WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidence injury patterns

  1. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  2. Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Chad G; Ball, Jill E; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Mulloy, Robert H

    2007-05-01

    Horseback riding is more dangerous than motorcycle riding, skiing, football, and rugby. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with severe equestrian trauma. All patients with major equestrian injuries (injury severity score > or = 12) admitted between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. A 46-question survey outlining potential rider, animal, and environmental risk factors was administered. Among 7941 trauma patients, 151 (2%) were injured on horseback (mean injury severity score, 20; mortality rate, 7%). Injuries included the chest (54%), head (48%), abdomen (22%), and extremities (17%). Forty-five percent required surgery. Survey results (55%) indicated that riders and horses were well trained, with a 47% recidivism rate. Only 9% of patients wore helmets, however, 64% believed the accident was preventable. Chest trauma previously has been underappreciated. This injury pattern may be a result of significant rider experience. Helmet and vest use will be targeted in future injury prevention strategies.

  3. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Hägglund, M; Waldén, M

    2011-06-01

    To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. European professional men's football. The first team squads of 23 teams selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Injury incidence. 4483 injuries occurred during 566 000 h of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1000 h. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 vs 4.1, pinjuries per season, and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries, and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 vs 18 days, pincidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (pinjuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the preseason. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.

  4. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrab, M. (Mirwais); Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. Purpose: To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A questionnaire ...

  5. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrab, M. (Mirwais); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G.A. Kraan (Gerald); N.M.C. Mathijssen (Nina M.C.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. Purpose: To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in

  6. Alpine ski and snowboarding traumatic injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Paul B; Ball, Chad G; Mulloy, Robert H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2009-05-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports in Canada. Every year participation in these activities results in traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with ski and snowboarding injuries. A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of Alpine ski and snowboarding injuries from 1996 to 2006 was conducted. The Alberta Trauma Registry was used as the primary source of data. A total of 196 patients (56.6% skiers, 43.4% snowboarders) were identified as having major traumatic injuries (Injury Severity Score, >or=12). Forty-three patients required intensive care unit support. The majority of injuries were related to falls and collisions with natural objects. Head injuries were most common, followed by chest, spinal, and extremity trauma. Seventy-nine patients required emergency surgery. Skiing and snowboarding represent activities with high potential for traumatic injury. Safety initiatives should be developed to target this population.

  7. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrab, Mirwais; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald A; Mathijssen, Nina M C

    2017-12-01

    CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Descriptive epidemiology study. A questionnaire that focused on injury incidence in CrossFit in the past year and included data on athlete demographics and characteristics was distributed to all 130 CrossFit gyms in the Netherlands and was also available online in active Facebook groups. Data were collected from July 2015 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of age ≥18 years and training at a registered CrossFit gym in the Netherlands. A total of 553 participants completed the survey. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to identify potential risk factors for injury. A total of 449 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of all respondents, 252 athletes (56.1%) sustained an injury in the preceding 12 months. The most injured body parts were the shoulder (n = 87, 28.7%), lower back (n = 48, 15.8%), and knee (n = 25, 8.3%). The duration of participation in CrossFit significantly affected the injury incidence rates (CrossFit was 56.1%. The most frequent injury locations were the shoulder, lower back, and knee. A short duration of participation (<6 months) was significantly associated with an increased risk for injury.

  8. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football - the UEFA injury study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. SETTING: European professional men's football. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of 23 teams selected by UEFA as belonging to ...

  9. Incidence, Nature, and Pattern of Injuries to Referees in a Premier Football (Soccer) League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414

  10. Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls; with age range 15 – 18 years who participated in the 2010 National Finals of the Nigeria Nestlé Milo Basketball Competition. Basketball-related injury data were collected by an assessor during the competition using a standardized basketball injury report form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 32 injuries were recorded with an incidence of 22.7 injuries per 100 participants same for boys and girls. This is equivalent to 1.1 injury per match for boys and 0.9 injuries per match for girls. Jumping/landing was the most common cause of injury (28.1%, N = 9. Most of the injuries were at the lower extremities (75%, N = 24; with majority at the knee joint (40.6%, N = 13. Ligament sprain was the most common types of injury. The pattern of injuries among boys did not significantly differ from that of girls (P > 0.05. Most injuries (N = 13, 41% occurred in the offensive half of the court and cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion The overall incidence of match injury among adolescent amateur basketball players during a national competition in Nigeria was 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match. The pattern of injuries was similar in both genders and consistent with what has been previously reported in literature for adolescent basketball players. Exercise-based injury prevention programmes aimed at improving core strength and

  11. Injury patterns in Swedish elite athletics: annual incidence, injury types and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sverker; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Renström, Per A

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the incidence, type and severity of musculoskeletal injuries in youth and adult elite athletics athletes and to explore risk factors for sustaining injuries. Prospective cohort study conducted during a 52-week period. Male and female youth and adult athletics athletes ranked in the top 10 in Sweden (n=292). 199 (68%) athletes reported an injury during the study season. Ninety-six per cent of the reported injuries were non-traumatic (associated with overuse). Most injuries (51%) were severe, causing a period of absence from normal training exceeding 3 weeks. Log-rank tests revealed risk differences with regard to athlete category (p=0.046), recent previous injury (>3 weeks time-loss; p=0.039) and training load rank index (TLRI; p=0.019). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that athletes in the third (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.78) and fourth TLRI quartiles (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.74) had almost a twofold increased risk of injury compared with their peers in the first quartile and interaction effects between athlete category and previous injury; youth male athletes with a previous serious injury had more than a fourfold increased risk of injury (HR=4.39; 95% CI 2.20 to 8.77) compared with youth females with no previous injury. The injury incidence among both youth and adult elite athletics athletes is high. A training load index combing hours and intensity and a history of severe injury the previous year were predictors for injury. Further studies on measures to quantify training content and protocols for safe return to athletics are warranted.

  12. Fractures and dislocations of the hand in polytrauma patients : Incidence, injury pattern and functional outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferree, Steven; van der Vliet, Quirine M J; van Heijl, Mark; Houwert, Roderick M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hietbrink, Falco

    INTRODUCTION: Injuries of the hand can cause significant functional impairment, diminished quality of life and delayed return to work. However, the incidence and functional outcome of hand injuries in polytrauma patients is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence,

  13. Incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries to referees in a premier football (soccer) league: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-09-01

    Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.

  14. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee; Kam-Ming Mok; Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung; Kai-Ming Chan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from inj...

  15. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  16. Severe street and mountain bicycling injuries in adults: a comparison of the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns over 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Francis R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Lall, Rohan N; Ball, Chad G

    2013-06-01

    Street and mountain bicycling are popular recreational activities and prevalent modes of transportation with the potential for severe injury. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns among adults with severe street versus mountain bicycling injuries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Southern Alberta Trauma Database of all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while street or mountain bicycling between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2009. Among 11 772 severely injured patients, 258 (2.2%) were injured (mean ISS 17, hospital stay 6 d, mortality 7%) while street (n = 209) or mountain bicycling (n = 49). Street cyclists were often injured after being struck by a motor vehicle, whereas mountain bikers were frequently injured after faulty jump attempts, bike tricks and falls (cliffs, roadsides, embankments). Mountain cyclists were admitted more often on weekends than weekdays (61.2% v. 45.0%, p = 0.040). Injury patterns were similar for both cohorts (all p > 0.05), with trauma to the head (67.4%), extremities (38.4%), chest (34.1%), face (26.0%) and abdomen (10.1%) being common. Spinal injuries, however, were more frequent among mountain cyclists (65.3% v. 41.1%, p = 0.003). Surgical intervention was required in 33.3% of patients (9.7% open reduction internal fixation, 7.8% spinal fixation, 7.0% craniotomy, 5.8% facial repair and 2.7% laparotomy). With the exception of spine injuries, severely injured cyclists display similar patterns of injury and comparable outcomes, regardless of style (street v. mountain). Helmets and thoracic protection should be advocated for injury prevention.

  17. Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsson, Pontus; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2005-03-01

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows; women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes.

  18. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Non-Fatal Injury in Thailand From 2005 to 2013: Incidence Trends and Links to Alcohol Consumption Patterns in the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Wakabayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods: A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baseline (2005 and 8 years later (2013. Incident non-fatal traffic and non-traffic injuries were recorded. Alcohol consumption patterns were categorized as follows: nondrinkers, occasional light drinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, regular drinkers, and ex-drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess associations in 2005 and 2013 between injuries and alcohol consumption. We adjusted odds ratios (ORs for socio-demographic factors, stress, health behaviors, and risk-taking behaviors. Results: Incidence estimates in 2013 were standardized to the age structure of 2005: the standardized rates were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.32–9.89 for participants with at least one non-traffic injury and 5% (95% CI, 4.86–5.29 for those with at least one traffic injury. Both standardized incidences for non-traffic and traffic injuries were significantly lower than corresponding rates in 2005 (20% and 6%, respectively. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with non-traffic injury in 2005, but the association disappeared in 2013. For example, nontraffic injury was associated with regular drinking (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.40 in 2005, but not in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.10. In both survey years, traffic injury was not associated with occasional heavy drinking when adjusted for health and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions: We examined non-fatal injury and the health-risk transition in Thailand in 2005 and 2013. Our data revealed decreases in alcohol consumption and non-fatal injury in the Thai Cohort between 2005 and 2013. Alcoholrelated injury in Thailand today

  20. Video analysis of injuries and incidents in Norwegian professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T E; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

    2004-10-01

    This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 174 of 182 (96%) regular league matches during the 2000 season. Incidents where the match was interrupted due to an assumed injury were analysed using FIA to examine the characteristics of the playing situation causing the incident. Club medical staff prospectively recorded all acute injuries on a specific injury questionnaire. Each incident identified on the videotapes was cross referenced with the injury report. During the 174 matches, 425 incidents were recorded and 121 acute injuries were reported. Of these 121 injuries, 52 (43%) were identified on video including all head injuries, 58% of knee injuries, 56% of ankle injuries, and 29% of thigh injuries. Strikers were more susceptible to injury than other players and although most of the incidents and injuries resulted from duels, no single classic injury situation typical for football injuries or incidents could be recognised. However, in most cases the exposed player seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging him for ball possession. This study shows that in spite of a thorough video analysis less than half of the injuries are identified on video. It is difficult to identify typical patterns in the playing events leading to incidents and injuries, but players seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging them for ball possession.

  1. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  2. Incidence and pattern of cervical spine injury in blunt assault: it is not how they are hit, but how they fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulvatunyou, Narong; Friese, Randall S; Joseph, Bellal; O'Keeffe, Terence; Wynne, Julie L; Tang, Andrew L; Rhee, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The injury mechanism of blunt cervical spine injury (CSI) involves two forces: (1) an acceleration-deceleration force or change in velocity (delta v) that causes significant head and neck movement, resulting in flexion-extension injury pattern and (2) a direct force to the head or face against an immovable object with force transmitted down the cervical spine. Combining those two forces creates what bioengineers call imparted energy (IE). In blunt assault to the head or face, IE is low; hence, the reported incidence of CSI is low. The goal of our study was to identify the incidence, pattern, and outcome of CSI in blunt assaulted patients. We queried the trauma registry at our Level I trauma center for patients admitted with the diagnosis of blunt assault over a 5-year period (2005-2009). Patients with CSI were identified by International Classification Diagnosis (Ninth Revision) codes of 805, 806, 839, or 952. We only included the patients who received the blow to the head and face. For eligible patients, we extracted data from trauma registry and inpatient chart review, including radiographic reports. A single author (N.K.) reviewed computed tomography (CT) scan of all individuals with CSI. We performed summary and Spearman rank correlation statistical analysis with p value pattern of injury and severity is related to a fall occurring after the assault. Our results should encourage clinicians to find out if patient falls after the assault.

  3. Incidence and Pattern of Cranio-Maxillofacial Injuries: A 22 year Retrospective Analysis of Cases Operated at Major Trauma Hospitals/Centres in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Kiran S; Halli, Rajshekhar; Joshi, Samir; Ramanojam, Shandilya; Gadre, Pushkar K; Kunchur, Ranjit; Bhosale, Gururaj; Kaul, Deepak

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to retrospectively analyze the incidence and pattern of cranio-maxillofacial injuries in the developing world in a hope to emphasize on authorities the need of improvising infrastructural facilities, medical and other. Hospital medical records with available radiographs of 6,872 patients treated for cranio-maxillofacial injuries at major trauma centres in Pune, India over a 22 year period (from July 1989 to June 2010) were reviewed. Relevant data pertaining to patients' age, sex, cause of injury, sites of injury, associated injuries, anaesthesia, various treatment modalities and complications were recorded and analyzed statistically. A total of 6,872 patients sustained maxillofacial injuries of which 5,936 (86.4 %) were caused by road traffic accidents (RTA), followed by fall in 608 cases. Distribution pattern of sex revealed male predominance (M:F-2.5:1) and the third decade age group (2,416) sustained maximum cranio-maxillofacial injuries. Of 12,503 cranio-maxillofacial sites involved, mandible (6,456) predominated, while there was middle third involvement in 5,024 cases. Most of the patients (4,856) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation without maxillo-mandibular fixation and complications were noted in 320 patients. In comparison to similar recent studies reported in the literature, our findings show that RTA remains the most common cause of cranio-maxillofacial injuries with male preponderance. Also RTA remains the major preventable etiological factor of cranio-maxillofacial injuries, which should prompt authorities to take "Herculean effort" to implement rules and educate people.

  4. Incidence and Outcome of the Radial Nerve Injury following Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radial nerve injury is the most common peripheral nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture and can result in significant motor impairment of the arm and the wrist. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence, pattern and outcome of the radial nerve injury following open fracture of the humerus. Material and ...

  5. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  6. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  7. Incidence and distribution of pediatric sport-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Caine, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola

    2006-11-01

    To provide a critical review of the available literature on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric sport-related injuries. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2006) were searched to identify potentially relevant articles. A combination of medical subject headings and text words was used (epidemiology, children, adolescents, athletic injuries, sports, injury, and injuries). Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Published research reports on the incidence and distribution of injury in children's and youth sports. Specific emphasis was placed on reviewing original studies, which report incidence rates (rate of injuries per unit athlete time). Forty-nine studies were selected for this review. Data summarized include incidence of injury relative to who is affected by injury (sport, participation level, gender, and player position), where injury occurs (anatomical and environmental location), when injury occurs (injury onset and chronometry), and injury outcome (injury type, time loss, clinical outcome, and economic cost). There is little epidemiological data on injuries for some pediatric sports. Many of the studies retrieved were characterized by methodological short-comings and study differences that limit interpretation and comparison of findings across studies. Notwithstanding, the studies reviewed are encouraging and injury patterns that should be studied further with more rigorous study designs to confirm original findings and to probe causes of injury and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Incidence and severity of injury are high in some child and youth sports. This review will assist in targeting the relevant groups and in designing future research on the epidemiology of pediatric sports injuries. Well-designed descriptive and analytical studies are needed to identify the public health impact of pediatric sport injury.

  8. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  9. INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INJURIES TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELITE SOUTlI AFRICAN CRICKET. PLAYERS. R A Stretch. Objectives. The study investigated the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a season and the possible risk factors associated with these injuries. Methods. Fourteen physiotherapists and three doctors recorded 163 injuries sustained ...

  10. Injury patterns in low intensity conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, V

    2009-12-01

    Injury patterns and their outcome has been the subject of interest in all kinds of military conflicts. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (Level I trauma centre) to find out the trends in injuries in low intensity conflict, adequacy of pre hospital treatment, mortality patterns and adequacy of treatment after reaching tertiary care hospital. 418 patients were treated over a period of two years. All were male and 76% younger than 30 years of age. 61% patients reported directly from the site of incident and 39% were transferred from other trauma centre. Two-third of patients (73.9%) reported with at least one limb injury and 44.9% with extremity injury alone. Multiple injuries were most common injury (29%). Head and neck injuries were seen in 20% patients and Thoracic and abdominal injuries were seen in 2.6% and 3.4% patients only. Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%), followed by splinter injuries (39.2%) and Road traffic accident(RTA) (19.4%). Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries.

  11. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  12. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt Arend

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  13. Patterns in childhood sports injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damore, Dorothy T; Metzl, Jordan D; Ramundo, Maria; Pan, Sharon; Van Amerongen, Robert

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this epidemiologic study is twofold: first, to determine the relative frequency of sports-related injuries compared with all musculoskeletal injuries in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED), and second, to evaluate the sports-specific and anatomic site-specific nature of these injuries. Patterns of injury in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to four pediatric EDs with musculoskeletal injuries in October 1999 and April 2000 were prospectively studied. Information collected included age, sex, injury type, anatomical injury site, and cause of injury (sports-related or otherwise). Information about patient outcome and disposition was also obtained. There were a total of 1421 injuries in 1275 patients. Musculoskeletal injuries were more common in male patients (790/62%) than in female patients. The mean age of the patients was 12.2 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.4). Sprains, contusions, and fractures were the most common injury types (34, 30, and 25%, respectively). Female patients experienced a greater percentage of sprains (44% vs 36%) and contusions (37% vs 33%) and fewer fractures (22% vs 31%) than male patients. Sports injuries accounted for 41% (521) of all musculoskeletal injuries and were responsible for 8% (495/6173) of all ED visits. Head, forearm, and wrist injuries were most commonly seen in biking, hand injuries in football and basketball, knee injuries in soccer, and ankle and foot injuries in basketball. Sports injuries in children and adolescents were by far the most common cause of musculoskeletal injuries treated in the ED, accounting for 41% of all musculoskeletal injuries. This represents the highest percentage of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries per ED visit reported in children to date. As children and adolescents participate in sports in record numbers nationwide, sports injury research and prevention will become increasingly more important.

  14. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  15. Training volume and injury incidence in a professional rugby union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the incidence of injuries in a professional rugby team, and to identify any associations between injury rates and training volume. Methods. This retrospective, descriptive study included all injuries diagnosed as grade 1 and above in a South African Super 12 rugby team. Injury incidence and injury ...

  16. Injury patterns of South African international cricket players over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and nature of injury patterns of South African international cricket players. Methods. A questionnaire was completed for each cricketer who presented with an injury during the 2004 - 2005 (S1) and 2005 - 2006 (S2) cricket seasons to determine the anatomical ...

  17. Injury patterns of South African provincial cricket players over two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the incidence and nature of injury patterns in elite cricketers over two seasons. Methods. Physiotherapists and/or doctors working with 4 provincial teams completed a questionnaire for each cricketer who presented with an injury during the 2004 - 2005 (S1) and 2005 - 2006 (S2) cricket seasons.

  18. The pattern of injury and poisoning in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rad, Mahdieh; Sargazi, Fatemeh; Sheykhzadeh, Khodadad; Jelodarzadeh, Seddighe; Karimzadeh, Fatemeh

    2012-09-10

    Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and even more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Iran is a LMIC and lacks information regarding injury for program and policy purposes. This study aimed to describe the incidence and patterns of injury in one province in South Eastern Iran. A hospital-based, retrospective case review using a routinely collected registry in all Emergency Departments in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran for 12 months in 2007-2008. In total 18,155 injuries were recorded during the study period. The majority of injuries in South Eastern Iran were due to road traffic crashes. Individuals living in urban areas sustained more injuries compared to individuals from rural areas. Males typically experienced more injuries than females. Males were most likely to be injured in a street/alley or village whereas females were most likely to be injured in or around the home. In urban areas, road traffic related injuries were observed to affect older age groups more than younger age groups. Poisoning was most common in the youngest age group, 0 to 4 years. This study provides data on incidence and patterns of injury in South Eastern Iran. Knowledge of injury burden, such as this paper, is likely to help policy makers and planners with health service planning and injury prevention.

  19. Influence of preparation and football skill level on injury incidence during an amateur football tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Grechenig, Stephan; Krutsch, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2016-03-01

    Scientific studies on injury characteristics are rather common in professional football but not in amateur football despite the thousands of amateur football tournaments taking place worldwide each year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preparation and injury patterns of players of two different football skill levels who participated in an international amateur football tournament. In a prospective cohort study, an international amateur football tournament of medical doctors in 2011 was analysed with regard to training and warm-up preparation, the level of football played before the tournament and injury data during the tournament by means of standardised injury definitions and data samples for football. Amateur players of registered football clubs had higher training exposure before the tournament (p football players showed a significantly higher overall injury incidence (p injuries (p injuries and complaints was the lower extremities. Orthopaedic and trauma surgeons had the lowest overall injury incidence and anaesthetists the highest (p = 0.049) during the tournament. For the first time, this study presents detailed information on the injury incidence and injury patterns of an amateur football tournament. Less-trained recreational players sustained significantly more injuries than better-trained amateur players, probably due to the lack of sufficient preparation before the tournament. Preventive strategies against overuse and traumatic injuries of recreational football players should start with regular training and warm-up programmes in preparation for a tournament.

  20. The incidence of injuries and exposure time of professional football ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Data on the incidence of football injuries and exposure time of players during matches and training in the South African (SA) Premier Soccer League (PSL) are lacking. Objective. To calculate the incidence of injuries and the exposure time (practice and match) of the players of a PSL team over a full season.

  1. Self-reported incidence of injuries among ballroom dancers | Kuisis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ballroom dancing is an increasingly popular sport around the world. However, unlike other forms of dancing such as ballet and modern, very little is known about the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained by dancers. The aims of this study were: 1) to quantify the incidence of injuries 2) to identify the nature of ...

  2. Incidence and nature of epidemiological injuries to elite South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study investigated the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a season and the possible risk factors associated with these injuries. Methods. Fourteen physiotherapists and three doctors recorded 163 injuries sustained by 88 cricketers. Results. Bowling accounted for 40.5% of the ...

  3. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  4. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the ...

  5. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  6. Incidence estimates of hand and upper extremity injuries in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to estimate the incidence rates of upper extremity injuries and to give an overview of the most frequent diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two population databases were queried for all injuries in the upper extremities, the SINIACA-IDB (S-IDB: Emergency Department Injury Database in Italy and the Hospital Discharge Register (HDR. The diagnoses codes of hand trauma were selected from both databases in order to estimate the national incidence rate. RESULTS: According to the S-IDB data of year 2011, total 1 479 510 ED attendances per year in Italy were estimated with an upper extremity injury (incidence rate: 2491 per 100 000 persons/year. About 880 816 Emergency Department (ED attendances per year are due to hand injuries, while over 653 336 attendances per year concern arm injuries. The incidence rates are 1483 and 1100 per 100 000 person/year respectively. About 201 940 hospitalizations are observed in the HDR because of upper extremity injuries (incidence rate: 340 per 100 000 persons/year. Males have higher incidence rate (387 vs 280 per 100 000 persons per year. The trend in the incidence rates for the age group of inpatients shows two peaks: at age 12 (400 cases per 100 000 persons/year, and in the older age groups (700 cases per 100 000 persons/year.

  7. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of child injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Jing, Ruiwei; Zeng, Guang; Linnan, Huan Wan; Zhu, Xu; Linnan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Injuries are the major cause of morbidity among children and one of the leading causes of death for children ages 1-17 years in developing countries. Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child injury prevention, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and risk of child injuries in developing countries, including China. This study used a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 98,385 Chinese children under age 18 to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and child injuries. Despite the lack of a SES gradient in the overall incidence of nonhospitalized injuries, evidence of SES disparity was found for the overall incidence of H/PD injuries (injuries resulting in hospitalization or permanent disability) and fatal injuries. The odds of getting injured in the poorest wealth quintile were about 1.3 and 3.5 times greater than the odds found in the richest wealth quintile for H/PD and fatal injuries respectively. Further analyses showed that the associations between SES and injuries varied by type and severity of injury, and across different life stages. The findings have important implications for identifying at-risk populations and the optimal times for interventions to reduce different types and severity levels of child injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Injury Patterns, Physiological Profile, and Performance in University Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Sharp, Tristan; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. To determine injury, anthropometric, and physical-performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-one players (age 19.2 ± 0.7 y) from an under-20 university rugby union team (forwards, n = 27; backs, n = 24) participated in a study conducted over a competition season. Training load, injury characteristics, anthropometry, physiological performance, and match time-loss injury incidence were observed. Backs had significantly lower body mass (ES [95% CI] = 1.6 [0.9, 2.2]), skinfold thickness (ES = 1.1 [0.5, 1.7]), strength (squat ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.2], deadlift ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.1], bench press ES = 0.9 [0.4, 1.5]), lower-body power (ES = 0.4 [-0.2, 1.0]), and higher maximal aerobic capacity (ES = -0.3 [-0.8, 0.3]) than forwards. Match injury incidence was 107.3 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 91.4/1000, backs 125.5/1000) during preseason and 110.7 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 124.1/1000, backs 95.2/1000) during in-season. Forwards showed higher incidence of joint and ligament (P = .049) and upper-limb (P = .011) injuries than backs. No significant relationship between overall training load and match injury incidence was found. However, lower match injury incidence was associated with higher weekly training volume in backs (P = .007). Positional differences in body composition, performance, injury characteristics, and match injury patterns were identified in junior university rugby union players, indicating the need for position-specific training programs to reduce risk of injury.

  9. Shift work and the incidence of injury among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2012-03-01

    Police officers may be injury prone due to fatigue, erratic work hours, and insufficient sleep. This study explored injury incidence among police officers across shifts. Day-to-day shift data from computerized payroll records (1994-2010) were available from a mid-sized urban police department (n = 430). Sleep duration, shift activity level, returning to work after days off, and injury incidence over time were also examined. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for injury on the midnight shift was 72% larger than the day shift (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.26-2.36) and 66% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.23-2.25). Injury incidence for the first day back on the midnight shift was 69% larger than day shift (IRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23-2.32) and 54% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36-1.76). High activity level combined with midnight shift work put officers at increased injury risk (IRR = 2.31; P = 0.0003). Probability of remaining free of injury was significantly higher for day shift than midnight shift (P < 0.0001). Higher injury risk was associated with night shift work in police officers. Night shift combined with high work activity was strongly associated with injury risk. There was a significantly higher probability of not being injured on day compared to midnight or afternoon shifts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Injury incidence and selected biomechanical, postural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strongest predictors for lower extremity injuries (I>0.3) were uneven hips, pronated feet, tight hamstrings, anatomical leg length differences, gait pronation and a tall stature. It was concluded that certain postural and biomechanical imbalances in the lower extremities could contribute to injury among rugby union players.

  11. Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The incidence and nature of injuries in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-24

    Nov 24, 2006 ... Many epidemiological studies on injuries in rugby union have concluded that a higher level of play is associated with a higher incidence of injuries.1-3 Possible explanations for this include increased strength and body size of players, higher level of competitiveness, longer seasons, and the fact that the ball ...

  13. Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...... performance, such as intermittent endurance capacity and maximal jump performance, are not fully described....

  14. Subsequent injury patterns in girls' high school sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L

    2007-01-01

    Girls' participation in high school sports has increased 79.5% since 1975-1976. The incidence of injury among boys in high school sports has been well documented, but information regarding the incidence, severity, and type of injury among girls in high school sports is limited. To examine the effects of subsequent injuries among high school girls in 5 sports. Observational cohort. Existing data from the 1995-1997 National Athletic Trainers' Association High School Injury Surveillance database. Girl athletes (n = 25 187 player-seasons) participating in 5 varsity high school sports: basketball, field hockey, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Injury status, body location, injury type, time lost from injury, and number of players at risk for injury as recorded by athletic trainers and submitted to the Sports Injury Monitoring System. Overall, 23.3% of the athletes had 2 or more injuries within a sport; basketball and soccer athletes were most vulnerable. Overall, the probability of an athlete sustaining 3 or more injuries was 38.6%, and the risk was highest for field hockey players (61.9%). The risk of subsequent injury at a new body location was almost 2 times higher than reinjury at the same body location (risk ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 1.8) and was similar for all sports except volleyball. Only in softball was the proportion of reinjuries causing 8 or more days lost from participation greater than the proportion of new injuries causing similar time loss. Softball and volleyball had the highest proportion of reinjuries at the shoulder, especially rotator cuff strains. The proportion of knee reinjuries was significantly higher than new injuries for all sports except soccer. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was significantly higher for volleyball players only. Overall, the proportion of reinjuries was significantly higher for stress fractures and musculoskeletal condition injuries. Patterns of subsequent injury risk appear to vary

  15. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  16. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  17. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  18. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cardiovascular conditioning, plyometric work, sport-specific drills, strength training and flexibility exercises to improve speed and agility) on the occurrence of football injuries in 42 out of 300 female high school players were investigated during 1 year of competitive football.28 Significantly fewer players in the intervention ...

  19. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  20. INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INJURIES TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study is lower than that found in the previous studies done on club and provincial cricketers' and schoolboy cricketers.' However, the increase in the number of players suffering multiple injuries during the season is of great concern. This would appear to be the result of a number of factors, particularly overuse in fast bowlers, ...

  1. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  2. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balius, Ramon; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Capdevila, Lluis; Alomar, Xavier; Bong, David A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  3. INCIDENCE OF INJURY IN PROFESSIONAL MIXED MARTIAL ARTS COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Bledsoe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Martial Arts (MMA competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC in 1993. In 2001, Nevada and New Jersey sanctioned MMA events after requiring a series of rule changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September 2001 and December 2004 in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of 171 MMA matches involving 220 different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3% ended with at least one injured fighter. The overall injury rate was 28.6 injuries per 100 fight participations or 12.5 injuries per 100 competitor rounds. Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for 47.9% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (13.5%, nose injury (10.4%, and eye injury (8.3%. With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury. The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events

  4. The incidence and economic burden of injuries in Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zeng, G; Linnan, H W; Jing, R; Zhu, X; Corso, P; Liu, P; Linnan, M

    2016-09-01

    This study estimated the incidence, direct medical and non-medical costs, and productivity losses due to morbidity and mortality across multiple strata for injuries that occurred in Jiangxi, China. Cross-sectional study. Data came from the Jiangxi injury survey, a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 100,010 households. The major economic costs of injuries were divided into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs encompass medical costs and direct non-medical costs. Indirect costs refer to the productivity losses due to injury-related morbidity and mortality. In 2005, about one of 18 residents in Jiangxi, China, experienced an injury. Overall, fall, animal bite, and road traffic crash (RTC) injuries accounted for more than 66% of all injuries, while fall, RTC, drowning, and self-harm injuries accounted for 80% of fatal injuries. Average cost per case for a fatal injury was 163,389 RMB ($20,171) for lost productivity and 2800 RMB ($346) in direct medical & non-medical costs. A non-fatal injury resulting in hospitalisation or permanent disability on average caused 5221 RMB ($643) in direct costs and 18,437 RMB ($2276) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of three school days. A non-hospitalised non-fatal injury on average caused 303 ($37) RMB in direct costs and 491 RMB ($61) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of 0.5 school days. The unequivocal evidence of the substantial health and financial burden of injuries indicates to Chinese policy makers that more research and efforts are needed to find efficacious and cost-effective interventions targeting injury. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of pediatric acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Ashraf; Naveed Shahzad; Altaf Hussain; Shafat Ahmed Tak; Syed Tariq Ahmed Bukhari; Aliya Kachru

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric acute kidney injury (pAKI) is a common complication associated with high mortality in children. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in hospitalized (critically ill and non-critically ill) patients. This was a retrospective study conducted during the period of June 1, 2013, to May 31, 2014, at the Postgraduate Department of Pediatrics, G. B. Pant Hospital, an Associated Hospital of Government Medical College, Srinagar,...

  6. The influence of motor vehicle legislation on injury claim incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Olszynski, W P

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous strategies to prevent motor vehicle collisions and their subsequent injuries, few have been effective in preventing motor vehicle injury claims. In this paper, we examine the role of legislation and compensation system in altering injury claim incidence. The population base for our natural experiment was all Saskatchewan, Manitoba, British Columbia and Quebec residents who submitted personal injury claims to their respective motor vehicle insurance provider from 1990 to 1999. The provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba switched from Tort to pure No-Fault insurance on January 1, 1995 and on March 1, 1994 respectively. British Columbia maintained tort insurance and Quebec maintained pure no-fault insurance throughout the entire 10-year period. The conversion from tort insurance to pure no-fault motor vehicle insurance resulted in a five-year 31% (RR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.68-0.70) reduction in total injury claims per 100,000 residents in Saskatchewan and a five-year 43% (RR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.56-0.58) reduction in Manitoba. At the same time, the province of British Columbia retained tort insurance and had a five-year 5% reduction (RR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.94-0.99). Quebec, which retained pure no-fault throughout the entire 10-year period, had less than one third of the injury claims per 100,000 residents than the tort province of British Columbia. The conversion from tort to pure no-fault legislation has a large influence in reducing motor vehicle injury claim incidence in Canada. Legislative system and injury compensation scheme have an observable impact on injury claim incidence and can therefore have significant impact on the health care system.

  7. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.

  8. Association of Injury History and Incident Injury in Cadet Basic Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Wolf, Susanne H.; Padua, Darin A.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Beutler, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the association between injury history at enrollment and incident lower extremity (LE) injury during cadet basic training among first-year military cadets. Methods Medically treated LE injuries during cadet basic training documented in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) were ascertained in a prospective cohort study of three large U.S. military academies from 2005–2008. Both acute injuries (ICD-9 codes in the 800–900s, including fracture, dislocations, sprains/strains) and injury-related musculoskeletal injuries (ICD-9 codes in the 700s, including inflammation and pain, joint derangement, stress fracture, sprain/strain/rupture, and dislocation) were included. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using multivariate log-binomial models stratified by gender. Results During basic training there were 1,438 medically treated acute and 1,719 musculoskeletal-related LE injuries in the 9,811 cadets. The most frequent LE injuries were sprains/strains (73.6% of acute) and inflammation and pain (89.6% of musculoskeletal-related). The overall risk of incident LE injury was 23.2% [95%CI: 22.3%, 24.0%]. Cadets with a previous history of LE injury were at increased risk for incident LE injury. This association was identical in males (RR=1.74 [1.55, 1.94]) and females (RR=1.74 [1.52, 1.99]). In site-specific analyses, strong associations between injury history and incident injury were observed for hip, knee ligament, stress fracture, and ankle sprain. Injury risk was greater (p<0.01) for females (39.1%) compared to males (18.0%). The elevated injury risk in females (RR=2.19 [2.04, 2.36]) was independent of injury history (adjusted RR=2.09 [1.95, 2.24]). Conclusion Injury history upon entry to the military is associated with incidence of LE injuries sustained during cadet basic training. Prevention programs targeted at modifiable factors in cadets with a prior history of LE injury should be considered. PMID:26765627

  9. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  10. Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, M K; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Guthua, S W

    2007-06-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. A cross-sectional study. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by

  11. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  12. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a well-demarcated or fairly discernible region of low attenuation following specific vascular territory with normal initial CT. Clinical and radiological findings that related to patients' outcome were reviewed and statistically compared. PTCI was observed in 21 (2.1%) patients. Of various parameters, age (p=0.037), initial Glasgow coma scale score (paccident and PTCI, patterns of TBI and vascular territory of PTCI were not specific. The mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than without PTCI. The development of PTCI is rare after TBI, but it usually results in serious outcome and high mortality. Early recognition for risks and aggressive managements is mandatory to prevent PTCI.

  13. Obstetrical brachial plexus injuries: incidence, natural course and shoulder contracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, A. F.; Wolf, H.; Oei, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) was investigated and the natural course of this disorder and the frequency of shoulder contracture described. Between 1988 and 1997 13,366 children with a gestational age of 30 weeks or more, were born at the Academic Medical Center,

  14. Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    External cause of injury was classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) guidelines as Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) (irrespective of type), fall from height, assault, gunshot, game or sport related accident and other causes. Road traffic accident accounts for relatively high incidence of hospitalized TBI.

  15. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.

    2008-01-01

    incidence patterns of HL in Singapore between 1968 and 2004, during which time period a socioeconomic transition towards Western World lifestyles took place. As hypothesized a HL incidence peak emerged among adolescents and young adults in Singapore. Thus, in the age groups 15-19 and 20-24 years incidence...

  16. Incidence and functional evolution of traumatic injuries of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alberto Trinidad Ovalle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and functional outcome of traumatic injuries of the spine in the period from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013, at the General Hospital "Dr. Rafael Pascacio Gamboa", state of Chiapas, México. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study, where all patients seeking medical and surgical care in the emergency department and inpatient unit for a traumatic spinal injury were included, regardless of age or sex. RESULTS: A sample of 60 patients, of whom 43 were male (71.7% and 17 females (28.3%, with an average age of 35 was obtained. As for the cause of the injury, falls were the leading cause (61.7% followed by motor vehicle accidents (35% and finally, assaults (3.3%. In this sample, 21% had associated injuries being the most common (7.3% the thoracic trauma. The most common site of injury was the thoracic spine, followed by the lower cervical and finally the thoracolumbar ones. We found that 70% of patients had partial or complete neurological injury, with complete spinal cord transection (Frankel A being the most frequent lesion in 53%. CONCLUSION: The incidence in our series is similar that the reported in developing countries which have sociocultural problems similar to ours. The same applies to the etiology of these lesions, which is closely linked to social and economic activity in each country or region.

  17. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandeur, Joris; Derksen, Robert Jan; Macdonald, Damian; Breederveld, Roelf

    2012-10-10

    In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar.During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS).

  18. Pattern of civilian gunshot injuries in Irrua, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuminya, J E; Ohwowhiagbese, E

    2005-11-01

    This retrospective review of 76 patients with gunshot wounds was undertaken to evaluate the pattern and outcome of civilian gunshot injuries in our region. The extremities were the most commonly affected site (51.5% of all gunshot wounds). Gunshot injuries were most common among young males in the third decade of life, and armed robbery was the cause of gunshot trauma in 69.7% of cases. Time from injury to arrival at hospital was less than 6 hours in 64.4% of cases. Wound exploration and debridement were the mode of treatment in the majority of cases. Hypovolaemia resulting from acute haemorrhage accounted for 52.9% of complications. The mortality rate was 5.3%. It is pertinent to observe that inefficient firearm control is a major factor contributing to civilian gunshot injuries in our region. In addition, high rates of unemployment and poverty in our society may be contributing to the increasing incidence of youth restiveness, armed robbery and associated gunshot injuries. Strong government legislation is required to provide adequate security for the teeming civilian population. The national government should embark on a poverty eradication strategy and engage the youth in gainful employment to reduce the incidence of youth restiveness, armed robbery and firearm-related violence.

  19. Incidence and characteristics of injuries during the 2010 FELDA/FAM National Futsal League in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. METHODS: Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc. RESULTS: A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8, or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9. Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44% followed by the trunk (14% and the upper limb (13%. Ankle (n = 7; 39% and knee (n = 6; 33% sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86 = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86 = 10.11, p = 0.018. CONCLUSION: The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface.

  20. Vascular injuries after bear attacks: Incidence, surgical challenges and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Abdul Gani; Lone, Gh Nabi; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad; Ashraf, Hakeem Zubair; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Bhat, M A; Singh, Shyam; Bijli, Akram Hussain; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Bear mauling is rarely reported in medical literature due to its rare occurrence. Present study was undertaken to describe the pattern and management of bear maul vascular injuries in Kashmir. Study of patients with bear maul vascular injury from 1(st) Jan 2004 to 31(st) Dec. 2008. Fifteen patients with bear maul vascular injury were studied. All patients of bear maul without vascular injury were excluded from the study. Most of the patients were treated by reverse saphenous vein graft or end to end anastomosis. Most common complication was wound infection (20%) followed by graft occlusion (13.33%). There was no operative death. Bear attacks are very common in Kashmir. Vascular injury due to bear maul needs prompt resuscitation and revascularization. Results are very good provided timely intervention for revascularization is done.

