makstiene, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In areas not associated with nuclear fallout, the annual incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 2.0-3.8 cases per 100 000 in women and 1.2-2.6 per 100 000 in men. The incidence of thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine rose just 4 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Though, the radioactive clouds passed over Lithuania but it is still unclear whether the rise in incidence of thyroid cancer in our patients is due to this irradiation or iodine deficiency or due to increased diagnostic activity. Population-based data on thyroid carcinomas was obtained from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry to analyse the incidence of thyroid cancers in Lithuania for the period of 1978-2003. The incidence rate (IR) was calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed cases in the calendar year per 100 000 inhabitants depending on sex. Additionally we analysed the association between histopathological types of thyroid carcinoma, disease severity as expressed by TNM classification (according to ICD-10), age and gender. For this purpose our database included a total of 354 cases of thyroid carcinoma (47 males-13.3% and 307 females-86.7%) admitted to the Kaunas Medical University Hospital during the period of 2001-July 2003. Since 1990 a significant rise of the thyroid cancer incidence affecting mainly women of > 40 years of age have been observed. 78 newly diagnosed cases of thyroid cancer (18 male and 60 female) were registered in 1990. The IR value is 1.0 in men and 3.1 in women. During the period from 1991 to 1995 the IR varied from 1.1 to 1.7 in men and from 3.6 to 5.8 in women. The increase in the number of cancer cases in women was observed year by year between 1996-2000, reaching 138 (IR 7.1), while the increase in men was not so obvious during the same period. Thyroid cancer incidence is still increasing and was 9.8 for women and 2.7 for men in the year 2001. In spite of increased incidence of thyroid cancer, morbidity between 1992-2000 did not increase

  8. Ligand binding affinity at the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A and subsequent IR-A tyrosine phosphorylation kinetics are important determinants of mitogenic biological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinda eRajapaksha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin receptor (IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signalling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration by activating some unique signalling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signalling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signalling (MAPK and Akt and receptor internalisation rates (related to mitogenic signalling. We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic ([His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51] IGF-I, qIGF-I or metabolic (S597 peptide biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signalling through the IR-A. The 3-fold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316 and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and the kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I.

  9. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  10. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  11. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  12. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  13. Efeitos da associação propafenona - propofol na contratilidade miocárdica, freqüência cardíaca, fluxo coronariano e incidência de arritmia em corações isolados de ratos Effects of propafenone associated with propofol on myocardial contractility, heart rate, coronary flow, and the incidence of arrhythmia in isolated hearts of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilcéa Leal de Moraes Assis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da propafenona associada ao propofol na contratilidade miocárdica (dP/dt e freqüência cardíaca, fluxo coronariano e incidência de arritmia em corações isolados de ratos. MÉTODOS: Estudados 40 corações de ratos albinos anestesiados com éter sulfúrico, adaptados a sistema de perfusão, tipo Langendorff modificado, nutridos com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H, (95% de O2, 5% de CO2, pH de 7,4±0,1, pressão de perfusão entre 90 e 100cm de água e temperatura de 37±0,5º C, obtidos registros de controle após período de estabilização e distribuídos em quatro grupos: I (controle, II (propafenona, na dose de 100mcg, III (propofol, na dose de 25mcg e IV (propafenona-propofol. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diminuição (pOBJECTIVE: To study the influence of propafenone associated with propofol on myocardial contractility (dP/dt and heart rate, coronary flow, and the incidence of arrhythmia in isolated rat hearts. METHODS: Forty albino rats were anesthetized with sulfuric ether, a modified Langendorff method was performed, and the rats were fed with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H solution, (95% O2, 5% CO2, pH 7.4±0.1, perfusion pressure between 90 and 100cm of water, and temperature 37± 0.5ºC. Control records were obtained after a stabilization period and rats were distributed into the following 4 groups: I (control, II (100mcg propafenone, III (25mcg propofol, and IV (propafenone-propofol. RESULTS: A decrease (P<0.05 in the heart rate in groups II and IV was observed, with a greater decrease in group II. A decrease was noted in the dP/dt ratio (P< 0.05 in groups II and IV, during all periods. Group III experienced depression from the 1st to the 3rd minute. Coronary flow had a decrease (P<0.05 in all groups, compared with the control group, especially in group IV with a decrease from 14mL/min to 11mL/min. Arrhythmogenic effects of propafenone (pro-arrhythmia were verified in 50% of group II. In the association with