  1. Incidence of injury in professional mixed martial arts competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Hsu, Edbert B; Grabowski, Jurek George; Brill, Justin D; Li, Guohua

    2006-01-01

    Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. In 2001, Nevada and New Jersey sanctioned MMA events after requiring a series of rule changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September 2001 and December 2004 in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of 171 MMA matches involving 220 different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3%) ended with at least one injured fighter. The overall injury rate was 28.6 injuries per 100 fight participations or 12.5 injuries per 100 competitor rounds. Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for 47.9% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (13.5%), nose injury (10.4%), and eye injury (8.3%). With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury. The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO) followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events. Key PointsMixed martial arts (MMA) has changed since the first MMA matches in the United States and now has increased safety regulations and sanctioning.MMA competitions have an overall high rate of injury.There have been no MMA deaths in the United States.The knockout (KO) rate in MMA appears to be lower than the KO rate of boxing matches.MMA must continue to be supervised by properly trained

  2. Incidence of Injury in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H.; Hsu, Edbert B.; Grabowski, Jurek George; Brill, Justin D.; Li, Guohua

    2006-01-01

    Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. In 2001, Nevada and New Jersey sanctioned MMA events after requiring a series of rule changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September 2001 and December 2004 in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of 171 MMA matches involving 220 different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3%) ended with at least one injured fighter. The overall injury rate was 28.6 injuries per 100 fight participations or 12.5 injuries per 100 competitor rounds. Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for 47.9% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (13.5%), nose injury (10.4%), and eye injury (8.3%). With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury. The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO) followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events. Key Points Mixed martial arts (MMA) has changed since the first MMA matches in the United States and now has increased safety regulations and sanctioning. MMA competitions have an overall high rate of injury. There have been no MMA deaths in the United States. The knockout (KO) rate in MMA appears to be lower than the KO rate of boxing matches. MMA must continue to be supervised by properly

  3. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... causes on life and subsequently on the economy, it became necessary to determine its incidence and antibiogram in our environment for adequate control and treatment. Records of microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity test results of suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) of the University of.

  4. Pattern of Animal-Related Injuries in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal related injuries as most common causes of human morbidity have different pattern by geographical zones. We aimed to explore the main descriptive epidemiology of animal-related injuries in both rural and urban areas in Iran. Between 2000 and 2004, we collected the data of all the cases of animal related trauma hospitalized for more than 24 hours in eight cities (Tehran, Mashhad, Ahwaz, Shiraz, Tabriz, Qom, Kermanshah, and Babol. Further evaluations were conducted on 17753 eligible subjects. Of 17753 traumatic patients, 40 subjects (0.2%, had animal-related injuries. The highest rate was seen in Tabriz with 11 cases. Upper and lower extremities were the most frequent sites of trauma and they were injured in 13 and 11 cases respectively. Dog bite and cow-related injuries were responsible for 40% and 32.5% of injuries respectively. Amputation of the phalanx was done in 2 cases due to dog bite and bull gore occurred. One thoracotomy, one laparatomy and one craniotomy were done. One patient needed fasciatomy due to snake bite. Educating the patients could decrease the incidence of morbidity of these injuries.

  5. Injuries in Australian Rules Football: An Overview of Injury Rates, Patterns, and Mechanisms Across All Levels of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Richard; Finch, Caroline F; Samra, David; Baquie, Peter; Cardoso, Tanusha; Hope, Danielle; Orchard, John W

    2017-08-01

    The nature of Australian rules football (Australian football) predisposes both unique and common injuries compared with those sustained in other football codes. The game involves a combination of tackling, kicking, high-speed running (more than other football codes), and jumping. Two decades of injury surveillance has identified common injuries at the professional level (Australian Football League [AFL]). To provide an overview of injuries in Australian rules football, including injury rates, patterns, and mechanisms across all levels of play. A narrative review of AFL injuries, football injury epidemiology, and biomechanical and physiological attributes of relevant injuries. The overall injury incidence in the 2015 season was 41.7 injuries per club per season, with a prevalence of 156.2 missed games per club per season. Lower limb injuries are most prevalent, with hamstring strains accounting for 19.1 missed games per club per season. Hamstring strains relate to the volume of high-speed running required in addition to at times having to collect the ball while running in a position of hip flexion and knee extension. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are also prevalent and can result from contact and noncontact incidents. In the upper limb, shoulder sprains and dislocations account for 11.5 missed games per club per season and largely resulted from tackling and contact. Concussion is less common in AFL than other tackling sports but remains an important injury, which has notably become more prevalent in recent years, theorized to be due to a more conservative approach to management. Although there are less injury surveillance data for non-AFL players (women, community-level, children), many of these injuries appear to also be common across all levels of play. An understanding of injury profiles and mechanisms in Australian football is crucial in identifying methods to reduce injury risk and prepare players for the demands of the game.

  6. Injury risk and patterns in newly transferred football players: A case study of 8 seasons from a professional football club

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, C.; McCall, A.; Le Gall, F.,; Dupont, G.

    2017-01-01

    This case study investigated injury risk and patterns in players newly transferred to a professional football club. Time-loss injuries were recorded prospectively over 8-seasons (2008-2015). Injury incidence overall, in match and training, and patterns (contact, non-contact, sprain, strain, overuse and re-injury) were compared in transferred players (n=25) across their first versus second seasons and with those in players currently at the club at the moment of the transfer (n=55 individual pl...

  7. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim: The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Methods: Injuries, defined as injuries preventing ...

  8. A Comparison of Work Health and Safety Incidents and Injuries in Part-Time and Full-Time Australian Army Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dylan; Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney

    2016-11-01

     Part-time personnel are an integral part of the Australian Army. With operational deployments increasing, it is essential that medical teams identify the patterns of injuries sustained by part-time personnel in order to mitigate the risks of injury and optimize deployability.  To compare the patterns of reported work health and safety incidents and injuries in part-time and full-time Australian Army personnel.  Retrospective cohort study.  The Australian Army.  Australian Army Reserve and Australian regular Army populations, July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014.  Proportions of reported work health and safety incidents that resulted in injuries among Army Reserve and regular Army personnel and specifically the (a) body locations affected by incidents, (b) nature of resulting injuries, (c) injury mechanisms, and (d) activities being performed when the incidents occurred.  Over 2 years, 15 065 work health and safety incidents and 11 263 injuries were reported in Army Reserve and regular Army populations combined. In the Army Reserve population, 85% of reported incidents were classified as involving minor personal injuries; 4% involved a serious personal injury. In the regular Army population, 68% of reported incidents involved a minor personal injury; 5% involved a serious personal injury. Substantially lower proportions of Army reservist incidents involved sports, whereas substantially higher proportions were associated with combat training, manual handling, and patrolling when compared with regular Army incidents.  Army reservists had a higher proportion of injuries from Army work-related activities than did regular Army soldiers. Proportions of incidents arising from combat tasks and manual handling were higher in the Army Reserve. Understanding the sources of injuries will allow the medical teams to implement injury-mitigation strategies.

  9. The incidence and pattern of supernumerary digital flexion creases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and pattern of supernumerary digital flexion creases amongst the population of Ekpoma in Edo, Nigeria. ... This study on the incidence of supernumerary digital flexion crease was carried out among undergraduate students in the faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, ...

  10. Changing pattern of incidence, aetiology and mortality from acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Literature reports from Western countries suggest an increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) and changing pattern over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to document the incidence, aetiology and mortality from AP over two decades and to examine any emerging trends. Methods: A ...

  11. Incidence and Nature of Medical Attendance Injuries in English Community Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P.; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified injury patterns during community-level rugby union match play, but none have investigated the frequency and reasons for on-field injury management. Purpose: To establish the frequency, reasons, and patterns of on-field injury management in English community rugby, including differences between different levels of play. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over 3 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), and 76 (2011-2012) English community clubs (Rugby Football Union [RFU] levels 3-9). Club injury management staff reported information for all medical attendances during match play, including details on the injury site and type, playing position (seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 only), and whether the player was removed from play. Clubs were subdivided into groups A (RFU levels 3 and 4 [mainly semiprofessional]; n = 39), B (RFU levels 5 and 6 [mainly amateur]; n = 71), and C (RFU levels 7-9 [social and recreational]; n = 79) to differentiate playing levels. Results: The overall medical attendance incidence was 229 per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 226-232), with 45 players removed per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 44-46). Attendance incidence for group A (294 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 287-301) was higher compared with group B (213; 95% CI, 208-218; P < .001) and C (204; 95% CI, 200-209; P < .001). There was a higher incidence of attendances to forwards (254; 95% CI, 249-259) compared with backs (191; 95% CI, 187-196; P < .001). The head was the most common specific site of injury (55 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 53-57) but the lower limb region overall accounted for most attendances (87; 95% CI, 85-89) and the greatest chance of removal from the pitch (22; 95% CI, 21-23). Conclusion: With the likelihood of 1 injury for each team per match severe enough for the player to leave the pitch and with at least 1 attendance for a head injury per match

  12. Obstetric anal sphincter injury: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudding, Thomas C; Vaizey, Carolynne J; Kamm, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Obstetric sphincter damage is the most common cause of fecal incontinence in women. This review aimed to survey the literature, and reach a consensus, on its incidence, risk factors, and management. This systematic review identified relevant studies from the following sources: Medline, Cochrane database, cross referencing from identified articles, conference abstracts and proceedings, and guidelines published by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (United Kingdom), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (United Kingdom), and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. A total of 451 articles and abstracts were reviewed. There was a wide variation in the reported incidence of anal sphincter muscle injury from childbirth, with the true incidence likely to be approximately 11% of postpartum women. Risk factors for injury included instrumental delivery, prolonged second stage of labor, birth weight greater than 4 kg, fetal occipitoposterior presentation, and episiotomy. First vaginal delivery, induction of labor, epidural anesthesia, early pushing, and active restraint of the fetal head during delivery may be associated with an increased risk of sphincter trauma. The majority of sphincter tears can be identified clinically by a suitably trained clinician. In those with recognized tears at the time of delivery repair should be performed using long-term absorbable sutures. Patients presenting later with fecal incontinence may be managed successfully using antidiarrheal drugs and biofeedback. In those who fail conservative treatment, and who have a substantial sphincter disruption, elective repair may be attempted. The results of primary and elective repair may deteriorate with time. Sacral nerve stimulation may be an appropriate alternative treatment modality. Obstetric anal sphincter damage, and related fecal incontinence, are common. Risk factors for such trauma are well recognized, and should allow for reduction of injury by proactive

  13. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. Methods We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a wel...

  14. Subsequent Injury Patterns in Girls' High School Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L

    2007-01-01

    Context: Girls' participation in high school sports has increased 79.5% since 1975–1976. The incidence of injury among boys in high school sports has been well documented, but information regarding the incidence, severity, and type of injury among girls in high school sports is limited.

  15. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anoushka Singh*, Lindsay Tetreault*, Suhkvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Aria Nouri, Michael G FehlingsToronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  *These authors contributed equally to this paper Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a traumatic event that impacts a patient's physical, psychological, and social well-being and places substantial financial burden on health care systems. To determine the true impact of SCI, this systematic review aims to summarize literature reporting on either the incidence or prevalence of SCI. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant literature published through June 2013. We sought studies that provided regional, provincial/state, or national data on the incidence of SCI or reported estimates of disease prevalence. The level of evidence of each study was rated using a scale that evaluated study design, methodology, sampling bias, and precision of estimates. Results: The initial search yielded 5,874 articles, 48 of which met the inclusion criteria. Forty-four studies estimated the incidence of SCI and nine reported the prevalence, with five discussing both. Of the incidence studies, 14 provided figures at a regional, ten at a state or provincial level and 21 at a national level. The prevalence of SCI was highest in the United States of America (906 per million and lowest in the Rhone-Alpes region, France (250 per million and Helsinki, Finland (280 per million. With respect to states and provinces in North America, the crude annual incidence of SCI was highest in Alaska (83 per million and Mississippi (77 per million and lowest in Alabama (29.4 per million, despite a large percentage of violence injuries (21.2%. Annual incidences were above 50 per million in the Hualien County in Taiwan (56.1 per million, the central Portugal

  16. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.

    2008-01-01

    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  17. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  18. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  19. Incidence and Patterns of Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae ( LSTV), is a structural anomaly, of the l u mbosacral spine which has been variably associated with, low back pain ( LBP) and its presence can also result i n a level being wrongly identified pre-operatively. Objectives: To determine the incidence, pattern of LSTV and its ...

  20. Incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of Elective surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of elective surgical operations in our setting and to find the appropriate solutions for better patient management. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study which was conducted in a teaching hospital at Bugando medical ...

  1. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of different bacteria isolates in 150 wound infections in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. Methods: Wound swab samples were collected from general culture bench of the Microbiology Department, after obtaining consent from ...

  2. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  3. Incidence and Pattern of Pneumonia in Goats Slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of pneumonia, in slaughtered goats in Kumasi abattoir, Ghana. One thousand three hundred and fifty lungs of goats; (1,012 Sahelian and 338 West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) lungs) of different ages (less than a year to above 4 years) were used in this study.

  4. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are

  5. Incidence of injury in elite junior Rugby Union: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, A; Cross, D S

    2004-12-01

    The high incidence of injury in Rugby Union is well documented, particularly at elite levels of competition. This article describes the incidence and nature of all injuries sustained by elite Western Australian junior Rugby Union players during the 26 weeks up to and including the 1997 National Championship campaign. Informed consent was gained for each participant (n = 44) prior to completion of an extensive baseline questionnaire. Exposure and injury data were collected at each training session and game. The injury incidence rate over the 26 week period was 13.26/1000 player hours. Injury data were analysed by phase of play, position, severity and if occurred at games or training. The incidence of injury was significantly associated with the position played (chi2 = 67.49, p value = 0.008) and the phase of play in which the injury occurred (chi2 = 8.07, p value = 0.042). Tackling was the most dangerous phase of play (52% of injuries) and the most common site of injury was the lower limb (37%). Most injuries occurred during games (56%) and the flanker was the position most at risk of injury (12%). Further research is needed to identify the aetiology of injury at all levels of competition and to use these findings to develop effective injury prevention strategies in this sport. Position-specific risk factors should also be investigated, as should the mechanism of injury associated with tackling which is the phase of play in which significantly more injuries occur in rugby.

  6. Incidence of pediatric acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric acute kidney injury (pAKI is a common complication associated with high mortality in children. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI and mortality in hospitalized (critically ill and non-critically ill patients. This was a retrospective study conducted during the period of June 1, 2013, to May 31, 2014, at the Postgraduate Department of Pediatrics, G. B. Pant Hospital, an Associated Hospital of Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. All patients between the ages of one month and 18 years were included in the study, who had AKI. In general, out of 23,794 patients, 197 developed AKI (0.8%. On subgroup analysis, 2460 were critically ill and had Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission among whom 99 developed AKI (4%, whereas 21,334 had general pediatric ward admissions and 98 developed AKI (0.5%. Infantile age group was the most commonly 91 (46.2% affected. The common causes of AKI were renal in 73 (37%, neurologic in 38 (19%, septicemia in 35 (18%, and inborn errors of metabolism in 30 (15.2%. Out of 197 pAKI patients, 42 (21.3% died and all of them were critically sick (ICU admissions. The incidence of pAKI in general was 0.8%, whereas it was 4% in critically ill children and 0.5% in general ward admissions implying an eight-fold increased risk of pAKI in critically ill patients.

  7. Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, W A; Guthua, S W; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G

    2008-03-01

    To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

  8. Injury incidence in a sports school during a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    This study prospectively analysed sports injury incidence over 3 seasons in a regional sports school within an injury surveillance project, involving 372 athletes (12-19 years) from 16 different disciplines. A personal sports diary was used to record all sporting activities daily for every athlete. Injuries (time-loss definition) were registered via a standardized questionnaire. Sports injury incidence (injuries/1,000 h) evolved from 3.9 in the first year to 4.8 in the second (p injury incidence in the third year were also observed when classifying injuries as traumatic or overuse, and as new or recurrent. The proportion of recurrent injuries was lower in the third period (11 %) when compared to the first (19.5 %, p Injury incidence was lowest during the third period for all severity categories. The same was found when considering injuries within racket, team and individual sports. Implementing an injury surveillance system in this setting was associated with a lower injury incidence in the third observation period. This project may have influenced stakeholders' awareness and attitude towards the sports injury problematic.

  9. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management.

  10. Injury Patterns In Low Intensity Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2009-01-01

    Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%, followed by splinter injuries (39.2% and Road traffic accident(RTA (19.4%. Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries.

  11. Aetiology, pattern and management of oral and maxillofacial injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the aetiology, pattern and methods of management of oral and Maxillofacial injuries (OMFIs) seen at the Oral and Jaw injuries unit of Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) Kampala, Uganda, over a ten year period. Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Setting: Oral and jaw injury unit of ...

  12. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  13. Injury patterns in polytraumatized children and consequences for the emergency room management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwingmann, J; Schmal, H; Mehlhorn, A

    2010-01-01

    polytraumatized because of the detected high percentage of head and thorax injuries in polytraumatized children and the needed head surgery. The quickest imaging with a high sensitivity is the whole body CT scan which provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy.......INTRODUCTION: The effective initial treatment in the emergency room of polytraumatized children requires a sound knowledge of com- mon injury patterns, incidence, mortality, and consequences. The needed initial radiological imaging remains controversial and should be adapted to the expected injury...... pattern. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the injury patterns of 56 polytraumatized paediatric patients (age ≤ 16 years) in the period from December 2001 to May 2009 were evaluated. All children were initially diagnosed with a whole body CT scan. The cause of accident, the localization...

  14. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P accidents was 219 per 10,000 registered vehicles, or 595 per 100,000 people. About 28% of all RTAs, and more than one third of fatal RTAs, occurred during the summer months. The incidence rate for all traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Conclusions Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management. PMID:27703958

  15. Different injury pattern in goalkeepers compared to field players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Goalkeepers have a specific physiological and biomechanical profile including hip loading with increased frontal plane kinetics and explosive side jumps. The aim of this study is to analyze the injury incidence in professional goalkeepers and to compare this with field players.......Goalkeepers have a specific physiological and biomechanical profile including hip loading with increased frontal plane kinetics and explosive side jumps. The aim of this study is to analyze the injury incidence in professional goalkeepers and to compare this with field players....

  16. Predictors and incidence of posttraumatic seizures in children and adolescents after brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the incidence of early and late seizures after head injury in patients under 18 years old. Factors correlating with a high risk of developing posttraumatic seizures were identified. Such risk factors were the severity of the head trauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3-8. In contrast to many studies, we observed that the incidence of posttraumatic seizures was significantly higher in patients older than 12 years old (12-16 and 12-18. Most of the late seizures were paroxysmal electroencephalography (EEG discharges diagnosed on a snapshot-EEG during the follow-up examination of the patients without clinical symptoms. We suppose that EEG-examination in head injured children is important to identify patients with epileptic potentials without clinical symptoms. Epileptic patterns of the EEG could worsen the diagnosis and clinical outcome of the children in accordance to studies performed in the adult population.

  17. Pattern of Assault-induced Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, Obitade Sunday; Okoje, Victoria Njedika; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Assault, though a major cause of maxillofacial injuries in the developed nations, has not been adequately investigated among Nigerian population. This study aimed to analyze the pattern of maxillofacial injuries caused by assault in our institution. Methods: A descriptive clinical survey of patients with assault-induced oral and maxillofacial injuries presenting to our maxillofacial surgery clinic/emergency ward was carried out. Demographic data and pattern of injuries obtained from patients’ record and department trauma database were analyzed. Results: 156 patients presented with oral and maxillofacial injuries between October 2009 and December 2010. Thirty-four cases were due to assault and male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age of the patients was 21.4±6.26 years (age range 2–48 years). 23.6% (n=8) of the injuries were due to domestic violence between spouses while 35.3% (n=12) resulted from fight. Students unrest and armed robbery attack accounted for six cases each (17.7%, n=6), while there were two cases due to child battering. 64.3% (n=22) of the injuries sustained involved soft tissues while 35.7% involved hard tissues. Contusion was the most common isolated soft tissue injury accounting for 56% (n=10) while dentoalveolar fracture was the most encountered hard tissue injury (62.5%, n=16). Conclusion: There is need for preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of assault-induced maxillofacial injuries. PMID:24027401

  18. [Pattern of injuries at a Danish sports college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H M

    1993-01-18

    A batch of college students was followed with the object of describing the pattern of athletic injuries. Men sustained the greatest number of acute injuries while no sex difference was observed in the number of stress injuries. The majority of injuries occurred in connection with gymnastics but, when all ball games are considered together, ball game injuries exceeded the gymnastic injuries in number. This difference is further increased when the fact that, in this college, twice as much time is spent on gymnastics as on ball games, is taken into consideration.

  19. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  20. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  1. Patterns of care and persistence after incident elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Sinaiko, Alan R; Reifler, Liza M; Tavel, Heather M; Glanz, Jason M; Margolis, Karen L; Parker, Emily; Trower, Nicole K; Chandra, Malini; Sherwood, Nancy E; Adams, Kenneth; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Greenspan, Louise C; Lo, Joan C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Magid, David J

    2013-08-01

    Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.

  2. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors...

  3. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J M

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  4. Video incident analysis of head injuries in high school girls' lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with head injuries in girls' high school lacrosse is necessary to target prevention efforts. To use video analysis and injury data to provide an objective and comprehensive visual record to identify mechanisms of injury, game characteristics, and penalties associated with head injury in girls' high school lacrosse. Descriptive epidemiology study. In the 25 public high schools of 1 school system, 529 varsity and junior varsity girls' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of head injury incidents was examined to identify associated mechanisms and game characteristics using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. Of the 25 head injuries (21 concussions and 4 contusions) recorded as game-related incidents by athletic trainers during the 2 seasons, 20 head injuries were captured on video, and 14 incidents had sufficient image quality for analysis. All 14 incidents of head injury (11 concussions, 3 contusions) involved varsity-level athletes. Most head injuries resulted from stick-to-head contact (n = 8), followed by body-to-head contact (n = 4). The most frequent player activities were defending a shot (n = 4) and competing for a loose ball (n = 4). Ten of the 14 head injuries occurred inside the 12-m arc and in front of the goal, and no penalty was called in 12 injury incidents. All injuries involved 2 players, and most resulted from unintentional actions. Turf versus grass did not appear to influence number of head injuries. Comprehensive video analysis suggests that play near the goal at the varsity high school level is associated with head injuries. Absence of penalty calls on most of these plays suggests an area for exploration, such as the extent to which current rules are enforced and the effectiveness of existing rules for the prevention of head injury.

  5. Patterns, severity, and management of maxillofacial injuries in a suburban South Western Nigeria tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmuyiwa, Stella Aimiede; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Ayantunde, Abiodun Abraham; Odewabi, Adenike Abidemi

    2015-01-01

    Trauma remains a leading cause of maxillofacial injury globally. Changing etiological factors and patterns of maxillofacial injury continue to be reported and are largely modulated by socio-geographic and environmental factors. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the pattern and etiology in a particular region before effective preventive measures can be developed. The aim was to evaluate the patterns, etiological factors, and management of maxillofacial injuries in Ogun state, Nigeria. A prospective descriptive cohort study of all consecutive patients that presented with maxillofacial injuries at our center between January and December 2013. Information about demographic data, types of maxillofacial and associated injury, etiology of injury, treatment received and complications were collected and analyzed. Seventy patients presented with maxillofacial injury during the study period with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The age range was 9 months to 60 years with a mean of 30.11 ± standard deviation 14.97 years. Majority of the facial fractures were due to motorcycle related crashes. There were 57.1% mandibular fractures and 55.7% middle third fractures. Closed reduction with maxillo-mandibular fixation was the major method of treatment of facial fractures. Postoperative complications were observed in 11.4% of patients. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) remain the leading etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in our center. Enforcement of stricter traffic regulations and possibly replacement of motorcycles with tricycles for commercial transportation may help to reduce the incidence of RTCs.

  6. Injury patterns in female Irish dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Megan; Hoch, Anne Z; McNamara, Laura; Schimke, Jane

    2010-11-01

    To determine the type of Irish dance injuries requiring evaluation and treatment by a sports medicine physician. Cross-sectional retrospective chart review. Academic sports medicine center in the Midwest. Female Irish dancers who presented at an academic sports medicine center from June 2002 to September 2009. This was a retrospective chart review identifying injuries sustained to female Irish dancers in a single Irish dance company in a major metropolitan area. Dancers were evaluated and injuries were diagnosed by one sports medicine physician at an academic sports medicine center. Sixty-nine female Irish dancers, ages 8 to 23 years, sustained 217 recorded injuries. The top injuries included stress fractures (29.9%), patellofemoral pain syndrome (11.1%), Sever condition (6.0%), ankle sprains (5.1%), posterior tibialis tendonitis (4.6%), and plantar fasciitis (4.6%). The most common site for stress fractures were the sesamoids, comprising 27.7% of all stress fractures and 8.3% of total injuries. The majority of injuries were in the lower extremities (94.9%), remaining injuries involved the lumbosacral spine and pelvis (5.1%). Most dancers (79.7%) had multiple injuries. The number of injuries per dancer increased as the dancer's level increased. There was a trend for the average age of the dancers to decrease as the level of skill increased. Lower extremity injuries comprised the majority of Irish dance injuries. Stress fractures (29.9%), patellofemoral pain syndrome (11.1%), and Sever condition (6.0%) were the most common injuries. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence, aetiology and injury characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden: A prospective, population-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Andersson, Nina; Bjelak, Sapko; Giesecke, Kajsa; Hultling, Claes; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Phillips, Julie; Seiger, Åke; Stenimahitis, Vasilios; Trok, Katarzyna; Åkesson, Elisabet; Wahman, Kerstin

    2017-05-16

    To update the incidence rate, aetiology and injury characteristics of acutely-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden, using international standards of reporting. Prospective, (regional) population-based observation. Forty-nine consecutively enrolled individuals. A surveillance system of newly-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury was implemented for an 18-month period. The International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set was used to collect data on those who survived the first 7 days post-injury. After an 18-month period, 49 incident cases were registered, of whom 45 were included in this study. The crude incidence rate was 19.0 per million, consisting mainly of men (60%), and the mean age of the cohort was 55 years (median 58). Causes of injury were almost exclusively limited to falls and transport-related events, accounting for 58% and 40% of cases, respectively. The incidence has remained stable when compared with the previous study; however, significant differences exist for injury aetiology (p = 0.004) and impairment level (p = 0.01) in that more fall- and transport-related spinal cord injury occurred, and a larger proportion of persons was left with resultant tetraplegia, in the current study, compared with more sport-related injuries and those left with paraplegia in the previous study. The incidence rate appeared to remain stable in Stockholm, Sweden. However, significant changes in injury aetiology and impairment-level post injury were found, compared with the previous study. There remains a need for developing fall-related prevention strategies in rehabilitation settings as well as in population-based programmes.

  8. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  9. Injury rate and injury pattern among elite World Cup snowboarders: a 6-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, D H; Steenstrup, S E; Bere, T; Bahr, R; Nordsletten, L

    2014-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the injury rate and injury pattern in the different disciplines among elite snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury rate and injury pattern among the different International Ski Federation (Fédération Internationale de Ski, FIS) World Cup (WC) snowboard disciplines. We conducted retrospective interviews with FIS WC snowboard athletes at the end of each season in the period 2007-2012, to register all acute injuries sustained during training or competition during the competitive season requiring attention by medical personnel. To calculate the exposure, we obtained information from result lists from the FIS competition database for all WC competitions for each of the interviewed athletes. We registered a total of 574 injuries among 1432 athletes, accounting for an overall injury rate of 40.1 injuries/100 athlete/season. A total of 171 injuries occurred during the FIS WC competitions, corresponding to 6.4 injuries/1000 runs. During competition, injury risk was highest in snowboard cross with 11.9/1000 runs, followed by 6.3 in halfpipe, 3.6 in big air and 2.8 in parallel giant slalom/parallel slalom (PGS/PSL). Snowboard cross also had the highest risk of severe injuries (>28 days absence). No differences in injury risk were detected between male and female snowboarders. The most commonly injured body part was the knee (17.8%), followed by the shoulder/clavicle (13.4%) and head/face (13.2%). The risk of knee injury (the most common injury type) and head injury was significantly higher in snowboard cross and halfpipe compared to PGS/PSL. The risk of injuries was higher in snowboard cross than in halfpipe, big air and PGS/PSL. The most commonly injured body part was the knee. Prevention of snowboard injuries among elite snowboarders should focus on knee injuries, severe injuries and snowboard cross athletes.

  10. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...

  11. Abdominal injuries after high falls: high incidence and increased mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hensbroek, P. Boele; van Ooijen, M.; Lamers, A. B. G. N.; Ponsen, K.-J.; Goslings, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Falls from height are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Injuries to the extremities and head are common. However, little has been reported on abdominal injuries or their treatment. This study aims to assess the abdominal injuries, treatment, and mortality after falls from height. We searched

  12. Incidence of Overuse Musculoskeletal Injuries in Military Service Members With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Mazzone, Brittney; Eskridge, Susan; Shannon, Kaeley; Hill, Owen T

    2018-02-01

    To describe the incidence of overuse musculoskeletal injuries in service members with combat-related lower limb amputation. Retrospective cohort study. Military treatment facilities. Service members with deployment-related lower limb injury (N=791): 496 with a major lower limb amputation and 295 with a mild lower limb injury. Not applicable. The outcomes of interest were clinical diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision) associated with musculoskeletal overuse injuries of the lumbar spine, upper limb, and lower limb regions 1 year before and 1 year after injury. The overall incidence of developing at least 1 musculoskeletal overuse injury within the first year after lower limb amputation was between 59% and 68%. Service members with unilateral lower limb amputation were almost twice as likely to develop an overuse lower or upper limb injury than those with mild combat-related injury. Additionally, service members with bilateral lower limb amputation were more than twice as likely to develop a lumbar spine injury and 4 times more likely to develop an upper limb overuse injury within the first year after amputation than those with mild combat-related injury. Incidence of secondary overuse musculoskeletal injury is elevated in service members with lower limb amputation and warrants focused research efforts toward developing preventive interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Food Intake Patterns Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Weis, Kristina E.; Schulz, Mandy; Tooze, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Markers of hemostasis and inflammation such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify food intake patterns influencing this pathway and evaluate their association with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort included 880 middle-aged adults initially free of diabetes. At the 5-year follow-up, 144 individuals had developed diabetes. Usual dietary intake was ascertained with a 114-item food frequency questionnaire. Using reduced rank regression, we identified a food pattern maximizing the explained variation in PAI-1 and fibrinogen. Subsequently, the food pattern–diabetes association was evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS—High intake of the food groups red meat, low-fiber bread and cereal, dried beans, fried potatoes, tomato vegetables, eggs, cheese, and cottage cheese and low intake of wine characterized the pattern, which was positively associated with both biomarkers. With increasing pattern score, the odds of diabetes increased significantly (Ptrend < 0.01). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio comparing extreme quartiles was 4.3 (95% CI 1.7–10.8). Adjustment for insulin sensitivity and secretion and other metabolic factors had little impact (4.9, 1.8–13.7). CONCLUSIONS—Our findings provide support for potential behavioral prevention strategies, as we identified a food intake pattern that was strongly related to PAI-1 and fibrinogen and independently predicted type 2 diabetes. PMID:19033409

  14. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  15. The business cycle and the incidence of workplace injuries: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The current study explored the association between the business cycle and the incidence of workplace injuries to identify cyclically sensitive industries and the relative contribution of physical capital and labor utilization within industries. Bureau of Labor Statistics nonfatal injury rates from 1976 through 2007 were examined across five industry sectors with respect to several macroeconomic indicators. Within industries, injury associations with utilization of labor and physical capital over time were tested using time series regression methods. Pro-cyclical associations between business cycle indicators and injury incidence were observed in mining, construction, and manufacturing but not in agriculture or trade. Physical capital utilization was the highest potential contributor to injuries in mining while labor utilization was the highest potential contributor in construction. In manufacturing each effect had a similar association with injuries. The incidence of workplace injury is associated with the business cycle. However, the degree of association and the mechanisms through with the business cycle affects the incidence of workplace injuries was not the same across industries. The results suggest that firms in the construction, manufacturing, and mining industries should take additional precautionary safety measures during cyclical upturns. Potential differences among industries in the mechanisms through which the business cycle affects injury incidence suggest different protective strategies for those industries. For example, in construction, additional efforts might be undertaken to ensure workers are adequately trained and not excessively fatigued, while safety procedures continue to be followed even during boom times. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Incidence and pattern of brain lesions in paediatric septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Debora; D'Arco, Felice; Robles, Carlos Andres; Brierley, Joe

    2018-04-01

    Brain injury is frequently observed during septic shock and may be primarily related to the direct effects of the septic insult on the brain or to secondary/indirect injuries (e.g. hypotension, hypoxaemia and hyperglycaemia). We sought to assess incidence and pattern of brain lesions diagnosed by neuroimaging in paediatric septic shock patients. Retrospective descriptive hospital-based study included paediatric patients with a single episode of septic shock admitted to our tertiary paediatric intensive care unit from January 2010 to December 2013. 49 of 193 septic shock patients had a neuroimaging examination [CT only 22 (45%), MRI only 14 (29%) and both 13 (27%)]. Neuroimaging was normal in 16 patients (33%) and showed acute lesions in 20 patients (40%). The most frequent findings were: cerebral infarcts/hypoxic ischaemic injury in 8 (16%) and cerebritis in 7 (14%). The incidence of acute brain lesion in our septic shock cohort was 10% (20 of 193). The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in septic shock patients relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography and neuroimaging. Neuroimaging can reveal acute intracerebral structural lesions and their reversibility, helping with management and prognosis. Advances in knowledge: Ischaemic lesions and cerebritis are the most common brain anomalies complicating paediatric septic shock.

  17. Incidence and factors associated with injuries among adolescent players in an amateur soccer tournament in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola; Ajide, Kemisola

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with injuries among adolescents participating in an amateur soccer tournament in Ibadan, Nigeria. A prospective study was conducted among 90 participants (66 players and 24 substitutes) from six all-male teams with each team comprising 11 players. A total of six matches, each lasting 60 minutes (132 player-hours) were played in the tournament. Players were observed during all matches and followed up for up to two weeks after the final match. The association between selected risk factors and injury occurence was assessed using χ2 test. Players mean age was 16.1 (±1.8) years. Twelve (13.3%) of the 90 players were involved in 15 injury events. The injury incidence was 113.6 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI: 56.1-171.1) and 12 (80.0%) of all injuries occurred within 15 minutes of the end of each half of the match. Injuries often affected the lower limb 10 (58.8%), and the upper limb 6 (35.3%). Common injuries sustained were abrasions, 11 (64.6%), sprains, 3 (17.6%) and contusions 2 (11.8%). Eighty percent of injuries were due to collision with another player. All injuries were slight to mild as all the injured players returned to practice or games within five days of sustaining the injury. Dominant playing foot (mainly left foot or both feet) was associated with a higher incidence of injuries (χ2=7.321; P=0.018). Injury incidence was relatively high although injuries were mild. Measures to minimize injuries following player-to-player contact would be beneficial for adolescent soccer players in our study setting.

  18. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  19. Nature and incidence of upper limb injuries in professional cricket players a prospective observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.

  20. Estimating Concussion Incidence Using Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: Complexities and Potential Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Wasserman, Erin B; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Dompier, Thomas P; Comstock, R Dawn; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-08-01

    Numerous sports injury surveillance systems exist with the capability of tracking concussion incidence data. It is important for the consumers of sport-related concussion data, be they researchers or the public, to have a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and limitations of sports injury surveillance systems. This article discusses issues of system design and analysis that affect the interpretation and understanding of sport-related concussion incidence data from sports injury surveillance systems. Such understanding will help inform the design of sports injury surveillance systems and research studies that aim to identify risk factors, develop prevention strategies, and evaluate prevention mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MRI detection of unsuspected vertebral injury in acute spinal trauma: incidence and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiyum, M.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; McCall, I.W.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Multilevel spinal injury is well recognised. Previous studies reviewing the radiographs of spinal injury patients have shown an incidence of 15.2% of unsuspected spinal injury. It is recognised that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify injuries that are not demonstrated on radiographs. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and significance of spinal injuries using MRI in comparison with radiographs.Design and patients. The radiographs and MR images of 110 acute spinal injury patients were reviewed independently of each other and the findings were then correlated to determine any unsuspected injury.Results. MRI detected vertebral body bone bruises (microtrabecular bone injury) in 41.8% of spinal injury patients which were not seen on radiographs. These bone bruises were best appreciated on sagittal short tau inversion recovery MR sequences and seen at contiguous and non-contiguous levels in relation to the primary injury.Conclusion. This level of incidence of bone bruises has not previously been appreciated. We recommend that patients undergoing MRI for an injured segment of the spine are better assessed by MRI of the entire spine at the same time to exclude further injury. (orig.)

  2. Patterns of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Linda S. de; Groenendaal, Floris

    2010-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in assessing the neonatal brain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the use of MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detecting different patterns of brain injury in (full-term) human neonates following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and indicate the relevance of these findings in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  3. The pattern and management outcomes of splenic injuries in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the last decade or so, the management of splenic injuries has undergone a lot of debate and changes including refinement of the indications for non-operative management (NOM). The aims of this retrospective study are: to characterize the pattern of splenic injuries in the Abha region of Saudi Arabia; ...

  4. Pattern of civilian gunshot injuries in Irrua, Nigeria | Onuminya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective review of 76 patients with gunshot wounds was undertaken to evaluate the pattern and outcome of civilian gunshot injuries in our region. The extremities were the most commonly affected site (51.5% of all gunshot wounds). Gunshot injuries were most common among young males in the third decade of ...

  5. Pattern of injuries from motorcycle accidents in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are very common and cause major injuries. The Abia State government banned commercial motorcyclists from operating in the major cities of the state in July, 2009. Objectives: To determine the influence of this ban on the cause and pattern of injuries due to road traffic accidents. Design: ...

  6. Digital Rewarming Patterns After Median and Ulnar Nerve Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Niehof, S.P.; Selles, R.W.; Jaquet, J.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Posttraumatic cold intolerance (CI) is a frequent and important sequel after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, it is hypothesized that altered rewarming patterns after peripheral nerve injury are related to the degree of posttraumatic CI. This hypothesis is tested by quantitatively

  7. Digital Rewarming Patterns After Median and Ulnar Nerve Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Niehof, S.P.; Selles, R.W.; Jaquet, J-B.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    Purpose: Posttraumatic cold intolerance (CI) is a frequent and important sequel after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, it is hypothesized that altered rewarming patterns after peripheral nerve injury are related to the degree of posttraumatic CI. This hypothesis is tested by quantitatively

  8. Patterns of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Linda S. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, KE 04.123.1, P.O. Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Groenendaal, Floris [University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Enormous progress has been made in assessing the neonatal brain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the use of MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detecting different patterns of brain injury in (full-term) human neonates following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and indicate the relevance of these findings in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  9. Causes And Pattern Of Unilateral Hand Injuries | Kaisha | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. Subjects: All ...

  10. Pattern of Injury and Associated Variables as Seen in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traumatic injuries represent a significant and growing disease burden in the developing world, and now represent one of the leading causes of death in economically active adults in many low- and middle-income countries. This study was aimed at determining the pattern of injuries and variables associated ...

  11. The effect of a comprehensive injury audit program on injury incidence in ballet: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nick; Nevill, Alan M; Brooks, John H M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an intervention with individualized conditioning program based on injury history and functional movement screening would be effective in reducing ballet injury incidence. Prospective 3-year epidemiological study. Professional ballet company and its in-house medical facility. Dancers from a professional ballet company over the 3-year study period. Participant numbers ranged from 52 to 58 (year 1: 52; year 2: 58; year 3: 53). The intervention consisted of individual conditioning programs developed using injury history and functional movement screening. Analysis was undertaken of the all dancers who were present in the company during the study period. The significance of change in injuries over a 3-year period was determined using a Poisson distribution model. To determine whether individual conditioning programs resulted in a decrease in injury incidence over the study period. The injury count reduced significantly in years 2 and 3 (P ballet. The implementation of well-structured injury surveillance programs can impact on injury incidence through its influence on intervention programs.

  12. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims National Cricket Centre, Cricket Australia, Brisbane, Australia Background: T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances. International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket.  Methods: Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006–2007 to season 2015–2016 inclusive.  Results: Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions. The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season. The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time.  Discussion: The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as

  13. Injuries in pre-professional ballet dancers: Incidence, characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Quested, Rachele; Brodrick, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Compared to other athletic activities, research on injury incidence and risk factors in dance is limited. There is also a need for more research evaluating the impact of intense training on elite adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates and risk of injuries, the hours of dance exposure and the characteristics and consequences of injuries among elite pre-professional ballet students. Prospective epidemiological study. 266 (112 male) full-time students aged 15-19 years from three elite pre-professional ballet schools were followed prospectively over one school year. Injury rate was reported per 1000 h of dance and 1000 dance exposures (DEs). Injury details collected included type and anatomical location of injury. The clinical incidence of injury was 1.42 injuries per dancer and the risk of injury was 76% over the one-year period. The rate of injury was 1.38/1000 h of dance and 1.87/1000 DEs. Joints were the most commonly injured structures and the ankle was the most commonly injured body area. Overuse injuries were more common than traumatic injuries. Bony injuries (e.g. stress fractures), and injuries to the knee were associated with the greatest time loss per injury. Injury risk and rate increased as students progressed through their three years of training. In comparison with other adolescent athletic populations, participants in this study had a similar injury rate but a higher risk of injury. This may be attributable to the high level of training exposure in pre-professional ballet students. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  15. Patterns of Storm Injury and Tree Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Smith; Walter Shortle; Kenneth Dudzik

    2001-01-01

    The ice storm of January 1998 in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada was an extreme example of severe weather that injures trees every year. Broken branches, split branch forks, and snapped stems are all examples of storm injury.

  16. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  17. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. Objective:  To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. Data Sources:  We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Study Selection:  Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Data Extraction:  Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. Data Synthesis:  A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Conclusions:  Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players. PMID:27244125

  18. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  19. Parental Perceptions, Risks, and Incidence of Pediatric Unintentional Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Catherine M; Weaver, Nancy L; Cioni, Claire; Fry, Jessica; Hamilton, Alyssa; Thompson, Samantha

    2017-10-06

    More than 9,000 children die annually from various causes of unintentional injury. Of all the pediatric unintentional injuries occurring in the United States, 8.7 million are treated in emergency departments, and 225,000 require hospitalization annually. Health education programs are available to address these injuries. The objective of this research was to examine the distribution of self-reported high priority injury risks in an urban Midwestern pediatric level 1 trauma center and investigate the relationship between parental perceptions and injury-prevention behaviors. Prevalence rates for 3 data sources are compared. Missouri Information for Community Assessment (MICA) was categorized to mirror variables corresponding with risks of injury presented in the Safe 'n' Sound (SNS) program. Level 1 trauma center data were examined to determine how the variables were distributed compared with MICA data and with the parent-reported levels. A total of 429 SNS surveys were compared with ED data and MICA data. For SNS users, car crashes were identified as the highest risk, specifically due to the use of incorrect car seats. The injuries seen most often in the emergency department were falls, and falls were also the most prevalent injury captured by MICA. Controlling for demographics, parental perceptions predicted several risks for injury. Because parental perceptions are significantly related to risks of injury, prevention programs aiming to decrease injuries could focus on the perceptions. Not only can perceptions be used to tailor health communication materials, these perceptions can be the targets of change. Further work might investigate the extent to which changes in perceptions result in increased adoption of safety practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

  1. Training volume and injury incidence in a professional rugby union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    professional players have become full-time athletes, with a greater emphasis on training for strength, .... grade 1 injury was defined as one in which there was pain, with mini- mal loss of muscle function or strength. 14 ... published, the definition of injuries in our study was slightly different. An examination of the consensus ...

  2. Injury incidence and characteristics in South African school first team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sport of rugby union is accompanied by a significant risk of injury. Concerned parties have recently questioned whether this risk is acceptable within school populations. This is difficult to assess within the South African schools' population as no recent longitudinal injury studies exist. Objectives: To determine the training ...

  3. Cardiac injuries caused by blunt trauma: an autopsy based assessment of the injury pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah Anik; Akyildiz, Elif; Pakis, Isil; Uzun, Ibrahim; Gurpinar, Kagan; Atilmis, Umit; Kir, Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Nonpenetrating chest trauma with injury to the heart and aorta has become increasingly common, particularly as a result of rapid deceleration in high-speed vehicular accidents, over the past 2-3 decades. The high mortality rate of cardiac injuries and possible late onset complications make blunt cardiac injuries an important challenging point for legal medicine. One hundred and ninety cases with blunt cardiac injuries in a period of 3 years were analyzed retrospectively in terms of patterns of cardiac injury, survival times, and demographic profiles of the cases in this study.

  4. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare injury patterns in children with many and few emergency department (ED) visits in order to reveal the causes for the frequent visits. METHODS: Three cohorts of Danish children (total 579 721 children) were followed for three years when their ages were 0-2, 6-8, and 12......-14 years. Information on all ED visits was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Injury type, place of accident, injury mechanism, admission, and distance to ED were compared between children with frequent ED visits (five or more during the three years) and children with only one visit....... RESULTS: Children with frequent visits had a different injury pattern with 0-46% more superficial injuries and 25-82% more dislocations, sprains, and strains. There was 20-30% fewer fractures and 12% fewer falls from a higher level. 15-51% fewer were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Children with many ED visits had...

  5. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R N; Siem, D; van Middelkoop, M; van Os, A G; Bierma‐Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a systematic overview of published reports on the incidence and associated potential risk factors of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners. An electronic database search was conducted using the PubMed–Medline database. Two observers independently assessed the quality of the studies and a best evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. The incidence of lower extremity running injuries ranged from 19.4% to 79.3%. The predominant site of these injuries was the knee. There was strong evidence that a long training distance per week in male runners and a history of previous injuries were risk factors for injuries, and that an increase in training distance per week was a protective factor for knee injuries. PMID:17473005

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  7. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  8. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  9. Change in child mortality patterns after injuries in Sweden: a nationwide 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, D; Steinvall, I; Sjöberg, F

    2017-06-01

    Sweden has one of the world's lowest child injury mortality rates, but injuries are still the leading cause of death among children. Child injury mortality in the country has been declining, but this decline seems to decrease recently. Our objective was therefore to further examine changes in the mortality of children's death from injury over time and to assess the contribution of various effects on mortality. The underlying hypothesis for this investigation is that the incidence of lethal injuries in children, still is decreasing and that this may be sex specific. We studied all deaths from injury in Sweden under-18-year-olds during the 14 years 1999-2012. We identified those aged under 18 whose underlying cause of death was recorded as International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis from V01 to X39 in the Swedish cause of death, where all dead citizens are registered. From the 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2012, 1213 children under the age of 18 died of injuries in Sweden. The incidence declined during this period (r = -0.606, p = 0.02) to 3.3 deaths/100,000 children-years (95 % CI 2.6-4.2). Death from unintentional injury was more common than that after intentional injury (p injuries during the study period (r = -0.757, p = 0.03). The most common causes of death were injury to the brain (n = 337, 41 %), followed by drowning (n = 109, 13 %). The number of deaths after intentional injury increased (r = 0.585, p = 0.03) and at the end of the period was 1.5 deaths/100,000 children-years. The most common causes of death after intentional injuries were asphyxia (n = 177, 45 %), followed by injury to the brain (n = 76, 19 %). Mortality patterns in injured children in Sweden have changed from being dominated by unintentional injuries to a more equal distribution between unintentional and intentional injuries as well as between sexes and the overall rate has declined further. These findings are important as they might

  10. The Incidence of Injury in Amateur Male Rugby Union: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Caithriona; Kenny, Ian C; Cahalan, Roisin; Warrington, Giles D; Harrison, Andrew J; Hayes, Kevin; Lyons, Mark; Campbell, Mark J; Comyns, Thomas M

    2018-04-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding, full-contact team sport that has gained worldwide popularity. The incidence of injury in rugby union has been widely reported in the literature. While comprehensive injury surveillance and prevention programmes have been implemented within the professional game, there is a need for similar strategies in the amateur game. Despite recent increases in the volume of research in rugby, there is little consensus regarding the true incidence rate of match and training injuries in senior amateur male rugby union players. The aim of the current review was to systematically review the available evidence on the epidemiology of time-loss injuries in senior amateur male rugby union players and to subsequently conduct a meta-analysis of the findings. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Scopus, SportDiscus and Google Scholar electronic databases was performed using the following keywords; ('rugby' OR 'rugby union') AND ('amateur' OR 'community') AND ('injur*' OR 'pain*'). Six articles regarding the incidence of injury in senior amateur male rugby union players, in both matches and training, were retrieved and included in the meta-analysis to determine the overall incidence rate of match injury, with descriptive analyses also provided for other reported variables. The overall incidence rate of match injuries within senior amateur rugby union players was 46.8/1000 player hours [95% confidence interval (CI) 34.4-59.2]. Contact events accounted for the majority of injuries, with the tackler more at risk than the player being tackled, and with respective incidence rates of 15.9/1000 player hours (95% CI 12.4-19.5) and 12.2/1000 player hours (95% CI 9.3-15.1). This meta-analysis found that the incidence rate of injury in amateur rugby union players was lower than that in professional players, but higher than the incidences reported in adolescent and youth rugby players. By understanding the true incidence and nature of injuries in rugby, injury

  11. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  12. Incidence of shoulder injuries and related risk factors among master ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swimmers engaging in strength training (OR = 0.78) showed a reduced incidence of shoulder pain. The calculated incidence of shoulder pain over the three-year period among the master swimmers was 62.4%. Significant statistical associations between shoulder pain and the risk factors of osteoporosis, volume of training ...

  13. PATTERN AND OUTCOME OF ABDOMINAL INJURIES AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The ... in the past (1). Abdominal injuries constitute a significant proportion of patients who present to Kenyatta National Hospital. (KNH)(2) yet short of a cursory look, no study has ..... While McFarlane in his paper on management.

  14. Incidence and severity of neck injury in Rugby Union: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2011-09-01

    Objectives. To collate and appraise incidence and severity data for neck injury in Rugby Union. To report risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union that are supported by incidence and severity data. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Original journal articles were retrieved from electronic searches of AusportMed, AUSPORT, Scopus, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL, Mantis, and Pubmed databases and relevant bibliographic hand searches. Selection criteria were restricted to: (a) prospective study designs including cohort, case-control, and intervention methodologies; (b) populations of Rugby Union players, either male or female of any age; (c) studies must report on neck injury incidence and/or severity specifically; (d) articles with republished neck injury data were excluded. The STROBE Statement was adapted for the quality assessment of included studies and categorised as either poor, moderate or good. Results. Thirty-three original articles met the selection criteria. Wide variation of injury and exposure definitions and population sampling was identified in the included articles. Neck injury incidence ranged between 0.26 (CI: 0.08, 0.93) and 9.17 (CI: 1.89, 26.81) per 1000 player hours for mixed populations that adopted an all inclusive sports injury definition. There is a paucity of severity data and analytical data which evaluates causal roles of risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union. Conclusions. Meaningful understanding of neck injury incidence and severity in Rugby Union is restricted to a few studies which adopt comparable methodological construct. This paper provides an index for future neck injury studies in Rugby Union. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence, Epidemiology and Etiology of Injuries, in a Spanish Amateur Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Esteban-Zubero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Playing football, both at the amateur and professional level, associates an increased risk of injury. A documented report on injury location, type and incidence, in correlation with sports intensity, professionalism level and age, would be of support for implementing preventing measures and appropriate training programs, to reduce the incidence of football related injury. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the incidence, type and location of injuries during one season, in an amateur football club and design strategies and preventive measures. Patients and Methods: A population of 308 players were studied, aged between 5 and 29 years old (20 subjects over-19, 38 under-19, 38 under-16, 57 under-14, 57 under-12, 44 under-10 and 54 under-8 years old, respectively distributed over 20 teams. In total, 339 cases of injury occurred. Results: The population injured the most was the under-19 group and the most prevalent type of injuries was muscular (40.7% and ligament (16.5%. The most common location was the lower limbs (78.6% and, specifically, the thigh (39.8%. Physical load periods (September and February were highlighted as the months of highest incidence and the average number of visits per injury was 1.34. A statistically significant relationship between hours of training and injuries was noted. Conclusions: In the literature, there are similar publications, who studied these variables, separately. This work provides us with a certain amount of descriptive results, which may serve as a model for future research projects, performing interventions by coaches and medical services of football clubs, to reduce the injuries incidence, especially in the months of greatest physical load and, therefore, improve the performance. Football is a safe sport to practice, at any age, because injuries, regularly, are not serious and it is highly recommended, given the amount of health benefits obtained.

  16. Urodynamic Bladder Patterns in Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.; Khan, A. A.; Iqbal, S.; Aziz, U.; Jilani, S.; Ayyub, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of various neurogenic bladder patterns in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury presenting at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Rawalpindi based on urodynamic studies. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi, from Jul 2014 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty traumatic spinal cord injury patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included both from indoor and outdoor departments through non-probability purposive sampling. Urodynamic studies were performed using the urodynamic equipment at urodynamic laboratory. Data were collected and recorded on specialized proforma by the principal investigator. Results: Among 140 study participants detrusor overactivity was found in 100 patients out of which 76 (76 percent) had thoracic level of injury, 20 (20 percent) had cervical level and 4 (4 percent) had lumbar level of injury. Detrusor areflexia was the bladder pattern in 40 patients out of which 26 (65 percent) had thoracic level of injury, 10 (25 percent) had cervical level, and 4 (10 percent) had lumbar level of injury. Conclusion: Detrusor overactivity was the commonest neurogenic bladder pattern among the traumatic spinal cord injury patients. (author)

  17. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul

    2008-08-01

    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  18. Sleep patterns and injury occurrence in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jackson; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Robey, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    To examine the potential relationship between sleep duration and efficiency and injury incidence in elite Australian footballers. Prospective cohort study. Australian footballers (n=22) from one AFL club were studied across the 2013 competitive season. In each week sleep duration and efficiency were recorded via actigraphy for 5 nights (the 3 nights preceding a game, the night of the game and the night after the game). Injury incidence was monitored and matched with sleep data: n=9 players suffered an injury that caused them to miss a game. Sleep in the week of the injury (T2) was compared to the average of the previous 2 weeks (T1). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine any effect of sleep duration and efficiency on injury. Significance was accepted at psleep duration, sleep efficiency or a combination of these factors. Analysis of individual nights for T2 versus T1 also showed no differences in sleep quality or efficiency. However, a main effect for time was found for sleep duration and efficiency, with these being slightly, but significantly greater (psleep duration and efficiency on injury occurrence was found in elite Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Declining incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby: 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Yoann; Julia, Marc; Bagate, Christian; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Colonna, Jean-Pierre; Thoreux, Patricia; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and the risk factors of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby. Descriptive epidemiology study. The patients included had cervical spine injuries causing neurological disorder classified from the ASIA scale, grade A to D. A retrospective review of all cases that occurred between the 1996-1997 and the 2005-2006 seasons was made. Circumstances of the injuries and of the clinical outcome were collected by interview. There were 37 cases of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby for the last 10 years. The incidence of the cervical spine injuries decreased during this period. The rates of injury were 2.1 per 100,000 players per year during the 1996-1997 season and 1.4 during the 2005-2006 season (P scrum was a major cause of injury, accounting for 51.3% (19/37). The forwards represented 89.2% (33/37) of the injured players. The hookers were involved in 37.8% (14/37) of the cases. The measures of prevention with the modification of the rules of scrum and the creation of a medical certificate required for players to play in the front row must have been successful. The incidence of disabling cervical spine injuries in French rugby has decreased for the last 10 years, which is linked to the decreasing incidence of injuries in the scrum. This epidemiological study shows the effectiveness of the preventive measures on cervical spine injuries in French rugby players. A national register of catastrophic cervical spine injuries extends our epidemiological observations.

  20. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...... as well as data about trauma severity and hospital stay of these patients have been registered prospectively in a database (Danish National Head Injury database) at the Brain Injury Unit where the sub acute rehabilitation took place. The present study was based retrospectively on this database, combined...... with X-rays obtained for symptoms of HO and/or as fracture control. Clinically significant HO was found in 7.9% of the patients. Logistic regression showed an independent significant positive correlation between HO, the female gender and a high Injury Severity Score. The low incidence of HO might...

  1. Incidence, etiology, and patterns of maxillofacial fractures in ain-shams university, cairo, egypt: a 4-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Amr; Helal, Hesham; Mohamed, Abdel Rahman; Mahmoud, Nada

    2014-09-01

    Although there is a worldwide increase in maxillofacial trauma incidence; the pattern and etiology of these injuries varies from one country to another depending on socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors. This study aims to realize the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures in our department. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all facial trauma patients admitted to our department during 2009 to 2012. Patients' data including gender, age, etiology of trauma, the pattern and demographic distribution of fractures of maxillofacial skeleton, and associated injuries were analyzed and compared with previously published data. The chi-square test was used with a p value of less than 0.05, which was considered statistically significant. There is a significant increase in maxillofacial fractures incidence in the past 2 years than former ones. There is a male predominance with highest incidence in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Road traffic accident is the most common etiological factor followed by violence. There is increase in mandibular fracture incidence compared with midface. The significant increased incidence of maxillofacial fracture due to motor car accidents and assaults in the past 2 years reflects a behavioral change within the community.

  2. Patterns and Mechanisms of Injury in Non Accidental Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... first point of care and often only communicate with a radiologist after an x-ray examination is performed. The role of the radiographer has been extended to pattern recognition of skeletal images and selected ultrasound examinations. In some countries radiographers perform and report on invasive radiological techniques.

  3. Injury patterns in peacekeeping missions: the Kosovo experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, George N

    2004-03-01

    Proper medical deployment planning requires projecting injuries. For this reason, the injury patterns and mechanism of injury were reviewed for an 18-month period in Kosovo, and injury rates and mechanisms were extracted for review. Overall, there were 404 trauma patients treated during the study period. Isolated head and neck injuries accounted for 29.5% (119) of injuries, chest wounds 5.7% (23), abdominal wounds 4.5% (18), and extremities 33.4% (135). Multiply injured patients accounted for the remaining 27.0% (109). When subdivided by mechanism, penetrating injury made up 36.9% (149), whereas blunt trauma accounted for 63.1% (255). Motor vehicle accidents made up the majority of blunt trauma (72.2%). Of penetrating injuries, gunshot wounds accounted for 55%, blast wounds 38%, and stabbings 6.7%. The data clearly demonstrate that humanitarian and peacekeeping missions require preparation for a wide variety of mechanisms of injury beyond the typical penetrating trauma of combat situations.

  4. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Forearm interosseous membrane trauma: MRI diagnostic criteria and injury patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hopgood, Brendon C. [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Limmer, Karl [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospital for Children, Temple University and Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgeon, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Define criteria for interosseous membrane (IOM) injury diagnosis using MRI, and characterize patterns of IOM disruption following forearm trauma. Our hypothesis is that most IOM injuries occur along the ulnar insertion, and MRI should be obtained following forearm trauma to assess IOM competency. Sixteen cadaver forearms were subjected to longitudinal impact trauma. Prior to and following injury, MR images were examined by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist using pre-defined criteria for determining IOM integrity. Each specimen was dissected and the viability/pattern of injury examined. The MRI and dissection results were compared using a double-blinded methodology. Eight of the 16 specimens demonstrated IOM trauma. Seven specimens demonstrated complete IOM disruption from the ulnar insertion, and one revealed a mid-substance tear with intact origin and insertion. The dorsal oblique bundle was disrupted in four specimens. MRI analysis identified IOM injury in seven of the eight forearms. The injury location was correctly identified in six specimens when compared to dissection observations. MRI determination of IOM injury demonstrated a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 89%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. (orig.)

  6. The seasonal incidence and nature of injuries in schoolboy cricketers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to injuries. These include inadequate physical and physiological factors,· postural defects,· high physical. Sport Bureau, University of Port Elizabeth, E. Cape .... The Sample Statistical Analysis System was used to compute univariate statistics and frequency distributions. SAMJ Volume 85 No. 11 November 1995. 1183 ...

  7. Injury pattern in lethal motorbikes-pedestrian collisions, in the area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Soria, M Carmen; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sánchez-Molina, David; Velázquez-Ameijide, Juan; Galtés, Ignasi

    2016-10-01

    There are several studies about M1 type vehicle-pedestrian collision injury pattern, and based on them, there has been several changes in automobiles for pedestrian protection. However, the lack of sufficient studies about injury pattern in motorbikes-pedestrian collisions leads to a lack of optimization design of these vehicles. The objective of this research is to study the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in collisions with motorized two-wheeled vehicles. A retrospective descriptive study of pedestrian's deaths after collisions with motorcycles in an urban area, like Barcelona was performed. The cases were collected from the Forensic Pathology Service database of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia. The selected cases were categorized as pedestrian-motorcycle collision, between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014. Data were collected from the autopsy, medical, and police report. The collected information was then analyzed using Microsoft Excel statistical functions. Traumatic Brain Injury is the main cause of death in pedestrian hit by motorized two-wheeled vehicles (62.85%). The most frequent injury was the subarachnoid hemorrhage, in 71.4% of cases, followed by cerebral contusions and skull base fractures (65.7%). By contrast, pelvic fractures and tibia fractures only appeared in 28.6%. The study characterizes the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in a collision with motorized two-wheeled vehicles in an urban area, like Barcelona, which has been found to be different from other vehicle-pedestrian collisions, with a higher incidence of brain injuries and minor frequency of lower extremities fractures in pelvis, tibia and fibula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective video-based analysis of injury situations in elite male football: football incident analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Arni; Tenga, Albin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2004-09-01

    The mechanisms for football injuries are largely unknown. To describe the characteristics of injury situations in elite male football using a video-based method called football incident analysis. Prospective cohort study. During the 1999 season, videotapes from 52 matches in the Icelandic elite football league were reviewed. Incidents (N = 95) were recorded when the match was interrupted by the referee because of a suspected injury. Team physical therapists recorded injuries prospectively (N = 28 time-loss injuries). Duels caused 84 of the incidents, mostly tackling duels (n = 54). The exposed player's attention appeared to be focused away from the opponent in 93% of the cases. The 3 main mechanisms observed were (1) breakdown attacks, tackling from the side or the front, attention focused on the ball (24%); (2) defensive tackling duels, attention focused on the ball or low ball control (20%); and (3) heading duels, attention focused on the ball in the air (13%). Most incidents and injuries occurred during breakdown attacks and when a player was involved in tackling duels. Player attention appeared to be focused mainly on the ball, not on the opponent challenging him to gain ball possession.

  9. Patterns and trends in injuries due to chemicals based on OSHA occupational injury and illness statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M. Sam; O'Connor, T. Michael; Keren, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals

  10. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.

  11. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  12. Learning From Incident Reporting? Analysis of Incidents Resulting in Patient Injuries in a Web-Based System in Swedish Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Eva-Lena; Elfström, Johan; Borgstedt, Madeleine Risberg; Öhrn, Annica; Andersson, Christer; Sjödahl, Rune; Nilsen, Per

    2017-11-04

    Incident reporting (IR) systems have the potential to improve patient safety if they enable learning from the reported risks and incidents. The aim of this study was to investigate incidents registered in an IR system in a Swedish county council. The study was conducted in the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden. Data were retrieved from the IR system, which included 4755 incidents occurring in somatic care that resulted in patient injuries from 2004 to 2012. One hundred correctly classified patient injuries were randomly sampled from 3 injury severity levels: injuries leading to deaths, permanent harm, and temporary harm. Three aspects were analyzed: handling of the incident, causes of the incident, and actions taken to prevent its recurrence. Of the 300 injuries, 79% were handled in the departments where they occurred. The department head decided what actions should be taken to prevent recurrence in response to 95% of the injuries. A total of 448 causes were identified for the injuries; problems associated with procedures, routines, and guidelines were most common. Decisions taken for 80% of the injuries could be classified using the IR system documentation and root cause analysis. The most commonly pursued type of action was change of work routine or guideline. The handling, causes, and actions taken to prevent recurrence were similar for injuries of different severity levels. Various forms of feedback (information, education, and dialogue) were an integral aspect of the IR system. However, this feedback was primarily intradepartmental and did not yield much organizational learning.

  13. Epidemiology of 10,000 high school football injuries: patterns of injury by position played.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgeley, Marcus A; McIlvain, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2013-02-01

    With more than 1.1 million high school athletes playing annually during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years, football is the most popular boys' sport in the United States. Using an internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers (ATs) from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athletic exposure and football injury data during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years. Participating ATs reported 10,100 football injuries corresponding to an estimated 2,739,187 football-related injuries nationally. The injury rate was 4.08 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) overall. Offensive lineman collectively (center, offensive guard, offensive tackle) sustained 18.3% of all injuries. Running backs (16.3%) sustained more injuries than any other position followed by linebackers (14.9%) and wide receivers (11.9%). The leading mechanism of injury was player-player contact (64.0%) followed by player-surface contact (13.4%). More specifically, injury occurred most commonly when players were being tackled (24.4%) and tackling (21.8%). Patterns of football injuries vary by position. Identifying such differences is important to drive development of evidence-based, targeted injury prevention efforts.

  14. Spinal Injuries in an Airplane Crash A Description of Incidence, Morphology, and Injury Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I.L.E.; Oner, F.C.; Bijlsma, T.S.; Heetveld, M.J.; Goslings, J.C.; Bloemers, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort. Objective. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. Summary of Background Data.

  15. Spinal injuries in an airplane crash: a description of incidence, morphology, and injury mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. L. E.; Oner, F. C.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Bloemers, F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective cohort. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. The most common causes of spinal fractures are a high

  16. Spinal Injuries in an Airplane Crash : A Description of Incidence, Morphology, and Injury Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. L E; Oner, F. C.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Bloemers, F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort. Objective. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. Summary of Background Data.

  17. Lack of effect of a knee ligament injury prevention program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ronald P; Shea, Kevin G; Roberts, Dana; Grandstrand, Sara; Bond, Laura

    2006-08-01

    Studies have suggested that exercise programs can reduce the incidence of noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament in female athletes. We conducted a two-year prospective study to assess the effects of a knee ligament injury prevention exercise program on the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes. A prospective cohort design was used to study high-school female athletes (playing soccer, basketball, and volleyball) from fifteen schools (112 teams) for two consecutive seasons. The schools were divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment group participated in a plyometric-based exercise program twice a week throughout the season. Practice and game exposures and compliance with the exercise program were recorded on a weekly basis. Suspected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries were confirmed on the basis of the history as well as at the time of surgery and/or with magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 1439 athletes (862 in the control group and 577 in the treatment group) were monitored. There were six confirmed noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: three in the treatment group, and three in the control group. The incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries per 1000 exposures was 0.167 in the treatment group and 0.078 in the control group, yielding an odds ratio of 2.05, which was not significant (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that a twenty-minute plyometric-based exercise program that focuses on the mechanics of landing from a jump and deceleration when running performed twice a week throughout the season will not reduce the rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high-school female athletes.

  18. Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.

  19. Injury patterns and the role of tendons in protecting neurovascular structures in wrist injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Hyung; Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical features of injured structures, investigate the protection provided by the specific tendon of each corresponding important neurovascular structure (radial artery, median nerve, and ulnar nerve/artery) and to compare the results among the three categories of wrist injuries. This study included 114 patients who underwent primary repair for damaged wrist structures; 40 patients sustained accidental damage without intention (group 1), 40 had self-inflicted damage (group 2), and 34 patients had a stab or penetrating wound caused by a sharp instrument during a conflict or violent event involving another person (group 3). The basic demographic factors, distribution pattern, area, and depth of the injured structures were investigated and compared. The barrier roles of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) for the radial artery, palmaris longus (PL) for the median nerve, and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) for the ulnar nerve were estimated. In group 1, FCU injury was the most common single-structure injury. In group 2, PL±median nerve injuries were the most common. Multiple-structure injuries involving more than five structures occurred more frequently in group 3 than in the other groups. FCU±ulnar nerve injuries were more common in group 3 than in the other groups. Radial-side structures were injured most frequently in group 3, and central-side injuries occurred most frequently in groups 1 and 2. Superficial- and middle-layer injuries occurred at similar frequencies among the three groups. Particularly, deep-layer injuries were most weakly related to group 2 injuries. The barrier effects of the FCR, PL, and FCU were confirmed, respectively. Wrist soft tissue injuries showed particular patterns of injured structures and depths according to the injury mechanism. These patterns included features such as single-structure injuries and the locations and depths of multiple-structure injuries with or without neurovascular injuries

  20. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data...... with X-rays obtained for symptoms of HO and/or as fracture control. Clinically significant HO was found in 7.9% of the patients. Logistic regression showed an independent significant positive correlation between HO, the female gender and a high Injury Severity Score. The low incidence of HO might......The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...

  1. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  2. injury patterns of south african international cricket players over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    long periods at a time (4%), training specifically for cricket (4%) and participating in various other sports (3%). ... and nature of injury patterns of South African international cricket players. Methods. A questionnaire was .... as upper-throat respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infection and infection, from S1 (16%) to S2 ...

  3. Pattern of Limb Injuries seen at the Accident and Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-01

    This study describes the pattern and causes of limb injuries seen at the accident and emergency department. Across-sectional, institution-based prospective study was conducted at the accident and emergency department of the Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso from May 1, 2011 to July 31, 2011.

  4. Pattern of Eye Injuries in Children in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocular trauma is a leading cause of visual loss and blindness and though it affects all age groups, it remains a very important cause of monocular blindness amongst children. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern, causes and visual outcome of ocular injuries among children aged 15 years ...

  5. Awareness and pattern of needlestick injuries among health workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and pattern of needlestick injuries among health workers at University Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria. SA Medubi, TM Akande, GK Osagbemi. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(3) 2006: 183-188. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. Design: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. Setting: Kenyatta National ...

  7. Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to describe the pattern of road traffic injuries and associated factors among schoolaged children attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between May and October 1999. The study included all children younger than 18 years, and data were collected using a structured interview guide.

  8. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Bodabodas are a main form of transport in Kampala and are becoming a major cause of road traffic crashes. We examined the pattern of injuries attributed to bodabodas. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all trauma ...

  9. Patterns, Severity, and Management of Maxillofacial Injuries in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This information could also. Patterns, Severity, and Management of Maxillofacial. Injuries in a Suburban South Western Nigeria. Tertiary Center. Stella Aimiede Ogunmuyiwa, Olalere Omoyosola Gbolahan1,. Abiodun Abraham Ayantunde2, Adenike Abidemi Odewabi3. Department of Dental Services, Oral and Maxillofacial ...

  10. Civilian gunshot wounds to the genitourinary tract: incidence, anatomic distribution, associated injuries, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najibi, Soheil; Tannast, Moritz; Latini, Jerilyn M

    2010-10-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSW) affecting the genitourinary (GU) system in civilians are uncommon. This study describes the incidence, anatomic distribution, demographics, associated injuries, management, and outcomes after civilian GU GSW. A Level 1 Trauma Center Registry was used to retrospectively identify all patients who sustained GU GSW (January 1997-December 2008). Patient information was abstracted from the Registry, medical, and autopsy records. Multivariate regression detected significant factors associated with mortality. Of 2941 civilian GSW patients, 309 (10.5%) sustained GU injury with/without associated injuries. Mean age was 30.4 ± 11.9 years (range 6.6-80.6 years); 289 patients (93.5%) were male. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 22.2 ± 15.4 (1-75). Incidence of GU GSW increased during the study period. GSW affected the kidneys (55%), scrotum (21%), bladder (19%), testicle (12%), penis (8%), some patients having more than 1 GU organ injured. A total of 284 patients (92%) experienced at least 1 other organ injury. Most GU GSW were managed surgically (mean 2.2 ± 2.0; 0-13 surgeries/patient). There was a 27% (n = 84) overall mortality, with 16% (n = 50) dead on arrival. Mortality and ISS were correlated (P = 0.002; hazard ratio = 3.0; 95% confidence interval 3.0-3.0CI). Large vessel, head/neck, kidney, vascular, heart, lung, spine, and spinal cord injury were statistically significant risk factors for death. GU injury occurred in 10.5% of 2941 civilian GSW patients. Associated injuries were very common, with many cases involving multiple organs. Most injuries (90%) were managed surgically. Mortality is usually the result of associated nongenitourinary injuries. A high index of suspicion for injuries affecting other organs is necessary in managing GU GSW trauma patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of Various Training-Load Measures in Injury Incidence of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.

  12. Incidence of fall-related injuries in Iran: A population-based nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Eslami, Vahid; Karimi, Hasti; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2016-07-01

    Fall-related injuries are considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of fall-related injuries and its determinants in Iran. A cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of 15-64 years old Iranians was carried out in 2011. A three-stage cluster sampling design was used. Total of 1525 clusters were randomly selected. Six households in each cluster were randomly selected, and one member of each household was interviewed. Data on the demographics and history of fall-related injury were obtained using the previously validated and reliability tested Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7 (SFIQ7). In all, 7886 subjects responded to the survey. The incidence rate of all fall-related injuries was 59 (95%CI: 45-72) per 1000 person-year. The incidence rate of First Aid Fall-Related Injuries (FAFRIs) and Medical Attended Fall-Related Injuries (MAFRIs) were 30±5 and 28±12, respectively. Homes were the most common place of falls (52.5%). For all and MAFRIs, the most common activity leading to fall injury was walking (37.8% and 47.6%, respectively) whereas for FAFRIs was playing (31.9%). For all and FAFRIs, the most common description was as follows: upper limb as the injured organ (52.0% and 61.2%, respectively) and superficial wound as the most prevalent type of injury (39.0% and 61.8%, respectively). However, for MAFRIs, lower limb injuries (52.9%) and fracture (43.6%) were more pronounced. Risk factors for MAFRI were as follows: paid work activity (OR: 3.11; 95%CI: 2.07-4.67), playing (OR: 14.64; 95%CI: 6.34-33.80), walking (OR: 57.09; 95%CI: 28.95-112.59), driving (OR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.23-6.63), and recreation activities (OR: 44.11; 95%CI: 14.04-138.54). Higher age and education were the other risk factors for MAFRI, as well as residing in rural areas. This study revealed considerable incidence of fall injuries in Iranian population especially in rural regions who need access to

  13. No small slam: increasing incidents of genitourinary injury from toilets and toilet seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Bagga, Herman S; Tasian, Gregory E; McGeady, James B; McCulloch, Charles E; Blaschko, Sarah D; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2013-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology of genitourinary (GU) injury from toilets that present to USA Emergency rooms (ERs). The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a stratified probability sample of hospital ER visits for USA consumer product-related injuries. NEISS was used to estimate total toilet- and toilet seat-related GU injury for the years 2002-2010, as well as to describe demographics and injury characteristics. Analyses were performed using strata, primary sampling units and sample weights to accommodate the complex sample survey design. Data are reported as national estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) provided. In all, 13 175 (95% CI 10 185-16 165) GU injuries related to toilets presented to ERs during 2002-2010. The most common mechanism involved crush from accidental fall of toilet seat, described in 9011 (68.4%, 95% CI 6907-11 115) cases. Most crush injuries were isolated to the penis (98.1%). Of crush injuries, 81.7% occurred in children aged 2-3 years and 99.3% occurred in the home. Crush injuries increased over the period 2002-2010 (P = 0.017) by ≈100 per year, ending with an estimated 1707 (95% CI 1011-2402) by 2010. Most patients who sustained toilet- and toilet seat-related GU injuries were treated in the ER and then discharged. While penile crush injury related to a toilet seat is an uncommon mechanism of urological injury in children, the number of incidents appears to be rising. These findings support educational efforts and interventions, such as exchange of heavy toilet seats with slow-close toilet seat technology. © 2013 BJU International.

  14. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D; Nielsen, Kent J; Andersen, Johan H

    2011-02-01

    The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjøbing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Effect of a prevention programme on the incidence of rugby injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in practice the prevention programme did have a significantly positive effect on the incidence of intrinsic rugby injuries among 15- and 16-year-old schoolboys over a period of 2 years. Timely introduction of this programme during the off-season is advised. South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 19 (2) 2007: ...

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors for Upper Extremity Climbing Injuries in Indoor Climbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Middelkoop, M.; Bruens, M. L.; Coert, J. H.; Selles, R. W.; Verhagen, E.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M A; Koes, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for climbing-related injuries of the upper extremities in recreational climbers. A total of 426 recreational climbers were recruited from indoor climbing halls. The baseline questionnaire included questions on

  17. Incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is widely recognized that rabies is grossly under-reported even though it is a notifiable disease and a lack of accurate figures has rendered rabies a low public health and veterinary priority. This study aimed at determining the incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health care centre.

  18. Incidence of hockey ankle injuries in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and mechanism of ankle injuries amongst male adolescent hockey players in the Kwa-Zulu Natal. A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 53 male hockey players aged 16-18 years old, who by informed voluntary consent participated in the study. Data were collected by the use of ...

  19. Incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism in patients with nonsurgical isolated lower limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Bruno; Rothmann, Christophe; Lecoules, Nathalie; Bouvat, Eric; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Ravaud, Philipe; Samama, Charles Marc; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2007-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with nonsurgical isolated lower limb injury and to determine the risk factors associated with the development of the condition. This observational study was conducted in French hospital emergency departments (EDs). Patients older than 18 years presenting with nonsurgical isolated lower limb injury below the knee in the ED were included. Deep VTE was diagnosed with compression ultrasound. The final diagnosis of VTE was confirmed by an expert panel. Three thousand six hundred ninety-eight patients were included, and compression ultrasound examination was obtained in 2761 (75%) of them who were retained in the analysis. Deep venous thrombosis occurred in 177 patients and nonfatal pulmonary embolism in 1 patient. The incidence of VTE, mainly distal and asymptomatic, was 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 5.5%-7.4%). In a multivariate analysis, predictive variables of VTE were age of at least 50 years (odds ratio, 3.14; P ratio, 2.70; P ratio, 4.11; P = .0015), and severe injury (odds ratio, 1.88; P = .0002). The discriminant analysis showed that age was the only variable independent of an antithrombotic prophylaxis associated with VTE. The incidence of VTE was 6.4% in patients with nonsurgical lower limb injury. Rigid immobilization, recommendation not to bear weight, severe injury, and age of at least 50 years should be considered as risk factors for VTE. Emergency physicians should also take age into account when prescribing antithrombotic prophylaxis.

  20. Injury Patterns in Selected High School Sports: A Review of the 1995-1997 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.; Barber-Foss, Kim D.

    1999-01-01

    Described injury patterns in 10 high school sports, identifying risk as measured by observed injury patterns. Certified athletic trainers recorded data daily on observed injuries over two academic years. Results indicated an inherent risk of injury associated with participation in certain sports and activities of the players. Therefore,…

  1. Masking in reports of "most serious" events: bias in estimators of sports injury incidence in Canadian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveys that collect information on injuries often focus on the single "most serious" event to help limit recall error and reduce survey length. However, this can mask less serious injuries and result in biased incidence estimates for specific injury subcategories. Methods: Data from the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey and from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP were used to compare estimates of sports injury incidence in Canadian children. Results: HBSC data indicate that 6.7% of children report sustaining a sports injury that required an emergency department (ED visit. However, details were only collected on a child's "most serious" injury, so children who had multiple injuries requiring an ED visit may have had sports injuries that went unreported. The rate of 6.7% can be seen to be an underestimate by as much as 4.3%. Corresponding CHIRPP surveillance data indicate an incidence of 9.9%. Potential masking bias is also highlighted in our analysis of injuries attended by other health care providers. Conclusion: The "one most serious injury" line of questioning induces potentially substantial masking bias in the estimation of sports injury incidence, which limits researchers' ability to quantify the burden of sports injury. Longer survey recall periods naturally lead to greater masking. The design of future surveys should take these issues into account. In order to accurately inform policy decisions and the direction of future research, researchers must be aware of these limitations.

  2. Effects of shoulder dystocia training on the incidence of brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Steven R; Feier, Nikolaus; Chetiyaar, Jyothi B; Naylor, Margaret H; Sumersille, Melanie; Cervellione, Kelly L; Predanic, Mladen

    2011-04-01

    We sought to determine whether implementation of shoulder dystocia training reduces the incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). After implementing training for maternity staff, the incidence of OBPI was compared between pretraining and posttraining periods using both univariate and multivariate analyses in deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia. The overall incidence of OBPI in vaginal deliveries decreased from 0.40% pretraining to 0.14% posttraining (P shoulder dystocia dropped from 30% to 10.67% posttraining (P shoulder dystocia training remained associated with reduced OBPI (P = .02) after logistic regression analysis. OBPI remained less in the posttraining period (P = .01), even after excluding all neonates with birthweights >2 SD above the mean. Shoulder dystocia training was associated with a lower incidence of OBPI and the incidence of OBPI in births complicated by shoulder dystocia. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and treatment of visual dysfunction in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, K; Gray, B; Hall, K; Shaw, R; Sammet, R

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of visual dysfunction and effectiveness of visual exercises in acute traumatically brain injured inpatients in a rehabilitation programme were studied. Vision evaluation norms were established on 23 hospital staff. The evaluation was then administered to 51 inpatients within days after admission. An additional 21 patients were unable to participate, usually due to decreased cognition or agitation. Thirty of 51 (59%) scored impaired in one or more of the following: pursuits, saccades, ocular posturing, stereopsis, extra-ocular movements, and near/far eso-exotropia. For patients having dysfunction in pursuits or saccades, a 2-week baseline was followed by vision exercises. During the baseline interval patients were evaluated by an optometrist to verify therapists' findings. Six patients who participated in several weeks of treatment were evaluated at 2-week intervals by an independent rater. Progress is graphically illustrated. Conclusions were that the suitability of an inpatient vision programme, from our experience, is questionable. However, an initial evaluation proved valuable for informing staff of patients' visual status and for referral to an optometrist/ophthalmologist for further treatment.