  14. Estimation of the prevalence and direct medical costs of chronic myeloid leukemia in the I.R. of Iran in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Nikravanfard, Nazila; Sadighi, Sanambar; Sedighi, Zahra; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-10-01

    After the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the survival of these patients has increased significantly. However, these new drugs are expensive and impose considerable expense to patients and governments. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation studies provide good information for resource allocation and decision making. We estimated the incidence, prevalence and direct medical cost of CML in Iran. We used the National Cancer Registry (NCR) data from 2006 to 2009 to estimate the incidence rate of CML (ICD-10 code C92.1). After adjustment for the underestimation of incidence rates, we used survival rates of CML and estimated the 5-year prevalence for these patients. In addition, we used clinical practice guideline, expert opinions and medical tariffs to estimate the direct medical costs through the prevalence approach. After an adjustment for the underestimation, the incidence rate of CML was 0.5 per 100 000 in the I.R. of Iran. The 5-year prevalence was about 2263 cases (2.98 per 100 000). The total direct medical cost of CML was $23 089 323 and the majority of the cost (97%) was related to drug costs. The total cost will increase considerably to $40 728 869 if all patients use the new drug nilotinib (800 mg/day) as a second-line treatment. The increased survival of CML patients and a possible increase in incidence of CML in Iran will most likely lead to a considerable rise in its prevalence and economic burden. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. HOMA-IR and the risk of hyperuricemia: a prospective study in non-diabetic Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nakashima, Motoko; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-10-01

    To examine the relation of insulin resistant status determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. The study participants included 2071 Japanese men without hyperuricemia and diabetes, aged 35-54 years. The participants had undergone annual heath examinations for 6 years to compare incident hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >416.4μmol/L (7.0mg/dL) and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia) in four groups based on quartiles of baseline HOMA-IR. During follow-up there were 331 incident cases of hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia, compared with HOMA-IR ≤0.66, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.98) for HOMA-IR 0.67-0.98, 1.20 (0.86-1.68) for HOMA-IR 0.99-1.49 and 1.44 (1.04-1.98) for HOMA-IR ≥1.50 after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension status, age, alcohol intake, and smoking and exercise habits. The hazard ratio associated with an increase of one standard deviation in lnHOMA-IR (1.85 as one geometric standard deviation of HOMA-IR) was 1.14 (1.03-1.28) (p for trend=0.02). Increased HOMA-IR independently predicted the subsequent development of hyperuricemia. Insulin resistance itself or compensatory hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of CO 2 Fixation by Ir I -X Bonds (X = OH, OR, N, C)

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-09-08

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the CO2 fixation mechanism proposed by Nolan et al. for the IrI complex [Ir(cod)(IiPr)(OH)] (1; cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene) and its derivatives. For 1, our results suggest that CO2 insertion is the rate-limiting step rather than the dimerization step. Additionally, in agreement with the experimental results, our results show that CO2 insertion into the Ir-OR1 (R1 = H, methyl, and phenyl) and Ir-N bonds is kinetically facile, and the calculated activation energies span a range of only 12.0-23.0 kcal/mol. Substantially higher values (35.0-50.0 kcal/mol) are reported for analogous Ir-C bonds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Learning From Incident Reporting? Analysis of Incidents Resulting in Patient Injuries in a Web-Based System in Swedish Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Eva-Lena; Elfström, Johan; Borgstedt, Madeleine Risberg; Öhrn, Annica; Andersson, Christer; Sjödahl, Rune; Nilsen, Per