  4. Rising incidence of fall-induced maxillofacial injuries among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, Pekka; Niemi, Seppo; Parkkari, Jari; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Various fall-induced injuries in older adults are a major public health problem. We aimed to assess the current trends in the fall-induced severe maxillofacial injuries among older adults in Finland, an EU country with a well-defined white population of 5.5 million. The injury trends were determined by taking into account all persons 60 years of age or older who were admitted to Finnish hospitals for primary treatment of these injuries between 1999 and 2014. The number of fall-induced maxillofacial injuries among older Finnish adults doubled during the 16-year follow-up, from 434 in 1999 to 981 in 2014. The age-adjusted incidence of injury (per 100 000 persons) also showed a clear increase from 1999 to 2014: from 47.4 to 71.3 in women, and from 39.2 to 59.6 in men. In both sexes, the increase was most prominent in the oldest age group, persons aged 80 years or older. The number of fall-induced severe maxillofacial injuries among older Finns rose considerably between 1999 and 2014-with a rate that could not be explained merely by demographic changes. Further studies are urgently needed to better assess the reasons for the rise and possibilities for injury prevention.

  5. Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in professional soccer players from Aracaju/SE-Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bourbon de Albuquerque II

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To verify the incidence of injuries in professional soccer athletes in Aracaju-SE and to identify associated factors. METHODS This was an observational, prospective cohort study involving 39 healthy athletes, followed for seven months and evaluated on four occasions (start on preseason and two evaluations with three months of interval between each through data collection sheet and orthopedic physical examination. RESULTS Participants were 20 athletes from Club Sportivo Sergipe and 19 from Associação Desportiva Confiança, with mean age of 26 years (CI 95%: 25.2-28 years, and mean career time of 9.6 years (CI 95%: 7.9-11.3 years. The 13 (2.4 / 1000 hours diagnosed injuries occurred almost exclusively in the lower limbs and thigh muscle stretch was the most common injury. Injuries were mostly mild to moderate (69%. There was no significant association with any of the variables analyzed. CONCLUSION Low incidence of injuries was observed in this study. Predominantly, lesions occurred on non-rainy days and were due to trauma. Lower limbs were the most affected location and thigh stretch was the most common injury.

  6. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for overuse injuries of the wrist in young athletes: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, Laura S.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Overuse wrist injuries can cause long-term symptoms in young athletes performing wrist-loading sports. Information on the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors is required. We aimed to review the prevalence and incidence of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes and to identify

  7. Summarization of Injury and Fatality Factors Involving Children and Youth in Grain Storage and Handling Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S F; Field, W E; Hamm, K E; Cheng, Y H; Roberts, M J; Riedel, S M

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes data gathered on 246 documented cases of children and youth under the age of 21 involved in grain storage and handling incidents in agricultural workplaces from 1964 to 2013 in the U.S. that have been entered into the Purdue Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database. The database is the result of ongoing efforts to collect and file information on documented injuries, fatalities, and entrapments in all forms of agricultural confined spaces. While the frequency of injuries and fatalities involving children and youth in agriculture has decreased in recent years, incidents related to agricultural confined spaces, especially grain storage and handling facilities, have remained largely unchanged during the same period. Approximately 21% of all documented incidents involved children and youth (age 20 and younger), and more than 77% of all documented incidents were fatal, suggesting an under-reporting of non-fatal incidents. Findings indicate that the majority of youth incidents occurred at OSHA exempt agricultural worksites. The states reporting the most incidents were Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Minnesota. Grain transport vehicles represented a significant portion of incidents involving children under the age of 16. The overwhelming majority of victims were male, and most incidents (50%) occurred in June, October, and November. Recommendations include developing intervention strategies that target OSHA exempt farms, feedlots, and seed processing facilities; preparing engineering design and best practice standards that reduce the exposure of children and youth to agricultural confined spaces; and developing gender-specific safety resources that incorporate gender-sensitive strategies to communicate safety information to the population of young males with the greatest risk of exposure to the hazards of agricultural confined spaces.

  8. Perioperative Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery: Incidence, Mortality, and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelacher, Christian; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Seeberger, Daniela; Sazgary, Lorraine; Marbot, Stella; Lampart, Andreas; Espinola, Jaqueline; Kindler, Christoph; Hammerer, Angelika; Seeberger, Esther; Strebel, Ivo; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Steiner, Luzius; Gurke, Lorenz; Breidthardt, Tobias; Rentsch, Katharina; Buser, Andreas; Gualandro, Danielle M; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2018-03-20

    Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) seems to be a contributor to mortality after noncardiac surgery. Because the vast majority of PMIs are asymptomatic, PMI usually is missed in the absence of systematic screening. We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who had a planned postoperative stay of ≥24 hours and were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients received a systematic screening using serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in clinical routine. PMI was defined as an absolute high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T increase of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. Furthermore, mortality was compared among patients with PMI not fulfilling additional criteria (ischemic symptoms, new ECG changes, or imaging evidence of loss of viable myocardium) required for the diagnosis of spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those that did. From 2014 to 2015 we included 2018 consecutive patients undergoing 2546 surgeries. Patients had a median age of 74 years and 42% were women. PMI occurred after 397 of 2546 surgeries (16%; 95% confidence interval, 14%-17%) and was accompanied by typical chest pain in 24 of 397 patients (6%) and any ischemic symptoms in 72 of 397 (18%). Crude 30-day mortality was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-12.0) in patients with PMI versus 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.0) in patients without PMI ( P PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction (280/397, 71%) versus those with at least 1 additional criterion (10.4%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.7, versus 8.7%; 95% CI, 4.2-16.7; P =0.684). PMI is a common complication after noncardiac surgery and, despite early detection during routine clinical screening, is associated with substantial short- and long-term mortality. Mortality seems comparable in patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for

  9. Differing patterns of P-selectin expression in lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Tojo, S J; Kawarai, H

    1998-01-01

    Using two models of acute lung inflammatory injury in rats (intrapulmonary deposition of immunoglobulin G immune complexes and systemic activation of complement after infusion of purified cobra venom factor), we have analyzed the requirements and patterns for upregulation of lung vascular P...... was sustained for the next 7 hours, in striking contrast to the pattern of P-selectin expression in the cobra venom factor model, in which upregulation was very transient (within the 1st hour). In the immune complex model, injury and neutrophil accumulation were P-selectin dependent. Upregulation of P......-selectin was dependent on an intact complement system, and the presence of blood neutrophils was susceptible to the antioxidant dimethyl sulfoxide and required C5a but not tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, in the cobra venom factor model, upregulation of P-selectin, which is C5a dependent, was also dimethyl...

  10. Guarding the precious smile: incidence and prevention of injury in sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-07-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.

  11. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of different bacteria isolates in 150 wound infections in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, ... antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present in the wound sites. Keywords: Wound infection , Antibiotic, ... and injections, but post-operative wound infections in hospital are most common. Some.

  12. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla 1Department of. Histopathology, University of ... ovarian cancer giving an incidence rate of 1/405 gynecological admissions per year or 0.3% (95% .... not found in the records. Follow up of patients was by clinical examination and.

  13. Incidence and bacteriological pattern of puerperal infections within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About three quarters of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infections are resistant to ceftriaxone, while more than half these infections are resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion: The incidence of puerperal infection in Redemption Hospital, Liberia, within the first 120 hours after Caesarean section is 21%.

  14. Comparative analysis of poverty incidence and patterns in the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poor who were mostly found in the rural areas were involved basically in forestry and agriculture-related activities and across levels of the education system they had little or no education. Poverty incidence was also higher in the Northern Savanna area compared to the Forest area, Coastal and Northern Savanna areas ...

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  16. Incidence and predictors of onboard injuries among Sri Lankan flight attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries among flight attendants have not been given appropriate attention in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of onboard injury among Sri Lankan flight attendants and to describe the determinants of onboard injury. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Sri Lankan flight attendants. All flight attendants undergoing their annual health and first aid training were invited to participate. Flight attendants who flew continuously for a six-month period prior to data collection were included in the study sample. Recall history of injuries for a period of six months was recorded. Results The study sample consisted of 98 (30.4% male and 224 (69.6% female flight attendants. The mean age of the study sample was 31 years (SD = 8 and the average duration of service was 10 years (SD = 7. A total of 100 onboard falls, slips or trips in the previous six months were reported by 52 (16.1% respondents. Of the total sample, 128 (39.8% cabin crew members reported an injury in the six months preceding the study. This represents a total injury incidence of 795 per 1000 person per year. The leading causes of injury was pulling, pushing or lifting (60.2%. The commonest type of injuries were strains and sprains (52.3%. Turbulence related injuries were reported by 38 (29.7% flight attendants. The upper limbs (44.5% and the back (32% were the commonest sites affected. After controlling for other factors, female flight attendants had 2.9 times higher risk (95% CI 1.2–7.2 of sustaining and injury than males. Irrespective of sex, body weight less than 56 kilograms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8 and less than seven years of on board experience (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.6–31.0 were associated with higher risk of injury. Conclusion Work related injury is a major occupational hazard to flight attendants. Appropriate preventive strategies are required to minimize them.

  17. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players in the rugby Super 12 competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jakoet, Ismail; Pretorius, A L

    2006-12-01

    There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim. The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Injuries, defined as injuries preventing playing or training, or requiring medical treatment, were recorded in a cohort of 75 South African Super 12 players over one season. Injury severity was graded according to sessions missed: minor (1 - 3 missed), intermediate (4 - 9) and severe (> 9). During the tournament, a total of 740 player game hours and 4 900 player training hours were recorded. The overall incidence of injuries was 55.4 injuries/1,000 player game hours, and 4.3 injuries/1,000 player training hours. The most common injury types were: ligament sprains (25.8%), musculotendinous strains/tears (24.2%). The most common injured sites were: pelvis, hip (19.3%), head and knee (12.9% each). The tackle caused 40.3%, and rucks and mauls 11.3% of injuries. Injuries sustained during training accounted for 34%, and chronic overuse injuries 9.7% of injuries. There is a high injury rate during a Super 12 rugby competition. However, the majority of injuries were minor injuries. The most dangerous phase of play was the tackle. Training in tackling and rucking techniques, and rule enforcement are therefore recommended to reduce risk of injury. Injuries tended to occur late in games and early in the season, suggesting lack of physical conditioning and fatigue as possible causes of injury.

  18. Characteristics of adults with incident traumatic spinal cord injury in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couris, C M; Guilcher, S J T; Munce, S E P; Fung, K; Craven, B C; Verrier, M; Jaglal, S B

    2010-01-01

    Cohort study. To provide recent estimates of the incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in adults living in Ontario. Ontario, Canada. The study included all men and women aged 18 years and older living in Ontario. The two primary data sources used for this study were the census data provided by Statistics Canada and the hospital Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) provided by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Incidence was estimated for the fiscal years 2003/04-2006/07, and examined by age, gender, mechanism and seasonality of injury, the level of injury, the presence of comorbidity and in-hospital mortality. The incident cases had a mean age of 51.3 years (s.d. 20.1). The majority of the cases was male (74.1%) and had a cervical SCI caused by falls (49.5%). The age-adjusted incidence rate was stable over the 4-year study period, from 24.2 per million (95% CI: 21.2-27.6) in 2003 to 23.1 per million (95% CI: 20.2-26.3) in 2006. Despite worldwide trends that have indicated motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) as the leading cause of injury, falls emerged as the leading cause of traumatic SCI in this study. This finding, and the fact that the number of fall-induced injuries increased steadily with age, may indicate that there is growing concern for the consequences of falls in the elderly. Further work is needed to understand this trend in age and gender and the causes of falls to develop effective fall prevention strategies.

  19. INJURY INCIDENCE IN A SPANISH SUB-ELITE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL TEAM: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY DURING FOUR CONSECUTIVE SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours. The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p 28 days absence was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35% injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury.

  20. Incidence of Disability Among Children 12 Months After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D.; Wang, Jin; Temkin, Nancy; Dorsch, Andrea; Vavilala, Monica S.; Durbin, Dennis; Jaffe, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the burden of disability resulting from traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among children younger than 18 years. Methods. We derived our data from a cohort study of children residing in King County, Washington, who were treated in an emergency department for a TBI or for an arm injury during 2007–2008. Disabilities 12 months after injury were assessed according to need for specialized educational and community-based services and scores on standardized measures of adaptive functioning and social–community participation. Results. The incidence of children receiving new services at 12 months was about 10-fold higher among those with a mild TBI than among those with a moderate or severe TBI. The population incidence of disability (defined according to scores below the norm means on the outcome measures included) was also consistently much larger (2.8-fold to 28-fold) for mild TBIs than for severe TBIs. Conclusions. The burden of disability caused by TBIs among children is primarily accounted for by mild injuries. Efforts to prevent these injuries as well as to decrease levels of disability following TBIs are warranted. PMID:22994196

  1. Incidence of Lower Urinary Tract Injury at the Time of Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiung, Chi; Chen, Grace; Roberts, Soldrea L.; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R.; Falcone, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for injury to the lower urinary tract during total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: All patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, at an academic medical center are included. Subjects undergoing laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, supracervical hysterectomy, or hysterectomy for malignancy were excluded. Intraoperative cystoscopy with intravenous indigo carmine was routinely performed. Relevant data were abstracted to determine the incidence of lower urinary tract injury, predictors of injury, and postoperative complications. Results: Total laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed in 126 consecutive subjects. Two (1.6%) cystotomies were noted and repaired before cystoscopy was performed. Two (1.6%) additional cystotomies were detected during cystos-copy. Absent ureteral spill of indigo carmine was detected in 2 subjects: 1 (0.8%) with previously unknown renal disease and 1 (0.8%) with ureteral obstruction that was relieved with subsequent suture removal. Only 40% (2/5) of injuries were recognized without the use of cystoscopy with indigo car-mine. The overall incidence of injury to the lower urinary tract was 4.0%. No subjects required postoperative intervention to the lower urinary tract within the 6-week perioperative period. Performing a ureterolysis was associated with an increased rate (odds ratio 8.7, 95%CI, 1.2-170, P=0.024) of lower urinary tract injury. Conclusion: Surgeons should consider performing cystoscopy with intravenous indigo carmine dye at the time of total laparoscopic hysterectomy. PMID:18237504

  2. A preliminary study on dressing patterns and incidence of candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, I A; Botu, M

    1982-02-01

    The incidence of candidiasis in two groups of voluntary participants wearing tight and loose fitted dresses was investigated by both microscopic and cultural techniques for a period of two months. Two-thirds of the positives by stain and culture were recovered from those wearing tight clothing (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that tight clothing can predispose the wearer to candidiasis, an organism that can cause vaginitis. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:176-177.)

  3. MRI injury patterns in surgically confirmed and reconstructed posterolateral corner knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mark S; Bond, Jeffery R; Crush, Andrew B; Stuart, Michael J; King, Alexander H; Levy, Bruce A

    2015-10-01

    The posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee is anatomically complex with similarly complex MR imaging findings in acutely injured knees. The purpose of this study was to define the MRI pattern of injury in cases of PLC disruption requiring surgery because of clinical instability. The knee MRIs of 22 patients who underwent surgical repair and/or reconstruction of PLC injury were retrospectively reviewed. The fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon (PT), biceps femoris (BF), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), arcuate ligament (AL), and fabellofibular ligament (FFL) were evaluated and graded as follows: complete tear, high-grade partial tear, low-grade partial tear, and normal. In the 22 cases of PLC injury that necessitated surgery, a constellation of findings involving the larger structures of the PLC was identified. Of the FCL, PT, and BF (considered larger structures), at least two were abnormal in all 22 injury cases. Of the PFL, AL, and FFL (considered smaller structures), the PFL appeared abnormal in 19 cases, yet neither the AL nor FFL were confidently characterized in the injury group. The larger structures of the PLC are easily evaluated using standard MRI techniques. This study identified a predictable pattern of imaging findings involving these more easily assessed structures in those patients who were felt to be clinically unstable and underwent surgical reconstruction, as at least two were abnormal in all 22 cases. The smaller structures of the PLC are difficult to assess with MRI; however, direct visualization of their involvement on MRI is not necessary to report a clinically unstable PLC injury. Emphasis of this simplified but critical analysis of the FCL, BF and PT on MRI scans reviewed by radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons may help to prevent delayed diagnosis of unstable PLC injuries. III.

  4. Variables influencing medical usage rates, injury patterns, and levels of care for mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Seaman, Kevin G; Liu, Peter; Bissell, Rick A; Maguire, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Mass gatherings create difficult environments for which to plan emergency medical responses. The purpose of this study was to identify those variables that are associated with increased medical usage rates (MURs) and certain injury patterns that can be used to facilitate the planning process. Patient information collected at three types of mass gatherings (professional American football and baseball games and rock concerts) over a three-year period was reviewed retrospectively. Specific variables were abstracted: (1) event type; (2) gender; (3) age; (4) weather; and (5) attendance. All 216 events (total attendance 9,708,567) studied were held in the same metropolitan region. All MURs are reported as patients per 10,000 (PPTT). The 5,899 patient encounters yielded a MUR of 6.1 PPTT. Patient encounters totaled 3,659 for baseball games (4.85 PPTT), 1,204 for football games (6.75 PPTT), and 1,036 for rock concerts (30 PPTT). The MUR for Location A concerts (no mosh pits) was 7.49 PPTT, whereas the MUR for the one Location B concert (with mosh pits) was 110 PPTT. The MUR for Location A concerts was higher than for baseball, but not football games (p = 0.005). Gender distribution was equal among patrons seeking medical care. The mean values for patient ages were 29 years at baseball games, 33 years at football games, and 20 years at concerts. The MUR at events held when the apparent temperature was 80 degrees F significantly lower statistically than that at events conducted at temperatures injuries (31%). Concerts with precipitation and rock concerts had a positive association with the incidence of trauma and the incidence of injuries; whereas age and gender were not associated with medical or traumatic diagnoses. Event type and apparent temperature were the variables that best predicted MUR as well as specific injury patterns and levels of care.

  5. The effect of hypermobility on the incidence of injuries in elite-level professional soccer players: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopinski, Matt D; Jones, Gareth J; Johnson, Mark I

    2012-04-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that generalized joint hypermobility is a risk factor for knee injuries during contact sports. The effect of hypermobility on the incidence of injuries in elite-level professional soccer players is not known. To compare the incidence of injury between hypermobile and nonhypermobile elite-level male professional soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Fifty-four players from an English Premier League soccer club were assessed for hypermobility, using the 9-point Beighton scale (threshold, 4 points or above), at the start of the 2009-2010 season. Time-loss injuries and individual exposure times were recorded during all club training sessions and matches throughout the entire season. Mean ± standard deviation incidence of injuries was 11.52 ± 11.39 injuries/1000 h, and the prevalence of hypermobility was 33.3% (18 of 54 players). There were 133 injuries during 13 897.5 hours of exposure. During the season, hypermobile participants had a higher incidence of injuries (mean [95% confidence interval] difference, 15.65 [9.18-22.13] injuries/1000 h; P = .001) and were more likely to experience at least 1 injury, a reinjury, and a severe injury compared with nonhypermobile participants. There were 9 severe knee injuries in hypermobile participants, of which 6 were cartilage injuries. There was an increased incidence of injury in hypermobile elite-level professional soccer players from an English Premier League club, resulting in more missed days from training and match play. These findings suggest a need for routine screening for hypermobility in professional soccer.

  6. The influence of foot and ankle injury patterns and treatment delays on outcomes in a tertiary hospital; a one-year prospective observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Dhillon, M S; Dhatt, Sarvdeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    Ankle and foot fractures are amongst the most common injuries, and patterns may vary from primary care set up to tertiary hospitals. Severe foot injuries are projected to have significantly worse outcomes and surgical delays are thought to alter prognosis. All patients with foot and ankle trauma were prospectively evaluated at a Tertiary trauma centre over one year. The incidence, fracture patterns, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated, and cases were divided into simple foot injuries (FASS ≤ 3) and severe foot injuries (FASS>3). Injury mechanisms, associated injuries, and delays in treatment were evaluated, and outcomes were analyzed using Visual-Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VASFA), Maryland Foot Score (MFS) and Foot and ankle disability index (FADI). 294 Foot and Ankle injuries (51 females, 243 males) were encountered in 2919 trauma cases (incidence of 10%). 80 patients (27.2%) had simple foot injuries and 214 (72.8%) had severe foot injuries. 29 patients (9.9%) were below 18 years; most (65.3%) patients were between 18 and 45 years age. Road traffic accident was most commonest mode of injury, with ankle fractures (30.6%) the most common. Metatarsal fractures (27.9%) and calcaneal fractures (21.4%) were 2nd and 3rd most common injuries in the foot. Surgical delay averaged 1 day in both severe and simple injuries. Injury led to 32 (10.9%) below knee amputations. Outcome evaluation in 127 (91 severe, 36 simple injuries) patients showed mean Maryland foot score of 89.30 in simple injury group and 84.87 in severe injury group. Mean VASFA score was 82.87 (simple) and 81.87 in severe injury, and mean FADI score was 93.13 (simple) and 91.05 (severe injury). More detailed analysis revealed that more good scores (64.4%) were documented in severe injuries group, and more excellent scores (52.8%) in simple injuries group. Foot injuries constitute 10% of all orthopaedic trauma at tertiary hospitals; Majority of them are severe foot injuries, with 68.7% being open

  7. The Relationship of Stressors and Stress on Injury Incident of Construction Workers in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Ali Khairul Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Workers (CWs are the main source of manpower that is necessary to every construction project. Non conducive and hazardous working environment at construction site will affect the physiological health of the construction labour. This study is conducted to explore the impact of job stress and emotional stress to the CWs that potentially lead to injuries incident in Penang. Twelve stressors were identified through factor analysis. Then, the stressors are classified into five main categories. Questionnaires were developed according to the stressstressor relationship. The correlation between factors of injury incident (stressor and stress shows that lack of autonomy and inappropriate safety equipment lead to the emotional stress among the CWs with 0.287 and 0.204 respectively. In addition, poor physical environment causes the job stress among CWs with the correlation of 0.270.

  8. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  9. Incidence and Patterns of Cardiovascular Disease in North Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been major problem in the developed and developing countries and its burden in these countries is overwhelming. There is a dearth of literature and data on the prevalence and patterns of CVD in developing countries, especially Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried ...

  10. Incidence and patterns of congenital talipes equinovarus (Clubfoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of clubfoot with respect to gender, side of deformity, association with other congenital anomalies, maternal demographic characteristics and maternal obstetric history were recorded. Results: The total number of births at QECH during the study period was 16877. The number of children with clubfoot deformity ...

  11. Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan | Ageek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and Incidence of Cancer in Red Sea State, Sudan. ... The cancers were classified according to the organs affected and then ranked in their order of relative frequency. The mean age, age range, male to female ratio, the incidence ... Keywords: Prevalence, malignancies, Africa, Middle East Sudan Journal of Medical ...

  12. Injury Incidence and Injury Risk Factors Among Soldiers in the United States Army Ordnance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    tobacco has no effect on reaction time.89-91 It is possible that the increased risk of injury associated with smokeless tobacco use could be...Grabiner M. Smokeless tobacco, reaction time, and strength in athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1998; 30: 1548- 1551. 92...Candau R, Belli A, Millet GY, George D, Barbier B, Rouillon JD. Energy cost and running mechanics during a treadmill run to voluntary exhaustion in

  13. Injury pattern of suicide bomb attacks in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, M M A; Nasreen, G; Malik, S A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the pattern of injuries, hospital care, and outcome of the victims of suicide bomb attacks in Pakistan. This prospective, cohort study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi during the last 3 years. Seriously injured patients in the "immediate category" were resuscitated in the emergency operation theater adjacent to the emergency room and, after resuscitation, the patients were transferred to the main operation theaters, where consultant surgeons were available. During the study period, 1,296 terrorist victims presented to the emergency department and (86.9%) were admitted, with a mean hospital stay of 8.2 ± 2.1 days. The majority of patients arrived by ambulance (91%) and only 38 (3%) were evacuated by air. Penetrating splinter injuries were the most prevalent (87%), and 29% patients also had associated injuries. Open bone fractures were found in 48% and 42% had injured hollow and solid viscous. Overall, 33% of patients had thoracic injuries and neuro-trauma was observed in 16% of the study population. Deafness was a feature in 33% patients, 121 had to undergo limb amputations, and mortality remained in 7% of patients. Most of the problems encountered were logistic in nature. Early evacuation of the victims remains pivotal in saving lives. The major causes of death in peripheral patients was hypovolemic shock, sepsis, and hypothermia. Mortality and morbidity can be enhanced by ample fluid resuscitation, tetanus prophylaxis, and proficient first aid at the site of injury.

  14. Patterns of spinal injury in a new neurosurgical centre: A 2-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete cord injuries remained without improvement, and complications were mostly pressure ulcers, with no incident of deep venous thrombosis. Mortality was 13(21%). Conclusion: Spinal injury was an important indication for neurosurgical consultations in our service. Complete cord injuries were more common than ...

  15. The Pattern of Cut Throat Injuries in the University of Port-Harcout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... injuries require a multidisciplinary approach and could be managed with better prognosis if the patients present early to the hospital and are given prompt attention. Poor socioeconomic status and poverty have been associated with a high incidence of cut throat injuries. Key words: Cut throat injuries, Suicide, Homicide, ...

  16. The effectiveness of injury-prevention programs in reducing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament sprains in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkewicz, Jeffrey; Webb, Tristen; Waters, Brian; Welch McCarty, Cailee; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2012-11-01

    There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in adolescents participating in pivoting sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. Most ACL injuries in athletes are noncontact injuries, with a mechanism of sudden deceleration, change in direction, or landing from a jump. These mechanisms coupled with an increase in contraction of the quadriceps have been shown as risk factors for ACL injuries. Injuries to the ACL may require surgery, a long rehabilitation, and the potential for reinjury. Studies have shown reductions in lower extremity injury rates using training protocols that focus on landing mechanics, balance training, strength training, and/or agility training. There has been some thought that starting preventive training programs with adolescent athletes may be the most effective approach to reducing adolescent ACL injuries. Can lower extremity injury-prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury rates in adolescent athletes?

  17. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially

  18. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...

  19. Patterns, incidence and predictive factors for pain after interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.; Tam, C.L.; Thacker, D.E.; Walker, A.L.; Parkinson, A.S.; DeMello, W.; Bradley, A.J.; Tuck, J.S.; Laasch, H.-U.; Butterfield, J.S.; Ashleigh, R.J.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the pattern, severity and predictive factors of pain after interventional radiological procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing non-arterial radiological interventional procedures were assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS) for pain before and at regular intervals for 24 h after their procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients (87 men, mean age 62 years, range 18-92 years) were entered into the study. Significant increases in VAS score occurred 8 h after percutaneous biliary procedures (+47.7 mm, SD 14.9 mm; p=0.001), 6 h after central venous access and gastrostomy insertion (+23.7 mm, SD 19.5 mm; p=0.001 and +28.4 mm, SD 9.7 mm; p=0.007, respectively) and 4 h after oesophageal stenting (+27.8 mm, SD 20.2 mm, p=0.001). Non-significant increases in VAS pain score were observed after duodenal and colonic stenting (duodenal: +5.13 mm, SD 7.47 mm; p=0.055, colonic: +23.3 mm, SD 13.10 mm, p=0.250) at a mean of 5 h (range 4-6 h). Patients reported a significant reduction in pain score for nephrostomy insertion (-28.4 mm, SD 7.11 mm, p=0.001). Post-procedural analgesia was required in 99 patients (69.2%), 40 (28.0%) requiring opiates. Maximum post-procedural VAS pain score was significantly higher in patients who had no pre-procedural analgesia (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Post-procedural pain is common and the pattern and severity of pain between procedures is variable. Pain control after interventional procedures is often inadequate, and improvements in pain management are required

  20. Using Balanced Scorecard on Reducing Fall Incidents and Injuries Among Elderly Cancer Patients in a Medical Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Mei Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of present study provided references to healthcare institutes using balanced scorecard management strategies as intervention to reduce to fall incidents and injuries in elderly cancer patients and to prompt patient safety and quality of care.

  1. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  2. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  3. Pattern and nature of Neyshabur train explosion blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Katayoun; Ghodsi, Hasan; Khodadadizadeh, Ali; Yousef Nezhad, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    Explosions are classified as both man-made and complex accidents. Explosive events can cause serious damage to people, property, and the environment. This study aimed to investigate the pattern and nature of damage incurred to the victims of the Neyshabur Train Explosion. The current study is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was retrospectively performed on 99 individuals using census method and documents victims hospitalized due to the Neyshabur train disaster (February 2004) in 2016. In this study, different variables such as age, sex, type of injury, treatment, etc. were examined using a questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS16. The results showed that 50.5% of victims were males with mean age of 30.33 ± 4.27 years and most of them were in 20- to 40-year age group. A total of 98 victims were discharged after treatment, and 1 victim died due to the severity of injuries after 3 days of hospitalization. Second type of injuries caused by the explosion accounted for most of the injuries (55.6%), and most treatments (54.5%) were related to the specific field of orthopedics. Handling and transportation of fuels and chemicals via rail transport system is one of the potential hazards that threatens human life. The results showed that the highest numbers of victims were in 20- to 40-year age group, which is the age of economic efficiency. The prevention and reduction of human and financial losses resulting from accidents require proper national planning.

  4. Abdominal wall injuries occurring after blunt trauma: incidence and grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ryan W; Marshall, Andre; Deshmukh, Harshal; Bender, Jeffrey S; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Lees, Jason S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall injuries (AWIs) are being increasingly recognized after blunt force injury. All available abdominal/pelvic computed axial tomography (CAT) scans of blunt trauma patients evaluated at our level I trauma center from January 2005 to August 2006 were reviewed for the presence of AWI. AWI was graded using a severity-based numeric system. AWI grade was then compared with variables from a prospectively maintained trauma registry. Of 1,549 reviewed CAT scans, 9% showed AWI (grade I = 53%, grade II = 28%, grade III = 9%, grade IV = 8%, and grade V = 2%). There was no association between AWI and seatbelt use, Injury Severity Score, weight, or need for abdominal surgery. AWI occurs in 9% of blunt trauma patients undergoing abdominal/pelvic CAT scans. The incidence of herniation on CAT at presentation after blunt trauma is .2%, and the incidence of patients at risk of future hernia formation is 1.5%. AWI can be effectively cataloged using a straightforward numeric grading system.

  5. The impact of state fire safe cigarette policies on fire fatalities, injuries, and incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, David H; Shults, Chris

    Cigarettes are a leading cause of civilian deaths in home fires. Over the last decade, state fire service leaders and allied interest groups succeeded in persuading state lawmakers to require manufacturers to sell only low-ignition strength or "fire safe" cigarettes as a strategy to reduce these fatalities and the injuries and losses that stem from them. This article examines whether the states' fire safe cigarette laws actually helped to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce the incidence of home fires ignited by cigarettes left unattended by smokers. Controlling for the effects of key demographic, social, economic, and housing variables, this study finds that the states' fire-safe cigarette policies had significant impacts on reducing the rate of smoking-related civilian fire deaths and the incidence of fires started by tobacco products. The findings also suggest that the states' fire safe cigarette policies may have helped to reduce the rate of smoking-related fire injuries. The study shows that collective actions by leaders in the fire service across the states can result in meaningful policy change that protects lives and advances public safety even when a political consensus for action is absent at the national level.

  6. Incidence and patterns of maxillofacial trauma-a retrospective analysis of 3611 patients-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodh, P; Prabhu Shankar, D; Pradeep, Devadoss; Santhosh, Rajan; Murugan, Aparna

    2016-12-01

    Maxillofacial fractures occur in a significant proportion worldwide and can occur as an isolated injury or in combination with other severe injuries including cranial, spinal, and upper and lower body injuries requiring prompt diagnosis with possible emergency interventions. The epidemiology of facial fractures varies with regard to injury type, severity, and cause and depends on the population studied. Hence, understanding of these factors can aid in establishing clinical and research priorities for effective treatment and prevention of these injuries. In this present retrospective study, we provide a comprehensive overview regarding cranio-maxillofacial trauma on 3611 patients to assist the clinician in assessment and management of this unique highly specialized area of traumatology. A preformed pro forma was used to analyze the medical records of patients treated for facial trauma in The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. The distribution according to age, gender, etiology, type of injury, time interval between accident and treatment, loss of consciousness, facial bones involved, pattern of fracture lines, treatment offered, and postoperative complications were recorded and evaluated. We inferred male patients sustained more injuries mostly in the third decade of age. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury. Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. Soft tissue injuries occurred more in road traffic accidents and upper lip was the commonest site of injury. Our study provides insights into the epidemiology of facial injuries and associated factors and can be useful not only in developing prevention strategies but also for grading the existing legal regulations and also for framing a more effective treatment protocol.

  7. Incidence and patterns of hemolytic anemia in acute dapsone overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yong Sung; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Juwon; Kim, Oh Hyun; Kim, Hyung Il; Cha, KyoungChul; Lee, Kang Hyun; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2016-03-01

    Hemolytic anemia is one of the complications related to the chronic consumption of dapsone. However, in acute dapsone overdose, there have been few case reports regarding hemolytic anemia. Herein, we reported the prevalence and patterns of hemolytic anemia in acute dapsone overdose, and compared clinical features including mortality in the non-hemolytic anemia and the hemolytic anemia groups. We conducted a retrospective review of 43 consecutive acute dapsone overdose cases that were diagnosed and treated at the emergency department of the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital between January 2006 and January 2014. There were 13 male patients (30.2%) and the ages of all patients ranged from 18 to 93 years with a median of 67 years. The ingested dose varied from a minimum of two 100-mg tablet to a maximum of twenty five 100-mg tablets. All patients had methemoglobinemia irrespective of the presence of hemolytic anemia. Among 43 patients, 30 patients (69.8%) were shown to have hemolytic anemia and hemolytic anemia developed the day after admission and persisted for more than 6 days after admission. Even though mortality rate was not significantly higher in the hemolytic anemia group, the hemolytic anemia group had significantly longer total admission and intensive care unit admission stays than the non-hemolytic group. A significant proportion of the patients with acute dapsone overdose is associated with occurrence of hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia may be developed the day after admission and persisted for more than 6 days after admission. Therefore, monitoring of serum hemoglobin level is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: Incidence and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral

  9. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: incidence and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral

  10. Trends in incidence and costs of injuries to the shoulder, arm and wrist in the Netherlands between 1986 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Polinder (Suzanne); G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); D. Eygendaal (Denise); P. Patka (Peter); D. den Hartog (Dennis); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Upper extremity injuries account for a large proportion of attendances to the Emergency Department. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in the incidence of upper extremity injuries in the Dutch population between 1986 and 2008, and to give a detailed

  11. Injury reporting rates and injury concealment patterns differ between high-school cirque performers and basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ashley S; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Fahringer, Patty M

    2011-12-01

    The performing arts style of cirque has grown in popularity, with high-school participants increasingly practicing this style. Still, little research has examined the injury reporting rates and patterns in this population. Our study aimed to compare injury reporting rates and injury concealment patterns between high-school cirque performers and a peer-group of basketball players. Fifty participants (30 cirque, 20 basketball) completed a 12-item injury history and concealment instrument with chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact tests comparing groups (p = 0.05). While no group differences (p = 0.36) existed in injuries reported, basketball players were more likely (p = 0.01) to miss participation due to injury than cirque performers. No significant difference existed between participants regarding which healthcare provider they reported to first (p = 0.27), but basketball players reported their injuries to the athletic trainer at higher rates (50%) than cirque performers (20%). A nonsignificant trend (p = 0.08) was noted in promptness to report injury, with more cirque performers (13%) concealing their injuries than basketball players (5%). Several reasons were noted for concealment of injury, with the most common being the belief that the injury would "go away" on its own. Knee injuries were most common in basketball players (23.7%) and back and knee injuries (10.5% each) in cirque performers. Despite similar injury rates, cirque participants concealed injuries more than peer-basketball players. Reasons may include losing performance roles, unfamiliarity and low trust with healthcare providers, ignorance about initially minor-looking injuries, and higher pain tolerance thresholds. Education and communication are essential to allow performing artists to seek healthcare support. Research is needed to appropriately understand and meet the needs of this underserved performing artist population.

  12. Incidence of injury among male Brazilian jiujitsu fighters at the World Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi Championship 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiswirth, Ethan M; Myer, Gregory D; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian jiujitsu is a modern combat martial art that uses joint locks to submit an opponent and achieve victory. This form of martial art is a relatively young but rapidly growing combat sport worldwide. To determine the cumulative injury incidence and risk of injury by belt rank and body region at an international-level Brazilian jiujitsu tournament. Descriptive epidemiology study. World Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi Championship 2009 in Long Beach, California. We monitored 951 athletes (age range, 18-50 years) enrolled to compete in the World Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi Championship 2009. Fighters were categorized by belt level for group comparisons (belt experience). Incidence rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) and incidence rate ratios were compared by belt rank. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios. During the tournament, 1606 AEs and 62 total injuries were reported. Of these injuries, 40 affected the joints, for an overall incidence rate of 24.9 per 1000 AEs. The joint incidence rate by belt rank was 21.5 per 1000 AEs for blue, 21.3 per 1000 AEs for purple, 25.2 per 1000 AEs for brown, and 35.1 per 1000 AEs for black. We found no differences for incidence rate ratios of joint injury among individual belt groups (P > .05). More experienced (brown belt and black belt) competitors had a higher injury risk than the less experienced (blue belt and purple belt) competitors; however, the difference was not significant (incidence rate ratio = 1.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 2.9; P = .06). The incidence of joint injury was highest at the knee (7.5 per 1000 AEs) and elbow (7.5 per 1000 AEs). The data from this international Brazilian jiujitsu tournament indicated that the risk of joint injury was similar among belt ranks or experience during this Brazilian jiujitsu competition. The knee and elbow were the joints most susceptible to injury. Future investigation of injury mechanism is warranted to develop strategies to reduce potential risk factors attributed to injury.

  13. The incidence and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children in Norway between 1999 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Gaute Reier; Hovland, Eirik; Bangstad, Hans-Jacob; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Bjerre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim Primary acute kidney injury (AKI) is a direct cause of hospitalisation in children, but can also result from other conditions. There is limited information on the epidemiology of this condition. Our aim was to describe the national incidence rate and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children under the age of 16 in Norway from 1999 to 2008. Methods We carried out a retrospective study of medical records provided by all 18 of the paediatric hospital departments that specialise in treating paediatric patients with AKI. Results We identified 315 cases of AKI (53% male), with an estimated average annual incidence rate of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children and a median annual occurrence of 33 cases. Most cases (43%) were in children under five. We identified 53 aetiologies and classified these into 30 aetiological groups: 24% of the cases were prerenal (n = 75), 74% were intrinsic/renal (n = 234) and 2% were postrenal (n = 5). Nephritic syndromes was the major cause (44%) of AKI, followed by haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) (15%). Conclusion Nephritic syndromes and HUS are the most common aetiologies of AKI in Norway. Although our results could indicate a low incidence of paediatric AKI in Norway, the lack of other national studies makes comparisons difficult. PMID:25039408

  14. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundNon-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at t...

  15. The Incidence of Postconcussion Syndrome Remains Stable Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen M; Crawford, Susan; Brooks, Brian L; Turley, Brenda; Mikrogianakis, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Improving our knowledge about the natural history and persistence of symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury is a vital step in improving the provision of health care to children with postconcussion syndrome. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the incidence and persistence of symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury and (2) ascertain whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), symptom criteria for postconcussion syndrome in adults are appropriate for use in children. A tertiary care pediatric emergency department was the setting for this study. This was a prospective observational follow-up cohort study of children (ages 2 to 18 years) with mild traumatic brain injury. Data were collected in person during the acute presentation, and subsequent follow-up was performed by telephone at 7-10 days and 1, 2, and 3 months postinjury. Postconcussion Symptom Inventory for parents and children was used. The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome were explored using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 467 children (62.5% boys, median age 12.04, range 2.34-18.0) with mild traumatic brain injury participated. The median time until symptom resolution was 29.0 days (95% confidence intervals: 26.09-31.91). Three months after injury, 11.8% of children with mild traumatic brain injury remained symptomatic. Receiver operating curve characteristic analysis of the postconcussion syndrome criteria successfully classified symptomatic participants at three months postinjury; the adolescent receiver operating characteristic curve was excellent with the area under the curve being 0.928 (P children presenting to the emergency room with a mild traumatic brain injury remain symptomatic at 3 months postinjury. This is the first study to demonstrate stable incidence rates of postconcussion syndrome in children and that modified DSM-IV criteria can be used to successfully classify

  16. Incidence and risk factors for turf toe injuries in intercollegiate football: data from the national collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    Turf toe is the general term for a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex. Previously attributed to shoe design and artificial turf, the incidence of turf toe injury has been thought to decline with the advent of newer turf designs. However, the current incidence and epidemiology remain unknown as the majority of the literature consists of small series and addresses diagnosis and treatment rather than epidemiology and prevention. We examined data from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (2004-2005 through 2008-2009), including all preseason, regular season, and postseason practice and competition data. The incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors for turf toe injury, defined as injury to the connective tissue of the first MTP joint, plantar plate complex, and/or sesamoid fracture, were determined. The overall incidence of turf toe injuries in NCAA football players was 0.062 per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es; 95% CI 0.052, 0.072). Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared to practice, with a mean days lost due to injury of 10.1 (7.9, 12.4). Fewer than 2% of turf toe injuries required operative intervention. There was a significantly higher injury rate on third-generation artificial surfaces compared to natural grass (0.087 per 1000 A-E [0.067, 0.11] vs 0.047 per 1000 A-E [0.036, 0.059]). The majority of injuries occurred as a result of contact with the playing surface (35.4%) or contact with another player (32.7%), and running backs and quarterbacks were the most common positions to suffer turf toe injury. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of turf toe injuries during games, a greater susceptibility among running backs and quarterbacks, and a significant contribution of playing surface to risk of injury. Though turf toe injuries may be less common that previously reported in elite football players, these injuries warrant appropriate acute and long

  17. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). There were no major differences between the incidence, severity, nature or cause of training injuries

  18. Western Dietary Pattern Increases, and Prudent Dietary Pattern Decreases, Risk of Incident Diverticulitis in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary end point was incident diverticulitis. During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of Western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20-1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, and a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of

  19. Western Dietary Pattern Increases, Whereas Prudent Dietary Pattern Decreases, Risk of Incident Diverticulitis in a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary endpoint was incident diverticulitis. Results During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio (HR) of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20–1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate HR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60–0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. Conclusions In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, whereas a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data may

  20. Incidence and body location of reported acute sport injuries in seven sports using a national insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Larsén, K

    2018-03-01

    Sports with high numbers of athletes and acute injuries are an important target for preventive actions at a national level. Both for the health of the athlete and to reduce costs associated with injury. The aim of this study was to identify injuries where injury prevention should focus, in order to have major impact on decreasing acute injury rates at a national level. All athletes in the seven investigated sport federations (automobile sports, basketball, floorball, football (soccer), handball, ice hockey, and motor sports) were insured by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), at each body location, was calculated. Comparisons were made between sports, sex, and age. In total, there were 84 754 registered injuries during the study period (year 2006-2013). Athletes in team sports, except in male ice hockey, had the highest risk to sustain an injury and PMI in the lower limb. Females had higher risk of injury and PMI in the lower limb compared to males, in all sports except in ice hockey. This study recommends that injury prevention at national level should particularly focus on lower limb injuries. In ice hockey and motor sports, head/neck and upper limb injuries also need attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Incidence and risk factors of injuries and their impact on academic success: A prospective study in PETE students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliekendaal, S; Goossens, L; Stubbe, J H

    2017-12-01

    Injuries can have a major impact on the physical performance and academic career of physical education teacher education (PETE) students. To investigate the injury problem, risk factors, and the impact of injuries on academic success, 252 PETE students were followed during their first semester. Risk factor analysis was conducted by means of logistic regression analysis with a differentiation for upper body, lower body, acute, overuse, and severe injuries. An incidence of 1.26 injuries/student/semester was found. Most injuries involved the lower body (61%), were new injuries (76%), occurred acutely (66%), and were sustained during curricular gymnastics (25%) or extracurricular soccer (28%). Significant risk factors for lower body acute injuries were age (OR=2.14; P=.01), previous injury (OR=2.23; P=.01), and an injury at the start of the year (OR=2.56; P=.02). For lower body overuse injuries, gender (OR=2.85; P=.02) and the interval shuttle run test score (OR=2.44; P=.04) were significant risk factors. Previous injury (OR=2.59; P=.04) and injury at the start of the year (upper body: OR=4.57; P=.02; lower body: OR=3.75; Pacademic success (r=.20; P=.02) and success in theoretical courses (r=.24; P=academic success for sport courses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Liposuction of the Neck: Low Incidence of Nerve Injury and Other Complications in 987 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbema, Loeb; Tang, Jennifer C; Sattler, Gerhard; Hanke, C William

    2018-01-01

    The neck is one of the most common areas treated by liposuction. Neck liposuction decreases fat volume, causes skin contraction, and restores a more youthful appearance. We present a large case series (n=987) performed by three dermatologic surgeons. Five patients developed temporary post-operative marginal mandibular dysfunction, one patient had submandibular gland ptosis and one patient had arterial bleeding. Seroma, skin necrosis, scarring, and hyperpigmentation did not occur following neck liposuction. Neck liposuction performed with tumescent local anesthesia is a safe procedure associated with a low incidence of nerve injury and other complications. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):30-34..

  3. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from...... a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5......% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high...

  4. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: match injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study of American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all match injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Match exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 25.43 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 23.92 on grass (incidence ratio 1.06; p = 0.46) and for women was 19.15 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 21.79 on grass (incidence ratio = 0.88; p = 0.16). For men, the mean severity of non-season ending injuries was 7.1 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.4 days (median 5) on grass and, for women, 11.2 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.9 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and contusion injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of match injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 24.60, grass 22.91; p = 0.40; women: artificial turf 18.29, grass 20.64; p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 14.73, grass 13.34; p = 0.37; women: artificial turf 10.72; grass 11.68; p = 0.50). There were no major differences in the incidence, severity, nature or cause of match injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and

  5. Oblique incidence ion impact pattern formation on Cu(001) along the[100] and [110] azimuthal directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everts, Frank; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene [Solid State Physics, MESA, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Oblique incidence sputtering is a versatile tool for nanopattern creation on different types of surfaces. Often ripple patterns are observed as a result of an erosion instability. The orientation of the ripples is governed by the polar angle of incidence of the ion beam. High resolution low energy electron diffraction reveal an unanticipated azimuth dependence for Cu(001) at 200 K. Near normal incidence sputtering along[110] gives rise to a diffraction pattern showing a fourfold symmetry of the etch structures. Surprisingly, a further increase of the polar angle shows that this surface imposed fourfold symmetry is preserved up to grazing incidence. In marked contrast are the results for sputtering along the[010] azimuth. Already for near normal incidence the fourfold symmetry in the diffraction pattern is broken, reflecting ripple formation. The orientation of these ripples changes with more oblique incidence sputtering. The explanation for this strong azimuth sensitivity is found by varying the ion energy, showing a strong dependence on the details of the ion substrate interaction.

  6. PATTERN OF INJURIES SEEN IN MASS CASUALTIES IN TERRORIST ATTACKS IN BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN--A THREE YEARS EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Rasikh; Rasikh, Alia; Abbasi, Tariq; Shukr, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    As a front line state in war against terror, Pakistan has been a victim of terrorism, for the last many years & Baluchistan has been the hub of all such terror activities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and type of injuries in mass casualties in terrorist activities in Baluchistan. The study was done by the review of the record of all patients of terrorist attacks who were admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from 27th Aug 2012 to 31st Jul 2015. The final injuries sustained by the victims were documented in the patient charts after repeated examination. The data was collected from these patient charts. Data was analysed using SPSS-21. Frequency & percentages of different injuries was calculated to determine the injury pattern. A total of 3034 patients reported to the hospital (n-3034), 2228 were admitted (73.4%). Out of the injured, 1720 (56.69%) were patients of multi system trauma, whereas 1314 (43.3%) had a single site injury. Out of these 537 patients had fractures of long bones (17.6%), those with head & spinal injuries with neurological deficit were 455 (14.9%), 266 had abdominal injuries requiring surgical intervention (8.7%), 75 (2.47%) had thoracic injuries were whereas 25 (0.82%) were vascular injuries, requiring emergent limb saving surgeries. Sex ratio was M/F=5.7: 1 Mean hospital stay was 6.31 days. Majority of the injured had multisystem injuries; therefore the hospital should have a well-trained multi-disciplinary team of surgeons. In addition to general surgery, the subspecialties' should include orthopaedics, vascular, thoracic and neurosurgery.

  7. Incidence of dog bite injuries in American Samoa and their impact on society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Don; DePasquale, John M; Vargo, Agnes M

    2012-01-01

    In American Samoa, a US Territory in the South Pacific, over half of reported injuries are attributed to dog bites. Despite years of public outcry, little has been done to adequately address these preventable injuries that affect all age groups of both sexes. To describe a serious public health hazard in American Samoa that may plague other jurisdictions that tolerate a significant free-roaming dog population. A limited data set of outpatient records from 2004 through 2010 from the Territory's only emergency department listing an ICD-9-CM E-code of E906.0 ("dog bite") in the primary E-code field provided a record of dog bite injuries. A survey of 437 adolescents documented their experiences regarding unprovoked dog attacks during the 2010/2011 school year. The sex/age group with the highest incidence for dog bite treatment was males 55 to 59 years of age (73.1 per 10,000 population per year) followed closely by males 10 to 14 years of age (71.8 per 10,000 population per year). Males aged 5 to 14 years accounted for 23% of all emergency department visits for dog bites. About one-third of adolescents reported having been bitten by a dog between September 2010 and May 2011. About 10% of males and 16% of females attributed the fear of being bitten as a factor preventing them from getting more physical activity. Children, adolescents, and the elderly are the most vulnerable to dog bite injuries. Emergency room records may reflect only about a quarter of all such injuries. Unprovoked attacks by aggressive, free-roaming dogs degrade quality of life by placing an untenable burden on the health care system and imposing physical and psychological barriers toward a more healthful lifestyle that includes walking, jogging, and bicycling.

  8. Incidence of Recreational Alpine Skiing and Snowboarding Injuries: Six Years Experience in the Largest Ski Resort in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, A; Handolin, L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on incidences and severity of recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding injuries in Northern Finland and to discuss possible preventive measures to reduce the number and severity of injuries in the future. This retrospective study consists of all injured skiers and snowboarders in the Levi Ski Resort during the 2006-2012 winter seasons. The Levi Ski Resort has a SKIDATA® system which records automatically every ski-lift run taking place. The emergency system of the resort registers the data (conditions during the injury, patient characteristics, and observed and/or suspected injuries) of all injured persons they meet. The severity of injury is defined by the needed level of care: Grade 1 (treated by the emergency system with no need for further referral), Grade 2 (referral to the local primacy care clinic), Grade 3 (transfer to hospital by ambulance), and Grade 4 (transfer to tertiary care by helicopter). During the 6-year study period, there were 29,576.132 lift runs and 2911 injuries were met by the emergency system, resulting in the average injury incidence of 0.98 injuries per 10,000 lift runs. Vice versa, the average number of the ski-lift rides needed to generate one injury was 10,160. The knee injuries of the skiers constituted almost one-third of all cases, whereas snowboarders sustained more injuries to the upper limb and axial areas. Skiing and snowboarding are related to a relatively high risk of injury. The most common injuries affect the knee in skiers and the upper extremity, especially the wrist, in snowboarders. A continuous and systematic review of injuries is needed to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of the safety. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.

  9. Pattern of injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A one-year descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A one-year descriptive study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Methods: A one-year (July 2005-June 2006) retrospective descriptive audit of injuries in a public health facility of Addis Ababa using external causes of injury codes on district health ...

  10. Increasing incidence of injuries and fatalities inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Dar G; Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Kangoo, K A; Halwai, Manzoor A

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the causes of the increased incidence of injuries inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir, and to suggest preventive measures. A retrospective study reviewed records of these injuries. Data were collected from the hospital in Srinagar and from the Wildlife Protection Department of Kashmir. A total of 203 attacks (26 deaths and 177 near-fatal injuries) were recorded from January 2005 to October 2007, involving 145 (71.5%) male and 58 (28.5%) female victims. The attacking animal was a black bear in 104 (51.2%), a leopard in 18 (8.8%), a wolf in 7 (3.4%) and unidentified in 74 (36.4%) cases; 130 (64%) of these attacks occurred in southern Kashmir. The steady increase in human population in areas close to jungle results in deforestation and destruction of wildlife habitat. The reduction in monkeys and deer (the staple food of leopards) causes these dangerous predators to search for food in the areas occupied by humans, who may then be attacked. Treatment of these cases requires a multidisciplinary approach, including an orthopaedic surgeon, plastic surgeon, microbiologist and psychiatrist, to achieve best cosmetic and functional results.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Incident Heart Failure Among US Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nisha; Matheny, Michael E; Greevy, Robert A; Eden, Svetlana K; Perkins, Amy M; Parr, Sharidan K; Fly, James; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Hung, Adriana M; Speroff, Theodore; Ikizler, T Alp; Siew, Edward D

    2018-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease. Observational study. We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure. AKI was the predictor and was defined as a 0.3-mg/dL or 50% increase in serum creatinine concentration from baseline to the peak hospital value. Patients with and without AKI were matched (1:1) on 28 in- and outpatient covariates using optimal Mahalanobis distance matching. Incident heart failure was defined as 1 or more hospitalization or 2 or more outpatient visits with a diagnosis of heart failure within 2 years through 2013. There were 150,434 matched pairs in the study. Patients with and without AKI during the index hospitalization were well matched, with a median preadmission estimated glomerular filtration rate of 69mL/min/1.73m 2 . The overall incidence rate of heart failure was 27.8 (95% CI, 19.3-39.9) per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in those with compared with those without AKI: 30.8 (95% CI, 21.8-43.5) and 24.9 (95% CI, 16.9-36.5) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, AKI was associated with 23% increased risk for incident heart failure (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.19-1.27). Study population was primarily men, reflecting patients seen at Veterans Affairs hospitals. AKI is an independent risk factor for incident heart failure. Future studies to identify underlying mechanisms and modifiable risk factors are needed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in injury pattern and prevalence of cartilage lesions in knee and ankle joints: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Aurich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints.

  13. Identifying Risk Factors for Incidence of Mental Disorders after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Rezaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organic brain pathology usually may be followed by mental disorders. This research was aimed at constructing a predictive model and investigating the risk factors in the incidence of mental disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty eight patients (195 males and 43 females were entered the study in a descriptive-longitudinal design by non-probable and consecutive sampling method. They were undergone neurosurgical examinations and psychological evaluations. After a 4-month follow-up, 65.1% of the patients (N=155 referred to a psychiatrist in order to determine the nature of mental disorder following TBI, using a structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results: 75.48% (117 cases of patients had a form of mental disorder‎ secondary to TBI. The Results of binary logistic regression analyses for calculating odds ratio (OR model with 95% confidence interval (CI indicating the severity of TBI ‎(OR‏=‏3.497,‎ 95% CI =1.259-9.712‎, presence of subcranial injury (OR‏=‏‎2.834,‎ 95% CI =1.022-7.857‎ and falling level of general compatibility, as measured by modified version of GHQ-28 (OR‏=‏1.072, 95% ‎CI =1.035-1.111 indicated an increasing risk in the incidence of mental disorder. Conclusion: Findings revealed that in the development of post-TBI mental disorders, first there was a close relationship with organic brain pathology (TBI severity and subcranial injury, although the role of effective psychological factors such as level of general compatibility after trauma should not be neglected. Also in order to predict the people at risk of mental disorders after TBI, the proposed predictive model in this study can be used.

  14. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Twenty-three, elite professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age, 25.6 ± 4.6 years; stature, 181.8 ± 6.8 cm; and body mass, 79.3 ± 8.1 kg) were studied throughout the 2-years span of the investigation. The results showed a mean total injury incidence of 18.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7-22.9) injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. Significant correlations were found between training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.

  15. Incidence of Headache After Traumatic Brain Injury in China: A Large Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Pi, Hongying; Ma, Lili; Su, Xinyang; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    There have yet to be any large-scale studies in China on headaches after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We evaluate the incidence of headache after TBI and investigate risk factors and functional outcome in a large tertiary center with a high caseload. A total of 543 patients (82% men, 18% women) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 18.6 years presenting with TBI were prospectively enrolled in this study between March 2011 and July 2013. Patient demographics, severity of TBI, incidence and classification of headache, and treatment information were collected during initial hospitalization and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. Of our 543 patients (82% men, 18% women), 62% were injured in motor vehicle collisions and 27% in falls. Most patients (97%) were considered to have mild TBI. Follow-up rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 91%, 75%, and 61%, respectively. Only 12% of patients reported pre-TBI headaches, whereas 58% of respondents reported headache at 3 months follow-up, 54% at 6 months follow-up, and 49% at 1 year follow-up. No statistically significant correlations between age, sex, or TBI severity and posttraumatic headaches were observed. We present the findings of the first study on headaches after TBI in China. Headaches were found to occur in most patients with TBI and persisted through the first year after injury. The incidence of posttraumatic headache observed here is comparable with previously published studies outside China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence and pattern of 12 years of reported transfusion adverse events in Zimbabwe: A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Background. Haemovigilance hinges on a systematically structured reporting system, which unfortunately does not always exist in resource-limited settings. We determined the incidence and pattern of transfusion-related adverse events reported to the National Blood Service Zimbabwe. Materials and

  17. Incidence and pattern of congenital dislocation of the hip in Aseer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to determine the incidence, pattern, predisposing risk factors, treatment modalities and outcome of congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) in the Aseer region of Saudin Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study of 300 cases of CDH seen during a 4year period between 1996 to 1999 was ...

  18. Patterns in blood pressure medication use in US incident dialysis patients over the first 6 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St Peter, Wendy L.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Ephraim, Patti L.; Luly, Jason; McDermott, Aidan; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Meyer, Klemens B.; Crews, Deidra C.; Scialla, Julia J.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Tangri, Navdeep; Jaar, Bernard G.; Michels, Wieneke M.; Wu, Albert W.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have evaluated the effect of a single exposure window with blood pressure (BP) medications on outcomes in incident dialysis patients, but whether BP medication prescription patterns remain stable or a single exposure window design is adequate to evaluate effect on

  19. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  20. Physical training in boots and running shoes: a historical comparison of injury incidence in basic combat training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Jones, Bruce H; Steelman, Ryan A

    2015-03-01

    For many years, U.S. Army soldiers performed physical training (PT) in a modified duty uniform and combat boots. The belief that PT in combat boots was associated with injuries lead to the introduction of running shoes for PT in 1982. A historical comparison was conducted examining injuries before and after the change to running shoes in Basic Combat Training (BCT). Searches in literature databases and other sources identified 16 studies with quantitative data on injury incidence during 8-week BCT cycles. Employing studies with similar injury definitions (n = 12), injury incidence was compared in the boot and running shoe periods using meta-analyses, χ(2) statistics, and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The boot and shoe periods demonstrated little difference in overall injury incidence (men: RR[boot/shoes] = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18, p = 0.50; women: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05, p = 0.27) or in lower extremity injury incidence (men: RR[boot/shoes] = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.64-1.30, p = 0.66; women: RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89-1.27, p = 0.51). These analyses provided little support for a reduction in injury risk after the switch from boots to running shoes for PT in BCT. A large randomized, prospective cohort study should be conducted to determine if injury rates are different when PT is conducted in running shoes versus boots. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Sports injury and illness incidence in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Summer Games: A prospective study of 11274 athletes from 207 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer, Debbie; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Lopes, Alexandre Dias; Dvorak, Jiri; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Salmina, Natalia; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    To describe the pattern of injuries and illnesses sustained during the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, hosted by Rio de Janeiro from 5 to 21 August 2016. We recorded the daily incidence of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Rio 2016 medical staff. In total, 11 274 athletes (5089 women, 45%; 6185 men, 55%) from 207 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and Rio 2016 medical staff reported 1101 injuries and 651 illnesses, equalling 9.8 injuries and 5.4 illnesses per 100 athletes over the 17-day period. Altogether, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury and 5% at least one illness. The injury incidence was highest in BMX cycling (38% of the athletes injured), boxing (30%), mountain bike cycling (24%), taekwondo (24%), water polo (19%) and rugby (19%), and lowest in canoe slalom, rowing, shooting, archery, swimming, golf and table tennis (0%-3%). Of the 1101 injuries recorded, 40% and 20% were estimated to lead to ≥1 and >7 days of absence from sport, respectively. Women suffered 40% more illnesses than men. Illness was generally less common than injury, with the highest incidence recorded in diving (12%), open-water marathon (12%), sailing (12%), canoe slalom (11%), equestrian (11%) and synchronised swimming (10%). Illnesses were also less severe; 18% were expected to result in time loss. Of the illnesses, 47% affected the respiratory system and 21% the gastrointestinal system. The anticipated problem of infections in the Rio Olympic Games did not materialise, as the proportion of athletes with infectious diseases mirrored that of recent Olympic Games (3%). Overall, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the Olympic Games, and 5% an illness, which is slightly lower than in the Olympic Summer Games of 2008 and 2012. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  2. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  3. Cranial Nerve Injury After Carotid Endarterectomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Time Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisis, J D; Antonopoulos, C N; Mantas, G; Moulakakis, K G; Sfyroeras, G; Geroulakos, G

    2017-03-01

    To review the incidence of post-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) cranial nerve injury (CNI), and to evaluate the risk factors associated with increased CNI risk. The study was a meta-analysis. Pooled rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for CNIs after primary CEA. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for potential risk factors. A fixed-effects model or a random effects model (Mantel-Haenszel method) was used for non-heterogeneous and heterogeneous data, respectively. Meta-regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of publication year upon CNI rate. Twenty-six articles, published between 1970 and 2015, were included in the meta-analysis, corresponding to 20,860 CEAs. Meta-analysis revealed that the vagus nerve was the most frequently injured cranial nerve (pooled injury rate 3.99%, 95% CI 2.56-5.70), followed by the hypoglossal nerve (3.79%, 95% CI 2.73-4.99). Fewer than one seventh of these injuries are permanent (vagus nerve: 0.57% [95% CI 0.19-1.10]; hypoglossal nerve: 0.15% [95% CI 0.01-0.39]). A statistically significant influence of publication year on the vagus and hypoglossal nerve injury rate was found, with the injury rate having decreased from about 8% to 2% and 1%, respectively, over the last 35 years. Urgent procedures (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.21-2.10; p = .001), as well as return to the operating room for a neurological event or bleeding (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.61; p = .002) were associated with an increased risk of CNI, whereas no statistically significant association was found between CNIs and the type of anaesthesia, the use of a patch, redo operation, and the use of a shunt. The vagus nerve appears to be the most frequently injured cranial nerve after CEA, followed by the hypoglossal nerve, with only a small proportion of these injuries being permanent. The CNI rate has significantly decreased over the past 35 years to a point indicating that CNIs should not be considered a major influencing factor in the decision making

  4. Pattern and outcome of spinal injury at Kenyatta National Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road Traffic Accident was the most common cause of injury (55%). Fifty five percent of the patients had a cervical spine injury with C5 being the most commonly injured vertebrae. The overall 3 month mortality rate was 40.8% with average time between injury and death being 129 hours. Forty eight point three percent of ...

  5. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Globally, trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a major cause of death and disability with majority occur- ... Bodabodas are a major form of transport in the city of. Kampala and in other towns in East Africa. .... Injury Control Injury Surveillance Reports (2000 – 2003). Injury Control Centre, Kampala. 4.

  6. Injury patterns of south african provincial cricket players over two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most injuries occurred to the lower limbs (45%), with muscle/tendon strains ... practices and training (27%) resulting in a similar number of injuries, while 15% were of .... Training. 15. 16. 15. Injury prevalence (%/match). 3. 8. 8. S1 – 2004 - 2005 season. S2 – 2005 - 2006 season. ST – 2004 - 2005 and 2005 - 2006 seasons.

  7. Pattern and severity of childhood unintentional injuries in Ismailia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    The resulting data should encourage interventional ... child injury, there are proven ways to reduce both the likelihood and severity of injury – yet awareness of the problem and its preventability, as ... the South African Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital injury surveillance study instrument, and previous work done.

  8. Incidence of musculoskeletal sport injuries in a sample of male and female recreational paddle-tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lozano, Romualdo; Casuso-Holgado, Maria J

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays paddle-tennis is practiced by the Spanish population, not only in a professional or semi-professional way, but also as a recreational sport. As occurs in tennis, the repetition of specific actions and gestures in paddle-tennis could be a factor associated with one or more types of musculoskeletal injuries in this population. The aim of this research was to describe the incidence and location of musculoskeletal injuries in a sample of Spanish recreational paddle-tennis and to explore a possible causality injury model, focusing on gender contribution. The sample was composed of 113 active paddle-tennis players, of whom 47.78% were men. The participants were asked about the injuries they had suffered during their paddle participation. Other variables such as age, physical position in the game and level of ability were taken into account. 85.4% of the players reported any sport paddle injury. The elbow and the lower back have been shown as the most common regions of injury, followed by knee and shoulder injuries. Female group reported a higher injury incidence due to playing paddle-tennis (OR=0.169; P=0.008). Significant differences also existed between the genders for calf injury location (OR=0.208; P=0.020). A global injury model explaining 22.5% of the variance has been observed. Gender seems to explain 7.4% of the variance. Being a medium-aged weighty right-handed woman seems to be the profile more likely to report paddle-tennis related musculoskeletal injuries. A lack of literature regarding paddle-tennis related injuries has been observed. It could be said that our results contribute substantially in this field.

  9. Effects of modern ski equipment on the overall injury rate and the pattern of injury location in Alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Flatz, Markus; Sommersacher, Renate; Woldrich, Thomas; Ruedl, Gerhard; Hotter, Barbara; Lee, Audrey; Nachbauer, Werner

    2008-07-01

    To identify whether the introduction of carving skis and related equipment has altered the overall injury rate and/or the pattern of injury location. Comparative case series. In the winter season of 1997-98, when carving skis began to appear on the ski market, all injured skiers requiring evacuation or medical treatment in 70 Austrian ski areas were recorded. Five years later, when most skiers were using carving skis, ski injury data were collected in a representative sample consisting of 5 ski areas from the first study. Data collection on injured skiers included subject demographics, weather and snow conditions, mechanism of the skiing accident, the type of ski used, injury location, and in the second study, additionally the date of the last ski binding adjustment. Frequency of injured body parts. In 1997-98, 1.43 injuries per 1000 skier days were calculated. Out of 17,914 injured alpine skiers, 29.5% of the injured men and 53.0% of the injured women suffered knee injuries. Five years later with the introduction of carving skis, the overall injury rate decreased by 9% but the gender-specific percentages of knee injuries did not change. Female carving skiers not using newly adjusted bindings had a higher risk of knee injury than those with newly adjusted bindings. The maintenance of adequate binding adjustment is especially important for the prevention of knee injuries in female carving skiers.

  10. OCCULT ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS IN DEPARTMENT OF PERINATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA – INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal delivery is the most important risk factors for development of faecal incontinence, which significantly affects quality of life. Foreign studies show OASIS occur at 20 to 40 % of vaginal deliveries. In Slovenia we recognize sphincter injuries at 1.7 % of deliveries, while true incidence of OASIS in our population remains unknown. Caesarean section prevents anal sphincter injuries. Known risk factors in foreign studies include prolonged second stage of labour, fetal weight > 3500 g, malpresentation, forceps delivery, maternal age more than 35 years at the time of first delivery, first delivery. Few women complain about defecatory problems in puerperium unless they are directly asked about them, so true incidence of such injuries is grossly underestimated. Previously compensated anal sphincter dysfunction can clinically manifest as late as in menopause. The most probable cause is atrophy of muscle and fibrous tissue of pelvic floor and anal sphincter due to lack of estrogen support in this period. With anal ultrasound we tried to determine the incidence of occult damage to anal sphincter in primiparas after vaginal delivery and the relation of injury to symptoms 6 weeks after delivery and identify possible risk factors in our population. We also tried to find out how many patients with anal sphincter injury become symptomatic immediately after deliv- ery. Methods: From January to June 2009 we examined 26 primiparas after vaginal delivery in the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital with anal ultrasound and compared various data about the delivery from our national delivery form. We excluded all patients with caesarean section, recognized anal sphincter injury at the time of the delivery or previous anorectal surgery, history of irritable bowel syndrome or pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. All patients completed a bowel-function questionnaire, which included questions about faecal urgency and involuntary passing of gas, liquid or

  11. Cardiac Tamponade as a Life-Threatening Complication of Laparoscopic Antireflux Surgery: The Real Incidence and 3D Anatomy of a Heart Injury by Helical Tacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdel, Mehmet Ali; Şen, Ozan; Zor, Utku; Kara, Simay; Acunaş, Bülent

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac tamponade (CT) is a dreadful complication of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) with unknown incidence, and preventive measures are yet to be defined. Incidence during LARS with respect to usage/configuration of graft deployment is analyzed. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of tack distribution provided anatomical insight to prevent cardiac injury. Data regarding the usage and configuration of graft deployment are retrieved from the prospective database. Grafting was "posterior" or "posterior + anterior." Incidence of CT in all hiatoplasties is calculated. Tomography is reconstructed in 3D, showing the spatial distribution of the tacks. Tacks are numbered in the surgical video. Corresponding numbering is applied to the tacks in any particular tomography slice, utilizing the 3D images as an interface. A numbering-blinded radiologist is asked to identify the offending and the nonoffending tacks as the cause of tamponade. Tack-to-pericardium distances are recorded. Tacks having no measurable distance from the pericardium are regarded as offensive. One CT occurred in 1302 consecutive LARS (0.076%). The incidence is 0% when "no" (379) or "posterior" (880) graft is used as opposed to 2.3% rate in "posterior + anterior" (43) grafting. The distribution of "offensive," "nonoffensive but nearest," and "safe" tacks followed a pattern. All offensive tacks belonged to the anterior graft fixation, which we referred as the critical zone. CT during LARS is rare, and associated with graft fixation anterior to the hiatal opening. Avoiding graft fixation to the critical zone may prevent cardiac injury.

  12. The incidence of injury presentations to emergency departments: what we don't know can hurt us.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, S

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of injury presentations to emergency departments in the Republic of Ireland has not been established. Data were collected relating to all injuries that presented on every eighth day in July-December 2005 to the three hospitals in Cork City. In total, 2,967 injury presentations were recorded. The total, male and female age-adjusted rate of injury presentations was 11,322, 13,933 and 8,550 per 100,000, respectively. The peak male rate was among 15-29 year-olds (26,735 per 100,000), 2.5 times the female rate in the same age range (10,719 per 100,000). The peak female rate was among over 85 year-olds (18,543 per 100,000). Place of injury, activity at time of injury and underlying substance\\/object causing injury were unspecified for 44%, 46% and 43% of recorded injuries. Improving the recording of injury data needs to be prioritised in Irish emergency departments ideally in conjunction with the development of a national injury surveillance system.

  13. Incidence of CNS Injury for a Cohort of 111 Patients Treated With Proton Therapy for Medulloblastoma: LET and RBE Associations for Areas of Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Eaton, Bree R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David H. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Caruso, Paul A.; Rapalino, Otto [Department of Radiology (O.R.) at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Adams, Judith A.; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) injury is a rare complication of radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors, but its incidence with proton radiation therapy (PRT) is less well defined. Increased linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at the distal end of proton beams may influence this risk. We report the incidence of CNS injury in medulloblastoma patients treated with PRT and investigate correlations with LET and RBE values. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 111 consecutive patients treated with PRT for medulloblastoma between 2002 and 2011 and selected patients with clinical symptoms of CNS injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for all patients were contoured on original planning scans (treatment change areas [TCA]). Dose and LET distributions were calculated for the treated plans using Monte Carlo system. RBE values were estimated based on LET-based published models. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS injury was 3.6% for any grade and 2.7% for grade 3+. Three of 4 symptomatic patients were treated with a whole posterior fossa boost. Eight of 10 defined TCAs had higher LET values than the target but statistically nonsignificant differences in RBE values (P=.12). Conclusions: Central nervous system and brainstem injury incidence for PRT in this series is similar to that reported for photon radiation therapy. The risk of CNS injury was higher for whole posterior fossa boost than for involved field. Although no clear correlation with RBE values was found, numbers were small and additional investigation is warranted to better determine the relationship between injury and LET.

  14. Incidence of CNS Injury for a Cohort of 111 Patients Treated With Proton Therapy for Medulloblastoma: LET and RBE Associations for Areas of Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Eaton, Bree R.; Ebb, David H.; Caruso, Paul A.; Rapalino, Otto; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Adams, Judith A.; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) injury is a rare complication of radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors, but its incidence with proton radiation therapy (PRT) is less well defined. Increased linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at the distal end of proton beams may influence this risk. We report the incidence of CNS injury in medulloblastoma patients treated with PRT and investigate correlations with LET and RBE values. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 111 consecutive patients treated with PRT for medulloblastoma between 2002 and 2011 and selected patients with clinical symptoms of CNS injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for all patients were contoured on original planning scans (treatment change areas [TCA]). Dose and LET distributions were calculated for the treated plans using Monte Carlo system. RBE values were estimated based on LET-based published models. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS injury was 3.6% for any grade and 2.7% for grade 3+. Three of 4 symptomatic patients were treated with a whole posterior fossa boost. Eight of 10 defined TCAs had higher LET values than the target but statistically nonsignificant differences in RBE values (P=.12). Conclusions: Central nervous system and brainstem injury incidence for PRT in this series is similar to that reported for photon radiation therapy. The risk of CNS injury was higher for whole posterior fossa boost than for involved field. Although no clear correlation with RBE values was found, numbers were small and additional investigation is warranted to better determine the relationship between injury and LET.

  15. Incidence of CNS Injury for a Cohort of 111 Patients Treated With Proton Therapy for Medulloblastoma: LET and RBE Associations for Areas of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Sethi, Roshan V; Yeap, Beow Y; Eaton, Bree R; Ebb, David H; Caruso, Paul A; Rapalino, Otto; Chen, Yen-Lin E; Adams, Judith A; Yock, Torunn I; Tarbell, Nancy J; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M

    2016-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury is a rare complication of radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors, but its incidence with proton radiation therapy (PRT) is less well defined. Increased linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at the distal end of proton beams may influence this risk. We report the incidence of CNS injury in medulloblastoma patients treated with PRT and investigate correlations with LET and RBE values. We reviewed 111 consecutive patients treated with PRT for medulloblastoma between 2002 and 2011 and selected patients with clinical symptoms of CNS injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for all patients were contoured on original planning scans (treatment change areas [TCA]). Dose and LET distributions were calculated for the treated plans using Monte Carlo system. RBE values were estimated based on LET-based published models. At a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS injury was 3.6% for any grade and 2.7% for grade 3+. Three of 4 symptomatic patients were treated with a whole posterior fossa boost. Eight of 10 defined TCAs had higher LET values than the target but statistically nonsignificant differences in RBE values (P=.12). Central nervous system and brainstem injury incidence for PRT in this series is similar to that reported for photon radiation therapy. The risk of CNS injury was higher for whole posterior fossa boost than for involved field. Although no clear correlation with RBE values was found, numbers were small and additional investigation is warranted to better determine the relationship between injury and LET. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Time Trends in Incidence and Severity of Injury Among Collegiate Soccer Players in the United States: NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 1990-1996 and 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Avinash; Barron, Mary J; Westerman, Beverly J; DiPietro, Loretta

    2016-12-01

    A number of sociocultural and environmental changes have occurred over the past several decades that may affect the risk of injury among young athletes playing soccer. To identify trends in injury incidence and severity between 2 time periods (1990-1996 and 2004-2009) in both male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) soccer players in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. The rate ratio (RR), along with the 95% Wald CI, compared incidence density in 2004-2009 relative to that in 1990-1996. Overall sex-pooled injury rates were significantly lower in the 2004-2009 cohort compared with the 1990-1996 cohort (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.91), and this was true for almost every category of injury studied. We observed only 1 significant sex difference between the time periods with regard to noncontact injuries, as men experienced a significant increase in rate of noncontact injuries between 1990-1996 and 2004-2009 (RR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02-1.17), whereas women experienced a significant decrease (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.67-0.75). These surveillance data show decreasing trends in collegiate soccer injuries. Whether these decreases are attributable to greater resources being allocated toward athlete health, injury management, or the safety of the playing environment cannot be determined. Given the prominence of soccer play in the United States, public health efforts should promote the use of this surveillance system to better inform and evaluate injury prevention practices and policies directed toward player safety. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma-Injury

  18. Changing incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying; Lin, Li-Yih

    2015-12-01

    This study examined and compared the incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan, 30 years after a universal hepatitis B virus immunization program was launched. Data for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in 2003-2011 were collected from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated to analyze and compare the changes in incidence rates and trends. More specific analyses were performed on four age groups separated by sex. A total of 82,856 patients were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in 2003-2011 in Taiwan, yielding an age-standardized incidence rate of 32.97 per 100,000 person-years. Hepatocellular carcinoma was predominantly diagnosed in middle-aged adults (50.1%) and elderly people (49.1%), in contrast to the low incidences in children (0.04%) and adolescents and young adults (0.8%). Striking variations in trends were found for children (annual percent change: -16.6%, 2003-2010) and adolescents and young adults (annual percent change: -7.9%, 2003-2011). The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children decreased to zero in 2011; only a slight decline in trends occurred for the middle-aged group (annual percent change: -2%, 2003-2011), and a slight upward trend was observed for elderly people (1.3%), specifically in women (1.7%). In Taiwan, hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma was nearly eradicated in children in 2011. The findings on age-specific incidence patterns and trends of hepatocellular carcinoma suggest that different control strategies for treating this devastating disease in the future be made according to age. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Elhalel, Amir; Pikkel, Joseph; Krauss, Eli; Miller, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries in the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. Retrospective cohort study. All patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War (July-August, 2006). Retrieval of all data relevant to ocular and adnexal injuries sustained during the study period, and differentiation between those associated with combat/terrorist and other events. Analysis of data according to the severity of trauma , anatomical location of the injury, and whether the patients were military personnel or civilians. A total of 69 war-related ocular trauma patients (58 military personnel and 11 civilians) were registered during the 34 days of war. The injuries involved the anterior segment injury (n = 25), posterior segment (n = 29) and the periocular region (n = 15, all severe). Twenty-seven of the patients had open-globe injuries, of which 18 involved intraocular foreign bodies, and 27 patients had closed-globe injuries. The rate of ocular injuries was 7% among all registered wounded military personnel and 1.2% among all injured civilians. The incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries among military personnel during the Second Lebanon War were consistent with previous reports from American sources of ocular injuries sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. The rates of ocular injury associated with wartime events sustained by civilians has not been investigated before, and it was relatively low, probably as a result of stringent government-mandated building regulations for passive defense that are discussed.

  20. [Somewhere in tertiary hospital clinical laboratory in pursuance of personnel sharp injury incidence status investigation and relative factor analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, E; Li, W H; Wang, P; Jian, X D

    2016-07-20

    Objective: Investigation in tertiary hospital clinical laboratory in pursuance of the current state of the sharp injury incidence and influencing factors, analyze the causes and discuss the control strategy. Methods: Application of cross-sectional survey method, according to the unified investigation questionnaire investigation, with chi-square test and the multi-factor Logistic regression analysis methods to analyze research data. Results: The work environment exit contact with injection needles, glass and other sharps, contact with noise, contact with chemicals, contact the patient's blood and other biological specimens, high-risk groups, the patient and family to negative emotions, by patients and their families complain or abuse related influencing factors. In the organization and management factors, in order to work strength is insufficient for the most dissatisfied, protective equipment, medical staff personal cognitive factors of occupational exposure, failing to abide by the medical care standard operation and high incidence after exposure to failed to report. Somewhere in tertiary hospital clinical laboratory in pursuance of the incidence of sharps injuries associated with five factors: different jobs, working strength, protective equipment perfect or not, sharp instrument use and disposal of medical wastes. Conclusion: Tertiary hospital clinical laboratory in pursuance of the incidence of sharp injury related to many factors, Hospitals should formulate corresponding rules and regulations, improve the working environment, the standard safety operation, reduced the incidence of sharps injuries.

  1. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern and prognostic factor of ocular injuries in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Bekele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern, severity, and prognostic factors of ocular injuries in the southwest Ethiopia.METHODS:A prospective hospital based study was done on all patients presented with ocular injury to Jimma University Specialized Hospital from Apr. to Sep. 2009. Each patient underwent a detailed interview and a standard comprehensive ocular examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13 and PRESULTS:The overall prevalence of ocular injury was 3.03%. Nearly 99% of ocular injuries were mechanical. The majority of the ocular injuries(53.2%were work-related and none of these patients had eye protection at the time of injury. Out of 170 globe injuries, 57.6% were closed globe injury and 42.4% were open globe injuries. Closed globe injuries were less severe and had significantly better visual outcome than open globe injuries(PPCONCLUSION: Most ocular injuries occurred in the workplace,and a significantly larger proportion of patients with ocular injury developed monocular blindness. For the prevention of serious injuries, eye health education and safety strategies should be applied both at home and work place.

  3. Incidência e fatores de risco de lesões em jogadores de futsal portugueses Incidence and injury risk factors in Portuguese futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Serrano

    2013-04-01

    na quadra, particularmente em situações de contato com adversários.INTRODUCTION: The reduced number of studies published on the occurrence of injuries in futsal in Portugal motivated this study. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential causes for injuries in this sport, which can be a reference for the designing of specific protocols for injury prevention. METHODS: The sample was composed of 411 Portuguese male and female futsal players, of diverse competitive levels. All the participants filled out a previously validated questionnaire, based on retrospective information. Statistical inference consisted of inferential analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test for nonparametric data (significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results confirm the ankle sprain injury as the injury with the highest incidence (48.8% of total in futsal. The injuries with recovery period between 8 and 28 days were the most frequent (52.7% of total. This study did not show gender or the position of the player on the field to cause significant differences on the frequency of the injuries, or on the type or anatomical region of the injury. However, there were significant differences between training and competition, with greater occurrence of sprains and contractures in the case of training and higher incidence of muscle tears and fractures in competition, with a longer recovery period resulting from injuries suffered during competition. Moroever, significant differences were found for the mechanism of injury, with higher incidence of bone or joint injuries, sprains and fractures as a result of contact with opponents and higher incidence of muscle or ligament injuries without contact with opponents. The results did not show any significant differences in the laterality of injuries. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the importance of specific programmes for ankle sprain injury prevention, specially in early stages, regardless of their position on the field of play

  4. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  5. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keku, Emmanuel O.; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness. PMID:21113109

  6. High incidence of injury at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26.5 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 22.7% to 30.8%). There was a significantly higher IR recorded in alpine skiing/snowboarding (IR of 41.1 (95% CI 33.7% to 49.6%) p=0.0001) compared to cross-country skiing/biathlon, ice sledge hockey or wheelchair curling. Injuries in the shoulder region were the highest single-joint IR (IR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6% to 8.6%)), although total upper and lower body IR were similar (IR 8.5 vs 8.4 (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%)). Furthermore, the IR of acute injuries was significantly higher than other types of injury onset (IR of 17.8 (95% CI 14.7% to 21.4%)). In a Winter Paralympic Games setting, athletes report higher injury incidence than do Olympic athletes or athletes in a Summer Paralympic Games setting. The highest incidence of injury was reported in the alpine skiing/snowboarding sporting category. There was a similar incidence of injury in the upper and lower limbs. The joint with the greatest rate of injury reported was the shoulder joint. Our data can inform injury prevention programmes and policy considerations regarding athlete safety in future Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Incidence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in sub-elite male soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Effects are thus reported at relative injury time (RIT). RESULTS: Adductor-related groin injury was the most common entity found followed by iliopsoas-related and abdominal-related injuries. The dominant leg was significantly more often injured. Age and previous groin injury were significant risk factors...... entity approach, which utilises standardised reproducible examination techniques to identify the injured anatomical structures. The exposure time and the injury time were also recorded. Injury time was analysed using multiple regression on the log of the injury times as the data were highly skewed...... for sustaining a groin injury. Groin injuries were generally located on the same side as previously reported groin injuries. Adductor-related injuries with no abdominal pain had significantly longer injury times compared to injuries with no adductor and no abdominal pain (RIT 2.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.25, p=0...

  8. Abdominal trauma after terrorist bombing attacks exhibits a unique pattern of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I; Zamir, Gideon; Hadar, Tal; Gertsenshtein, Iryna; Mintz, Yoav; Pikarsky, Alon J; Amar, Dalit; Shussman, Noam; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Almogy, Gidon

    2008-08-01

    The recent growth in the volume of civilian blast trauma caused by terrorist bombings warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. To characterize the abdominal injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and to compare the pattern of injury with civilian, penetrating and blunt, abdominal trauma. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 181 patients with abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy, who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to mechanism of injury: terror-related blast injury (n = 21), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n = 73) and blunt trauma (n = 87). Median injury severity score in the blast group was significantly higher compared with GSW and blunt groups (34, 18, and 29, respectively, P or = 3) occurred in 85.7% of blast group, 28.8% of GSW group, and 59.7% of blunt group (P Terrorist attacks generate more severe injuries to more body regions than other types of trauma. Abdominal injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of wounds, mainly injury to hollow organs. Shrapnel is the leading cause of abdominal injury following terrorist bombings.

  9. Incidence Patterns and Occupational Risk Factors of Human Brucellosis in Greece, 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, T; Danis, K; Dounias, G

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. Greece has the highest reported incidence among EU countries. However, occupational risk factors have not been well described. To determine the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece. We used national-level surveillance and occupational denominator data to estimate the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece, with particular emphasis on occupation. Between November 2003 and December 2015 a total of 2159 human brucellosis cases was reported. The mean incidence rate was 1.62 per 100 000 population per year. A large majority of cases (77.1%) reported consumption of unpasteurized milk or contact with livestock animals. Most cases occured in farmers and livestock breeders (1079 [87.7%] of 1231 cases reporting their occupation), corresponding to an annual incidence of 7.1 per 100 000. However, there were other occupations with a similar or higher risk: butchers and abattoir workers (12.7 per 100 000), laboratory personnel (3.1 per 100 000), while the highest risk was for veterinarians (53.2 per 100 000). Brucellosis incidence in specific occupational groups was much higher than in the general population. These results underline the importance of collecting information on occupation, both during the diagnostic process and in the surveillance system. Besides efforts to control brucellosis in animals, organized prevention efforts are needed within an occupational health framework, especially for the most vulnerable workers.

  10. Incidence Patterns and Occupational Risk Factors of Human Brucellosis in Greece, 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Lytras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. Greece has the highest reported incidence among EU countries. However, occupational risk factors have not been well described. Objective: To determine the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece. Methods: We used national-level surveillance and occupational denominator data to estimate the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece, with particular emphasis on occupation. Results: Between November 2003 and December 2015 a total of 2159 human brucellosis cases was reported. The mean incidence rate was 1.62 per 100 000 population per year. A large majority of cases (77.1% reported consumption of unpasteurized milk or contact with livestock animals. Most cases occured in farmers and livestock breeders (1079 [87.7%] of 1231 cases reporting their occupation, corresponding to an annual incidence of 7.1 per 100 000. However, there were other occupations with a similar or higher risk: butchers and abattoir workers (12.7 per 100 000, laboratory personnel (3.1 per 100 000, while the highest risk was for veterinarians (53.2 per 100 000. Conclusion: Brucellosis incidence in specific occupational groups was much higher than in the general population. These results underline the importance of collecting information on occupation, both during the diagnostic process and in the surveillance system. Besides efforts to control brucellosis in animals, organized prevention efforts are needed within an occupational health framework, especially for the most vulnerable workers.

  11. Head injuries in professional male football (soccer) over 13 years: 29% lower incidence rates after a rule change (red card).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudouin, Florian; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Tröß, Tobias; Reinsberger, Claus; Meyer, Tim

    2017-06-23

    Absolute numbers of head injuries in football (soccer) are considerable because of its high popularity and the large number of players. In 2006 a rule was changed to reduce head injuries. Players were given a red card (sent off) for intentional elbow-head contact. To describe the head injury mechanism and examine the effect of the rule change. Based on continuously recorded data from the German football magazine "kicker", a database of all head injuries in the 1 st German Male Bundesliga was generated comprising seasons 2000/01-2012/13. Injury mechanisms were analysed from video recordings. Injury incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as well as incidence rate ratios (IRR) to assess differences before and after the rule change were calculated. 356 head injuries were recorded (IR 2.22, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.46 per 1000 match hours). Contact with another player caused most head injuries, more specifically because of head-head (34%) or elbow-head (17%) contacts. After the rule change, head injuries were reduced by 29% (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86, p=0.002). Lacerations/abrasions declined by 42% (95% CI 0.39 to 0.85), concussions by 29% (95% CI 0.46 to 1.09), contusions by 18% (95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and facial fractures by 16% (95% CI 0.55 to 1.28). This rule change appeared to reduce the risk of head injuries in men's professional football. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Care-Seeking Patterns and Direct Economic Burden of Injuries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Natalia Y; Alonge, Olakunle; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Baset, Kamran Ul; Hyder, Adnan A; Bishai, David

    2017-04-29

    This study provides a comprehensive review of the care-seeking patterns and direct economic burden of injuries from the victims' perspective in rural Bangladesh using a 2013 household survey covering 1.17 million people. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to derive rates and test the association between variables. An analytic model was used to estimate total injury out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and a multivariate probit regression model assessed the relationship between financial distress and injury type. Results show non-fatal injuries occur to 1 in 5 people in our sample per year. With average household size of 4.5 in Bangladesh--every household has an injury every year. Most non-fatally injured patients sought healthcare from drug sellers. Less than half of fatal injuries sought healthcare and half of those with care were hospitalized. Average OOP payments varied significantly (range: $8-$830) by injury type and outcome (fatal vs. non-fatal). Total injury OOP expenditure was $$355,795 and $5000 for non-fatal and fatal injuries, respectively, per 100,000 people. The majority of household heads with injuries reported financial distress. This study can inform injury prevention advocates on disparities in healthcare usage, OOP costs and financial distress. Reallocation of resources to the most at risk populations can accelerate reduction of preventable injuries and prevent injury related catastrophic payments and impoverishment.

  13. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polarization resolved conoscopic patterns in nematic cells: effects induced by the incident light ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buinyi, Igor O.; Soskin, Marat S.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-05-01

    Topological structure of the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns, calculated theoretically and measured experimentally for nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells, is described in terms of polarization singularities, saddle points and bifurcation lines. The parametric dynamics of the topological network, induced by the variation of the incident light ellipticity, is analyzed for the nematic cells with uniform and non-uniform director configuration. Different stages of similar dynamics are observed for homeotropically oriented NLC cell. Non-uniform director configuration within the cell results in broken central symmentry in the arrangement of the topological network. Main features of the experimentally obtained polarization resolved conoscopic patterns are the same to the theoretically predicted ones.

  15. Characteristic patterns of cancer incidence: Epidemiological data, biological theories, and multistage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Josh; Vallejo, Celeste; Betthauser, Leo; Keesling, James

    2017-03-01

    We investigate and classify several patterns in cancer incidence and relative risk data which persist across different countries and multiple published studies. We then explore biological hypotheses as well as many mathematical models in the literature that attempt to explain these patterns. A general modeling framework is presented which is general enough to model most of observed behaviors. It is our belief that this model has sufficient flexibility to be adapted to new information as it is discovered. As one application of this framework, we give a model for the effect of aging on the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Model for Relating Advertising Media Exposures to Purchase Incidence Behavior Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fred S. Zufryden

    1987-01-01

    A stochastic model is proposed to study the effect of advertising on consumer purchase dynamics by specifically relating the distribution of exposures, from a brand's media schedule, to brand purchase incidence behavior patterns over time. The approach is based on underlying individual consumer behavior assumptions that reflect the dynamics of exposures to advertising and brand purchase behavior, conditional on the level of advertising exposure received. Moreover, a population-based model is ...

  17. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed.

  18. Pattern of Fingertip injuries Amongst Patients Admitted at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    78.4% of injuries took place at home and all were unintentional or accidental. The fingers most commonly involved were the little finger (26.5 %), the middle finger (20.4%) and the thumb (16.3%). Majority were soft tissue injuries (74.5%) with a smaller number undergoing some degree of amputation (25.5%). Most patients ...

  19. Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.Objective:The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age...

  20. Pattern of femoral fractures and associated injuries in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-09

    Oct 9, 2014 ... femoral fractures and the associated injuries in our region while recommending possible means of averting these injuries. Materials and Methods: A .... are acquired will help in planning preventive measures for some of these ... was a direct impact to other areas of the musculoskeletal systems, but all the ...

  1. Pattern of perforating ocular injuries at Menelik II hospital, Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eye injury is the most common cause of monocular blindness worldwide including Ethiopia. It is common in young and active people, and has economic as well as health implication. Many eye injuries are related to particular occupation and culture. The purpose of this study is to assess various determinant ...

  2. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracerebral hemorrhage was the most common abnormal finding in this report. Regular use of CT in moderate to severe cases of head injury is advocated. Key words: Benin City, computerized tomography, head injury. Date of Acceptance: 15-Apr-2011. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: ...

  3. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Road traffic crashes generally affect young people and this is most evident in bodaboda crashes because .... ing concussions were classified as head injuries. Injuries involving the thorax including rib fractures ... ers and passengers bear the brunt of the impact (4). About one fourth of the injured had cranial ...

  4. Properties of incident reporting systems in relation to statistical trend and pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Arsenis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the properties deemed desirable for an incident reporting system in order to render it useful for extracting valid statistical trend and pattern information. The perspective under which a data collection system is seen in this paper is the following: data are essentially gathered on a set of variables describing an event or incident (the items featuring on a reporting format) in order to learn about (multiple) dependencies (called interactions) between these variables. Hence, the necessary features of the data source are highlighted and potential problem sources limiting the validity of the results to be obtained are identified. In this frame, important issues are the reporting completeness, related to the reporting criteria and reporting frequency, and of course the reporting contents and quality. The choice of the report items (the variables) and their categorization (code dictionary) may influence (bias) the insights gained from trend and pattern analyses, as may the presence or absence of a structure for correlating the reported issues within an incident. The issues addressed in this paper are brought in relation to some real world reporting systems on safety related events in Nuclear Power Plants, so that their possibilities and limitations with regard to statistical trend and pattern analysis become manifest

  5. The geography of prostate cancer incidence in Norway: Are the patterns real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Aase

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe etiology of prostate cancer is to a large extent unknown. There are striking international variations inincidence, which may indicate that factors that show geographical variations can provide further cluesabout etiology. A problem with using incidence data for comparisons in time and space is that the numberof cases reported may be affected by the intensity of diagnosing, since many of the cases are latent andasymptomatic. The purpose of this study is to adjust the observed pattern of prostate cancer in communesand counties of Norway for variations which may be due to diagnostic artefacts. It is assumed that a largeproportion of local cancers may be an indication of more intensive diagnosing. Data of prostate cancerincidence for 1982-91 with tumours specified by degree of spread were provided by the Cancer Registry. Aregression function relating total incidence to % local tumours was used to predict the SIRs adjusted forvariations in % local tumours. The maps comparing incidence patterns before and after adjustement showthat a large part of the significant deviations from the national mean persists, and that the pattern of negativedeviations in the far north is even strengthened. A significant positive correlation between the ratio ofincidence to mortality against % local tumours is found, which supports the main hypothesis of the study.

  6. Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000–2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, AJ; McCriskin, B.; Hsiao, M.; Burks, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) within the population of the United States military from 2000–2009. This investigation also sought to define potential risk factors for the development of SCI.

  7. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included perso...

  8. Associations of Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor-15 and ST2 Concentrations With Subclinical Vascular Brain Injury and Incident Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Preis, Sarah R; Beiser, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and soluble (s)ST2 are markers of cardiac and vascular stress. We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of these biomarkers and incident stroke and subclinical vascular brain injury in a sample from the F...

  9. Obesity and the Incidence of Bladder Injury and Urinary Retention Following Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure: Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Revicky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Aim of the study was to establish an effect of obesity on the incidence of bladder injury or urinary retention following tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study based at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in the UK. Study population included 342 cases of TVT procedures. Incidence of bladder injury was 4.7% (16/342. Rate of urinary retention was 9% (31/342. Body mass index (BMI, age, type of analgesia, concomitant prolapse repair, and previous surgery were factors studied. Univariate analysis was performed to establish a relationship between BMI and complications, followed by a multivariable regression analysis to adjust for age, concomitant surgery, type of analgesia, and previous surgery. Results. Neither univariate analysis nor multivariate regression analysis revealed any statistically significant influence of obesity on the incidence of bladder injury or urinary retention. Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for bladder injury and urinary retention by BMI groups were OR 1.7296 CI 0.4818–6.2097; OR 1.3745 CI 0.5718–3.3043 and adj. OR 2.885 CI 0.603–13.8; adj. OR 1.299 CI 0.502–3.365. Conclusion. Obesity does not appear to influence the rate of bladder injury or urinary retention following TVT procedure.

  10. Injury patterns and mortality rates of motorcycle-related head injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.

  11. The effect of playing surface on the incidence of ACL injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Harris, Alex H S

    2013-06-01

    Artificial playing surfaces are widely used for American football practice and competition and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common. This study analyzed the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football ACL injury database from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 to determine the effect of playing surface on ACL injury in NCAA football athletes. This database was reviewed from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons using the specific injury code, "Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complete tear." The injury rate was computed for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. Pair-wise, two-sample tests of equality of proportions with a continuity correction were used to estimate the associations of risk factors. There was an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 athlete-exposures (A-Es) (95% CI 1.47-2.0) on artificial playing surfaces compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 A-Es (1.05-1.45, pinjuries occurred more frequently on artificial turf surfaces (44.29%) than on natural grass (36.12%). NCAA football players experience a greater number of ACL injuries when playing on artificial surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries in a Nigerian Referral Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Udeabor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries seen in our environment. Methodology: This was a prospective analysis of trauma patients with midfacial injuries presenting at a referral center in South West Nigeria. In addition to socio-demographic data, the following information was also obtained: Mechanism of injuries, type of midfacial injuries, concomitant/associated injuries and treatment. Results: A total of 101 patients with midfacial injuries were involved. They were made up of 85 males and 16 females. The 20-29 year age group was mostly affected (44.6% and the most common cause of midface injuries was road traffic accident (91.1%. The zygoma was fractured more than any other midfacial bone (46.0%. A total of 144 associated injuries were recorded among these patients, head and ocular injuries accounted for 49 (34% and 35 (24.3% respectively. The patients were mostly treated conservatively or by closed reduction. Conclusion: The rate of head and ocular injuries among patients with midfacial injury was high. Knowledge of these associated injuries provides useful strategies for patient care and prevention of further complications. A multidisciplinary approach is important for optimum management of these patients.

  13. Pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face in Enugu, Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The face lends itself readily to attack, being the most accessible to an assailant. These injuries leave in their wake, formidable functional and aesthetic challenges to the victim and the surgeon. The pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face is hereby highlighted. Objective: The objective is to highlight the ...

  14. Age Related Pattern And Outcome Of Head Injury In Indigenous Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most studies of patients with head injury managed outside of indigenous Africa have shown poorer outcome with increasing age, but data on this subject is scanty in this part of the world. Aim: To determine age related pattern and outcome of head injury in an indigenous African setting. Methods: A retrospective ...

  15. Prevalence and injury patterns among electronic waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere May; van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Olumide, Adesola O; Osibanjo, Oladele; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    Despite the large volume of e-waste recycled informally, the prevalence of work-related injuries among e-waste workers is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with occupational injuries among e-waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria.

  16. Pattern of Fatal Injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A One-year Audit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injury continues to account for a large number of clients attending emergency department in Addis Ababa. Reliable information on causes of death is essential to the development of health policies for prevention and control. The aim of this atudy was to identify the pattern and common causes of fatal injuries.

  17. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA) in patients with cervical spine fractures. Method.

  18. Patterns of orodental injury and mouthguard use in Dutch field hockey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, S.; Drost, R.W.; van Wijk, A.J.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wolvius, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Orodental injuries in field hockey are a growing cause of concern that requires attention. Objective The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the patterns of orodental injury, and the use of mouthguards in Dutch national field hockey. Materials and methods In the

  19. Pattern of Assault-induced Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries in Ado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obimakinde, et al.: Oral and maxillofacial injuries due to assault in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. 90. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jul-Dec 2012 | Volume 18 | Issue 2. Table 2: Etiology and pattern of injury. Etiology. Soft tissue. Dentoalveolar#. Mandibular#. Tooth avulsion. Nasal#. Student unrest. 3. 1. 1. 1. 0. Domestic violence. 4. 3. 0.

  20. Effectiveness of a stress management pilot program aimed at reducing the incidence of sports injuries in young football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Safety Regulations on the Incidence of Upper-Extremity Power Saw Injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Harper, Carl M; Byers, Ashlyn; Gutman, Adva; Novack, Victor; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    Over 50,000 power saw-related injuries occur annually in the United States. Numerous safety measures have been implemented to protect the users of these tools. This study was designed to determine which interventions, if any, have had a positive impact on the safety of the consumer or laborer. We queried the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database for hand and upper-extremity injuries attributed to power saws from 1997 to 2014. Demographic information including age, sex, date of injury, device, location, body part involved, diagnosis, and disposition was recorded. We performed statistical analysis using interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the incidence of injury with respect to specific safety guidelines as well as temporal trends including patients' age. An 18% increase in power saw-related injuries was noted from 1997 (44,877) to 2005 (75,037). From 2006 to 2015 an annual decrease of 5.8% was observed. This was correlated with regulations for power saw use by the Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) and Underwriters Laboratories. Mean age of injured patients increased from 48.8 to 52.9 years whereas the proportion of subjects aged less than 50 years decreased from 52.8% to 41.9%. These trends were most pronounced after the 2006 CPSC regulations. The incidence of power saw injuries increased from 1997 to 2005, with a subsequent decrease from 2006 to 2015. The guidelines for safer operation and improvements in equipment, mandated by the CPSC and Underwriters Laboratories, appeared to have been successful in precipitating a decrease in the incidence of power saw injuries to the upper extremity, particularly in the younger population. The publication of safety regulations has been noted to have an association with a decreased incidence in power saw injuries. Based on this, clinicians should take an active role in their practice as well as in their professional societies to educate and counsel patients to prevent further injury. Copyright

  2. Marked geographic patterns in the incidence of idiopathic central precocious puberty: a nationwide study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Joëlle; Rigou, Annabel; Le Tertre, Alain; De Crouy-Channel, Perrine; Léger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    Precocious puberty seems to be increasing but epidemiological data are scarce. Our objective was to improve the epidemiologic knowledge on this disease. We analyzed the national incidence and spatial trends of idiopathic central precocious puberty in France in 2011-2013 in a cross-sectional descriptive study. We used an indicator based on treatment reimbursements recorded in the national insurance database, in girls under the age of nine years and in boys under the age of 10 years. We considered a time lag of up to one year from the onset of puberty to first drug delivery. We tested four different predictive spatial models at the département scale, selecting the model best fitting the data. We carried out semi-structured interviews with qualified hospital teams in five selected regions to investigate spatial differences in medical practices. The national annual incidence was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.55, 2.81) per 10 000 girls under the age of 9 years and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.27) per 10 000 boys under the age of 10 years. Incidence rates conformed to a purely spatial heterogeneity model in girls, consistent between age groups, with a large incidence range. A similar pattern was observed for boys, with peaks in the South West and Center East. Differences in medical practices may have slightly affected incidence locally, but could not entirely explain the marked geographic pattern. The results suggest that the risk factors are similar for boys and girls and justify further investigations of the role of the environment. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. The magnitude of the injury pattern in femicides by stabbing in Colombian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Vergel

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The age of the victims and the types of relationship they had with the offender are variables that should be considered to propose preventive policies on femicide since both are correlated to violent acts with greater injury patterns.

  4. The Effects of the GAA15 on Lower Extremity Injury Incidence and Neuromuscular Functional Outcomes in Collegiate Gaelic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingermann, Brenagh E; Lodge, Clare A; Gissane, Conor; Rankin, Paula M

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this Observational Analytical Cohort Study was to assess the effectiveness of an injury prevention programme (IPP) - GAA15 (Gaelic Athletic Association 15) - on the incidence of injury in collegiate Gaelic games. 131 Gaelic games players (mean age 20.5 years ± SD 3.0) were used for analysis in this study. Participants completed preseason and postseason testing which involved performance of the Y Balance test. The GAA15 was employed for the intervention group; coaches were instructed to implement the programme before every training session and match throughout the collegiate GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association) season. The control group adopted their normal warm up procedures for the season. Player's injuries were documented on a weekly basis by allied health care professionals working with the teams using an online database system. Results showed significant improvements in composite Y balance scores in favour of the intervention group (Adjusted mean difference Right: 1.8 % Normalised Mean Reach Distance (%NMRD) [p= 0.007] / Left: 2.3 %NMRD [p= 0.001]). Injury rates in the intervention group (2.62 injuries per 1000h) were reduced by 66% (p=0.001) in comparison to an age matched control group (7.62 per 1000h). Training injuries, hamstring injuries, non-contact injuries and severe injuries were also reduced as a result of the implementation of the GAA15 (Injury Rate Ratio (IRR): 0.20, 0.59, 0.39, and 0.45 respectively). Implementation of an IPP such as the GAA15 can reduce the risk of injury in Gaelic games and influence player's neuromuscular performance assessed through the Y Balance test.

  5. A prospective investigation of injury incidence and injury risk factors among Army recruits in military police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria; Cobbs, Jacketta; Thompson, Diane; Steelman, Ryan; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-17

    United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training.

  6. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  7. Multiple hypotheses testing of fish incidence patterns in an urbanized ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, C.J.; Higgins, C.L.; Shavlik, C.E.; Pope, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theories have focused traditionally on natural processes with little attempt to incorporate anthropogenic influences despite the fact that humans are such an integral part of virtually all ecosystems. A series of alternate models that incorporated anthropogenic factors and traditional ecological mechanisms of invasion to account for fish incidence patterns in urban lakes was tested. The models were based on fish biology, human intervention, and habitat characteristics. However, the only models to account for empirical patterns were those that included fish invasiveness, which incorporated species-specific information about overall tolerance and fecundity. This suggests that species-specific characteristics are more important in general distributional patterns than human-mediated dispersal. Better information of illegal stocking activities is needed to improve human-mediated models, and more insight into basic life history of ubiquitous species is needed to truly understand underlying mechanisms of biotic homogenization. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Factors influencing the injury pattern and injury severity after high speed motor vehicle accident--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Patrick; Hertz, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Motor vehicular accidents (MVA) are the leading cause of death among people under 40 years of age. Despite improvement in car safety and driver awareness of the use of safety devices, fatalities and severe injuries continue to occur. From 1997 to 2004, 13,678 patients after MVA were admitted to our institution. Out of this cohort, 584 (4.3%) patients suffered blunt major trauma defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) >or=16 and at least one life-threatening injury in one body region. Preclinical data were recorded in 458 patients matching the inclusion criteria. The circumstances of the trauma scene such as weather conditions were analysed as well as technical crash data such as direction of impact, security devices used and type and severity of automobile damage. In a retrospective trial, the influence of preclinical variables on the injury pattern and on injury severity was investigated. 314 (68.6%) patients were male and 144 (31.4%) female. Injury severity (p=0.015) and rate of multiple injuries (p=0.012) were higher in patients after side-impact crashes. If automobiles with SIPS were used, injury severity was significantly reduced in case of side-impact crashes (p=0.003). Patients after frontal impact crashes had a higher rate of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the overall cohort (p=0.014). Patients suffering blunt aortic (n=29) dissection were involved in frontal crashes with seat belt use (pIn case of high speed MVA in rural areas the trauma mechanism and the circumstances (i.e., impact direction, automobile deformation) should be considered to identify patients at high risk of severe blunt trauma and multiple injuries.

  9. The incidence and severity of injuries at the 2011 South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the event, and to injury epidemiologists attempting to provide guidelines to reduce this risk. Of all popular team sports, Rugby Union (henceforth referred to as. 'Rugby') presents an above-average overall risk of injury (69 injuries per 1 000 hours exposure) to the player – greater than that of cricket (2 injuries per 1 000 ...

  10. Pattern of pediatric eye injuries in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Mehdi; Rahmanikhah, Elham; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2013-06-01

    Childhood ocular trauma is a preventable cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. This prospective study was conducted to explore the profile of eye injuries in pediatric patients referring to a tertiary eye center in Tehran, Iran. Six hundred consecutive pediatric patients aged 17 or less who presented to emergency department of Farabi Hospital were enrolled. Age and sex of pediatric patients, time of trauma, time between trauma and presentation, place of injury, etiology of eye injury, visual acuity, and type of injury based on Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were collected. Mean (±SD) age of cases was 7.9 ± 4.8. Male to female ratio was 2.3:1. More than 70 % of the patients presented less than 12 h after ocular trauma. Most injuries occurred at home (57.7 %) followed by street (20.3 %). Twelve patients had visual acuity lower than 0.1 at initial visit. Projectile trauma was the most common cause (35.8 %) followed by blunt trauma (33.3 %). 86.3 % of traumatic events consisted in closed globe injuries. Parents should be involved more effectively in care and supervision of their children especially for boys, at home and on holidays.

  11. Prediction of injury by limited and asymmetrical fundamental movement patterns in american football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Kyle B; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Philip J

    2014-05-01

    Previous injury is the strongest risk factor for future injury in sports. It has been proposed that motor-control changes such as movement limitation and asymmetry associated with injury and pain may be perpetuated as part of an individual's movement strategy. Motor control of fundamental 1-×-body-weight tasks can reliably and efficiently be measured in the field. To determine whether the motor control of fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry have a relationship with time-loss injury over the course of the preseason in professional football. Injury-risk study. American professional football facilities. 238 American professional football players. To measure the motor control of 1-×-body-weight fundamental movement patterns, Functional Movement Screen scores were obtained before the start of training camp. The previously established cutoff score of ≤14 and the presence of any asymmetries on the FMS were examined using relative risk to determine if a relationship exists with time-loss injury. Time-loss musculoskeletal injury defined as any time loss from practice or competition due to musculoskeletal injury. Players who scored ≤14 exhibited a relative risk of 1.87 (CI95 1.202.96). Similarly, players with at least 1 asymmetry displayed a relative risk of 1.80 (CI95 1.112.74). The combination of scoring below the threshold and exhibiting a movement asymmetry was highly specific for injury, with a specificity of .87 (CI95 .84.90). The results of this study suggest that fundamental movement patterns and pattern asymmetry are identifiable risk factors for time-loss injury during the preseason in professional football players.

  12. Vertebral artery injury during foraminal decompression in "low-risk" cervical spine surgery: incidence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermüller, Thomas; Wostrack, Maria; Shiban, Ehab; Pape, Haiko; Harmening, Kathrin; Friedrich, Benjamin; Prothmann, Sascha; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Vertebral artery injury (VAI) during foraminal decompression in cervical spine surgery in the absence of repositioning or screw stabilization is rare. Without immediate recognition and treatment, it may have disastrous consequences. We aimed to describe the incidence and management of iatrogenic VAI in low-risk cervical spine surgery. The records of all patients who underwent surgical procedures of the cervical spine between January 2007 and May 2012 were retrospectively consecutively evaluated. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion or arthroplasty as well as dorsal foraminal decompression through the Frykholm approach in degenerative diseases were defined as low-risk surgeries (n = 992). VAI occurred in 0.3 % (n = 3) of 992 procedures: in one case during a dorsal foraminal decompression, and in two cases during the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) of two or four levels, respectively. In the first case, the VAI was intraoperatively misdiagnosed. Despite an initially uneventful course, the patient suffered hemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm of the injured VA 1 month after surgery. The aneurysm was successfully occluded by endovascular coiling. In both ACDF cases, angiography and endovascular stenting of the lacerated segment proceeded immediately after the surgery. All three patients suffered no permanent deterioration. In a high-volume surgical center, the incidence of VAI during low-risk cervical spine surgery is extremely low, comprising 0.3 % of all cases. The major risks are delayed sequels of the vessel wall laceration. In cases of VAI, immediate angiographic diagnostics and generous indications for endovascular treatment are obligatory.

  13. Incidence of acute kidney injury in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Doaa; Abd-Elrahman, Hadeel; Shehab, Mohamed M; Abd-Elrheem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a six-month period from September 2011 to March 2012. This prospective study was performed on 250 neonates admitted to the NICU at the Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. All neonates were subjected to detailed history taking, including pre-natal, natal and post-natal history, with stress on symptoms suggestive of AKI. All neonates were examined thoroughly and the following investigations were performed: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, arterial blood gases, urine sodium and urine creatinine. AKI was diagnosed in 27 cases (10.8%), including 12 females and 15 males. 40.7% of the AKI cases were born after full-term pregnancy while 59.3% were pre-term babies. 29.6% of the AKI cases had oliguria, and there was male sex predominance, with a male-female ratio of 1.3:1. The cause of AKI was pre-renal in 96.3% and intrinsic renal in 3.7% of the cases. The predisposing factors for AKI were sepsis in 63% of the cases, respiratory distress syndrome in 55.6%, mechanical ventilation in 51.9%, peri-natal asphyxia in 18.5%, dehydration in 14.8%, surgical operation in 11.1%, congenital heart disease in 7.4%, sub-galeal hematoma in 3.7%, polycythemia in 3.7% and intra-ventricular hemorrhage in 3.7% of the cases. Our data suggest that pre-renal failure was the most common form of AKI in our patients. Early recognition of risk factors such as sepsis, peri-natal asphyxia or peri-operative problems and rapid effective treatment of contributing conditions will reduce the incidence of AKI in the neonatal period.

  14. Food intake patterns associated with incident type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Weis, Kristina E; Schulz, Mandy; Tooze, Janet A

    2009-02-01

    Markers of hemostasis and inflammation such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify food intake patterns influencing this pathway and evaluate their association with incident diabetes. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort included 880 middle-aged adults initially free of diabetes. At the 5-year follow-up, 144 individuals had developed diabetes. Usual dietary intake was ascertained with a 114-item food frequency questionnaire. Using reduced rank regression, we identified a food pattern maximizing the explained variation in PAI-1 and fibrinogen. Subsequently, the food pattern-diabetes association was evaluated using logistic regression. High intake of the food groups red meat, low-fiber bread and cereal, dried beans, fried potatoes, tomato vegetables, eggs, cheese, and cottage cheese and low intake of wine characterized the pattern, which was positively associated with both biomarkers. With increasing pattern score, the odds of diabetes increased significantly (Ptrend < 0.01). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio comparing extreme quartiles was 4.3 (95% CI 1.7-10.8). Adjustment for insulin sensitivity and secretion and other metabolic factors had little impact (4.9, 1.8-13.7). Our findings provide support for potential behavioral prevention strategies, as we identified a food intake pattern that was strongly related to PAI-1 and fibrinogen and independently predicted type 2 diabetes.

  15. Pharmacovigilance in oncology: pattern of spontaneous notifications, incidence of adverse drug reactions and under-reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Berlofa Visacri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic window of antineoplastic agents makes pharmacovigilance studies essential in oncology. The objectives of the current study were to analyze the pattern of spontaneous notifications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in oncology patients and to analyze the incidence of ADRs reported by outpatients on antineoplastic treatment in a tertiary care teaching hospital. To compose the pattern of ADR, the notification forms of reactions in oncology patients in 2010 were reviewed, and the reactions were classified based on the drug involved, mechanism, causality, and severity. To evaluate the incidence of reactions, a questionnaire at the time of chemotherapy was included, and the severity was classified based on the Common Terminology Criteria. The profiles of the 10 responses reported to the Pharmacovigilance Sector were type B, severe, possible, and they were primarily related to platinum compounds and taxanes. When the incidence of reactions was analyzed, it was observed that nausea, alopecia, fatigue, diarrhea, and taste disturbance were the most frequently reported reactions by oncology patients, and the grade 3 and 4 reactions were not reported. Based on this analysis, it is proposed that health professionals should be trained regarding notifications and clinical pharmacists should increasingly be brought on board to reduce under-reporting of ADRs.

  16. Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Crash characteristics and injury patterns among commercial motorcycle users attending Kitale level IV district hospital, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisimwo, Peter Kiteywo; Mwaniki, Peter Kabanya; Bii, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Motorcycle users involved in crashes are likely to die or be severely injured due to high frequency of head, chest and leg injuries. We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study to determine crash characteristics and injury patterns among motorcycle users attending Kitale district hospital, Kenya. Methods Motorcycle trauma patients were recruited between 1st August 2013 and 31stOctober 2013. Data collection was done using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire. Frequencies mean (SD) and chi-square was employed in the analysis. Analysis was done using SPSS V.20. Results were considered significant at α = 0.05. Results Motorcycle trauma patients formed 39.4% of all road traffic injuries. Males constituted 69.8%, females 30.2% and mean age was 30(±13) years. Riders accounted for majority of injury patients (45%), passengers (38.8%) and pedestrians (15.9%). Mechanism of motorcycle crash was involving motorcycle versus vehicle (45.6%). Riders suffered severe injuries compared to passengers (χ2=129.936, p < 0.001). Head injury patients were assessed as having Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 70% 9-12, 26% GCS of 13-15 and 7% GCS of 3-8. Injuries sustained by victims included head and neck injury 40%, lower extremity injury 39.9% and chest injury 8.2%. Riders without helmets during the crash sustained head injuries (χ2=111.352, p < 0.001). Conclusion Head injuries and lower extremity injuries accounted for the major proportion of injuries sustained by motorcycle users. Non helmet use was associated with increased risk of head injuries. Morbidity can be mitigated by encouraging use of protective gear like helmets. PMID:25883724

  18. Getting to the point: injury patterns and medical care in competitive fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Modern competitive fencing, consisting of the three disciplines of foil, epee, and sabre, has experienced a rapid growth in participation across all age groups in the USA in the past decade. Unfortunately, because of media sensationalism and a lack of well-designed epidemiological studies, there are significant misconceptions regarding both the incidence and types of injuries presented in fencing. Recent research has indicated that the rate of time-loss injuries in competitive fencing is very low and the majority of these injuries are lower extremity sprains and strains, typical of ballistic, change-of-direction sports. However, most medical assistance in fencing is for minor (nontime-loss) soft tissue injuries (blisters, contusions, abrasions). Although extremely rare, significant fencing-specific injuries, such as lacerations and punctures, occur. Medical personnel dealing with fencing competitions need to be aware of the potential for catastrophic or fatal wounds.

  19. Injury Patterns After the Landslide Disaster in Oshima, Tokyo, Japan on October 16, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yasuhiro; Watari, Taiji; Baba, Tomonori; Suzuki, Misako; Shimizu, Tadanori; Fujii, Yuji; Takazawa, Yuji; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Landslides represent a frequent and threatening natural disaster. The aim of this study was to investigate the injury patterns observed after a landslide and to discuss how to minimize the damage caused by a landslide disaster. A landslide occurred on Oshima Island, Japan, on October 16, 2013. A total of 49 victims with landslide-related injuries were identified and analyzed. The patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years with an average age of 61.0±19.3 years. Of all patients, 69.4% were triaged as black. Of 15 patients who were treated in the nearest hospital (the only hospital on the island), 8 were triaged as red and yellow with severe chest or pelvic injury and a high Injury Severity Score (average score, 25.6; range, 4-45). Of these, 75% had chest injury and 75% had pelvic injury. The percentage of chest and/or pelvic injury was 100% in patients triaged as red or yellow. Traumatic asphyxia was diagnosed in 62.5% of these patients. Compression of the trunk was the main injury in patients triaged as red or yellow after this landslide disaster. Evacuation in advance, the rapid launch of emergency medical support, and knowledge of this specific injury pattern are essential to minimize the potential damage resulting from landslide disasters.

  20. Injury patterns in recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding at a mountainside clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, Tim; Napoli, Anthony M; Wilson, Matthew; Daniels, Jeff; Murray, Ryan; Milzman, Dave

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic and injury characteristics of skiing and snowboarding at a mountainside clinic. Prospectively collected data of all acutely injured patients at the Big Sky Medical Clinic at the base of Big Sky Ski Area in the Northern Rocky Mountains were reviewed. A total of 1593 patients filled out the study questionnaire during the 1995-2000 and 2009-2010 ski seasons. Injury patterns by sport, demographics, and skill level were analyzed and compared over time. The mean overall age was 32.9 ± 14.9 years, 35.4 ± 15.2 for skiers and 23.6 ± 9.5 for snowboarders (P skiing injuries, the shoulder 12%, and the thumb 8%. The wrist accounted for 18% of all snowboarding injuries, the shoulders 14%, and the ankle and knee each 13%. Beginner snowboarders were more likely to present with wrist injuries compared with intermediate (P = .04) and advanced snowboarders (P ski injuries are to the knee and shoulder, regardless of skill level. Beginning snowboarders most frequently injure their wrists whereas shoulder injuries remain frequent at all skill levels. Knowledge of these injury patterns may help manage patients who present for medical care in the prehospital setting as well as help in designing targeted educational tools for injury prevention. © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention Program Reduce the Incidence of ACL Injury in Male Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Bizzini, Mario; Arundale, Amelia; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program has been shown to decrease the risk of soccer injuries in men and women. The program has also been shown to decrease time loss resulting from injury. However, previous studies have not specifically investigated how the program might impact the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine if the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program can (1) reduce the overall number of ACL injuries in men who play competitive college soccer and whether any potential reduction in rate of ACL injuries differed based on (2) game versus practice setting; (3) player position; (4) level of play (Division I or II); or (5) field type. This study was a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial, which was conducted in 61 Division I and Division II National Collegiate Athletic Association men's soccer teams over the course of one competitive soccer season. The FIFA 11+ is a 15- to 20-minute on-the-field dynamic warm-up program used before training and games and was utilized as the intervention throughout the entire competitive season. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (675 players). Four intervention teams did not complete the study and did not submit their data, noting insufficient time to complete the program, reducing the number for per-protocol analysis to 61. Compliance to the FIFA 11+ program, athletic exposures, specific injuries, ACL injuries, and time loss resulting from injury were collected and recorded using a secure Internet-based system. At the end of the season, the data in the injury surveillance system were crosshatched with each individual institution's internal database. At that time, the certified athletic trainer signed off on the injury collection data to confirm their accuracy and completeness. A lower proportion of athletes in the intervention group experienced knee injuries (25% [34 of

  2. Effect of trail design and grooming on the incidence of injuries at alpine ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrøm, K A; Ekeland, A

    2004-06-01

    To identify the conditions at certain sites on slopes known as black spots for injury. In the Hafjell and Voss alpine ski areas in Norway, 1410 skiing injuries were recorded from December 1990 through the 1996 season. In Hafjell, 183 of these injuries were plotted on an area map during the two first seasons. Similarly, in Voss, 214 injuries were plotted on an area map for two seasons. During the last three seasons in Hafjell, 835 ski injuries were related to 6712 snow grooming hours and 6,829,084 lift journeys. The mean injury rate was 2.2 injuries per 1000 skier days, and the mean injury severity score (ISS) was 3.1. Accumulations of injuries at three sites (black spots) were recorded on the Hafjell area map. These injuries represented 40% of all injuries in the alpine area (palpine area map of Voss, representing 22% of the total injuries (p>0.05). Grooming of the slopes was rated poor for the 49% of injuries that occurred at the sites of injury concentration and significantly different (27%) from injuries that occurred at random in Hafjell. The corresponding values in Voss were 50% and 25% respectively. Grooming hours appeared to be inversely proportional to the number of injuries: R = -0.99 (p<0.02). The mean ISS declined significantly in Hafjell over the observation period (p<0.001). Inappropriate trail design and slope grooming seem to result in an accumulation of injuries at certain sites. Modification in construction and maintenance of the courses may reduce the number of injuries and mean ISS.

  3. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanism and patterns of cervical spine fractures-dislocations in vertebral artery injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the fracture patterns and mechanism of injury, based on subaxial cervical spine injury classification system (SLIC, on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT of cervical spine predictive of vertebral artery injury (VAI. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of 320 patients who were admitted with cervical spine injury in our level I regional trauma center over a period of two years (April 2010 to April 2012. Diagnosis of VAI was based on hyperintensity replacing the flow void on a T2-weighted axial image. NCCT images of the selected 43 patients with MRI diagnosis of VAI were then assessed for the pattern of injury. The cervical spinal injuries were classified into those involving the C1 and C2 and subaxial spine. For the latter, SLIC was used. Results: A total of 47 VAI were analyzed in 43 patients. Only one patient with VAI on MRI had no detectable abnormality on NCCT. C1 and C2 injuries were found in one and six patients respectively. In subaxial injuries, the most common mechanism of injury was distraction (37.5% with facet dislocation with or without fracture representing the most common pattern of injury (55%. C5 was the single most common affected vertebral level. Extension to foramen transversarium was present in 20 (42.5% cases. Conclusion: CT represents a robust screening tool for patients with VAI. VAI should be suspected in patients with facet dislocation with or without fractures, foramina transversarium fractures and C1-C3 fractures, especially type III odontoid fractures and distraction mechanism of injury.

  5. The impact of short periods of match congestion on injury risk and patterns in an elite football club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Chris; McCall, Alan; Le Gall, Franck; Dupont, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    The effect of fixture congestion on injury rates and patterns has received scarce attention in elite football and existing investigations have not accounted for player rotation or examined the temporal distribution and potential cause of injuries. To prospectively investigate the epidemiology of injury during short periods of fixture congestion in a professional football club. Over a six-season period, exposure time and injury data were compared in the same players (n=25 (14 individuals)) when participating in two frequently occurring short congested fixture cycles in comparison to match-play outside these cycles. (1) two successive matches separated by an interval totalling ≤3 days calculated immediately from the end of play in match 1 to the beginning of play in match 2; (2) three successive matches separated by ≤4-day intervals starting the day immediately after each match. In two-match congestion cycles, incidence rate ratios (IRR) showed that there was a higher risk of injury in the final 15 min of play in the second match in comparison to match-play outside the cycles (IRR: 3.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 9.3), p=0.0400). A greater risk of injury overall (IRR: 2.0 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.8), p=0.0345) and in the first-half of play (2.6 (1.1 to 6,5), p=0.0386), and risk of ankle sprains (10.4 (95% CI 1.9 to 57.9), p=0.0068) and non-contact injuries due to a 'change in direction' (IRR: 7.8 (1.3 to 46.8), p=0.0243) were observed in the final match of three-match congestion cycles in comparison to match-play outside the cycles. Injury rates and patterns were affected in the same elite football players when competing in short congested fixture cycles in comparison to match-play outside the cycles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Pattern of severe electrical injuries in a Nigerian regional burn centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The causes and incidence of the commonly observed phenomenon of leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in our hospitals have not been studied. This retrospective study was aimed at evaluating its incidence and pattern in order to suggest possible solutions. Methodology: The case files of patients who left ...

  7. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  8. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants : Classification and association with brain injury and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born <28 weeks gestational age (GA) who had a 2-channel EEG during the first 72 h after birth. Patterns detected by the BrainZ seizure

  9. patterns of injuries in children who fall from a height as seen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... Developing prevention mechanisms targeted at the population at risk, such as supervision during play, and childproofing homes can decrease the incidence of injuries from falls (2). Thus has been shown to be possible in developed countries, where falls from height are proportionately more important (20).

  10. Pattern of Midface Trauma with Associated Concomitant Injuries in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognizing concomitant injuries in patients with facial fracture is important for rapid assessment and further management of these patients. These results support the use of head computed tomography scan and cervical spine radiographs in most general trauma work‑ups, but specifically validates their use in patients with.

  11. Pattern of injuries among children presenting with trauma at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the types of injuries seen in children presenting to ER. A retrospective hospital-based study, analyzing the records of children with trauma who were seen at the emergency department at King Hussein Medical Centre Hospital in Amman the Capital City of Jordan, over one year from May 2004-March 2005.

  12. Pattern at Presentation of Extremity Gunshot Injuries in Warri, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    relevant data from patients at presentation from January l"t to December 31"t 2011. Data collected included age, sex, religion, circumstances surrounding the shooting, type of gun used, range of shooting, injuries sustained etc. Data were recorded, collated, analysed and presented in form of tables, percentages, charts and ...

  13. aetiology, pattern and management of oral and maxillofacial injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... injuries and public health measures targeting prevention should focus on these areas. INTRODUCTION. In sub-Saharan Africa, ... casualty transport systems and ill-equipped health facilities. The aetiology of Oral and ... chronic traffic jams on major roads in Uganda and for its ability to pass through difficult ...

  14. pattern and outcome of spinal injury at kenyatta national hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency response infrastructure and financial constraints to rapid referral. Early definitive care is expected to reduce secondary damage to the spinal cord. There was a bimodal peak of injuries with the cervical and lumbar spine being the most commonly injured segments. This is in keeping with the trend expected of a ...

  15. An Adolescent and Early Adulthood Dietary Pattern Associated with Inflammation and the Incidence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998 about their high school diet (HS-FFQ) and a FFQ in 1991 when they were ages 27-44 years. Among women who completed the HS-FFQ, 1,477 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during 22 years of follow-up. An adolescent and early adulthood dietary pattern characterized by inflammation was associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Women in the fifth quintile of the inflammatory pattern score had multivariable adjusted HRs for premenopausal breast cancer of 1.35 for adolescent diet [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.73; P trend = 0.002] and 1.41 for early adulthood diet (95% CI, 1.11-1.78; P trend = 0.006) compared with women in the first quintile. The corresponding RRs for postmenopausal breast cancer were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.60-1.17) for adolescent and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-1.06) for adult intake. Overall, our findings support the notion that an adolescent and early adulthood diet characterized by high intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, and margarine, and low intake of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee may increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1179-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marji; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

    2014-12-01

    The Western dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasms. Evolutionary discordance could explain this association. We investigated associations of scores for 2 proposed diet patterns, the "Paleolithic" and the Mediterranean, with incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of colorectal polyps conducted in Minnesota (1991-1994). Persons with no prior history of colorectal neoplasms completed comprehensive questionnaires prior to elective, outpatient endoscopy; of these individuals, 564 were identified as cases and 1,202 as endoscopy-negative controls. An additional group of community controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n = 535) was also recruited. Both diet scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios comparing persons in the highest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores relative to the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.02; Ptrend = 0.02) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.03; Ptrend = 0.05) when comparing cases with endoscopy-negative controls and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.26; Ptrend = 0.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.11; Ptrend = 0.13) when comparing cases with community controls. These findings suggest that greater adherence to the Paleolithic diet pattern and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern may be similarly associated with lower risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants: Classification and association with brain injury and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-12-01

    Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born position. No relation was found between the median total duration of each pattern and injury on cUS and MRI or cognition at 2 and 5 years. Clear ictal discharges are rare in extremely preterm infants. PEDs are common but their significance is unclear. Rhythmic waveforms related to head position are likely artefacts. Rhythmic EEG patterns may have a different significance in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Population-Based Study of Unintentional Injury Incidence and Impact during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Frederick P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Medically treated unintentional injuries of children and adolescents were studied for one year in the clinic and the emergency room of a health maintenance organization. The highest rates of injury resulted from falls, recreational activities, and competitive sports. Restricted activity was needed for 55.9 per cent of the injuries. (VM)

  19. Increased incidence of acute kidney injury with aprotinin use during cardiac surgery detected with urinary NGAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.; Wang, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of aprotinin has been associated with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel, very sensitive marker for renal injury. Urinary NGAL may be able to detect renal injury caused by aprotinin. This study determined if the ...

  20. Arcuate sign of posterolateral knee injuries: anatomic, radiographic, and MR imaging data related to patterns of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Josephine; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Papakonstantinou, Olympia [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Department of Radiology/MRI Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece); Brookenthal, Keith R. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The ''arcuate sign'' is considered a pathognomonic sign for injuries of the posterolateral (PL) corner of the knee. The purpose of our study was to identify different patterns of injury to the fibular head that may associate with injuries to specific ligaments and tendons of the PL corner of the knee. The anatomic relations between the insertions of fibular collateral ligament (FCL), biceps femoris tendon (BFT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and arcuate ligament in normal cadaveric knees were also investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in two cadaveric knees which subsequently were dissected. Radiopaque markers were placed upon the fibular insertions of the FCL, BFT, PFL, and arcuate ligament in the dissected knees, and knee radiographs were then obtained. Twelve patients with radiographic or MR imaging evidence of isolated injury to the PL corner of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, with regard to avulsion fractures and marrow edema in the fibular head and the integrity of the ligaments of the PL corner of the knee. The PFL and arcuate ligament were seen to attach directly to the posterior and medial aspect of the styloid process of the fibular head. The FCL and BFT attached as a conjoined structure on the lateral aspect of the fibular head lateral, anterior and inferior to the attachment site of the PFL and arcuate ligament. Injury to the arcuate ligament or PFL was diagnosed in 8 patients who presented with a small avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the fibula (n=2), bone marrow edema in the medial aspect of the fibular head (n=3), or both (n=3). In 4 patients with injury to the conjoined tendon or FCL, a larger avulsion fragment and more diffuse proximal fibular edema were seen. Radiographic and MR imaging findings in injuries of the posterolateral corner of the knee may suggest injury to specific structures inserting in the fibular head. (orig.)

  1. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  2. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  3. Incidence of acute kidney injury in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU over a six-month period from September 2011 to March 2012. This prospective study was performed on 250 neonates admitted to the NICU at the Children′s Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. All neonates were subjected to detailed history taking, including pre-natal, natal and post-natal history, with stress on symptoms suggestive of AKI. All neonates were examined thoroughly and the following investigations were performed: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, arterial blood gases, urine sodium and urine creatinine. AKI was diagnosed in 27 cases (10.8%, including 12 females and 15 males. 40.7% of the AKI cases were born after full-term pregnancy while 59.3% were pre-term babies. 29.6% of the AKI cases had oliguria, and there was male sex predominance, with a male-female ratio of 1.3:1. The cause of AKI was pre-renal in 96.3% and intrinsic renal in 3.7% of the cases. The predisposing factors for AKI were sepsis in 63% of the cases, respiratory distress syndrome in 55.6%, mechanical ventilation in 51.9%, peri-natal asphyxia in 18.5%, dehydration in 14.8%, surgical operation in 11.1%, congenital heart disease in 7.4%, sub-galeal hematoma in 3.7%, polycythemia in 3.7% and intra-ventricular hemorrhage in 3.7% of the cases. Our data suggest that pre-renal failure was the most common form of AKI in our patients. Early recognition of risk factors such as sepsis, peri-natal asphyxia or peri-operative problems and rapid effective treatment of contributing conditions will reduce the incidence of AKI in the neonatal period.

  4. In-depth Analysis of Pattern of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Workers of Railway Wagon Repair Workshop in Jhansi (U.P.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhanshu; Malhotra, Anil K; Verma, Santosh K; Yadav, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Occupational injuries constitute a global health challenge, yet they receive comparatively modest scientific attention. Pattern of occupational injuries and its safety precautions among wagon repair workers is an important health issue, especially in developing countries like India. To assess the pattern of occupational injuries and utilization of safety measures among railway wagon repair workshop workers in Jhansi (U.P.). Railway wagon repair workshop urban area, Jhansi (U.P). Occupation-based cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 309 workers of railway workshop in Jhansi (U.P.) who were all injured during the study period of 1 year from July 2015 to June 2016. Baseline characteristics, pattern of occupational injuries, safety measures, and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data obtained were collected and analyzed statistically by simple proportions and Chi-square test. The majority of studied workers aged between 38 and 47 years ( n = 93, 30.6%) followed by 28-37 years ( n = 79, 26%). Among the pattern of occupational injuries, laceration (28.7%) was most common followed by abrasion/scratch (21%). Safety shoes and hat were utilized 100% by all workers. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience ( n = 237, 78%). Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with pattern of occupational injuries in univariate analysis ( P safety measures is low among workers on railway wagon repair workshop, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services toward this group of workers. Younger age group workers show a significant association with open wounds and surface wounds. As the education level of workers increases, the incidence of injuries decreases. Apart from shoes, hat, and gloves, regular utilization of other personal protective equipment was not seen.

  5. Incidence and transmission patterns of tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Atsuko Cunha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of the Brazilian indigenous population lives in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, where a large number of new cases of tuberculosis (TB are reported. This study was conducted to assess TB occurrence, transmission and the utility of TB diagnosis based on the Ogawa-Kudoh (O-K culture method in this remote population. The incidence of TB was estimated by a retrospective review of the surveillance data maintained by the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for the study region. The TB transmission pattern among indigenous people was assessed by genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using the IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP technique. Of the 3,093 cases identified from 1999-2001, 610 (~20% were indigenous patients (average incidence: 377/100,000/year. The use of the O-K culture method increased the number of diagnosed cases by 34.1%. Of the genotyped isolates from 52 indigenous patients, 33 (63.5% belonged to cluster RFLP patterns, indicating recently transmitted TB. These results demonstrate high, on-going TB transmission rates among the indigenous people of MS and indicate that new efforts are needed to disrupt these current transmissions.

  6. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  7. The incidence and prevalence of ankle sprain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian; Hertel, Jay; Ryan, John; Bleakley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields. One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with

  8. Psychological traits regarding competitiveness are related to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Masahiro; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Moriyama, Shigenori; Oda, Takumi; Shima, Yosuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological competitive ability and the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries among high school female athletes. A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted using 300 15-year-old high school female athletes with no previous injuries or symptoms in their lower limbs (106 handball players and 194 basketball players). At baseline, their psychological competitive abilities were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire-the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). After the baseline examination was performed at high school entry, all players were prospectively followed for 36months to document any subsequent incidence of ACL injury, according to their coaches. An unpaired t-test with Welch's correction was performed to compare the differences in the psychological competitive abilities between the injured and uninjured players. Of the 300 players, 25 (8.3%) experienced a noncontact ACL injury during the three-year observation period. The injured players had significantly higher total DIPCA.3 scores for psychological competitive ability than the uninjured players (169.9±18.8 vs. 159.2±21.6, P=.036). Additionally, the injured players had significantly higher scores than the uninjured players in the following categories: aggressiveness, volition for self-realization, volition for winning, judgment, and cooperation. However, no significant differences were observed in patience, self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, and predictive ability. High psychological competitive ability was associated with the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries in high school female athletes. Level II (prospective cohort study). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors associated with unintentional house fire incidents, injuries and deaths in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samantha L; Johnson, Rhodri D; Weightman, Alison L; Rodgers, Sarah E; Arthur, Geri; Bailey, Rowena; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-04-01

    To identify the distinguishing risk factors associated with unintentional house fire incidents, injuries and deaths. Systematic review. A range of bibliographical databases and grey literature were searched from their earliest records to January 2016. To ensure the magnitude of risk could be quantified, only those study types which contained a control group, and undertook appropriate statistical analyses were included. A best evidence synthesis was conducted instead of a meta-analysis due to study heterogeneity. Eleven studies investigating a variety of risk factors and outcomes were identified. Studies ranged from medium to low quality with no high quality studies identified. Characteristics commonly associated with increased risk of house fire incidents, injuries and fatalities included: higher numbers of residents, male, children under the age of 5 years, non-working households, smoking, low income, non-privately owned properties, apartments and buildings in poor condition. Several risk factors were only associated with one outcome (eg, living alone was only associated with increased risk of injurious fires), and households with older residents were at increased risk of injurious fires, but significantly less likely to experience a house fire in the first place. This best evidence synthesis indicates that several resident and property characteristics are associated with risk of experiencing house fire incidents, injuries or death. These findings should be considered by the Fire and Rescue Services and others with a role in fire prevention. Future research should adopt robust, standardised study designs to permit meta-analyses and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Sports injury pattern in school going children in Union Territory of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorje, Chhewang; Gupta, Ravi K; Goyal, Sandeep; Jindal, Nipun; Kumar, Vivek; Masih, Gladson David

    2014-12-01

    To determine incidence of various types of sport injuries and other associated factors, among competitive sports playing school children of Chandigarh. This study is a survey based study, and spanned for a period of one year. School going students in age group 11-18 years of Chandigarh (Union Territory) India, who were in competitive sports, were included for this survey after taking informed consent from concerned school authorities. 33 schools consisting of 36.165 students were analysed in the study, 7230 students were found to participate in 40 different categories of sports. Total of 246 filled questionnaires were analyzed making it an injury frequency of 3.40% among 7230 participating young athletes in 12 months study duration. Estimated incidence rate, considering hours of exposure in practice, came out to be 48.07 injuries per 1000 h of exposure in practice among 246 injured cases. 40.2% of the injured children (99/246) attributed their injury to poor ground condition while other 30.5% (75/246) to faulty techniques. Rest attributed their injuries to poor fitness levels, improper use of equipment and other reasons. Of the 33 schools surveyed, 27.3% (9/33) had a doctor as health professional, 9.1% (2/33) had a physiotherapist while 66.6% of the schools (22/33) had no health care professional. The incidence of sports injuries in the region is high as compared to the global data. The findings has highlighted the need for a nationwide surveillance system and then taking appropriate measures for future injury prevention and appropriate management.

  11. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-06-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Injury recurrence is lower at the highest professional football level than at national and amateur levels: does sports medicine and sports physiotherapy deliver?

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. Aim To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Methods Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier divi...

  13. Incidence and MRI characterization of the spectrum of posterolateral corner injuries occurring in association with ACL rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frois Temponi, Eduardo [Hospital Madre Teresa, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Honorio de Carvalho, Lucio Jr. [Hospital Madre Teresa, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Saithna, Adnan [Southport and Ormskirk Hospitals, Southport (United Kingdom); University of Liverpool, Department of Clinical Engineering, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Thaunat, Mathieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Centre Orthopedic Santy, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Ramsay-Generale de Sante, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Lyon (France)

    2017-08-15

    To determine the incidence and MRI characteristics of the spectrum of posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries occurring in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. We carried out a level IV, retrospective case series study. All patients clinically diagnosed with an ACL rupture between July 2015 and June 2016 who underwent MRI of the knee were included in the study. In addition to standard MRI knee reporting, emphasis was placed on identifying injury to the PLC and a description of involvement of these structures by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Association with PLC involvement was sought with concomitant injuries using correlation analysis and logistic regression. One hundred sixty-two patients with MRI following ACL rupture were evaluated. Thirty-two patients (19.7%) had an injury to at least one structure of the PLC, including the inferior popliteomeniscal fascicle (n = 28), arcuate ligament (n = 20), popliteus tendon (n = 20), superior popliteomeniscal fascicle (n = 18), lateral collateral ligament (n = 8), popliteofibular ligament (n = 7), biceps tendon (n = 4), iliotibial band (n = 3), and fabellofibular ligament (n = 1). Seventy-five percent of all patients with combined ACL and PLC injuries had bone contusions involving the lateral compartment of the knee. The presence of these contusions strongly correlated with superior popliteomeniscal fascicle lesions (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between injuries to other structures of the PLC and other intra-articular lesions. Missed injuries of the PLC lead to considerable morbidity. The relevance of this study is to highlight that these injuries occur more frequently than previously described and that an appropriate index of suspicion, clinical examination, and MRI are all required to reduce the risk of missed diagnoses. The results of this study support previous suggestions that the rate of concomitant PLC injury in the ACL-deficient knee is under-reported. The rate of combined injuries in

  14. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  15. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: incidence and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salentijn, Erik G; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Boffano, Paolo; van den Bergh, Bart; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-09-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral and maxillofacial and neurosurgical intervention during the same hospital stay. Forty-seven patients from a population of 579 trauma patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery were identified. The main cause of injury was road traffic collision, followed by falls. Interpersonal violence correlated less well with traumatic brain injury. Most of the patients were males, aged 20-39 years. Frontal sinus fractures were the most common maxillofacial fractures (21.9%) associated with neurosurgical input, followed by mandibular fractures and zygomatic complex fractures. In the general maxillofacial trauma population, frontal sinus fractures were only found in 2.2% of the cases. At presentation to the Emergency Department the majority of the patients were diagnosed with severe traumatic brain injury and a Marshall CT class 2. Intracranial pressure monitoring was the most common neurosurgical intervention, followed by reconstruction of a bone defect and haematoma evacuation. Although it is a small population, our data suggest that maxillofacial trauma does have an association with traumatic brain injury that requires neurosurgical intervention (8.1%). In comparison with the overall maxillofacial trauma population, our results demonstrate that frontal sinus fractures are more commonly diagnosed in association with brain injury, most likely owing to the location of the impact of the trauma. In these cases the frontal sinus seems not specifically to act as a barrier to protect the brain. This report provides useful data concerning the joint management of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and neurosurgeons for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial trauma and brain injury patients in

  16. Trends in needlestick injury incidence following regulatory change in Ontario, Canada (2004-2012): an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrea; Mustard, Cameron A; Etches, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    A number of jurisdictions have used regulation to promote the adoption of safety-engineered needles as a primary solution to reduce the risk of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. Regulatory change has not been complemented by ongoing efforts to monitor needlestick injury trends which limits opportunities to evaluate the need for additional investment in this area. The objective of this study was to describe trends in the incidence of needlestick injuries in Ontario prior to and following the establishment of regulation to promote the adoption of safety-engineered needles. An observational study of needlestick injuries obtained from two independent administrative data sources (emergency department records for the treatment of work-related disorders and workers' compensation claims) for a population of occupationally-active adults over the period 2004-2012. Comparing the year prior to the regulation being established (2006) to three years after the regulation came into effect (2011), needlestick injury rates in the health and social services sector that were captured by workers' compensation claims declined by 31% and by 43% in the work-related emergency department records. Rates of workers' compensation claims associated with needlestick injuries declined by 31% in the hospital sector, by 67% in the long-term care sector and have increased by approximately 1% in nursing services over the period 2004-2012. Two independent administrative data sources documented an overall reduction in needlestick injuries in the province of Ontario following a regulatory requirement to adopt safety-engineered needles; however, a substantial burden of occupational needlestick injuries persists in this setting.

  17. Dietary indexes, food patterns and incidence of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Toledo, Estefanía; Rodriguez-Diez, Maria C; Gea, Alfredo; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the association between adherence to several a priori defined healthy food patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We assessed 6851 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates, initially free of any MetS-specific definition criteria, and followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. We calculated the adherence to thirteen different a priori defined food patterns or dietary indexes. MetS was classified according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI), using Poisson regression models. The cumulative incidence of MetS was 5.0%. Moderate adherence to the Pro-Vegetarian Diet (PVEG) was significantly associated with a lower risk for developing MetS (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97). Among women, an inverse association with the PVEG was significant not only for a moderate adherence (IRR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36-0.82), but also for higher adherence (IRR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.93). A higher adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet showed an inverse association with the MetS among participants, but only if they had low alcohol intake (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.85). Our findings support the adoption of a PVEG dietary pattern for the reduction of MetS risk. The same statement can be applied in relation to the DASH diet, insofar a limited consumption of alcoholic beverages is also maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence and risk patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders and categorization of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo, Katja; Pine, Daniel S; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnostic categorization of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). To examine the incidence, comorbidity, and risk patterns for anxiety and depressive disorders and to test whether developmental features of GAD more strongly support a view of this condition as a depressive as opposed to an anxiety disorder. Face-to-face, 10-year prospective longitudinal and family study with as many as 4 assessment waves. The DSM-IV Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered by clinically trained interviewers. Munich, Germany. A community sample of 3021 individuals aged 14 to 24 years at baseline and 21 to 34 years at last follow-up. Cumulative incidence of GAD, other anxiety disorders (specific phobias, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), and depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, and dysthymia). Longitudinal associations between GAD and depressive disorders are not stronger than those between GAD and anxiety disorders or between other anxiety and depressive disorders. Survival analyses reveal that the factors associated with GAD overlap more strongly with those specific to anxiety disorders than those specific to depressive disorders. In addition, GAD differs from anxiety and depressive disorders with regard to family climate and personality profiles. Anxiety and depressive disorders appear to differ with regard to risk constellations and temporal longitudinal patterns, and GAD is a heterogeneous disorder that is, overall, more closely related to other anxiety disorders than to depressive disorders. More work is needed to elucidate the potentially unique aspects of pathways and mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of GAD. Grouping GAD with depressive disorders, as suggested by cross-sectional features and diagnostic comorbidity patterns, minimizes the importance of longitudinal data on risk factors and symptom trajectories.

  19. Spatial patterns and secular trends in human leishmaniasis incidence in Morocco between 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Mina

    2016-05-11

    Few studies on spatial patterns or secular trends in human leishmanias have been conducted in Morocco. This study aimed to examine spatial patterns and trends associated with the human leishmaniasis incidence rate (HLIR) at the province/prefecture level between 2003 and 2013 in Morocco. Only the available published country data on the HLIR between 2003 and 2013, from the open access files of the Ministry of Health, were used. Secular trends were examined using Kendall's rank correlation. An exploratory spatial data analysis was also conducted to examine the spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association [LISA]), and spatial diffusion at the province/prefecture level. The influence of various covariates (poverty rate, vulnerability rate, population density, and urbanization) on the HLIR was tested via spatial regression (ordinary least squares regression). At the country level, no secular variation was observed. Poisson annual incidence rate estimates were 13 per 100 000 population (95 % CI = 12.9-13.1) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 0.4 per 100 000 population (95 % CI = 0.4-0.5) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The available data on HLIR were based on combined CL and VL cases, however, as the CL cases totally outnumbered the VL ones, HLIR may be considered as CL incidence rate. At the provincial level, a secular increase in the incidence rate was observed in Al Hoceima (P = 0.008), Taounate (P = 0.04), Larache (P = 0.002), Tétouan (P = 0.0003), Khenifra (P = 0.008), Meknes (P = 0.03), and El Kelaa (P = 0.0007), whereas a secular decrease was observed only in the Chichaoua province (P = 0.006). Even though increased or decreased rate was evident in these provinces, none of them showed clustering of leishmaniasis incidence. Significant spatial clusters of high leishmaniasis incidence were located in the northeastern part of Morocco, while spatial clusters of low leishmaniasis

  20. Inpatient migration patterns in persons with spinal cord injury: A registry study with hospital discharge data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ronca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared patient migration patterns of persons with spinal cord injury, the general population and persons with morbid obesity, rheumatic conditions and bowel disease, for secondary health conditions, across administrative boundaries in Switzerland. The effects of patient characteristics and health conditions on visiting hospitals outside the residential canton were examined using complete, nationwide, inpatient health records for the years 2010 and 2011. Patients with spinal cord injury were more likely to obtain treatment outside their residential canton as compared to all other conditions. Facilitators of patient migration in persons with spinal cord injury and the general hospital population were private or accidental health insurances covering costs. Barriers of patient migration in persons with spinal cord injury were old age, severe multimorbidity, financial coverage by basic health insurance, and minority language region. Keywords: Spinal cord injury, Patient migration, Health services accessibility, Health care utilization, Inpatient hospital care

  1. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, D.; Thomee, E.; Grant, D.; Teh, J.L.; Mansour, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yoong, P. [Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading (United Kingdom); Yanny, S. [Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2 % (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20 %). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25 %) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75 %) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner. (orig.)

  2. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, D; Yoong, P; Yanny, S; Thomee, E; Grant, D; Teh, J L; Mansour, R

    2015-10-01

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2% (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20%). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25%) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75%) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner.

  3. INJURY PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENT ELITE ENDURANCE ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN RUNNING, ORIENTEERING, AND CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floström, Frida; Frohm, Anna; Heijne, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Background Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods One hundred fifty adolescent elite athletes (age range 16-19), participating in orienteering (25 females, 20 males), running (13 females, 18 males), cross-country skiing (38 females, 36 males), from 12 National Sports High Schools in Sweden, were prospectively followed over one calendar year using a reliable and validated web-based questionnaire. Results The main finding was that the average weekly injury prevalence was higher during the pre-season compared to the competitive season in all three sports. RU reported the significantly (pinjury prevalence (32.4%) and substantial injury prevalence (17.0%), compared to OR (26.0, 8.2%) and CR (21.1%, 8.9%). Most injuries occurred in the lower extremity (RU 94.4%; OR 91.9%; CR 49.9%) and foot and knee injuries had the highest severity grade in all three sports. History of serious injury (p=0.002, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.7) and current injury at study start (p=0.004, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-11.2) were identified as the strongest risk factors for substantial injury. Younger athletes aged 16 (p=0.019, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) and 17 (p=0.045, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.9), had a significantly higher injury risk for substantial injury compared to older athletes aged 18-19. Conclusion Practitioners should be aware of the increased injury risk during pre-season and in younger athletes. By focus on prevention of foot and knee injuries, the injuries with the highest severity grade will be targeted in adolescent elite athletes participating in running, orienteering and

  4. Gymnastics injury incidence during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games: analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data from 963 registered gymnasts during Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Steffen, Kathrin; Junge, Astrid; Leglise, Michel; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games. During the three Olympic Games, 81 injuries were reported in a total of 963 registered gymnasts, corresponding to an incidence of 84 injuries (95% CI 67 to 102) per 1000 registered gymnasts, with no difference in injury incidence between female and male gymnasts. Thirty-eight per cent of injuries led to time-loss from sport. The most frequent injury location and injury type were the ankle (22%) and sprain (35%), respectively. The most common diagnosis was ankle sprain (14% of all injuries and 23% of time-loss injuries). The injury incidence was highest in female (107±35) and male artistic gymnastics (83±32), followed by female rhythmic gymnastics (73±30), and lower in male (63±69) and female (43±43) trampoline gymnastics. Research should focus on preventing injuries in artistic gymnastics and of the condition of ankle sprain. Injury surveillance studies should be continued during major championships and throughout the entire competitive season as the Olympic Games provides only a snapshot (although an important one). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on

  6. Incidence of the endothelin receptor B mutation that causes lethal white foal syndrome in white-patterned horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, E M; Vrotsos, P D; Purdy, A K; Mickelson, J R

    2001-01-01

    To determine incidence of the Ile118Lys endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) mutation responsible for overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS) and its association with specific types of white patterning. 945 horses of white-patterned bloodlines and 55 solid-colored horses of other breeds. Horses were genotyped by use of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to determine incidence of the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation. Genotypes detected were homozygous Ile118, homozygous Lys118, and heterozygous. All foals with OLWS were homozygous for the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation, and adults that were homozygous were not found. White patterning was strongly associated with EDNRB genotype. Color patterns with highest incidence (> 94%) of heterozygotes were frame overo, highly white calico overo, and frame blend overo. White-patterned bloodlines with lowest incidence of heterozygotes (white calico overo, splashed white overo, nonframe blend overo, and breeding-stock solid. The mutation was not detected in solid-colored horses from breeds without white patterning. In homozygotes, the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation causes OLWS. In heterozygotes, the mutation is usually responsible for a frame overo phenotype. The frame pattern can be combined with other white patterns, making accurate estimation of EDNRB genotype by visual inspection difficult. Wide range of incidence of heterozygotes in various subtypes of white-patterned horses indicates different genetic control of these color patterns. Determination of EDNRB genotype by use of a DNA-based test is the only way to determine with certainty whether white-patterned horses can produce a foal affected with OLWS.

  7. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayemi, Akinbami Babatunde; Adeniyi, Akadiri Oladimeji; Samuel, Udeabor; Emeka, Obiechina Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5%) were males and 41 (32.5) were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9%) and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%). Assault contributed 16 (17.6%) while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%). A total of 19 (15.1%) patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7%) patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4%) patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6%) patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8%) cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3%) cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7%) cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0%) received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0%) received delayed closure under general anesthesia. PMID:24339654

  8. Patterns of orodental injury and mouthguard use in Dutch field hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Strahinja; Drost, Rosalin W; van Wijk, Arjen J; Wesselink, Paul R; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2016-06-01

    Orodental injuries in field hockey are a growing cause of concern that requires attention. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the patterns of orodental injury, and the use of mouthguards in Dutch national field hockey. In the period from 1 May to 31 July 2014, a 33-item questionnaire about orodental injury and mouthguard use was sent to 7 field hockey clubs in the Netherlands. Data were analysed using 2 multivariable logistic (non-)linear regression per outcome measurement: (1) orodental injury and (2) type of mouthguard. Out of 6585 players, 1299 (20%) responded sufficiently and were eligible for the study. In total, 214 hockey players (16%) experienced at least 1 orodental injury in their career. The injuries were less severe in athletes who wore a mouthguard during an accident than in those who did not, OR=2.1 to 3.3, p≤0.05. Players without mouthguard sustained broken and knocked out teeth more frequently, while players with a mouthguard had more lip cuts (p≤0.05). Players complained less about custom-made than about mouth-moulded mouthguards (p≤0.05). Also, males were more at risk for an orodental injury, OR=1.4 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9), and were less likely to have a custom-made mouthguard, OR=0.7 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.9), than females. A substantial number of field hockey players suffers from orodental injury. Mouthguards should be included in prevention strategies as they are associated with less severe injuries and patterns of injury are to be taken into account when targeting specific groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Babatunde Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5% were males and 41 (32.5 were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9% and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%. Assault contributed 16 (17.6% while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%. A total of 19 (15.1% patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7% patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4% patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6% patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8% cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3% cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7% cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0% received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0% received delayed closure under general anesthesia.

  10. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Romaguera, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in

  11. Traumatic injury pattern analysis in a light rail transit death: a retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendell, Ashley E; Fleischman, Julie M; Fulginiti, Laura C

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of medical examiner's offices, forensic anthropologists are increasingly being asked to assist with the interpretation of traumatic skeletal injury. This case study presents an example of trauma analysis performed by forensic anthropologists at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. The primary goal of this study is to document an uncommon pattern of traumatic injury-severe grinding abrasions of the lower appendage that macroscopically resemble sharp force trauma, especially as observed in dismemberment cases-resulting from an individual being dragged beneath a Light Rail train for c. 1.7 miles. The abraded skeletal elements include a femoral shaft fragment, a femoral head portion, and the right foot. Second, this study aims to illustrate the efficacy of forensic anthropological analysis of patterned skeletal trauma. Finally, this study demonstrates the critical importance of analyzing scene information before drawing conclusions as to the etiology of a traumatic injury pattern. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Incidência de lesão musculoesquelética em jogadores de futebol Incidence of musculoskeletal injury in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sávio Macedo de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Sendo o futebol um esporte de grande popularidade em todo o mundo e principalmente no Brasil, vários estudos procuram formar um perfil das lesões e dos jogadores mais propensos a elas; porém, este tipo de estudo é raro na região norte do País. OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas nos jogadores de futebol profissional do Clube do Remo, Belém, PA. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 27 jogadores de futebol profissional do Clube do Remo, durante o Campeonato Paraense de futebol de 2010. Os dados foram coletados através da verificação dos prontuários e aplicação de um questionário semicodificado para os atletas; posteriormente foi realizada a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Ao analisar a amostra, verificou-se que a maioria das lesões foi de contraturas e contusões, os locais corpóreos mais acometidos foram a coxa e o joelho e a posição em campo mais lesionada foi a de meio de campo. CONCLUSÃO: Ocorreram várias lesões musculares; por isso, é necessário um acompanhamento da equipe multiprofissional, já que este tipo de lesão não ocorre devido a trauma e sim pelos movimentos que os jogadores são impostos durante os jogos e treinos.INTRODUCTION: Due to soccer worldwide popularity, especially in Brazil, several studies try to outline a profile of injuries and players more prone to it; however, this kind of study is rare in the northern region of our country. OBJETIVE: To analyze the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries on professional soccer players of Remo Club. METHODS: We analyzed 27 professional soccer players of Remo Club were analyzed during the Soccer Championship from Pará State, 2010. Data were collected through verification of records and application of a semi-coded questionnaire to the athletes; subsequently, statistical analysis was conducted. RESULTS: By analyzing the sample, it was found that most of the injuries were contractures and contusions (bruises, the body parts most

  13. Static and dynamic balance ability, lumbo-pelvic movement control and injury incidence in cricket pace bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, B; Stewart, A V; Olorunju, S A S; McKinon, W

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the difference in lumbo-pelvic movement control, static and dynamic balance at the start and at the end of a cricket season in pace bowlers who sustained an injury during the season and those who did not. This is a longitudinal, observational study. Thirty-two, healthy, injury free, male premier league fast, fast-medium and medium pace bowlers between the ages of 18 and 26 years (mean age 21.8 years, standard deviation 1.8 years) participated in the study. The main outcome measures were injury incidence, lumbo-pelvic movement control, static and dynamic balance ability. Fifty-three percent of the bowlers (n=17) sustained injuries during the reviewed cricket season. Lumbo-pelvic movement control tests could not discriminate between bowlers who sustained an injury during the cricket season and bowlers who did not. However, performance in the single leg balance test (p=0.03; confidence interval 4.74-29.24) and the star excursion balance test (p=0.02; confidence interval 1.28-11.93) as measured at the start of the season was better in bowlers who did not sustain an injury during the season. The improvement in the lumbo-pelvic movement control and balance tests suggests that the intensity and type of physical conditioning that happens throughout the season may have been responsible for this improvement. Poor performance in the single leg balance test and the star excursion balance test at the start of the cricket season may be an indication that a bowler is at heightened risk of injury. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International Patterns and Trends in Endometrial Cancer Incidence, 1978-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-10-16

    Cancers of the corpus uteri-primarily of the endometrium-rank as the sixth most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Analyses of the global patterns and trends of uterine cancer rates are needed in view of the ongoing obesity epidemic, a major risk factor for the disease. Data on endometrial cancer (ICD-10 C54) incidence from population-based cancer registries in 43 populations, published in CI5plus or by registries, were extracted for 1978 to 2013. Age-standardized incidence rates were computed for all ages and for pre- (25-49 years) and postmenopausal ages (50 years and older). Temporal trends were assessed with Joinpoint analysis, and the effects of birth cohort and year of diagnosis on the overall trends were examined using age-period-cohort modeling. In 2006 to 2007, rates varied 10-fold across countries. The highest rates were in North America, Eastern and Northern Europe (19 cases per 100 000 among whites in the United States, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 18 to 20, and in Slovakia, 95% CI = 18 to 21), and the lowest rates were in middle-income countries (South Africa 1, 95% CI = 0 to 3, and India 3, 95% CI = 3 to 4). Rates during the most recent 10 data years increased in 26 of the 43 populations considered in this study, with South Africa and several countries in Asia showing the largest increase. The risk of endometrial cancer increased both in consecutive generations and over time in 11 of 23 populations, with the increases more pronounced in Japan, the Philippines, Belarus, Singapore, Costa Rica, and New Zealand. Endometrial cancer incidence rates increased over time and in successive generations in several countries, especially in those countries with rapid socioeconomic transitions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with cervical spine fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzanah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is not uncommon for vertebral artery injury to occur when there are fractures through the transverse foraminae of the first to the sixth vertebral bodies. Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA in patients with cervical spine fractures.Method: A retrospective review of patients who had undergone CTA of the vertebral arteries was undertaken. Reports were reviewed to determine which patients met the inclusion criteria of having had both cervical spine fractures and CTA of the vertebral arteries. Images of patients who met the inclusion criteria were analysed by a radiologist.Results: The prevalence of vertebral artery injury was 33%. Four out of the 11 patients who had vertebral artery injury, had post-traumatic spasm of the artery, with associated thrombosis or occlusion of the vessel. In terms of blunt carotid vertebral injury (BCVI grading, most of the patients sustained grade IV injuries. Four patients who had vertebral artery injury had fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae, i.e. C1 to C3. Fifteen transverse process fractures were associated with vertebral artery injury. No vertebral artery injury was detected in patients who had facet joint subluxations.Conclusion: Patients with transverse process fractures of the cervical spine and upper cervical vertebral body fractures should undergo CTA to exclude vertebral artery injury.

  16. Incidence, pathogens and resistance patterns of nosocomial infections at a rural hospital in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Micha; Kösters, Katrin; Mürbeth, Raymund Egid; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand; Alabi, Abraham

    2014-03-04

    Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Africa, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints, deficient surveillance data and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. We carried out this study to determine the incidence and spectrum of nosocomial infections, pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns in a tertiary regional hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon. This prospective case study was carried out over a period of six months at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambaréné, Gabon. All patients admitted to the departments of surgery, gynecology/obstetrics and internal medicine were screened daily for signs and symptoms of hospital-acquired infections. A total of 2925 patients were screened out of which 46 nosocomial infections (1.6%) were diagnosed. These comprised 20 (44%) surgical-site infections, 12 (26%) urinary-tract infections, 9 (20%) bacteraemias and 5 (11%) other infections. High rates of nosocomial infections were found after hysterectomies (12%) and Caesarean sections (6%). Most frequent pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Eight (40%) of 20 identified E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains were ESBL-producing organisms. The cumulative incidence of nosocomial infections in this study was low; however, the high rates of surgical site infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  17. Incidence, Results, and Our Current Intraoperative Technique to Control Major Vascular Injuries During Minimally Invasive Robotic Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerfolio, Robert J; Bess, Kyle M; Wei, Benjamin; Minnich, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Our objective is to report our incidence, results, and technique for the control of major vascular injuries during minimally invasive robotic thoracic surgery. This is a consecutive series of patients who underwent a planned robotic thoracic operation by one surgeon. Between February 2009 and September 2015, 1,304 consecutive patients underwent a robotic operation (lobectomy, n = 502; segmentectomy, n = 130; mediastinal resection, n = 115; Ivor Lewis, n = 103; thymectomy, n = 97; and others, n = 357) by one surgeon. Conversion to thoracotomy occurred in 61 patients (4.7%) and in 14 patients (1.1%) for bleeding (pulmonary artery, n = 13). The incidence of major vascular injury during anatomic pulmonary resection was 2.4% (15 of 632). Of these, 13 patients required thoracotomy performed in a nonurgent manner while the injury was displayed on a monitor, 2 had the vessel repaired minimally invasively, 2 required blood transfusion (0.15%), and 1 patient had 30-day mortality (0.16%). Techniques used to minimize morbidity include having a sponge available during vessel dissection and stapling, applying immediate pressure, delaying the opening until the bleeding is controlled without external pressure, and ensuring there is no bleeding while the chest is opened. Major vascular injuries can be safely managed during minimally invasive robotic surgery. Our evolving technique features initial packing of the bleeding for several minutes, maintaining calmness to provide time to prepare for thoracotomy, and reexamination of the injured vessel. If repair is not possible minimally invasively, the vessel is repacked and a nonhurried, elective thoracotomy is performed while the injury is displayed on a monitor to ensure active bleeding is not occurring. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Speaking through the Body: The Incidence of Self-Injury, Piercing, and Tattooing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenman, Marta; Jensen, Mary Ann Conover

    2007-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors were compared with tattooing and piercing in a college population. Findings indicate a high prevalence of self-injury. Students who self-injured were motivated by a desire to alleviate emotional pain; students who tattooed and pierced by self-expression. Students who self-injured scored higher than students who tattooed…

  19. Effect of a prevention programme on the incidence of rugby injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental group received exercises to improve biomechanical and postural deficits identified, as well as drills ... Rugby injuries were screened and injury data collected through the use of weekly sports- medicine clinics ... Furthermore, although a randomised study of individual players and their training practices often provides.

  20. The nature and incidence of injuries in a Currie Cup rugby team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the type and occurrence of injuries in a South African Currie Cup rugby team over 3 consecutive seasons (2001 - 2003), during which time strategies to reduce injuries were introduced by the management team consisting of the coaching and medical support staff. Design. A retrospective, descriptive ...

  1. Hydrocephalus following severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Incidence, timing, and clinical predictors during rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Linnemann, Mia; Tibæk, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    To investigate timing and clinical predictors that might predict hydrocephalus emerging during rehabilitation until 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To investigate timing and clinical predictors that might predict hydrocephalus emerging during rehabilitation until 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  2. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement

    2016-01-01

    incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies...... published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010......, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. FINDINGS: We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence...

  3. Focussing on the future: survey results on the image capture of patterned cutaneous injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Baylis, Sonya; Carabott, Romina; Jones, Michael; Lawson, Zoe; Marsh, Nick; Payne-James, Jason; Ramadani, Jona; Vanezis, Peter; Kemp, Alison

    2014-05-01

    An investigator who is involved in assessing the likelihood of physical abuse must make a decision as to whether the injury seen matches the explanation given. In some instances the pattern of these injuries can give the investigator a possible link to the cause of the injury. Photographic imaging is used to record the patterned cutaneous injuries (PCI) and to facilitate forensic interpretation. The current method of capturing PCI often results in some form of distortion that causes a change to the shape of the patterned injury. The Dermatological Patterned Injury Capture and Analysis (DePICA) research group was formed to assess current image capture methods and practices. An online survey was set up to assess the value of localised imaging protocols and training specific to imaging PCI and was made available to law enforcement professionals, forensic investigators and hospital staff. 80 participants responded to the survey. The majority of the survey participants have had training in medical or forensic photography, however 66 (83%) have not had specific training in how to photograph PCI. 41 (51%) of the participants responded that they always use a rigid scale and 34 (43%) position the camera so that it is perpendicular to the scale and injury. Comments made about the quality of images obtained and produced raises concerns about how much knowledge those initiating such images have about image relevance in criminal cases. It is evident that a clear and comprehensive guide to photographing PCIs is required to improve the quality of the photographic evidence that is collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of injury based on sports participation in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nair, Rueben; Monroe, Emily; Terry, Michael A; Edwards, Sara L

    2016-09-01

    Youth participation in competitive athletics has significantly increased in the past two decades. There has also been a recent rise in the number of sports injuries that physicians are seeing in young athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the likelihood of sports injuries based on several risk factors in a general sample of athletes at a suburban-area high school. This was a cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to 2,200 student-athletes at a local high school with a mean age of 15.9 years. Four hundred eighty four (22%) complete responses were received. Data collected in the survey included demographics, frequency of sports participation, level of participation, types of sports played, participation in cross-training, injuries incurred, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and treatment for sports injuries. Athletes played an average of 1.6 different sports. The average number of hours of participation in sports annually was 504.3 ± 371.6 hours. The average total number of sports injuries experienced by athletes in our study was 1.7 per participant. 80.8% of respondents reported having sustained at least one sports injury. A higher total number of hours per year of sports participation and playing a contact sport were significantly associated with more reported lifetime sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and playing on a travel/club team were associated with students using NSAIDs for sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and doing cross training are also associated with having had surgery for a sports injury. Although more hours of participation and playing a contact sport may lead to an increased number of injuries, this risk must be weighed against the myriad of benefits that sports provide for young athletes.

  5. Exposure to Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work and the Incidence of Occupational Injuries: A Cohort Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Mireia; Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association between the exposure to psychosocial risk factors at work and the incidence of occupational injuries (OIs). A prospective dynamic cohort study (n = 16,693) of 1-year follow-up. Psychosocial risk factors at work were assessed with the Spanish version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Incidence rates of OI per 1000 workers-year were calculated and associations between psychosocial risk factors and OI were estimated by Poisson regression models. Unfavorable levels of esteem in men [rate ratio (RR) = 1.28], and unfavorable levels of social support and quality of leadership (RR = 1.87), psychological demands (RR = 2.20), and active work and possibilities for development (RR = 1.83) among women, were associated with OI incidence. Poor quality of psychosocial work environment increases the incidence of OI. Psychosocial intervention programs could be helpful in order to reduce OI incidence rates and their associated costs.

  6. The incidence and burden of hospital-treated sports-related injury in people aged 15+ years in Victoria, Australia, 2004-2010: a future epidemic of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J

    2015-07-01

    Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Lambert, M.I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Readhead, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Viljoen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design: Prospective. Setting: The South African

  8. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  9. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  10. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  11. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury in trauma patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Eslami, Vahid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2011-11-01

    In patients aged 1-34 years, injury is the leading cause of mortality, disability and health care costs. Two to 3% of Level I trauma patients have peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Data were collected from the Iran National Trauma Registry database, compiled according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD9) codes, from August 1999 to February 2004. The information included demography, mechanism, levels and regions of PNI, associated injuries, Abbreviated Injury Scale, duration of hospital stay, and costs. Of 16,753 patients, 219 (1.3%) had PNI; 182 (83.1%) were male. The mean age of the patients with PNI was lower than of those without nerve injury (28.6±14.45 vs. 33±21.08 years; pinjuries (5.6% vs. 0.4%, pnerve was the most commonly injured nerve. The most common area of ulnar nerve injury was at the forearm (15.3%). Sharp laceration and road traffic crash have the highest rates of PNI, which are more common in young males. Open wounds from the elbow to the hand should raise suspicion of PNI in triage. Although injuries leading to PNI are rare, their outcomes and disabilities require further research.

  12. Ankylosing Spondylitis: Patterns of Spinal Injury and Treatment Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Idiris; Yuksel, Kas?m Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose We retrospectively reviewed our patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to identify their patterns of spinal fractures to help clarify management strategies and the morbidity and mortality rates associated with this group of patients. Overview of Literature Because of the brittleness of bone and long autofused spinal segments in AS, spinal fractures are common even after minor trauma and often associated with overt instability. Methods Between Janu...

  13. Lifestyle behavior pattern is associated with different levels of risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Cache County study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Maria C; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W; Breitner, John C S; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    To identify distinct behavioral patterns of diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption, and smoking and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. Two thousand four hundred ninety-one participants without dementia (51% male, average age 73.0 ± 5,7; average education 13.7 ± 4.1 years) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within the past 5 years. Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors were examined (diet: high ≥ median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; exercise: ≥5 h/wk of light activity and at least occasional moderate to vigorous activity; church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; social Interaction: spending time with family and friends at least twice weekly; alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages ≥ 2 times/wk; nonsmoker: no current use or fewer than 100 cigarettes ever). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E status. Follow-up averaged 6.3 ± 5.3 years, during which 278 cases of incident dementia (200 Alzheimer's disease (AD)) were diagnosed. LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. Unhealthy-religious (UH-R; 11.5%), unhealthy-nonreligious (UH-NR; 10.5%), healthy-moderately religious (H-MR; 38.5%), and healthy-very religious (H-VR; 39.5%). UH-NR (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54, P = .028), H-MR (HR = 0.56, P = .003), and H-VR (HR = 0.58, P = .005) had significantly lower dementia risk than UH-R. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations with distinct patterns of lifestyle behaviors with different levels of risk for subsequent

  14. Traumatic spinal cord injury in the north-east Tanzania - describing incidence, etiology and clinical outcomes retrospectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Haleluya; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Sörlin, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Causes, magnitude and consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury depend largely on geography, infrastructure, socioeconomic and cultural activities of a given region. There is a scarcity of literature on profile of traumatic spinal cord injury to inform prevention and rehabilitation of this health condition in African rural settings, particularly Tanzania. To describe the incidence, etiology and clinical outcomes of traumatic spinal cord injury and issues related to retrospective study in underdeveloped setting. Records for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury for five consecutive years (2010-2014) were obtained retrospectively from the admission wards and health records archives of the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center. Sociodemographic, cause, complications and patients' condition on discharge were recorded and analyzed descriptively. The admission books in the wards registered 288 new traumatic spinal cord injury cases from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 288 cases registered in the books, 224 were males and 64 females with mean age 39.1(39.1 ± 16.3) years and the majority of individuals 196(68.1%) were aged between 16 and 45 years. A search of the hospital archives provided 213 full patient records in which the leading cause of injury was falls 104(48.8%) followed by road traffic accidents 73(34.3%). Cervical 81(39.9%) and lumbar 71(34.74%) spinal levels were the most affected. The annual incidence for the Kilimanjaro region (population 1,640,087) was estimated at more than 26 persons per million population. The most documented complications were pressure ulcers 42(19.7%), respiratory complications 32(15.0%) and multiple complications 28(13.1%). The mean length of hospital stay was 64.2 ± 54.3 days and the mortality rate was 24.4%. Prevention of traumatic spinal cord injury in North-east Tanzania should consider falls (particularly from height) as the leading cause, targeting male teenagers and young adults. Pressure ulcers, respiratory

  15. Penetrating abdominal injuries during the Syrian war: Patterns and factors affecting mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Shawqi; Alsabek, Mhd Belal; Ahmad, Mousa; Hamo, Iman; Munder, Eskander

    2017-05-01

    A large number of innocent Syrians were injured or killed during the years of war. This retrospective study investigates the differences in patterns of injury and factors affecting the mortality rate in 324 patients coming to Damascus Hospital with penetrating abdominal trauma, and illustrates the difficulties of diagnosis and decision making in crisis situations. A retrospective study was registered from patient's records between October 2012 and June 2013 in Damascus Hospital. All victims were injured either by explosions or gunshots. A total of 325 patients: 183 by explosion; 56.3%, 141 by gunshot; 43.3%, and one patient by other means; 0.3% were reviewed. The study focused on the two large groups with a total of 324 patients. Males were predominant (82.1%; n=266) and the majority of patients were between 19 and 35 years old. Patients suffering from multi abdominal organ injury were more common in gunshot group (n=72, 51.1%) compared to the explosion group (n=83, 45.3%). 264 patients (81.5%) underwent surgical operations and only 22 (8.3%) had normal laparotomy. The inpatient mortality rate was (17.0%; n=55), and there was no difference in mortality rate between the two groups. More than the half of deaths (n=42; 76.4%) had a P.A.T.I score≥25 where the death rate was 35.6% which is higher compared to 6.3% in those with a P.A.T.I<25. In the ICU 33 patients died, of these (87.9%; n=29) died after immediate admission to the ICU which is higher compared with a later admission (12.1%; n=4). The need for massive blood transfusion affected the mortality rate. Efforts must be directed toward training of medical staff to deal with crisis incidents. The need for massive blood transfusion and ICU admissions can affects mortality. P.A.T.I was found to be an effective predictor of mortality. Clinical experience in this field can produce better health care and faster judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan KJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Koji J Duncan, Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Monica R Maly School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Purpose: Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results: Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11. Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations: This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion: The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing

  17. Predicting Longitudinal Patterns of Functional Deficits in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Taryn B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L.; Drotar, Dennis; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns of functional deficits were investigated in 37 children with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI), 40 children with moderate TBI, and 44 children with orthopedic injuries (OI). They were from 6 to 12 years of age when injured. Their neuropsychological, behavioral, adaptive, and academic functioning was assessed at 6 months, 12 months, and 3-5 years post injury. Functional deficits (neuropsychological, adaptive, and academic functioning. Severe TBI also predicted a greater total number of functional deficits across domains at each occasion. However, many children with severe TBI showed no deficits from 6 months to 4 years post injury in one or more outcome domains. The findings help to clarify the course of recovery for individual children following TBI. PMID:19413442

  18. [Recreational and competitive alpine skiing. Typical injury patterns and possibilities for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, P U; Katzmaier, P; Olvermann, M; Huber, A; Waibel, K; Imhoff, A B; Spitzenpfeil, P

    2014-01-01

    Alpine skiing is the most popular winter sport discipline in Germany and is performed by more than 4 million recreational sportsmen and ski racing athletes. Compared to other sports, however, the injury rate in alpine skiing is quite high. Especially the knee joint is the most commonly injured area of the musculoskeletal system. Knee injuries are classified as severe in a high percentage of cases. In this review article, epidemiologic data and typical injury patterns in recreational alpine skiing and in competitive alpine ski racing are compared. In addition, the potentials of preventive methods in alpine skiing are presented and evaluated with a special focus on orthotic devices and protection wear as injury prevention equipment.

  19. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  20. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-01-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  1. Etiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the armed forces of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Khan, M.; Khan, A.A.; Maqsood, A.; Ibrahim, W.; Wasim, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the etiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the Armed Forces of Pakistan in terms of anatomical distribution of injuries. Three hundred consecutive patients of Armed Forces of Pakistan with maxillofacial injuries reporting to AFID and admitted to the hospital or treated as out-patients in the oral surgery clinic, were included in this study. Isolated nasal bone and frontal sinus fractures were excluded from the study. Anatomical distribution, frequency and etiology of fractures, rank at job and occupational as well as personal hobbies were recorded. Descriptive analyses were used to determine mean, standard deviation, percentage and range values. The most frequent bone fractured was the mandible, which accounted for 159 cases (53%). The zygomatic complex was fractured in 51 cases (17%), the maxilla in 12 cases (4 %), and the alveolar process in 21 cases (7%). The most common cause was road traffic accident (168 cases; 56%), followed by accidental fall (69 cases; 23%), gunshot injuries (27 cases; 9%), sports related injuries (15 cases; 5%), and injury associated with a fight (12 cases; 4%); there were only 9 cases of animals related injuries (3%). In this series, mandible was the most commonly fractured facial bone, while road traffic accident was the most common etiological factor. Results could be influenced by the personal and working environment. (author)

  2. Referral Patterns as a Contextual Variable in Pediatric Brain Injury: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Lundine, Jennifer P; Coreno, Alyssa

    2016-11-01

    Access to speech-language pathology (SLP) services is a critical variable in the rehabilitation of pediatric brain injury. In this study, we examined patterns of SLP referral and factors affecting referral during the acute period following brain injury in 2 large pediatric specialty hospitals. In a retrospective, cohort chart review study, data collection focused on referrals made during the acute period using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for primary diagnoses of brain injury between 2007 and 2014 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). A total of 200 charts were reviewed. Data extraction included demographic and injury-related variables, referral for rehabilitation across disciplines, and plans of care following assessment. Samples for both facilities were similar except for primary mechanism of traumatic brain injuries and severity. SLP referral rate at Hospital 1 was 36% and only 2% at Hospital 2. Regression revealed that individuals were less likely to receive an SLP referral if injury severity was classified as unknown or mild or if they were younger in age. SLP referral rates in the early acute period for children with brain injury were poor, creating a barrier to rehabilitation. This not only limits access to SLP services, but also may have broader and long-term impact.

  3. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-04-09

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. cricket: nature and incidence of fast-bowling injuries at an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T1). Physical fitness screenings were conducted and the relationship between fitness and occurrence of injuries was assessed. Additional factors such as bowling techniques and bowling workload were assessed. A regression analysis was ...

  5. Cricket: Nature and incidence of fast-bowling injuries at an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). Physical fitness screenings were conducted and the relationship between fitness and occurrence of injuries was assessed. Additional factors such as bowling techniques and bowling workload were assessed. A regression analysis was ...

  6. Boosting in athletes with high-level spinal cord injury: knowledge, incidence and attitudes of athletes in paralympic sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh; Mactavish, Jennifer; Warren, Sharon; Thompson, Walter R; Webborn, Anthony; Bressan, Elizabeth; De Mello, Marco Tuilo; Tweedy, Sean; Malone, Laurie; Frojd, Kennet; Van De Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is unique to individuals with spinal injuries (SCI) at T6 or above and can be voluntarily induced. Although AD improves wheelchair racing performance in some athletes, it also elicits exaggerated blood pressure, which could be dangerous. The International Paralympic Committee considers AD doping and banned its use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate AD knowledge, incidence and attitudes (KIA) of Paralympians with SCI. An existing questionnaire was modified to include questions of AD KIA, validated by three experts and piloted with a small sample. It was administered on-line, mailed to members of a scientific network and distributed during the Beijing Paralympic Games. Fisher Exact test was used to evaluate differences across gender, injury and education. Of 99 participants, 54.5% had previously heard of AD while 39.4% were unaware; 16.7%, all males, had used AD to enhance performance. Participants reported that AD was (1) useful for middle (78.6%) and long distance (71.4%), marathon (64.3%) and wheelchair rugby (64.3%); (2) somewhat dangerous (48.9%), dangerous (21.3%) or very dangerous (25.5%) to health. Results were not influenced by age, injury level or injury duration. Findings indicate the need for educational programmes directed towards enhancing the AD knowledge of rehabilitation professionals, coaches and trainers working with SCI individuals.

  7. Injury Pattern Among Non-fatal Road Traffic Crash Victims | Gichuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study and analyse the pattern of injuries among non-fatal road traffic crash victims. Design: Retrospective analytical study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi over a six-month period from February to July 2004. Subjects: Road traffic crashes victims treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi during ...

  8. Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African trauma centre. F Parkinson, S Kent, C Aldous, G Oosthuizen, DL Clarke. Abstract. Background. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for a significant burden of disease in South Africa. This prospective study reviews basic demographic and outcome data of ...

  9. Childhood Burn Injuries in Children in Dar es Salaam: Patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in the three city hospitals of Dar es Salaam and two national referral hospitals to describe the pattern of burn injuries and to determine victims\\' and guardians\\' perceptions of the causes and prevention of burns. The study included all injured children younger than 18 years attending Mwananyamala, ...

  10. Sports members' participation in assessment of incidence rate of injuries in five sports from records of hospital-based clinical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate

  11. Injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament after acute lateral patellar dislocation in children: Correlation analysis with anatomical variants and articular cartilage lesion of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-ying; Ding, Hong-yu [Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Ultrasonography, Jinan (China); Zheng, Lei; Ji, Bing-jun [Shandong Provincial Corps Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Shi, Hao [Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Feng, Yan [Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College, Department of Radiology, Binzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the relationship between injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and anatomical variants and patellar cartilage lesions after acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD) in children. MR images were obtained in 140 children with acute LPD. Images were acquired and evaluated using standardised protocols. Fifty-eight cases of partial MPFL tear and 75 cases of complete MPFL tear were identified. Injuries occurred at an isolated patellar insertion (PAT) in 52 cases, an isolated femoral attachment (FEM) in 42 cases and an isolated mid-substance (MID) in five cases. More than one site of injury was identified in 34 cases. Compared with Wiberg patellar type C, Wiberg patellar type B predisposed to complete MPFL tear (P = 0.042). No correlations were identified between injury patterns of MPFL and trochlear dysplasia, patellar height and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (P > 0.05). Compared with partial MPFL tear, complete MPFL tear predisposed to Grade-IV and Grade-V patellar chondral lesion (P = 0.02). There were no correlations between incidence of patellar cartilage lesion and injury locational-subgroups of MPFL (P = 0.543). MPFL is most easily injured at the PAT in children. Wiberg patellar type B predisposes to complete MPFL tear. Complete MPFL tear predisposes to a higher grade of patellar chondral lesion. (orig.)

  12. Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related collegiate women's soccer injuries on FieldTurf and natural grass surfaces: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. Over the past 2 decades, however, newer generations of synthetic turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although synthetic turf has been determined to be safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. Collegiate female soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related injuries on FieldTurf and on natural grass. Cohort study: Level of evidence, 2. Female soccer athletes from 13 universities were evaluated over 5 competitive seasons for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomic location, field location at the time of injury, injury severity, head and lower extremity trauma, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. In sum, 797 collegiate games were evaluated for match-related soccer injuries sustained on FieldTurf or natural grass during 5 seasons. Overall, 355 team games (44.5%) were played on FieldTurf versus 442 team games (55.5%) on natural grass. A total of 693 injuries were documented, with 272 (39.2%) occurring during play on FieldTurf and 421 (60.8%) on natural grass. Multivariate analysis per 10 team games indicated a significant playing surface effect: F₂,₆₉₀ = 6.435, P = .002, n-β = .904. A significantly lower total injury incidence rate (IIR) of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-8.1) versus 9.5 (95% CI, 9.3-9.7) (P = .0001) and lower rate of substantial injuries, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0) versus 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) (P = .001), were documented on FieldTurf versus natural grass, respectively. Analyses also indicated significantly less trauma on FieldTurf when comparing injury time loss, player position, injury grade

  13. Incidence, characteristics, and long-term follow-up of sternoclavicular injuries: An epidemiologic analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Wech, Margit; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Bukaty, Adam; Huf, Wolfgang; Fialka, Christian; Greitbauer, Manfred; Platzer, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The majority of published studies concerning sternoclavicular injuries are case series or systematic reviews. Prospective studies on the subject are hindered by the low incidence of these lesions. The aims of the present study were to provide an overview of this rare entity compared with those described in the literature and to present the long-term clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective data analysis of all sternoclavicular injuries treated at a single Level I trauma center from 1992 to 2011. Long-term clinical outcome was assessed using the ASES [American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons], SST [Simple Shoulder Test], UCLA [University of California-Los Angeles] Shoulder Scale, and VAS [Visual Analog Scale] at latest follow-up. We detected an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions. Ninety-two patients (52 males and 40 females) with a mean (SD) age of 39.2 (19.5) years (median, 41 years; range, 4-92 years) were included in this study. The main trauma mechanism was fall. Classification was performed according to Allman, the time point of treatment after initial trauma, and the direction of the dislocation. Nine patients of the 15 Grade III lesions were treated conservatively by closed reduction and immobilization, while four patients were treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation. Forty-nine percent of the patients were available for long-term follow-up at a median of 11.3 years (range, 5.3-22.6 years) with a mean ASES score of 96.21, SST score of 11.69, UCLA score of 31.89, and VAS score of 0.47. We found an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular joint injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions and of 1.1% related to all dislocations, which is slightly lower compared with those described in the literature. Furthermore, we observed a high number of physeal sternoclavicular injuries with a percentage of 16% and overall good-to-excellent results at long-term follow-up. Epidemiologic

  14. The impact of short periods of match congestion on injury risk and patterns in an elite football club

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, C.; McCall, A.; Le Gall, F.,; Dupont, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of fixture congestion on injury rates and patterns has received scarce attention in elite football and existing investigations have not accounted for player rotation or examined the temporal distribution and potential cause of injuries.\\ud Aim: To prospectively investigate the epidemiology of injury during short periods of fixture congestion in a professional football club.\\ud Methods: Over a 6-season period, exposure time and injury data were compared in the same playe...

  15. Anatomic patellar instability risk factors in primary lateral patellar dislocations do not predict injury patterns: an MRI-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Marc A; Rohr, Sara R; Agel, Julie; Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-28

    The primary goal was to describe the injury patterns in a population of primary (first time) lateral patellar dislocators (LPD) to lend clarity to commonly held notions about injury patterns in this population. A prospective study identifying patients presenting with LPD between 2008 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were a history and physical exam consistent with primary LPD, and an MRI consistent with the diagnosis without other significant ligamentous injury. On MRI, location of cartilage, medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) injury, and bone bruising were noted. Severity was categorized as partial or complete for MPFL and cartilage lesions. Anatomic patellar instability risk factors (patella alta, trochlear dysplasia, increased TT-TG, and lateral patella tilt) were recorded and compared to the injury patterns. This study involved 157 patients; 107 patients were skeletally mature. Of the 157 patients, 26 had surgery for this injury due to clinician-perceived need for cartilage debridement. MPFL injury severity was complete rupture (N = 69, 44%), partial (N = 67, 43%), and none (N = 19, 13%). MPFL injury location was isolated femoral (N = 16, 10%), isolated patella (N = 26, 17%), isolated mid-substance (0%), multiple locations (N = 95, 61%), and none (N = 20, 13%). Chondral injury location was patella (N = 67, 43%), lateral femoral condyle (N = 11, 7%), multiple locations (N = 53, 34%), and none (N = 26, 17%). A majority (61%) of patellar chondral lesions were at its inferomedial aspect; all medial patellar retinacular partial injuries involved the inferomedial aspect of the patella, consistent with the insertion of the medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL). Skeletally immature patients had a greater risk of isolated patellar MPFL and chondral injury. No clear relationship was found between/across the location and/or severity of bone bruising, MPFL, or chondral injury. Underlying anatomic patellar instability risk factors

  16. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  17. Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, A J; McCriskin, B; Hsiao, M; Burks, R

    2011-08-01

    Cohort study. The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) within the population of the United States military from 2000-2009. This investigation also sought to define potential risk factors for the development of SCI. The population of the United States military from 2000-2009. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was queried for the years 2000-2009 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for SCI (806.0, 806.1, 806.2, 806.3, 806.4, 806.5, 806.8, 806.9, 952.0, 952.1, 952.2, 952.8, 952.9). The raw incidence of SCI was calculated and unadjusted incidence rates were generated for the risk factors of age, sex, race, military rank and branch of service. Adjusted incidence rate ratios were subsequently determined via multivariate Poisson regression analysis that controlled for other factors in the model and identified significant independent risk factors for SCI. Between 2000 and 2009, there were 5928 cases of SCI among a population at-risk of 13,813,333. The raw incidence of SCI within the population was 429 per million person-years. Male sex, white race, enlisted personnel and service in the Army, Navy or Marine Corps were found to be significant independent risk factors for SCI. The age groups 20-24, 25-29 and >40 were also found to be at significantly greater risk of developing the condition. This study is one of the few investigations to characterize the incidence, epidemiology and risk factors for SCI within the United States. Results presented here may represent the best-available evidence for risk factors of SCI in a large and diverse American cohort.

  18. Increasing number and incidence of fall-induced severe head injuries in older adults: nationwide statistics in Finland in 1970-1995 and prediction for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, P; Palvanen, M; Niemi, S; Parkkari, J; Natri, A; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    1999-01-15

    To increase knowledge about recent trends in the number and incidence of various fall-induced injuries among older adults, the authors selected from the National Hospital Discharge Register all patients 60 years of age or older who were admitted to hospitals in Finland for primary treatment of a first fall-induced severe head injury during 1970-1995. Similar patients aged 30-39 years served as a reference group. For the study period, the number and incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fall-induced severe head injuries in Finnish persons 60 years of age or older increased considerably (554 and 85, respectively, in 1970 compared with 1,393 and 144, respectively, in 1995). The age-adjusted incidence of these injuries also increased in women, from 80 in 1970 to 125 in 1995, and in men, from 102 in 1970 to 147 in 1995. In the reference group (patients aged 30-39 years), the absolute numbers and incidences of similar injuries did not show consistent trend changes over time. We conclude that the number of fall-induced severe head injuries in elderly Finnish women and men is increasing at a rate that cannot be explained simply by demographic changes, and therefore vigorous preventive measures should be instituted at once to control the increasing burden of these devastating injuries.

  19. Variation in Incidence and Severity of Injuries among Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Messmer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of numerous sharp poisonous spines, adult crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS are vulnerable to predation, though the importance and rates of predation are generally unknown. This study explores variation in the incidence and severity of injuries for Acanthaster cf. solaris from Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. The major cause of such injuries is presumed to be sub-lethal predation such that the incidence of injuries may provide a proxy for overall predation and mortality rates. A total of 3846 Acanthaster cf. solaris were sampled across 19 reefs, of which 1955 (50.83% were injured. Both the incidence and severity of injuries decreased with increasing body size. For small CoTS (<125 mm total diameter >60% of individuals had injuries, and a mean 20.7% of arms (±2.9 SE were affected. By comparison, <30% of large (>450 mm total diameter CoTS had injuries, and, among those, only 8.3% of arms (±1.7 SE were injured. The incidence of injuries varied greatly among reefs but was unaffected by the regulations of local fisheries.

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of Rehospitalization Patterns in Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Christopher R; Graham, James E; Middleton, Addie; Karmarkar, Amol M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2017-05-01

    To model 12-month rehospitalization risk among Medicare beneficiaries receiving inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to create 2 (SCI- and TBI-specific) interactive tools enabling users to generate monthly projected probabilities of rehospitalization on the basis of an individual patient's clinical profile at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Secondary data analysis. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Medicare beneficiaries receiving inpatient rehabilitation for SCI (n=2587) or TBI (n=10,864). Not applicable. Monthly rehospitalization (yes/no) based on Medicare claims. Results are summarized through computer-generated interactive tools, which plot individual level trajectories of rehospitalization probabilities over time. Factors associated with the probability of rehospitalization over time are also provided, with different combinations of these factors generating different individual level trajectories. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the variability in individual risk trajectories. Monthly rehospitalization probabilities for the individual high-risk TBI and SCI cases declined from 33% to 15% and from 41% to 18%, respectively, over time, whereas the probabilities for the individual low-risk cases were much lower and stable over time: 5% to 2% and 6% to 2%, respectively. Rehospitalization is an undesirable and multifaceted health outcome. Classifying patients into meaningful risk strata at different stages of their recovery is a positive step forward in anticipating and managing their unique health care needs over time. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence and predisposing factors of cold intolerance after arterial repair in upper extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocker, Josef; Peter, Tobias; Pellegrini, Lukas; Mattesich, Monika; Loescher, Wolfgang; Sieb, Michael; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Fraedrich, Gustav

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this report was to present abnormal posttraumatic cold intolerance in patients that previously underwent repair of arterial injuries after civilian upper limb trauma in our institution. All patients who underwent repair of arterial lesions after upper limb trauma since 1990 were reviewed, and clinical follow-up studies were performed. Patients were asked to complete the cold intolerance symptom severity (CISS) questionnaire to evaluate presence and severity of self-reported cold sensitivity, and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire to analyze functional disability. Abnormal cold intolerance was defined as a CISS score over 30. Further analysis included evaluation of epidemiologic, clinical, and perioperative data for factors predisposing to abnormal cold intolerance. A total of 87 patients with previous repair of upper limb arterial injuries were eligible to answer the CISS and DASH questionnaires, and 56 patients (64%; 43 men; median age: 31.9 years) completed both. In our cohort, blunt trauma was the predominant cause of injury (n = 50; 89%). Accompanying lesions of nerves (n = 22; 39%) and/or orthopedic injuries (n = 36; 64%) were present in 48 patients (86%). After a median follow-up period of 5.5 years (range, 0.5-19.7), 23 patients (41% of 56) reported on abnormal cold intolerance. Patients with cold intolerance had worse functional results (as measured by the DASH questionnaire; mean ± SD, 42.7 ± 29.7 vs 11.5 ± 23.9; P injuries (subclavian or axillary vs brachial or forearm arteries: P = .006), but was not correlated to gender, age, involvement of the dominant or nondominant arm, and the presence of ischemia, bone injury, or an isolated vascular injury. Abnormal cold intolerance is frequently seen in patients with a history of arterial repair in upper limb trauma. It is associated with significant functional impairment. Concomitant nerve injury and involvement of the subclavian or axillary artery are the major

  2. PATTERN OF ASSAULT-RELATED MAXILLOFACIAL INJURIES TREATED AT THE GENERAL HOSPITAL, LAGOS, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olojede, Aco; Gbotolorun, O M; Ogundana, O M; Emeka, I C; Emmanuel, M M; Oluseye, Sab; Runsewe, O

    2016-01-01

    The human face often constitutes the first point of contact in various human interactions and it is frequently the preferred target for blows in assault cases. To analyze the pattern of assault-related maxillofacial injuries treated at the General Hospital, Lagos over a period of one year. This is one year prospective study of assault-related maxillofacial injuries treated at the Department of Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Centre, General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. A face-to-face interviewer-administered structured proforma was used to obtain information from study subjects. Thirty-three patients with maxillofacial injuries met the inclusion criteria for this study. Their age ranged between 16 and 48 years with a mean age of 28.2 ± 7.4 years. There were 25(75.8%) males and 8(24.2%) females with a male/female ratio of 3:1. Majority of the patients, 24(72.7%) did not have any skilled employment while the remaining 9(27.3%) were road transport workers, specifically commercial bus drivers and motorcycle riders. The most frequently seen soft tissue injury was contusion which accounted for 17(51.5%) cases while 13 (39%) of the patients sustained mandibular fracture which was the most common hard tissue injury. Assault-related maxillofacial injuries are most common amongst young adult males who are not skillfully employed; this can be attributed to the increased disposition to violence in males in our environment.

  3. Peripheral vascular injuries and their management in Accra | Aduful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The true incidence of vascular injuries in Ghana is not known on account of low reporting. Objective: We performed a study aimed at reviewing the pattern of injuries to peripheral vessels, and also the pattern of referral, presentation and management of these injuries at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra.

  4. Patterns of accentuated grey-white differentiation on diffusion-weighted imaging or the apparent diffusion coefficient maps in comatose survivors after global brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.; Sohn, C.-H.; Chang, K.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Lee, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine what disease entities show accentuated grey-white differentiation of the cerebral hemisphere on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and whether there is a correlation between the different patterns and the cause of the brain injury. Methods and materials: The DWI and ADC maps of 19 patients with global brain injury were reviewed and evaluated to investigate whether there was a correlation between the different patterns seen on the DWI and ADC maps and the cause of global brain injury. The ADC values were measured for quantitative analysis. Results: There were three different patterns of ADC decrease: a predominant ADC decrease in only the cerebral cortex (n = 8; pattern I); an ADC decrease in both the cerebral cortex and white matter (WM) and a predominant decrease in the WM (n = 9; pattern II); and a predominant ADC decrease in only the WM (n = 3; pattern III). Conclusion: Pattern I is cerebral cortical injury, suggesting cortical laminar necrosis in hypoxic brain injury. Pattern II is cerebral cortical and WM injury, frequently seen in brain death, while pattern 3 is mainly WM injury, especially found in hypoglycaemic brain injury. It is likely that pattern I is decorticate injury and pattern II is decerebrate injury in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.Patterns I and II are found in severe hypoxic brain injury, and pattern II is frequently shown in brain death, whereas pattern III was found in severe hypoglycaemic injury.

  5. Patterns and mechanisms of injury in non-accidental injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the radiographer has been extended to pattern recognition of skeletal images and selected ultrasound examinations. In some countries ... The police and social services department co-operate in verifying the facts, offering ... radiographer, nurse or social worker where there is a discrepancy between the history ...

  6. Traumatic brain injury in Denmark 1979-1996. A national study of incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Teasdale, T W

    2001-01-01

    hospitalised under diagnoses ICD 800, 801, 803, 850-854 decreased 41% from 265 to 157 per 100,000 of the population per year. Decreases were 42% for ICD 850, brain concussion, 56% for ICD 800, 801, 803, cranial fractures, and 16% for ICD 851 854, structural brain injury. The percentage of cases with ICD 851...

  7. Incidence and risk factors for the development of radiographic arthrosis after traumatic elbow injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Zurakowski, David; van Dijk, Niek C.; Ring, David

    2010-01-01

    Radiographic arthrosis is a common sequela of elbow trauma. Few studies have addressed risk factors for radiographic arthrosis after elbow injury, especi