    2017-11-04

    Incident reporting (IR) systems have the potential to improve patient safety if they enable learning from the reported risks and incidents. The aim of this study was to investigate incidents registered in an IR system in a Swedish county council. The study was conducted in the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden. Data were retrieved from the IR system, which included 4755 incidents occurring in somatic care that resulted in patient injuries from 2004 to 2012. One hundred correctly classified patient injuries were randomly sampled from 3 injury severity levels: injuries leading to deaths, permanent harm, and temporary harm. Three aspects were analyzed: handling of the incident, causes of the incident, and actions taken to prevent its recurrence. Of the 300 injuries, 79% were handled in the departments where they occurred. The department head decided what actions should be taken to prevent recurrence in response to 95% of the injuries. A total of 448 causes were identified for the injuries; problems associated with procedures, routines, and guidelines were most common. Decisions taken for 80% of the injuries could be classified using the IR system documentation and root cause analysis. The most commonly pursued type of action was change of work routine or guideline. The handling, causes, and actions taken to prevent recurrence were similar for injuries of different severity levels. Various forms of feedback (information, education, and dialogue) were an integral aspect of the IR system. However, this feedback was primarily intradepartmental and did not yield much organizational learning.

  18. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  19. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  20. The power of the age standardized incidence rate to discover the gene link between cancer diseases: development of a new epidemiological method to save money, time, and effort for genetic scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an incipient epidemiological rule using the concept of direct method of standardization to determine the genetic link between cancer diseases. The overall 8 or 10 years age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) for both cancer diseases, for example (A) and (B) should be calculated for all regions of the country. A line chart should be used to display the overall ASIR trend of both diseases (A and B). Pearson's correlation can be used to determine the strength of the association between the overall ASIRs of both diseases. The overlap or opposite direction of the overall ASIR trend of both diseases (A and B) should be determined and studied for possible associations between cancer diseases. If the trend of the overall 8 or 10 years ASIR of a disease (A) follows that of disease (B) in all regions of the country, then the genes of patients with both diseases (A and B) will be highly homogeneous, and they should be studied in the region with the highest and lowest overall ASIR for both diseases (A and B). In addition, if there is an opposite direction or overlapping trend for both diseases (A and B) in certain regions of the country or among specific groups of people with the same demographic characteristics, then the genes of patients will be investigated for both diseases to identify the potential gene link between cancer diseases. This study revealed that the overall ASIR trends of female breast cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer are very similar in all regions of Saudi Arabia and England. Our epidemiological evidence helps to save money, time, and effort for testing the potential gene link between cancer diseases.

  1. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Frank J J; Ofec, Ronen; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Ten Bruggenkate, Christiaan M

    2015-10-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients. Patients who had dental implant surgery in the period between November 1997 and June 2001, with a follow-up of at least 10 years, were investigated for clinical and radiological examination. Among the 506 inserted dental implants in 250 patients, 10-year data regarding the outcome of implants were available for 374 dental implants in 177 patients. In the current study, peri-implantitis was defined as advanced bone loss (≧1.5 mm. postloading) in combination with bleeding on probing. At 10-year follow-up, only one implant was lost (0.3%) 2 months after implant surgery due to insufficient osseointegration. The average bone loss at 10 year postloading was 0.52 mm. Advanced bone loss at 10-year follow-up was present in 35 dental implants (9.8%). Seven percent of the observed dental implants showed bleeding on probing in combination with advanced bone loss and 4.2% when setting the threshold for advanced bone loss at 2.0 mm. Advanced bone loss without bleeding on probing was present in 2.8% of all implants. In this prospective study, the 10-year survival rate at implant and patient level was 99.7% and 99.4%, respectively. Peri-implantitis was present in 7% of the observed dental implants according to the above-mentioned definition of peri-implantitis. This study shows that SLA implants offer predictable long-term results as support in the treatment of fully and partially edentulous patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  3. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  4. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim,